US20180325084A1 - Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests - Google Patents

Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20180325084A1
US20180325084A1 US15/973,850 US201815973850A US2018325084A1 US 20180325084 A1 US20180325084 A1 US 20180325084A1 US 201815973850 A US201815973850 A US 201815973850A US 2018325084 A1 US2018325084 A1 US 2018325084A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
swiftlets
roosting
cave
nests
ceiling
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
US15/973,850
Inventor
Yik Hei Sia
Original Assignee
Yik Hei Sia
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to SG200608249-9A priority Critical patent/SG136025A1/en
Priority to SGSG200608249-9 priority
Priority to SG200718112-6A priority patent/SG152946A1/en
Priority to SGSG200718112-6 priority
Priority to US11/949,695 priority patent/US8210126B2/en
Priority to US13/218,197 priority patent/US20120048205A1/en
Priority to US14/328,285 priority patent/US20140318468A1/en
Application filed by Yik Hei Sia filed Critical Yik Hei Sia
Priority to US15/973,850 priority patent/US20180325084A1/en
Publication of US20180325084A1 publication Critical patent/US20180325084A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K31/00Housing birds
    • A01K31/18Chicken coops or houses for baby chicks; Brooders including auxiliary features, e.g. feeding, watering, demanuring, heating, ventilation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K31/00Housing birds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K31/00Housing birds
    • A01K31/06Cages, e.g. for singing birds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K31/00Housing birds
    • A01K31/14Nest-boxes, e.g. for singing birds or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K31/00Housing birds
    • A01K31/22Poultry runs ; Poultry houses, including auxiliary features, e.g. feeding, watering, demanuring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K39/00Feeding or drinking appliances for poultry or other birds
    • A01K39/04Combined feeding and drinking appliances, e.g. also for batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/50Livestock or poultry management
    • Y02P60/52Livestock or poultry management use of renewable energies

Abstract

An edible bird's nests production facility, for use in creating and harvesting edible bird's nests. A plurality of arrangement of swiftlet's nesting substrates configured to maximize efficiency, productivity and high net worth value of the edible nests products created. The facility includes mechanized equipment and apparatus for harvesting swiftlet's edible nests at great heights; carriage of goods and equipment in swiftlets farming houses; safe and efficient collection of nests.

Description

  • This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/328,285, filed Jul. 10, 2014, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/218,197, filed Aug. 25, 2011, now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/949,695, filed Dec. 3, 2007, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,210,126, which claims priority to Singapore Application 200718112-6, filed Nov. 23, 2007 and Singapore Application 200608249-9, filed Dec. 1, 2006.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTIONS
  • The present invention relates to the breeding of swiftlets of the genus Aerodramus and/or Collocalia in an edible bird's nests production facility for producing large quantities of nests. Provision of shelter, food, water, safety and security at a single point of communal congregation; pandering to satisfy the sensory perceptions, innate and instinctive preferences of swiftlets to attract and persuade them to colonize specially configured man made shelters. An improved structural configuration derived from utilizing novel production features comprising extracted essence of newly disclosed features; refining and improving features of previously disclosed appliances by means of new inventive steps; and eliminating non-value added components. Utilizing these features in a concentrated manner and deploying them extensively. Such a specialized production facility configured to breed swiftlets for their nests helps in conserving wild species of endangered swiftlets.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONS
  • Present method of obtaining edible bird's nest involves collecting and harvesting nests of wild swiftlets in their natural habitats such as mountain caves and limestone cliffs for consumption causing irreversible disruptions and damages to the dwindling populations of endemic wild swiftlets. Poachers have been known to raid established roosts of protected and endangered species of swiftlets in national parks and wildlife preserves at night to steal edible bird's nests. Nest poachers indiscriminately destroys un-hatched eggs, killing swiftlets chicks too young to fly to safety, disrupting their reproductive life-cycle, threatening their very survival such that some species of swiftlets in South East Asia are fast approaching extinction.
  • The birds called Cave Swiftlets or Swiftlets are contained within the four genera of Aerodramus (formerly Collocalia), Hydrochous, Collocalia and Schoutedenapus. They form the collocaliini tribe within the family Apodidae. Geographically the genus Aerodramus comprises around 30 species with a habitat range covering southern Asia, south pacific islands and north eastern Australia located within the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Edible bird's nests are derived from cave swiftlets of the genus Aerodramus and/or Collocalia. In particular four species comprising A. unicolor, A. fuciphagus, A. maximus and A. germani are the most prized. A. unicolor and A. fuciphagus (also known as Collocalia fuciphaga) produces high grade white nests while A. maximus (C. maxima) produces lower grade black nests containing more feathers, particles and other impurities.
  • Scientific classification of these avian species being:
      • Kingdom: Animalia
      • Phyllum: Chordata
      • Class: Aves
      • Order: Apodiformes
      • Family: Apodidae
      • Genus: Aerodramus
      • Species: A. unicolor, A. fuciphagus, A. maximus and A. germani
      • Binominal name: Aerodramus unicolor, Aerodramus fuciphagus, Aerodramus maximus and Aerodramus germani
      • Common name: Indian Swiftlet, Edible-nest Swiftlet, Black-nest Swiftlet and German's Swiftlet
  • Due to the inherent shortness of their legs swiftlets are not able to stand upright, perch horizontally on level surface, or take off from stationary positions by flapping their wings like other species of birds. They must cling vertically at height by gripping the sheer cliff or cave wall with sharp claws to roost. To take off swiftlets releases their claw grips, drop from the vertical clinging surface at height, free fall, spread their wings to glide before flying away. The lowest, minimum height that swiftlets will ever “land” or settle down to rest vertically is one meter above level surface. Anything lower and they will not be able to drop, glide and fly away safely. And if they ever land on level ground in the wild, they are as good as dead. Certain death awaits fallen, stranded and grounded swiftlets as they are attacked and devoured by cave creatures such as snakes, cockroaches, crickets, centipedes, crabs, ants, etc. or, other carnivorous creatures. Or, simply die of starvation. Swiftlets only adapt horizontal positions during the nesting season: mating, eggs laying, incubating eggs, brooding and feeding young chicks; all at great heights.
  • The majority of bird species on earth such as chicken, ducks, etc. and other farmed poultry stand upright while foraging, feeding, walking, running, makes their nests and breeds on top of horizontal surfaces on level ground, floor of shelters or level surfaces of structures. However, birds of the avian species comprising swifts and swiftlets lacks such a universal ability to stand upright, and are incapable of self-propelled movement across level ground or horizontal surfaces. They attach themselves high up on sheer cliffs, vertical walls and ceilings of caves to roost. Swiftlets clings to the uneven, jagged, pitted, craggy, pock-marked, calloused and roughened surfaces of vertical walls high up, seeking out small ledges, concave faces, crevices, cavities, clefts, hollows, concavities; protrusions and extensions sticking out from the cave walls; indentations, grooves, surface deformations and depressions in the cave walls or cliff walls upon which to anchor their body and their nests firmly and securely. They had adapted themselves well to a life of living in the vertical dimension and the overhead dimension; clinging vertically onto the high walls to rest, sleep and breed. Attaching their nests securely to and bringing up their young, high up on the vertical cave walls 16 and nesting panels 69; including from overhead cave ceiling, stalactites, ceiling beams 193 and overhead nesting panels 196 of the shelter; even building into a concavity, dome shaped chamber in the overhead cave ceiling—at times, clinging and dangling with their bodies hanging upside down. In fact, anywhere, on any calloused vertical or overhead substrate located at height on which they can get a secure beak-hold; a firm foothold/or claw grips. This is an ecological niche, a realm that swifts and swiftlets had evolved to occupy over the eons. Chicken, ducks and farmed poultry live and breed in the horizontal dimension, on the floor/or a large area of flat level surfaces. Like the majority of terrestrial animals on earth, their living space is on top of the horizontal dimension; their body weight resting on the level upper surface of the floor 195; capable of standing upright and propelling themselves across the relatively flat areas they occupy. Unlike small light-weight swiftlets, they are not capable of and do not live or breed from the vertical walls and overhead ceilings/or roofs. For swiftlets their living space are in (i) the vertical dimension (its body in a vertical position) and; (ii) the bottom surface of the horizontal dimension/or overhead ceiling 194 (its body in upside down, inverted, horizontal position). Clinging onto the vertical walls and roosting boards 196 is relatively easier than clinging onto the bottom surface of the horizontal dimension/or the ceiling 194 structure; hanging with their bodies upside down from the ceiling. Dangling with their body weight hanging in the air, suspended from the overhead ceiling 194 which forms the lower level surface of the ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 192. The claws of their feet gripping, grasping and clinging securely onto appendages and anchoring points 500 affixed directly onto the ceiling/or roof. This inventive step of providing anchoring apparatus 500, 501, 502 enables swiftlets to nests and roosts directly from/or, on the overhead ceiling 194; which forms the bottom level surface of substrate 192; even without the provision or use of nesting boards 196. This is a new structural configuration enabling 100 percent utilization of the roosting niche comprising overhead ceilings 194.
  • SUMMARY
  • To this end present invention provides a method to breed and domesticate swiftlets in an edible bird's nest farm and production facility comprising of: a wholly man made artificial caves system 100; a dedicated swiftlets housing structure 200, and/or converted natural relief such as caves, valleys, cliffs forming the roosting habitat and artificial eco-system 356, including vacated man made shelters 11 and 14; and associated supporting sub-facilities; methods, systems, specialized techniques, equipment and apparatus. In another embodiment of present invention, swiftlets may also roost directly on the overhead ceiling 194 formed by floor 195 boards 192; with their bodies hanging upside down, in a horizontally disposed position parallel to ceiling-floor 194-195 boards 192 which acts directly as the roosting substrate. This swiftlets nesting and roosting niche had until now been left unused; a wasted resource which is non-productive. Utilization of this unproductive space in present invention ensures 100% utility of an available resource which should not have been wasted. Turning an unproductive resource into productive use is a new structural configuration and inventive step which present invention seek to disclose, promote and improve upon. A dedicated facility specially configured with new structural configurations and inventive steps comprising horizontally disposed overhead ceiling/or roof equipped with new gripping and clinging apparatus(es) 500 for roosting swiftlets to anchor their bodies securely using their beaks (bills/or mouth-parts) and the sharp claws of their feet; their bodies hanging upside down from beneath the horizontally disposed overhead roosting substrate. Just like cave bats at rest with their bodies hanging upside down from the cave roof; secured to the roosting substrate by the sharp claws of their feet/legs! Except that in the case of swiftlets, due to their inherently short legs, their bodies are aligned with and parallel to the horizontally disposed substrate comprising the ceilings of roosting shelters or cave roofs. A dedicated facility specially configured for the commercial production of edible bird's nest including persuasive inducement of providing shelter, food and water for wild swiftlets. Provision of the five basic necessities of live comprising shelter, food, water, safety and security at one singular gathering point is an extremely convenient and user-friendly feature of present invention which is beneficial to swiftlets conservation. A life of comfort and luxury provided and accorded in exchange for their abandoned nests. Present invention also discloses a method of providing a manipulated breeding environment conducive to the birds, such as the replication and re-creation of a natural cave's micro-habitat environment with a temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C., relative humidity of 75 to 90%, darkness with a low luminous intensity of between 1 to 2 lux and provision of suitably configured artificial nesting substrate located at height for swiftlets to: alight, cling onto with their claws to rest; build nests, mate, lays eggs, incubate, brood their young; enables paragliding take off by pushing their legs against the nesting substrate and at the same time releasing their claw grips to drop from height, open their wings to glide and fly away safely. Present invention replicated and recreated a man made artificial swiftlets roosting environment, said features being simulative and emulative of a natural cave 77 (refer FIG. 1O) macro and micro environment comprising speleothems and/or speleogens. Speleothems are secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave comprising: dripstones and flowstones. Drip stones comprise of stalactites, stalagmites, columns; while flow stone comprise of draperies, rim-stone dams, stone waterfall formation. The functions and utilitarian purposes of draperies in the form of cave curtains formation 16 is replicated by man-made vertical wall and vertically inclined wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; cave stalactites by overhead apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b, 420 a; cave pillars 398 by the structural pillars 98 supporting the building; cave stalagmites 397 by ground based earthen structure 15. Cave domes 396 by artificial dome 370; half domed structure 431; cave tunnels 394 by artificial tunnel 372, half tunnel 430; vegetative growth 399 by strings and cords 502. Speleogens are technically distinct from speleothems, as they are created by the removal of bed rock comprising: pillars; scallops; bone yard; box work; composites.
  • An object of the present invention is to provide an improved method and system including facilities, apparatus and techniques for the large scale domestication, breeding and rearing of swiftlets for their nests, commercial production techniques and safe collection of edible bird's nests. Wherein, by virtue of superior design and structural configuration in the construction and lay out of production facilities; use of mechanized systems, hi-tech. harvesting equipment and safety apparatus; productivity and efficiency may be augmented tremendously to produce large quantities of clean edible nests of high quality, market value and net worth at much lower production costs than the disclosures of parents Singapore Pat. 135977, U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391; and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/949,695. For example, one hundred units of “A” shaped nesting structures 400 built compactly, densely packed together in one portion of shelter 100, 200 or 356 provides the equivalence of one hundred units of such shelters 11 built on level ground, thus saving considerable land area, space, construction and environmental costs. Non-useful features and components are eliminated right from the design stage. Such a method of extracting only the essence, the core ingredient(s); the most vital component of a structure for creation of edible nests, is applied to other features wherein; modified W-shaped ceiling-floor structure 420; semi-rounded and curved cave tunnel-roofs 430; semi-spherical domed cave-roofs 431; etc. may be built densely packed together, one unit next to another, one row on top of another; wherein, rows upon rows, layers upon layers of such roosting and nesting substrates are built in close proximity to each other; optimizing, improving efficiency and productivity, saving space and overhead costs of construction, maintenance; maximizing and optimizing land use; an ecologically friendly design which enhances environmental conservation. However, new structural configurations of the facilities such as “A-shaped” roofs 400, semi-tunnels 430, semi-domes 431, inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g, “W”-shaped ceiling-floor structure 420, etc. and inventive steps requires new methods, systems, equipment and apparatus for accessing and harvesting nests created at height by swiftlets. Specially configured apparatus such as mobile elevated working platforms comprising: motorized “A”-shaped ladder 410, climbing pole 425, “V”-shaped suspension apparatus 425 v, “Y”-shaped harvesting apparatus 425 y; zip-lines 90; “troglodyte” man-lifts 440, 440 a, 440 b; ladder bridge 470, 470 a, 470 b; inclined ladders 470 b, 470 c; pulley stairs 474, cart 475; vertically disposed harvesting beam 480 and chair 490; inclined harvesting beam 480 a and chair 490 a; etc. as disclosed herein, including vehicles 444, 444 a; anchoring apparatus 450, harvesting pole 460; are required to work on these novel structures.
  • Achievement of the desired micro-habitat environ/or parameters comprising: a temperature of 26 to 28 deg. C., relative humidity of 75 to 90%, darkness with a low luminous intensity of between 1 to 2 lux; and provision of suitably configured artificial nesting substrate located at height for swiftlets to alight, cling onto with their claws to rest; build nests, mate, lays eggs, incubate, brood their young; enables paragliding take off by pushing the substrate with their legs, releasing their claw grips, dropping from height, opening their wings to glide and fly away safely. All these may be enabled by means of: extracting the essence, the most important and vital component of a structure, then concentrate on extensive utilization and deployment of these unique property(ies); inventive steps, novel structural arrangements, configuration, fundamental concepts and innovative engineering designs as illustrated in FIG. 3A to FIG. 3L. New conceptual designs should be used to address and to achieve the ultimate objective of providing a swiftlets shelter with a compatible micro-habitat environment. Not the use of additional auxiliary equipment to achieve removal of micro-habitat limitations created by short comings in design configuration, even though such additional equipment may be used to complement design strategy and to overcome limitations and shortcomings in structural configurations, as they impose additional overhead, recurring operating costs and maintenance costs. As increased production costs reduce cost-efficiency ratio and profitability of farm 113 and 23. Additional features of present inventions shall be described herein.
  • This application incorporates by reference the following: U.S. application Ser. No. 12/624,995, filed Nov. 24, 2009; Singapore Pat App. Ser. No. 200601493-0, filed Mar. 13, 2006, now Singapore Patent 135977; U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391, issued Feb. 16, 2010; U.S. application Ser. No. 12/630,309, filed Dec. 3, 2009; and Singapore Application No. 201006233-9, file Aug. 26, 2010.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Preferred embodiments of the present invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:—
  • FIG. 1A shows the perspective view of a row of “A” shaped roof-attic nesting structures for breeding swiftlets. FIG. 1B shows an enlarged sectional view 1B-1B of FIG. 1A. FIG. 1C shows a further enlarged view of a portion of FIG. 1B. FIG. 1D shows a vertical overhead nesting board 196 mounted on a horizontal ceiling-floor 194-195 arrangement. FIG. 1E shows a perspective view of an A-shaped roof-attic structure with vertically inclined struts 408 providing a nesting substrate for swiftlets. FIG. 1F shows an inclined wall 69 e with the overlapping edges of nesting planks 196 c while FIG. 1G shows a vertical wall 69. FIG. 1H shows a mobile jack-up ladder used for harvesting edible nests built on A-shaped roof-attics. FIG. 1I shows a vertical pillar 404 configured to allow the motor 409 and hydraulic jack 412 to pass through. FIG. 1J shows two levels comprising a plurality of modified “W”-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structures 420 built in close proximity to each other configured with mobile rappelling apparatus 414 to 416 affixed to the ceiling 194/or beam 403 of the V-shaped structures above; climbing pole 425, V-shaped and Y-shaped nests harvesting apparatus 425 v, 425 y suspended and hanging down from the overhead beams 403; roosting apparatus 420 a affixed onto structural framework 420. FIG. 1K shows a perspective view comprising half of the modified structure of FIG. 1J. FIG. 1L shows a sectional view while FIG. 1M shows the side view of the bottom portion of climbing pole 425. FIG. 1N shows an inversely stepped triangular shaped apparatus 196 b with the top portion and one side removed. FIG. 1O shows the sectional view of a natural cave 77 formation.
  • FIG. 2A shows a sectional cum perspective view of curved semi-circular concave, dome shaped cave ceilings and roofs 431. FIG. 2B shows a cut-out sectional view of FIG. 2A. FIG. 2C shows a sectional view of concave surfaces of domes 431 and convex surface 431 a. FIG. 2D shows a modified variant of FIG. 2A to FIG. 2C comprising rows upon rows and tiers upon tiers of concave shaped, semi-cylindrical cave-tunnel roofs or ceilings 430. FIG. 2E shows the structural frame-work while FIG. 2F shows a cross-sectional view of cave-tunnel ceiling 430 mounted and erected on such a structural framework. FIG. 2G shows a zig-zag wall 69 b with small roosting cavities 57; while FIG. 2H shows a similar wall with bigger cavities 57 and a lifting cage 82; FIG. 2I shows an undulating vertical wall 69 d with large rounded cavities 57; FIG. 2J shows a vertical wall 69 with protruding bricks forming cavities 57. FIG. 2K shows a vertical wall 69 a adapted with small short pieces of extensions 360. FIG. 2L shows a vertical stalagmite 15; FIG. 2M shows a conical stalactite 376. FIG. 2N shows a cylindrical stalactite 375; FIG. 2O, FIG. 2P, FIG. 2Q, FIG. 2R, FIG. 2S and FIG. 2T shows an alternative configuration in which roosting structures may be mounted in an inclined position; said inclined structure comprising wall 69 f; cave domed-ceiling 431 b; cave-tunnel ceiling 430 b; wall 69 g; stalagmite 15 a; tunnel 372 a; FIG. 2U shows a converted swiftlets nesting house with sharp ridged roofs 11; and FIG. 2V shows a modified multi-leveled shop house 14 converted into a swiftlets roosting habitat.
  • FIG. 3A shows a man made cave structure 100 with internal roosting structure and apparatus comprising of semi-dome shaped cave ceilings 431. FIG. 3B shows a man made housing structure 200 with internal roosting structure and apparatus comprising of curved semi-concave shaped cave ceilings 430. FIG. 3C shows the side view of FIG. 3D to FIG. 3H and FIG. 3J to FIG. 3L. FIG. 3D shows the sectional view of “A”-shaped ceiling-roof roosting structure 400 inside shelter 200. FIG. 3E shows the sectional view of modified “W”-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structures 420 inside shelter 200. FIG. 3F shows the sectional view of inclined nesting walls 69 e; 69 f; 69 g; inside shelter 200. FIG. 3G shows the sectional view of curved, semi-circular cave ceiling-roof structure 430 inside shelter 200. FIG. 3H shows the sectional view of an inverted structure of FIG. 3G in which the curvature of the cave roof-ceiling structure is reversed to form a convex shaped nesting structure 430 a. FIG. 3I shows the sectional view of a structural arrangement of cylindrical shafts or tunnels 372, which may be aligned vertically; horizontally; or, tunnel 372 a inclined at an angular disposition. FIG. 3J shows the sectional view of multiple rows of “A” shaped roof-attic 400 inside shelter 200. FIG. 3K shows “A” shaped roof attics 400, cave ceiling-roof 430 and overhead domed ceiling-roof 431 inside a converted natural relief 356. FIG. 3L shows the sectional view of a multitude of roosting structures 400, 420, 430, 431, 372, 430 a, 431 a, 69, 69 g, which may be combined and used together in housing structure 200.
  • FIG. 4A shows a sectional view of a “troglodyte,” a mechanized man-lift and nest harvesting machine 440 atop structural framework 430. FIG. 4B shows a multi-leveled system of caves roofs 430 and apparatus comprising man-lifts 440 a, 440 b; mobile platforms 441; and walkway planks 442. FIG. 4C shows a plurality of rail-cars 444 a hitched to prime-mover 444 on top of cave-tunnel 430. FIG. 4D shows the plan view of wheel ruts 405 configured into cave roof beams 403 of FIG. 4A to FIG. 4C with a feces shield 445. FIG. 4E shows the sectional view of the roof beams 403 and 427 of FIG. 4D. FIG. 5A, FIG. 5B and FIG. 5C shows an anchoring apparatus 450. FIG. 5A shows the side view of the apparatus. FIG. 5B shows the plan view of section 5B-5B. FIG. 5C shows the mechanism for operating apparatus 450. FIG. 5D shows an alternative apparatus 450. FIG. 5E shows a hi-tech. nest harvesting apparatus 460.
  • FIG. 6A shows a mobile bridge-ladder 470. FIG. 6B shows a variant mobile ladder 470 a with lowered legs; while FIG. 6C shows the ladder on raised legs. FIG. 6D shows ladder wheel 411 mounted in a rut 405. FIG. 6E shows a modified variant ladder wheel 411. FIG. 6F shows a variety of apparatus and equipment including long mobile poles/or beams 480 a used in harvesting nests built on the downward facing side of inclined wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g. FIG. 6G shows the overhead mobile mechanism used with inclined beams 480 a of FIG. 6F; and vertically disposed beams 480 of FIG. 6H, FIG. 6I, FIG. 6J and FIG. 6K. While FIG. 6H, FIG. 6I and FIG. 6J shows a harvesting apparatus comprising a long vertical beam 480 bearing a mobile work chair 490. FIG. 6H shows a perspective view; FIG. 6I shows the side view; and FIG. 6J shows a sectional plan view 6J-6J of the apparatus. FIG. 6K shows the top portion of harvesting beam 480, 480 a; FIG. 6L shows the front view; while FIG. 6M shows the side view of the bottom portion of inclined harvesting beam 480 a; including propulsion mechanisms, anchoring apparatus and mobile components. FIG. 6N shows the specially configured wheels for use with inclined beam 480 a. FIG. 6O shows a large traction wheel used with vertical beam 480 bearing a heavy load. FIG. 6P shows an inclined mobile ladder 470 b used to harvest edible nests from walls 69 g inclined at an angular disposition; including a rope or cable rappelling system similar to FIG. 6H to FIG. 6K configured without the beam 480 or chair 490. FIG. 6Q shows a variant form of inclined mobile ladder 470 c of FIG. 6P. FIG. 7A-FIG. 7E shows a new structural configuration for breeding swiftlets in a horizontally disposed position on the underside of the ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 192 which forms the roosting substrate directly. Swiftlets clung onto beak holds and foot holds provided by apparatus 500, 501, 502 affixed on the ceiling 194 and substrate 192. FIG. 7A shows a variety of specially adapted nails, screws and strings for swiftlets to cling onto securely. FIG. 7B shows a variety of variant gripping and clinging apparatus with different forms and shapes. FIG. 7C and FIG. 7D shows prefabricated pieces of gripping apparatus 505; wires and rods 506; attached onto the ceiling. FIG. 7E shows the use of apparatus 500; wire mesh 507 and 507 a on the ceiling 194 boards 192 and beams 193.
  • FIG. 8A shows an artificial swiftlets housing structure 200 connected to a still-well 510 by means of a series of passage ways 79 a. FIG. 8B shows the plan view of still-well 510 with access-ways 12 a, 12 b, 12 c mounted on the sides of the wall. FIG. 8C shows a vertical access-way 12 a mounted on top of a still-well 511 on top of roof 11; while FIG. 8D shows horizontal access-way 12 a and 12 b mounted on the sides of still-well 511 a. FIG. 8E shows a still-well 510 connected by means of passage-ways 79 a to vertical chasms 432 located on the side and in the middle of structure 200. FIG. 8F shows an arrangement of housing structure 200 configured with an empty space left in the middle forming a still well 510. FIG. 8G shows a structure 200 with an integrated still-well 510. FIG. 8H shows a method of dissipating turbulent winds from entering roosting habitat 17 a. FIG. 8I shows the cross-sectional view while FIG. 8J shows a plan view of structure 200 configured with access ways 12 a; passage way 79 a; circling chambers; and a system for creation of artificial aerial thermals. FIG. 8K shows the plan view of structure 200 configured with a vertical chasm 432 on one side of the building linked to a still well 510 in the centre. FIG. 8L shows the plan view of the layout of basement-perimeter construction of structure 200. FIG. 8M shows details of section 8M-8M. FIG. 8N shows a cricket breeding apparatus 530.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTIONS
  • The structural configuration and concepts of providing the 5 basic necessities of suitable shelters, food, water, safety and security at one single point of communal congregation for swiftlets 61; and of appealing and pandering to satisfy, to gratify the sensory perceptions (sound, sight, smell, tactile), the innate preference and instinct of swiftlets; to attract, entice, lure and persuade them to colonize, occupy and reside permanently in man made swiftlets housing structures 11, 14, 100, 200 and 356 in order to produce swiftlets edible nests 62 for food and human consumption, shall form the basic underlying principles of present invention.
  • In achieving these two primary, paramount objectives of: (a) breeding swiftlets; to (b) produce edible bird's nests. All embodiments disclosed herein works towards provisioning, providing for and making available; fulfilling, gratifying, humoring, satisfying, pleasing, bowing to and catering for the needs of swiftlets; providing the 5 basic necessities of suitable shelter, food, water, safety and security at a single locality for the colony of swiftlets. Such that residential swiftlets are pampered, their every needs, whims and fancy satisfied, gratified and exceeded. A life of comfort and luxury provided and accorded in exchange for their abandoned nests. A swiftlets “paradise” in contrast with the vagaries of natural wilderness! Swiftlets will not move in to occupy shelters that are not conducive and compatible to their requirements, expectations and needs. They have been known to abandon established roosts en-mass if habitat conditions changes, (predators, external disturbances, etc.) by migrating to new shelters. To take off swiftlets pushes their short legs against the roosting substrate and at the same time, releases their claw grips; drop from the vertical clinging surface at height, free fall, spread their wings to glide before flying away—a paragliding maneuver peculiar to swiftlets. Such suitable roosting substrates for paragliding take-offs are provided by embodiments of present invention. All embodiments of roosting, nesting and breeding apparatus for swiftlets as disclosed in present invention, are based on naturally occurring features simulative and emulative of natural cave 77 stalactites 395, stalagmites 397, walls 16, pillars 398, tunnels 394, domes 396, etc. Artificial man made roosting and nesting apparatus(es) comprising: vertically disposed boards 196 attached length-wise to the ceiling forming an artificial stalactite; ceiling beams 193; V-shaped stalactite 196 a; multi-tiered V-shaped stalactite 196 b which is inversely stepped; modified stepped apparatus 420 a inclined at an angle; cylindrical stalactite 375; conical stalactite 376; may be mounted on a suitably configured structural framework comprising of: A-shaped roof-ceiling 400; modified “W”-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structures 420; semi-tunnel 430; semi-dome 431; cylindrical tunnel 372; vertical wall 69, vertically inclined wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; inclined semi-tunnel 430 a; inclined semi-dome 431 b; inclined tunnel 372 a; inclined stalagmite 15 a; vertical stalagmite 15. Other artificially created cave features simulative of natural cave 77 characteristics; including uneven, jagged, pitted, craggy, pock-marked, calloused and roughened surfaces of vertical walls high up, small ledges, concave faces, crevices, cavities, hollows, concavities; protrusions and extensions sticking out from the cave walls; indentations, grooves, surface deformations and depressions in the cave walls, apparatus 500, etc. based on the naturally occurring cave 77 features may be suitably configured to provide swiftlets with an artificial substrate located at height for the following functions comprising: alighting; clinging; gripping; nest building; roosting; breeding; nesting; paragliding take-off.
  • Embodiments and features of present invention comprising: artificial man-made structures, systems, methods, apparatus and equipment in swiftlets farming may be divided into 5 main categories; comprising of: (a) an external shelter and housing structure; (b) a structural framework erected in said shelter used for mounting the; (c) roosting substrate; (d) clinging and gripping apparatus, including; (e) creation of a preferred swiftlet's micro-habitat environment conducive for swiftlets to roosts.
      • (a) The external macro-habitat shelter may comprise of modified housing structure 11, 14; specialized structures 100, 200, 356 dedicated for farming swiftlets 61.
      • (b) The structural framework used for mounting the roosting substrate may comprise of: horizontal ceiling-floor 194-195 structure 192; A-shaped roof-ceiling 400; modified ceiling-floor 194-195 W-shaped structures 420; semi-tunnel 430; semi-dome 431; cylindrical tunnel 372; inclined semi-tunnel 430 a; inclined semi-dome 431 b; inclined tunnel 372 a; and beams comprising vertical beams 404, horizontal beams 403 and inclined beams 408 to support the above structures including vertically disposed walls 69 and vertically inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g.
      • (c) Attached, affixed onto and supported by the above structural framework is the nesting substrate and roosting apparatus configured for swiftlets to roosts comprising of: vertically disposed boards 196 attached length-wise to the ceiling forming an artificial stalactite; ceiling beams 193; V-shaped stalactite 196 a; multi-tiered V-shaped stalactite 196 b which is inversely stepped; modified roosting apparatus 420 a; cylindrical stalactite 375; conical stalactite 376; vertical wall 69, vertically inclined wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g. With the incorporation of new features comprising apparatus 500, 501, 502, etc. swiftlets may also roosts directly on the structural framework comprising beams 98; horizontal overhead substrate 192; vertical walls 69; inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; “A”-shaped structure 400; “W”-shaped structure 420; semi-tunnel 430; inverted semi-tunnel 430 a; inclined semi-tunnel 430 b; semi-dome 431; inverted semi-dome 431 a; inclined semi-dome 431 b; tunnels 372, tunnels 372 a, 372 b; in (b) above.
      • (d) Clinging and gripping apparatus may comprise of: indentation 59; protrusion 60; serrated saw-toothed grips 204; thorns 377; claw lines 245; claw holes 246; nails 500, screws 501, cord 502; including artificial man made surfaces which are intentionally configured to be: uneven, jagged, pitted, craggy, pock-marked, calloused and roughened on vertical roosting walls; small ledges, concave faces, crevices, cavities, hollows, concavities; protrusions and extensions sticking out from the roosting substrates; indentations, grooves, surface deformations and depressions, etc.
      • (e) Creation of a preferred swiftlet's micro-habitat 17 parameters comprising of: a humidity of 90%; a temperature range of between 26 to 28 degrees C.; darkness with a luminous intensity of not more than 1 lux; broadcast of swiftlets bird calls and bird chips; and use of attractants to entice swiftlets to move into the shelter. Attractants used may comprise: sonar, vocal and sound attraction; pheromones; swiftlets bird fecess; eggs, albumin; The sights, sounds, touch, taste, smells, feelings and colonial flocking behavioral patterns, etc. uniquely appealing to the innate preferences of swiftlets; to entice them to move in and stay at the artificial habitat.
  • Features of present invention replicates and recreates a man made artificial swiftlets roosting environment conducive for swiftlets; simulative and emulative of a natural cave 77 (refer FIG. 1O) macro and micro environment comprising speleothems and/or speleogens. Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave comprising: dripstones and flowstones. Drip stones comprise of stalactites, stalagmites, columns; while flow stone comprise of draperies, rim-stone dams, stone waterfall formation. The utilitarian purposes of draperies in the form of cave curtains formation is represented by wall 69; stalactites by overhead apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b; pillars by the structural pillars 98 supporting the building; stalagmites by ground based earthen structure 15; vegetative growth 399 comprising roots and tendrils by apparatus 500, 501, 502.
  • FIG. 1A illustrates the detailed view of the roofing structure 11 (refer FIG. 2U) wherein, a row of “A” shaped nesting structures 400 based on and comprising the extracted shape and design of the sharp ridged roofs 11 and attics 401 located high up, on top of artificial shelters 11; in which empty attic-space 401 (lying in between the overhead ceiling 402 and roofing structure 11) forms a micro-habitat area 17 a in which swiftlets resides in said man-made enclosure 11 (FIG. 2U). The overhead ceiling 402 (denoted by dotted lines) is omitted from the design configuration as it is not useful in present embodiment. Such a sharp ridged roofing design 11 is commonly adapted in the equatorial climate of South East Asia, which experiences heavy rainfall throughout the year. Such a man-made enclosure as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391 by the applicant and as illustrated in FIG. 2U; in particular roofing structure 11; may be used in an extracted and concentrated manner in present embodiment. Since only the top upper portion of the roofing structure comprising the roof 11 and empty space of the attics 401 directly beneath the roof is useful for providing swiftlets with a roosting substrate for clinging, nesting and paragliding take off; a plurality of such useful structures 11 may be constructed in close proximity to each other. The bottom, lower portion of the housing structure comprising the ceiling 402, walls and floor of the shelter 11, which may not be useful for producing edible nests, may be excluded from the present design configuration. This lower housing structure is substituted by the confined habitat and enclosure 17 provided by the main swiftlets macro-habitat housing structure comprising shelter 100, 200 and converted natural relief 356 transformed into an eco-farm for breeding swiftlets. Speakers and tweeters 211 may be installed on the structures to broadcast swiftlet's bird calls externally to attract roaming swiftlets to visit the habitat. Tweeters broadcasting swiftlet's chirping sounds may be used internally; together with swiftlets pheromones applied on to the nesting substrate to attract, entice and persuade swiftlets to move in to stay; to make the shelter their roosting habitat. Such recorded bird calls may be broadcast by means of high technology electronics comprising: computerized musical-audio-visual equipment including stereo, hi-fi sound systems, speakers, amplifiers, tweeters; fixed analog and digital musical-audio-visual home entertainment systems; and/or portable mobile musical systems. Such systems may be specifically configured for the sole purpose of attracting swiftlets 61 by means of non-stop repeated playback and broadcast of pre-recorded bird chirps.
  • The A-shaped roofing structure 400 forms a structural framework on which may be mounted triangular shaped apparatus 196 a and 196 b which forms the nesting substrate. Roof structure 11 may also be used as a nesting substrate directly by means of clinging apparatus 407 a; clinging apparatus 500 affixed onto beam 403. The structure is supported by three lateral/horizontal beams 403; two beams at either sides at the bottom and one beam at the apex; and vertical beams or struts 404. Two inclined struts 408 may also form an A-shaped support for roofing structure 11. The lateral beam 403 at the apex of structure 400 may incorporate a groove or rut 405 to accommodate the wheels 411 of prime mover 409 and hydraulic system 412 of work platform 410 as illustrated in FIG. 1H; or, man-lift 440 as illustrated in FIG. 4A; or work carts 444 a and vehicle 444 as illustrated in FIG. 4C. A multitude of such “A” shaped nesting structures 400 may be constructed closely packed together in an artificial housing structure 11, 14, 100, 200, 356 for breeding swiftlets 61 for creating edible nests 62. Such an arrangement may comprise rows upon rows of “A” shaped structures; tiers upon tiers, layers upon layers, stacked on top of one another constructed inside specially adapted enclosures 11, 14, 100, 200 and 356; as illustrated by FIG. 3D, FIG. 3J, FIG. 3K and FIG. 3L. Improving the efficiency; increasing the productivity and cost savings per unit volume of the edible nests 62 production facility. Such a design also maximize and optimize usage of space in the enclosure; thereby, increasing the population density of nesting swiftlets per unit volume.
  • FIG. 1B illustrates an enlarged cross-sectional view 1B-1B comprising a single unit of “A” shaped roofing structure 400. Structure 400 comprises of inclined nesting substrate 11 resting on horizontal beams 403 supported by vertical beam 404 and lateral struts 406. Beam 403 at the apex of structure 400 incorporates a wheel rut 405. Such an inclined configuration of the nesting substrate 11 produces clean edible nests of high quality to command high prices. The angular inclination of the nesting structures may be varied to suit requirements and needs. Miniaturized versions of overhead nesting apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b, 360, 375, 376, may be affixed to the vertically inclined roofing structure 11 or inclined beam 408. Clinging substrate with claw holds comprising: apparatus 500 affixed on substrate 11 b, 196 a; long pieces of wide wooden planks, battens or rafters 407; long pieces of narrow wooden planks 407 a affixed lengthwise to roofing structure 11; short individual pieces of attachment 360 jutting and protruding out from the inner surface of roof 11 b; or inclined beam 408 providing support to substrate 11 may also be used for roosting. FIG. 1C illustrates an enlarged sectional view of the nesting surfaces comprising of triangular shaped (X-sectional view) roosting apparatus 196 a and/or 196 b which may be configured underneath the roof 11 cum empty attic space 401 of the roosting structure 400. Grooves and indentations 59 and protrusions 60 may be incorporated on the surface of the nesting substrate 196 a. Bird feces 224 dropping down from above falls free of nests 62 built lower down on the inclined nesting apparatus 196 a, 196 b attached to roof 11. Other like nesting apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b, 360, 375, 376; may also be constructed beneath the roofing structure 400 for use. Due to the inclined structural configuration of a nearly vertical drop; nesting structures and apparatus may be built closer together, reducing empty space in between. Thus utilizing valuable space which otherwise would have been wasted. More roosting structures means a higher population density per unit volume of space leading to increased productivity and efficiency. For comparison between the overhead board 196 affixed to horizontal level comprising ceiling-floor 194-195 substrate 192 and beam 193; and the vertically inclined structures of present embodiment. The empty space in between the roosting substrates may be reduced from between 8-10 feet; to between 4-5 feet. The space saving configuration of the vertically inclined structures doubles the roosting and production capacity of the same macro-habitat comprising infra-structures 100, 200 and 356 as previously disclosed. The upward facing surface 11 a of the roof 11 may be configured with a smooth, mirrored or glazed finish 361 to discourage nesting of swiftlets and to enable easy removal of bird fecess during cleaning operations. While the inclined downward facing surface 11 b may be configured with a roughened surface and a variety of gripping surfaces for clinging by the sharp claws of roosting swiftlets comprising: vertical overhead planks 196; vertically inclined structure 196 a; multi-tiered roosting structure 196 b; small and short pieces of extension 360; conical stalactites 375; cylindrical stalactites 376; long pieces of horizontally arranged wide protruding plank 407; long pieces of horizontally arranged narrow protruding plank 407 a. Swiftlet's claw gripping and clinging apparatus comprising: indentation 59; protrusion 60; serrated saw-tooth gripping surface 204; gripping claw lines 245; claw holes 246; spiky thorn 377; nails 500, screws 501, cords 502; etc. may be built onto the roosting and nesting surfaces. Bird fecess 224 dropping down from the tiered nesting structure falls clear of other nests built lower down the incline.
  • By virtue of its superior design and structural configuration, such a method of arrangement, construction and lay out improves farm productivity and efficiency to produce large quantities of clean edible nests of high quality, market value and net worth at lower production costs. For example, one hundred units of “A” shaped nesting structures 400 built compactly, densely packed together in one portion of shelter 100, 200 or 356 provides the equivalence of one hundred units of such shelters 11 built on level ground, thus saving considerable land area, space, construction and environmental costs. Such a methodology of extracting the essence, the most vital component of a structure for production of edible nests; may be applied to other features of present invention wherein; modified W-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 420; semi-spherical domed cave-roofs 431; semi-rounded and curved cave tunnel-roofs 430; etc. may be built densely packed together, one unit next to another, one row on top of another; wherein, rows upon rows, layers upon layers of such roosting and nesting substrates are built in close proximity to each other; optimizing, improving efficiency and productivity, saving space and overhead costs of construction, maintenance; maximizing and optimizing land use; an ecologically friendly design which enhances environmental conservation.
  • FIG. 1D illustrates a vertically positioned nesting board 196 affixed lengthwise beneath the layer of concrete or wooden planks 192 which forms the ceiling-floor 194-195 structure in man-made roosting structure 14 and/or 200 (refer prior art disclosures: U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391; U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/949,695; 12/624,995; 12/630,309). Swiftlet 61 roosts next to its nest 62 by clinging onto the roughened surface of nesting board 196 with its sharp claws. Rough surface on the nesting/or roosting substrate may be provided by means of indentations 59, protrusion 60, claw-lines 245, claw-holes 246, apparatus 500, saw-toothed claw grips 204, etc. incorporated onto the surface of board 196. Edible nest 62 is built attached onto the surface of vertical nesting board 196 by means of saliva secreted by the swiftlet's salivary glands.
  • FIG. 1E illustrates a variant A-shaped roof-attic structure 400 with a multitude of vertically inclined framework comprising struts and beams 408 constructed to provide support to the roofing structure 400. Such inclined beams 408 may also be used as a nesting substrate for breeding swiftlets such that grooves and indentations 59 and protrusions 60, claw lines 245, claw holes 246, may be incorporated on the surface of the nesting substrate 408. Clinging and gripping apparatus 500, long narrow lengths of wood/or rafters 407 a and pieces of short narrow clinging apparatus 360 b may be affixed on beams 408 and inclined under side of roof 11 b to maximize nesting opportunities for swiftlets. The angular inclination of the beams 408 may be varied to suit nesting conditions and different types of swiftlets. The upper side 11 a of roofing structure 11 may be configured with a smooth finishing to produce a glazed, slippery surface 361. Thus preventing and discouraging swiftlets from alighting on the slippery surface of the upward facing side; and to avoid any edible nests from being built on this upper side 11 a, which by virtue of its design configuration, produces dirty nests of poor quality requiring intensive manual cleaning. The glazed upper surface 11 a also helps to ease in feces cleaning operations of the habitat.
  • FIG. 1F illustrates a vertically inclined roosting wall 69 e comprising an arrangement of nesting planks 196 c built on inclined beams 408; configured with overlapping edges such that the inclined, upward facing, protruding edge of the planks 196 c forms an extension 60 providing swiftlets 61 with a suitable gripping surface upon which to alight and roost. Similarly, individual pieces of tiles 247 made of fired earthen ware or ceramics may be arranged to provide a suitable alighting and roosting substrate for swiftlets to breed. The upper edge of tile 247 may incorporate a protruding lip 60 a configured with roughened and calloused surfaces which may be used to cling or hang onto a long narrow wooden batten/rafter 407 b for support. Tile 247 may be securely attached by means of nails, screws, rivets, bolts and nuts, etc. onto the battens 407 b and inclined beams 408. Beams 408 may optimally be configured at an angle of between 45 to 60 degrees inclination; but may be disposed at any suitable angular inclination and orientation to suit local conditions and different species of roosting swiftlets. Tiles 247 may optionally be configured in large whole pieces as illustrated by variant tile 247 a for ease of installation. The roosting substrate of present invention may comprise of any suitable material configured to breed swiftlets: rocks, stone, wood, glass, clay, ceramics, fired earthen ware, PVC, polymers, petrochemicals, composite materials, etc. FIG. 1G illustrates a vertically disposed wall 69 configured with nesting substrates comprising similar materials and arrangement as illustrated in FIG. 1F for breeding swiftlets. The vertical wall may comprise of wooden planks 196 c, tiles 247 and tiles 247 a mounted on vertical beams 404. Narrow wooden battens 407 b may be used to mount the roosting substrate. Horizontally disposed pieces/or lengths of broad planks 407, and inclined planks 407 a may also be mounted lengthwise on beams 404 to provide an alighting and clinging substrate for swiftlets. Modified variant tiles 247 and 247 a may incorporate a protruding lip 60 b at the lower edge to provide a clinging extension upon which another tile 247/or tile 247 a lower down the wall 69 may cling and hang vertically.
  • FIG. 1H and FIG. 1I illustrates a method of using a mechanized “A”-shaped, flexibly connected staircase-ladder 410 suitably configured for harvesting edible nests in the swiftlets roosting habitat comprising a plurality of A-shaped roofing structures 400. The motor 409 providing propulsion is mounted on top/apex of the A-shaped structure with its wheels 411 running in the rut 405 built into level roofing beam 403. The two flights of stairs of the mobile staircase-ladder 410 a may be flexibly connected to the propulsion system 409 and hydraulic jacking system 412 such that they may be speedily detached and/or reassembled when required. Propulsion system 409 includes an electric motor to move the top portion of staircase-ladder 410; and a hydraulic jacking system 412 for raising and lowering the top portion of staircase-ladder 410; while sub-systems 412 a mounted at the bottom are used for raising and lowering the twin flexible flights of stairs 410 a. Twin staircase-ladders 410 a resting on top of hydraulic jack-up legs 412 a moves on wheels 411 a atop blades 413; much alike a combination between a roller-skate cum skating-blade; may be propelled by electric motors 409 a. Alternatively, long poles may be used manually by farmers 378 standing on the steps to move the two flights of stairs 410 a mounted on the jack up legs 412 a. FIG. 1I illustrates a vertical beam 404 configured to enable the propulsion system 409 and hydraulic jack up system 412 mounted on horizontal beam 403 to pass through; such that vertical beam 404 may be parted in the middle into two side beams. Alternatively, horizontal beam 403 may be detoured to one side of vertical beam 404. The twin flights of stairs may be temporarily detached from the propulsion system 409 and 412, and manually pushed past the vertical beam 404 before being reassembled together with propulsion system 409 and 412. Such a mechanized mobile elevated working platform 410 dedicated to suit the needs and requirements of A-shaped nesting substrate 400 may be suitably configured for use in present invention.
  • FIG. 1J illustrates a sectional view and FIG. 1K illustrates a perspective view of a method in which the flat, horizontally disposed ceiling-floor 194-195 structure 192 may be modified into a wave like pattern forming a “W”-shaped structural framework 420 for mounting overhead nesting apparatus 420 a; a wavy undulating structure configured for breeding swiftlets devoid of any significant horizontal/or level surface. The horizontal ceiling-floor 194-195 structure 192 is replaced by modified “W” shaped structure 420. From the diagram and physical appearance, this embodiment may appear similar to the “A” shaped nesting apparatus 400 as disclosed above. But in actual fact the “W” shaped infra-structure 420 is based on a conceptual configuration simulative and emulative of the convoluted and heavily folded skin lining the internal surface of our stomach, intestines and the villi; providing an exponential increase in the available surface area in a given volume for absorption of nutrients. Roosting apparatus 420 a, 196, etc. may be affixed beneath, onto the overhead ceiling/or the under-side surface of structural framework 420. Such a structural configuration in which a plurality of levels comprising multiple interlinked units of the W-shaped structural framework 420 may be built closely packed together in production facility 100, 200, 356; increases the available surface area for mounting roosting apparatus 420 a; and serves to optimize and maximize production of edible nests while saving valuable space. FIG. 1N illustrates a modified triangular shaped (X-section view) apparatus 196 b with the top portion and one side (196 x marked by dotted lines) removed; leaving one stepped-inclined side 420 a. Component 420 a comprises the essence of apparatus 196 b; which is extracted and used extensively in present embodiment. Several pre-fabricated units of such apparatus 420 a may be mounted on an inclined side of the “W” shaped structural framework 420. Enlarged structures 420 measuring for example 10 meters in height may be configured with reduced empty space in between the upper and lower levels. Removal of significant horizontal ceiling-flooring 194-195 in between structural framework 420 at the same level (forming a wavy and undulating pattern) provides a multi-fold increase in surface area (similar to the undulating pattern of our stomach) for mounting roosting apparatus 420 a; and additional flight space in the form of “V” shaped void 401 b following the “W” contour of the “W”-shaped structure 420 (refer to dotted lines of 192 x, 194 x and 195 x). Such a design configuration creates a large V-shaped empty space 401 b which also serves as a flight space for swiftlets. Thus saving valuable space and construction costs while improving productivity, profitability and the cost effectiveness of the swiftlet's farm! This is an optimization and improvement in the usage of limited space in enclosure 200 which had not been available previously (as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/949,695; 12/624,995). In fact, the larger in dimension are the structures 420, the more efficient may be the utilization in a given space. For example: for a large “W”-shaped structure 420 measuring 10 meters in height, the closer may the distance between the upper and lower levels of structure 420 be brought together; such that a vertical gap of 1.5 meter in between the upper and the lower structural framework 420 may suffice (compared to the normal height of 3 meters); as the total vertically inclined flight space measures 11.5 meters in height. Apparatus 500 may be affixed on ceiling 194 and 420 a. The work platforms 410 of FIG. 1H and FIG. 1i ; troglodyte 440 of FIG. 4A, FIG. 4B; vehicle 444, 444 a of FIG. 4C to FIG. 4E; may also be used to access the roosting structures to harvest nests.
  • In one embodiment, climbing apparatus comprising rappelling equipment such as ropes 414 may be attached to overhead rail 415 by means of sliding clips 416. Overhead rail 415 may be mounted on horizontal beam 403 located at the overhead apex of the W-shaped apparatus by means of embedded metal bars 417. Such a method and system of using an overhead mounted sliding apparatus enables a farmer or harvester 378 to move to different parts of the system of overhead nesting apparatus 420 to access the edible nests built at height. Equipment, apparatus, systems, methods and techniques for ascending and descending vertical structures such as abseiling and rappelling, traditionally used for sports and leisure in mountaineering, caving, rock climbing, etc; may be employed for occupational tasks and work purposes in the edible nests production facilities 100, 200, 356 of present invention. Use of such equipment, apparatus, components, etc. shall meet internationally recognized bench marks and industry wide standards in quality, inspection and certification. A rope ladder may also be used, secured to rings of sliding clips 416; or tied onto rope 414. The overhead roller wheel apparatus 417, 433, 472, 477, 478 as illustrated in FIG. 6G may also be used. In another embodiment, a modified variant of embedded metal bar 417 a with a protruding ringed end hanging down from beam 403 may be configured to provide a “zip line” comprising cables 90 or rappelling ropes 414 strung through the eyes of the ringed end of embedded metal bar 417 a. A multitude of such bars 417 a affixed length-wise along overhead beam 403 provides anchoring points for stringing a zip line from one portion of the production facility to another. Harvester 378 may access the zip line 90 or rope 414 at height, hook himself securely to the line by means of detachable sliding carabiner clips, hooks, pulley wheels, safety harness and body suit; in order to harvest nests 62. Sliding board 490 b may also be used for harvesting. Board 490 b may be ergonomically shaped to fit the contour of the human body to maximize comfort. He may move himself along the length of zip line by pulling the line with his hands, or by gripping and pushing the line with his feet. Triple or quadruple lengths of lanyards may be securely hooked to the zip line; such that at an anchoring point 417 a he may transfer his detachable sliding clips, hooks, pulley wheels and safety harness safely across the fixed rings of bar 417 a to the adjacent joints of zip line 90. Commonly available over the counter rappelling equipment used for mountaineering may be employed. In another embodiment, a climbing pole 425 may be affixed securely to overhead mounted rail 415 by means of a mobile sliding clip 416. On the pole 425 may be affixed gripping bars and foot plates 418 which acts as climbing hand-holds and stepping foot-holds for the farmer or harvester 378 to climb upwards/or downwards. Manual methods of harvesting may also be used in which farmer 378 climbs up and down ladders to pluck nests by hand.
  • FIG. 1L illustrates a sectional view while FIG. 1M illustrates the side view of the bottom portion of pole 425. The bottom-most foot bar 418 of hollow pole 425 may be affixed to a specially configured bar 419 which is in turn affixed to an extendable sliding load bar 421 residing inside of pole 425. Spring 422 loaded locking bar 419 which also works as a locking pin, acts as a pinion to keep spring 422 in position. Farmer 378 steps on the bottom-most foot bar 418 to push the locking pin 419 and extendable sliding load bar 421 vertically downwards. Locking bar 419 slides down the vertical portion of an L-shaped locking slot 423; compressing the extended spring 422. Climbing pole 425 is then twisted clockwise by means of bar 418 to lock the locking pin 419 into position in the horizontal portion of the L-shaped locking slot 423. The climbing pole 425 with extendable load bar 421 resting on horizontal beam 403 is now ready for use as illustrated in FIG. 1M. Nearly all the weight of farmer 378 rests on the bottom extendable sliding load bar 421, and on the foot-plate 424. Farmer 378 climbing the pole 425 to harvest edible nests 62 may be safely secured to pole 425 by means of ancillary fall arrest equipment cum personal protective equipment such as safety belts, safety harnesses, etc. for working at height. Safety life-line 85 provides another layer of safety. To retract the extended sliding load bar 421, the bar 421 is kept in position by the foot/or weight of farmer 378, while locking pin 419 is disengaged from the horizontal portion of L-shaped slot 423 by twisting the climbing pole 425 anti-clockwise using bar 418. Compressed spring 422 extends, pushing pinion 419 and sliding bar 421 upwards; lifting foot-plate 424 upwards, free from the top surface of beam 403. Suspended pole 425 hanging down freely from rail 415 and sliding clip 416; may then be moved, pushed and slid to a new location. The bottom portion of pole 425 may also be configured with wheels 411 moving in ruts 405 built into beam 403; including motor 409 enabling self-propulsion. Poles 425 may be used for accessing roosting structures with shorter heights; whereas, heavy-duty vertical beam 480 and vertically inclined beam 480 a may be used for wholly vertical and/or vertically inclined roosting structures rising from the ground level right up to the top-most ceilings and roof tops.
  • In another embodiment, mechanized “A” shaped staircase-ladder 410 may be inversely configured to form a suspension climbing apparatus 425 v hanging down from the ceiling beams. Roller clip mechanisms 415, 416, 417; or the overhead hanging roller wheel apparatus 417, 433, 472, 477, 478 as illustrated in FIG. 6G may also be used to support the weight of the climbing apparatus and harvesters 378. Such a mechanized “V”-shaped stair-case ladder 425 v configured to follow the contour and suit the “W”-shaped nesting apparatus 420 may be used to access edible nests 62 built on the roosting apparatus. Motorized components 409, 493, 493 a as disclosed in FIG. 6K may also be used to enable the apparatus to be self-propelled. In an alternative arrangement the bottom part of the “V”-shaped suspension ladder 425 v may also be supported by harvesting pole 425; thus forming a “Y”-shaped ladder 425 y. The bottom of pole 425 may rest on wheels 411 running in ruts 405 configured into the beam 403. Other features as disclosed in FIG. 6G comprising components 417, 433, 472, 477, 478; and FIG. 6K comprising components 409, 422, 433, 477, 478, 491, 493, 493 a; may also be utilized to enable motorized propulsion of the harvesting apparatus. The harvester 378 may climb up and down vertical pole 425 to access the suspended “V”-shaped portion of the “Y”-shaped ladder 425 y. Suspended rods 478 may also be flexibly connected to the body of the “V”-shaped ladder to enable rapid dismantling and reassembly of the apparatus in mid-air; in order to bypass vertical beams 404 or 98. Harvester 378 may be securely tethered to the rings of anchoring apparatus 417 a while carrying out such maneuvers. Such an apparatus may also be adapted for use with A-shaped roosting structures 400 of FIG. 1A to FIG. 1C and FIG. 1E.
  • FIG. 1O illustrates the sectional view of a natural cave 77 with internal features comprising speleothems such as: enclosed cave tunnels 394; stalactites 395 hanging down from the overhead cave ceiling; overhead domes 396; open ended cave tunnels 79 which may provide aerial access-way linking the internal habitat and external environment; stalagmites 397 rising upwards from the cave floor/or ground; columns 398 formed when stalactites and stalagmites meet; draperies and cave walls 16; vegetative growth 399 comprising the tendrils, vines and roots of creepers and climbers such as rattan, lianas; tree roots, etc. intruding into, overgrowing and/or hanging down from the cave 77 roofs and walls. These natural cave 77 formations are replicated and simulated in their utility purposes by artificial man-made structures and apparatus comprising of: overhead nesting boards 196, 196 a, 196 b; cylindrical stalactite 375, conical stalactite 376; vertical wall 69; inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; ground structure 15. The cave roof by domes 370; semi-domes 431; semi-tunnels 430. The vegetative growth 399 provides beak-holds and claw-holds for swiftlets to anchor their bodies; their utility functions are replicated by strings and cords 502. The shelter provided by cave structure 77 may be imitated, replicated, duplicated, simulated and emulated by the external macro infrastructure comprising different types and forms of artificial man-made buildings, housing and shelters 11, 14, 100, 200, 356.
  • FIG. 2A illustrates the cross-sectional view of a multitude of hollow dome shaped ceiling cum roofing structures 431 which replicates and re-creates the enclosed swiftlets nesting habitat 17 in natural cave 77 as illustrated in FIG. 1O. Such a structural configuration and arrangement in which rows upon rows; tiers upon tiers of over-head dome shaped cave cavities and concavities 431 are built to form the roof/or ceiling; may be suitably configured for breeding swiftlets in housing structures comprising wholly man made artificial caves 100; specialized swiftlets breeding structures 200; man made breeding structures integrated into a natural relief 356; as illustrated in FIG. 3A, FIG. 3K and FIG. 3L. FIG. 2B illustrates a perspective sectional view of a single cave-dome 431 with one side cut open to give a better view of the hollow internal. Swiftlet's claw gripping and clinging apparatus comprising: indentation 59; protrusion 60; serrated saw-tooth gripping surface 204; gripping claw lines 245; claw holes 246; spiky thorns 377, fasteners 500, etc; may be incorporated into the hollow interior of such domes. FIG. 2C illustrates the use of both the concave portion 431 and convex portion 431 a of an inter-linked plurality of cave-domes for nest building by swiftlets 61. Convex portion 431 a is similar in utilitarian purposes to stalactites 375 and 376 in natural cave chambers 77. Only the upper part of the cave-dome system 431 or tunnel system 430 which is useful for breeding swiftlets is extracted and widely utilized in present invention.
  • FIG. 2D illustrates a breeding enclosure 17 in which rows upon rows, rows built on top of rows of densely packed cave-tunnels 430 may be configured for breeding swiftlets. A plurality comprising the top half of semi-circular cave-tunnels 430 may be configured horizontally as shown. Access-ways 12, 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d may be located at the external walls 191 of the enclosure/comprising a shelter or building 100, 200 and 356. FIG. 2E illustrates the frame work of horizontal concrete infra-structure beams 403 and semi-circular beams 427 upon which curved cave-tunnels 430 may be erected. FIG. 2F illustrates the detailed cross-sectional view of a semi-circular cave-tunnel 430 as shown in FIG. 2D and FIG. 2E. A series of horizontally arranged beams 403 and semi-circular beams 427 supported by main vertical pillars 98 may be configured for use including vertical struts 404 and horizontal struts 406. Pieces of curved nesting panels and planks 426 may be mounted beneath this external structure of concrete beams 403 and 427 and securely affixed to the frame work to form the ceiling 428 and roof 429 to comprise swiftlets breeding structure 430. A horizontal structural frame work of twin lateral beams 403 configured with ruts 405 located on top of the half-tunnel 430 provides a means of vehicular transport upon which motorized vehicles may travel by means of wheels 411 in ruts 405. Such vehicles may comprise of harvesting machines such as man-lifts, or “troglodytes” 440; motorized mobile ladders 470; 407 a; 470 b; 470 c; mechanized harvesting beams 480, inclined beams 480 a; prime movers 444, train-cars 444 a transporting workers, equipment and goods.
  • Since only the top-half or portion of an overhead cave-tunnel 430 is useful in breeding swiftlets, but not the bottom portion of a cave-tunnel, present invention focus on employing this useful breeding niche. Building only the useful top portion of the cave-tunnel 430 without the bottom portion reduces construction costs, maximizes usage of the valuable enclosed space 17 while boosting nesting density of the enclosure. Thus, a structural configuration wherein, a multitude comprising layers upon layers, rows upon rows of longitudinal, semi-circular top-half of cave-tunnels 430, cave-domes 431, “A” shaped roof-ceilings 400 and “W” shaped structures 420 may be constructed densely packed together in a swiftlets housing structure comprising artificial caves 100, enclosure 200; man-made housing and structures integrated into natural relief 356 serves to improve efficiency and productivity of the farm.
  • FIG. 2G to FIG. 2L illustrates the cross-section view of vertically disposed roosting apparatus rising upward from the ground; and hanging downward from the over head ceiling-roofs. FIG. 2M and FIG. 2N illustrates overhanging, overhead structure 375 and 376. Some of these features as disclosed in parent application Ser. No. 11/949,695; U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391; were used to illustrate the advantages of the features illustrated in FIG. 2O to FIG. 2T and for incorporation of new structural configurations and new inventive steps of present invention. FIG. 2G illustrates a vertical zig-zag wall 69 b with small narrow cavities 57; while FIG. 2H illustrates a similar wall 69 c with bigger cavities 57. Work cage 82 comprising part of the overhead hoisting apparatus 81, 86 to 90 may be used to harvest nests built on the vertical walls. FIG. 2I illustrates a similar wall 69 d configured with a wavy undulating pattern and large cavities 57. Claws gripping and clinging apparatus incorporated onto the roosting surfaces may comprise saw-tooth serrations 204, thorns 377, etc. Smooth glazed surface 361 may be suitably located to prevent and avoid swiftlets from alighting and roosting in undesirable location on the nesting walls. Feces shields 362 may be used to prevent falling bird fecess 224 dropping down from above, from dirtying nests built below. Machineries comprising work-cage 82 attached to overhead hoisting and lifting systems may be positioned proximate the walls to harvest the edible nests 62. FIG. 2J illustrates a vertical wall 69 a with protruding bricks 364 a, 364 b, 364 c specially arranged and configured to form suitable roosting cavities 57 for swiftlets. Protruding edges of bricks 364 a and 364 b may be tapered to slope downward, enabling ease of paragliding take-offs by roosting swiftlets. Optimally such cavities should not be less than 4 cm in depth. The depth of cavities may be varied to suit the different species of swiftlets breed. FIG. 2K shows a vertical wall 69 a adapted with small short pieces of extensions 360, and variants 360 b, 360 c. Such small and short attachments affixed onto to vertical wall 69 helps to provide suitable claw clinging and gripping for alighting swiftlets; and helps to keep nests clean. FIG. 2L illustrates a vertically disposed stalagmite 15 rising upward from the ground. FIG. 2M illustrates a conically shaped stalactite 376; while FIG. 2N illustrates a cylindrically shaped stalactite 375; hanging downward from its base attached onto the overhead ceiling 194 and substrate 192.
  • FIG. 2O to FIG. 2T illustrates an alternative configuration in which nesting structures may be mounted in an inclined position. FIG. 2O illustrates the section view of a stepped, zig-zag multi-tiered wall 69 f inclined at an angle, with suitably positioned saw-toothed gripping apparatus 204. FIG. 2P illustrates cave-domes 431 b inclined at an angular disposition; while FIG. 2Q illustrates cave tunnels 430 b inclined at an angular disposition. FIG. 2R illustrates a long inclined, diagonally disposed wall 69 g with triangular roosting apparatus 196 a; and multi-tiered triangular roosting apparatus 196 b, which forms an inversely stepped structure. Nesting apparatus 196 b may be mounted onto/or supported by inclined beams 408; and may incorporate grooves 59 and protrusions 60. Bird feces or feces 224 ejected by swiftlet 61 clinging onto edible nest 62 falls free from other edible nests 62 built lower down the inclined wall 69 g. A multitude of clinging and gripping apparatus may be installed on wall 69 g comprising: long pieces of wide rectangular planks 196 affixed perpendicularly to the wall; short individual pieces of attachment 360; 360 c with saw-tooth claw grips 204; short and narrow pieces of triangular attachment 360 d; long pieces of wide boards 407 and long pieces of narrow rafters 407 a may be installed lengthwise in a horizontal position relative to wall 69 g. FIG. 2S illustrates an inclined stalagmite 15 a similar in utility purpose to a pillar 98 in providing a roosting and nesting substrate. FIG. 2T illustrates an enclosed tunnel 372 a. Flight space comprising empty, void chasm 432 left in between nesting structures 69 f, 69 g, 430 b, 370 b, 15, 15 a and 372 a provides an internal passage way enabling roosting swiftlets to access and egress the nesting habitat 17 with ease. Comparing features of vertical structures of FIG. 2G to FIG. 2L; to the inclined structures (FIG. 2O to FIG. 2T) of present application; though the inclined structures may be less productive in terms of quantity per roosting apparatus (e.g. only the bottom side of wall 69 g is useful); the cleanliness, high quality and high economic value of edible nests produced are guaranteed. However, in comparison with the roosting structures 196 mounted on horizontal ceiling-floor (194-195) arrangement as illustrated in FIG. 1D, housed in the buildings of FIG. 2U and/or FIG. 2V; with the availability of vertical flight space provided by the vertically inclined structural configuration, the distance in between nesting floors (of 8 to 10 feet for concrete layer 192 cum ceiling-floor 194-195) may be reduced by half to (4 to 5 feet) in between the inclined roosting apparatus (e.g. wall 69 g). Therefore, the number of roosting apparatus may be doubled. Thus, while an inclined structure may be more productive than a horizontal structure; it may not be as productive as a wholly vertical structure due to the latter's dual surfaces production capability. However, should productivity be equated to the quality of the final product produced, the inclined structural configuration won hands down.
  • FIG. 2U illustrates an A-shaped roof 11 and ceiling structures which forms the roosting structure on the top portion of an abandoned house 11 or vacant human dwelling 11; while FIG. 2V illustrates a roosting structure in the form of a multi-storied structure 14 which may comprise of a commercial shop house. The horizontally disposed ceiling in roosting structure 11 may form an ideal man made breeding apparatus by way of its structural configuration for swiftlets to roost. Swiftlets may cling onto the protruding roofing struts and battens 196, beams 193 and walls 69 used to provide support to, and upon which is securely affixed the ceiling structure. Roosting structures 11 and 14 may also be intentionally kept vacated; and/or vacant of human occupation; adapted, modified and transformed into a suitable swiftlets roosting structure for creating edible nests. In one form, roosting structures and apparatus may comprise vertically disposed roosting boards/or planks 196 affixed lengthwise onto the ceiling structure 194, floor 195, substrate 192 as illustrated in FIG. 1D. The vertically disposed roosting board 196 extending downwards (anywhere from a few inches to one foot, dependent upon the width of the board used for construction) may be used to simulate, replicate and imitate the utilitarian purposes and functions of cave stalactites 395 as illustrated in FIG. 1O to be used for roosting by swiftlets 61. In another form, the roosting boards 196 may be substituted by a plurality of vertical walls 69 extending from the ceiling 194 down to the floor 195; spaced a few feet apart. Metal grills 13 may be installed to prevent nest poachers and unwanted intruders from entering; while access-ways 12 provides swiftlets with aerial entry and exit points. Audio speakers 211 may be installed inside and outside the housing structure to broadcast swiftlet's bird calls or chirping sounds.
  • FIG. 3A to FIG. 3L illustrates the structural configuration of housing structures and an arrangement of internal structural framework configured for mounting swiftlets 61 nesting substrates. The housing structures may comprise of shelter 100, 200, 365. The structural frameworks may comprise of 400, 420, 430, 430 a, 431, 431 a, 372, 372 b, 69, 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; supported by beams 403, 404, 406, 408, 427 and pillars 98. The nesting substrates may comprise of apparatus such as wooden board 196, 196 a, 196 b, 11, 420 a affixed onto the structural framework; while structural framework 69, 69 e, 69 f, 69 g may be directly used as nesting substrate by swiftlets. FIG. 3A illustrates a cross-sectional view of a wholly man made artificial cave structure 100 with an arrangement of wholly semi-spherical cave-domes 431 roofing-ceiling structures built inside. Speakers 211 are installed inside and outside the housing structure. FIG. 3B illustrates a similar cross-sectional view of artificial housing structure 200 with an arrangement of wholly semi-tubular cave-tunnels 430 roofing-ceiling structures built inside. Vertical chasm 432, an empty void rising all the way from the ground up to the ceiling-roof 97 provides an internal flight passage way for swiftlets while tunnel-like passage ways 79 provides an access way to and from the external environment via orifice 12. FIG. 3C illustrates the side view of FIG. 3D, FIG. 3E, FIG. 3F, FIG. 3G, FIG. 3H FIG. 3K and FIG. 3J. Nesting structures are built inside the enclosure 17 provided by the external shelter cum housing structure 100, 200, 356 which forms the macro-habitat. While the internal structural framework 400, 430, 431; roosting apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b; wall 69 cum numerous variants; and suitable atmospheric conditions form the micro-habitat 17, 17 a, 17 b. FIG. 3D illustrates the cross-sectional view of structural framework 400, an “A”-shaped arrangement comprising wholly of roof-attics 11 constructed inside shelter 200. FIG. 3E illustrates the cross-sectional view of wholly “W”-shaped structural framework 420. A plurality of roosting apparatus 420 a may be affixed onto the structural framework. FIG. 3F illustrates the cross-sectional view of an arrangement of wholly inclined nesting walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g, etc. constructed inside shelter 200; mounted on a structural framework of vertical, lateral and inclined beams 98, 404, 403, 406, 408.
  • FIG. 3G illustrates the cross sectional view of an arrangement of the structural framework comprising curved, semi-circular cave tunnels 430 constructed inside shelter 200. FIG. 3H illustrates the cross-sectional view of a wholly inverted, inversed structure of FIG. 3G in which the curvature of the cave roof-ceiling structure 430 is reversed to form nesting structure 430 a. Nesting apparatus 196 a, 196 b, 375, 376 may be affixed to structural framework 430 a. FIG. 3I illustrates the cross-sectional view of a structure comprising wholly of tunnels 372 b arranged horizontally; and tunnels 372 a inclined at an angular disposition at the bottom. FIG. 3J illustrates the cross-sectional view of a structural arrangement comprising wholly of roosting structures 400; wherein layers upon layers, rows upon rows of “A”-shaped roof-attics 400 are built in close proximity in shelter 200. FIG. 3K illustrates a converted natural relief 356 in which man made roosting structures were integrated into a natural relief comprising of: a valley lying in between twin cliffs 16; a single cliff 16; a naturally occurring cave 77, etc. for production of edible nests. Roosting structures comprising “A” shaped roof-ceiling structure 400; semi-domes 431 and semi-circular cave tunnel 430 may be suitably configured inside. Chasms or passage-ways 432 may provide the internal flight-space leading to the external environment. FIG. 3L illustrates the cross-sectional view of a structural configuration in which a multitude of roosting and nesting structures comprising: “A”-shaped roof-attic 400; “W”-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 420; vertically disposed walls 69; inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; tunnels 372; concave shaped cave-ceiling 430; overhead semi-spherical cave-dome ceiling 431; inverted overhead semi-spherical cave-dome ceiling 431 a; inverted convex shaped cave-ceiling 430 a, etc; may be combined and used together in shelter 200. All types of roosting structures and apparatus above may be used in combination with each other; and used together with housing structures comprising shelters 11, 14, 100, 200, 356.
  • FIG. 4A illustrates a customized man lift 440 specially configured and specifically designed for use in harvesting edible nests 62 in the swiftlets breeding and edible bird's nests production facilities 100, 200, 356 of present invention. Such man lifts, nick-named “troglodytes” may comprise a principal work horse in the harvesting activities of production facilities 100, 200, 365. In the systems of cave-tunnels 430, 430 a; cave-domes 431, 431 a; “A” shaped roofing-attics 400; etc., man-lifts comprising “troglodytes” 440 enables farmer and/or harvesters 378 to effectively harvest edible nests from the cave ceiling-roof in a safe and efficient manner. Their hydraulically operated retractable and extendable arms 435 may be suitably configured to enable harvesters to reach and harvest all edible nests 62 built on the nesting substrate by residing swiftlets 61. Troglodytes of present invention may be suitably configured to travel on top of the systems of ceiling-roofs of cave tunnels 430, cave domes 431, “A” shaped roof-attics 400; by means of roller-wheels 433 on rail beams 434 affixed onto horizontal beams 403 (refer FIG. 2D and FIG. 4B); it may also be configured to travel on a mono-rail; or, on wheels 411 running in the ruts 405 built into horizontal beams 403. The body of the whole machine may be anchored by means of anchoring apparatus 450 and 450 b mounted on the roofing structures and beams 403, 404, 406, 427 prior to commencing man-lifting activities. Each troglodyte may be configured with a single arm; or suitably configured with twin arms for two harvesters 378 to access the nesting substrate safely and efficiently. The twin arms 435 may be manually manipulated to counteract each other's weight in order to maintain the overall balance of troglodyte 440. The extendable arms 435 of troglodyte 440 powered by means of hydraulic system and mechanisms 412 a; raises harvester 378 in work cage/gondola 436 high up to pluck edible nests 62 built overhead by swiftlets 61, on the ceiling 428 of roosting structure 430. Floor tiles 429 may be installed on the upper surface of structure 430 (refer FIG. 2D).
  • FIG. 4B illustrates a plurality of cave-tunnels 430 and/or cave-domes 431 supported by main pillars 98, horizontal beam 403, curved beam 427 in which the ceiling-roofing structures are stacked one on top of another vertically. Forming a multi-leveled system of caves-tunnels 430 or semi-spherical cave domes 431 configured on top of one another, affixed to horizontal beams 403 supported by vertical beams 98 reinforced by struts 404 and 406. Different forms of man-lifts 440 may be suitably configured for use in the caves system. In one form, a man-lift comprising troglodyte 440 a may incorporate self-balancing mechanisms in the form of mobile counter-weights 437 and/or 438; while troglodyte 440 b may be configured with telescopic hydraulic arms 435 mounted at the out-riggers 439 for better balance control; low centre of gravity and a wider base for stability. Counter weight 437 may comprise a miniaturized trolley propelled by cables 90; while counter weight 438 may comprise a stack of weigh mounted at the tip of telescopic arm 412 a. Mobile platform cum ladders 441 may be mounted in ruts 405 enabling them to be moved around easily. Fixed steps/or staircase shaped receptacles 443 may be affixed and constructed on top of curved beams 427. Long pieces of scaffold planks and boards 442 made of light-weight aluminum alloy may be placed on steps 443; in between two adjacent beams 427 at the same level or height to form a walk-way enabling harvesters 378 to stand securely while plucking nests built on the overhead roosting structures manually by hand as illustrated in FIG. 4C; harvester 378 may also use harvesting pole 460 for nests built higher up the structure 430. Swiftlets 61 may roost directly on ceiling tiles 428 which forms the structural framework; by means of apparatus 500.
  • FIG. 4C illustrates a plurality of suitably configured work-carts 444 a propelled by means of a prime mover 444 running on wheels 411 in ruts 405 or on light rails 434 mounted on beams 403. Such a motorized transportation system may be used to provide the main means of conveyance in the artificial cave system comprising structural framework 400, 420, 430 and 431 of present invention. Moving and transporting farmers, workers and harvesters 378; materials, equipment, products, goods; traveling on top of a multitude of the above said swiftlets roosting structures. Scaffold planks 442 resting on steps 443 may also be used for harvesting or plucking edible nests by hand. In the confined enclosures and enclosed production systems of present invention, motorized apparatus comprising vehicles 444 a cum prime mover 444; and mobile aerial work platforms comprising troglodyte 440; etc. running on wheels 411, or light rail system 434; may be configured with an electrical propulsion system to provide the main mode of conveyance, including motorized staircase-bridges 410, 470, beam 480, 480 a to access edible nests built at height. Electrically powered motors and engines being the preferred mode of propulsion providing mobility and transport in the confined enclosures 17; forming the main work-horse, powering work platforms and vehicles in the specially configured swiftlets roosting structures. Such electrically powered engines eliminates emission of noxious fumes, pollutants and noise in order to avoid disturbing nesting swiftlets which are very sensitive to pungent odors, noxious smell, acrid smoke, toxic chemicals, etc. Such vehicles are quiet, clean and light weight. Thus, electric motors provide the most suitable prime movers for the confined cave environment given the sensitive nature of swiftlets to the habitat environment 17, 17 a, 17 b. Sudden noise in the quietness of the enclosed caves systems may be amplified multi-fold; easily scaring swiftlets into sudden panicky “escape” flights, flights of survival ingrained into the instincts of the birds. Such escape flights might cause the loss of eggs held in between the legs of swiftlets; to be accidentally tossed out of the nests. This problem may be overcome with the use of swiftlets chirps and bird-calls broadcast over a system of speakers and tweeters during harvesting time to mask and avoid sudden noise from scaring the swiftlets into such panicky “escape” flights. But however careful, loud noise may still be caused by human harvesters 378, harvesting equipment 410, 420, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490; vehicles 444, 444 a; unintentionally or accidentally in the conduct of work-related activities. All unnecessary audible disturbances should be kept to a minimum in the conduct of all activities inside any of the swiftlets nesting enclosures 17 at all times by all workers. All equipment, methods, systems, apparatus, techniques, etc. shall be configured to minimize generation of noise/or sound. Tools and equipment shall be covered/insulated with a layer of soft, pliable and impact absorbing materials to eliminate and minimize production of noise if dropped accidentally; shoes may be soft-soled; communication systems may be configured with ear phones/ear jacks/micro-phone speakers built into the head-gear/head-set. FIG. 4D illustrates a plan view of a man lift 440; its wheels resting in wheel ruts 405 built into horizontal beams 403. Rut covers 445 may be opened by means of metal piece 446 to enable passage of man lift 440 including motorized vehicle 444 a and prime mover 444; and other mechanized means of transport. FIG. 4E illustrates the X-sectional view of cave-roof beams comprising level beams 403, curved beam 427, wheel ruts 405; and rut covers 445. Covers 445 may be used to prevent collection of bird fecess in the ruts 405 which may interfere with the safe and smooth operation of the wheels of troglodytes 440, vehicle 444, staircase-bridge 410, 470, etc.; compromising the occupational safety of the production facilities.
  • FIG. 5A, FIG. 5B and FIG. 5C illustrates an anchoring apparatus 450. FIG. 5A illustrates the sectional side view of the apparatus while FIG. 5B illustrates the plan view of section 5B-5B. FIG. 5C illustrates the removable handle bar 450 a of anchoring pole 450. The apparatus comprises of two main components namely: a mobile removable anchoring pole 450; and fixed anchoring apparatus 450 b installed in a stationary position. Anchoring apparatus 450 b may be securely affixed to the frame work structure of horizontal beam 403, main pillars 98, vertical beams 404, curved beams 427 and struts 406 by means of bolts and nuts 447. The hand-held end of the anchoring pole 450 may be slotted into handle bar 450 a with control buttons 448 a and 448 b held in the hands of a harvester 378. While the opposite end which is free moving may be inserted into the recessed slot/or port 449 of fixed anchoring apparatus 450 b. The tip of the free moving end of apparatus 450 may be configured with a locking pin 451 mounted on a movable pivot 452 for ease of docking with recessed slot 449. The locking pin 451 may be configured with an eye 451 a through which sliding pinion 453 passes to securely lock the anchoring pole 450 in place. The locking pin 451 may be slotted into the recessed slot 449 of the body 450 b and anchored by means of electro-magnet 454 b. Sliding pinion 453 activated by electro-magnet 454 a and 454 c securely keeps the locking pin 451 in place by passing through the eye 451 a of the locking pin 451.
  • To operate, the apparatus 450 b must first be unlocked. The free end of mobile pole 450 may be manually brought near to the fixed apparatus 450 b by harvester 378. Pressing a release button 448 a generates a release signal by a signal generator cum transmitter 455 mounted near to locking pin 451 at the free end of pole 450. A signal receiver 455 a mounted on the body of apparatus 450 b receives this signal and acts to energize electro-magnet 454 a to attract movable pinion 453 which moves upwards, thus freeing the locking mechanism. The control mechanism/or signal may comprise remote control radio frequency, IR, UV, for short distance pin-point activation of the docking mechanism. The spade shaped locking pin 451 mounted at the tip of the free moving end of the anchoring pole 450 is manually inserted into the recessed slot/or port 449 of apparatus 450 b by the harvester 378. Electro-magnet 454 b attracts locking pin 451 into docking position in slot 449. To lock the pin 451 in position, locking button 448 b is pressed, sending a locking signal to transmitter 455. This locking signal is received by signal receiver 455 a which acts as required. Electro-magnet 454 a is sequentially de-energized to release sliding pinion 453 which falls through the eye 451 a of locking pin 451 into the securing slot 453 a. At the same time, electro-magnet 454 c located at the bottom of securing slot 453 a is energized to attract and securely hold sliding pinion 453 into a locked position. The locking mechanism is now activated, securely locking the anchoring pole 450 in position. The hand held end of the anchoring pole 450 is in turn pulled taunt, securely locked and clamped into position at designated anchoring points on the body of the troglodyte 440. The intrinsic safety design of such an anchoring apparatus is advantageous because in case of power failure, the locking pin 451 is securely locked in place by the movable pinion 453 which remains in its original position due to gravity. A plurality of such anchoring poles 450 and anchoring apparatus 450 b may be used to lock and totally immobilize the troglodyte 440, thus making the retractable and extendable arms 435 safe for use. Utility purpose made of a plurality of such poles 450 in addition to the twin lifting arms 435 gave man-lift 440 the appearance of the long extended appendages of cave spiders, cave centipedes, or cave crabs holding their bodies suspended in mid-air; thus the acronym “troglodyte.” For ease of visual sighting in the dark environment, luminous paint may be used to coat locking pin 451, recessed slot 453, or apparatus 450 b.
  • After clearing an area of edible nests, the arms 435 of troglodyte 440 may be retracted and harvesters 378 dismounted from work cages 436. The anchoring poles 450 may be unlocked, released and retrieved before troglodyte 440 is moved to another location further ahead. To unlock, release and retrieve the anchoring pole 450, release button 448 a is pressed. Electro-magnet 454 b and 454 c are de-energized while 454 a is energized. Movable sliding pinion 453 is pulled upwards by electro-magnet 454 a, thus freeing the lock-pin 451 and anchoring pole 450, which is then manually retrieved by harvester 378. Such a combination of components and mechanisms may be used to keep the locking pin 451 securely in place. And to keep the mobile aerial work platforms 440 secure for farmers 378 to work safely at height.
  • Anchoring pole 450 may be configured as a complete, single piece for use with fixed control buttons 448 a and 448 b; or with a detachable control handle bar 450 a as illustrated in FIG. 5C. Removable handle bar 450 a may be affixed onto the hand-held end of an anchoring pole 450 for operational use, then detached/or removed from pole 450 to be affixed to another pole 450 for use. Anchoring pole 450 may be powered by means of a battery pack carried on a strap/or waist belt worn by harvester 378; or by means of flexible electrical wires connected to the handle bar 450 a. The male coupling of the power cable may be plugged into female receiver ports 456 present on the handle 450 a of anchoring pole 450. The activation switch may comprise of dual buttons 448 a for “unlocking” and 448 b for “locking” operation; or configured as a single button with dual acting functions for use; such that pressing it once will activate an unlocking function, while pressing it another time will activate the locking function. It may also comprise of a sliding button with unlocking/locking functions. The control and activation mechanism for locking and unlocking of apparatus 450 may also be directly mounted on anchoring pole 450. Anchoring pole 450 may also be configured with extendable and retractable joints operable by means of hydraulic or pneumatic systems commonly available over the counter. Only after the mobile work platforms had been securely and suitably anchored by means of a plurality of such anchoring devices 450 may harvesters 378 access the heights to collect nests from the roosting structures and nesting apparatus of present invention. Such anchoring apparatus 450 b and anchoring poles 450 as disclosed may also be used together with other apparatus of present invention; including stair-case bridges 410; mobile ladders cum platform 470; work carts and rail cars 444; work cage 436, etc. securing them into safe operating positions. FIG. 5D illustrates a variant form of mobile anchoring device 450 used for securing mobile aerial work platforms such as troglodytes 440 and mobile ladders 410, 470. A mobile metal plate 457 mounted at the end tip of pole 450 adheres to a fixed electro-magnetic plate 454 securely affixed to back plate 459. Plate 457 slots easily into the receptacle 458 and adheres securely to fixed plate 454. Pole 450 is securely locked onto/or attached to suitably designated locations on the troglodytes 440 and mobile ladders 410, 470, 470 a, 470 b, 470 c, etc.
  • FIG. 5E illustrates a high technology edible nest harvesting apparatus 460 with a customized scrapper blade 460 a at the end: including grappling hooks 461; a swivel antenna 462 carrying a lamp, a micro-camera and a bar-code scanner/or reader; a telescopic swivel antenna carrying a water sprayer 463. Grappling hooks 461 may resemble the mandibles of cave centipedes, cave crickets, etc. The swivel antennas may be configured to be adjustable and tilt-able by means of electronic-pneumatic-hydraulic activation and controls. Harvesting apparatus 460 is essentially an extremely strong, light weight pole configured with nests harvesting paraphernalia at the free end; with a row of control buttons 448 at the hand held end to manipulate said gadgets. The scrapper blade 460 a may be configured with an adjustable/or tilt-able swivel joint 464; and telescopic joints 465 on the body of pole 460 which may be extended and retracted as desired; operable by means of electronic, hydraulic and/or pneumatic systems. Prior to use, harvesting pole 460 may operably be connected to supporting utility systems such as water, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems by means of cables via ports 456 located at the rear of the handle. Pole 460 may be manually brought near to an edible nest 62. The lamp on antenna 462 is switched on and the micro-camera is used to check the nest for the presence of eggs and/or chicks to confirm that it is empty. Live display may be viewed by harvester 378 by means of a small VDU screen 466 mounted on pole 460. Occupied nests are left alone. The bar code scanner on antenna 462 may be used to scan the identification tag next to the nest to be taken; to prevent over harvesting from a specific breeding pair. Apart from bar-codes, the scanner may be configured to read other forms of identification used for tagging nests, location and specific breeding pairs. Water may be sprayed by means of sprayer 463 at the nesting substrate and nest attachment base to soften and loosen it, such that the nest may be easily detached from the substrate. The scrapper blade 460 a may be tilted by means of swivel joint 464 into a desirable position; and inserted at the point where the base of nest 62 is attached to the nest building substrate. Scrapper blade 460 a is then slowly pushed, deeper and deeper in between the nest and the roosting substrate. The grappling hook 461 may be operated to grip the nest 62 before it becomes fully dislodged from the substrate. The telescopic joints 465 may then be retracted to retrieve the harvested nest 62. The utility design of harvesting pole 460 focus on dexterity, maneuverability and practicability of using the apparatus for obtaining nests. Alternatively, a plain harvesting pole with a fixed scrapper blade at the end tip may also be used for harvesting; as practiced traditionally in harvesting cave nests from wild swiftlets in South East Asia.
  • FIG. 6A illustrates a mobile aerial work platform in the form of a plain staircase-bridge cum ladder 470, which moves on wheels 411 in the ruts 405 of horizontal beams 403 mounted on top of artificial cave structure 430. Harvester 378 may move safely on steps 410 a on top of platform 470 to harvest edible nests from overhead roosting structures and nesting apparatus 196, 196 a, 196 b, 375, 376 by means of his hands and/or harvesting poles 460. Such movable work platforms may be moved manually by pushing and pulling; or self-propelled by means of motorized prime movers 409 mounted on the apparatus; or external motorized prime movers comprising vehicles 444 may be used to provide a means of propulsion on top of the artificial cave structures. Hand rails 467 may be installed for personal safety. Apparatus 500 may be affixed directly onto tiles 428, substrate 196, 196 b, 376. Swiftlets 61 may roost on roosting apparatus 196, 196 b, 376, etc. attached on the ceiling of semi-tunnel 430; or attach itself directly onto the structural framework comprising beams 403, 427; tiles 428, 429; to roost by means of apparatus 500.
  • The staircase-bridge 470 may also be immobilized by means of anchoring apparatus 450 at site. FIG. 6B and FIG. 6C illustrates a variant of FIG. 6A in which mobile aerial work platform 470 a may be mounted on a variable wheel base by means of extendable and retractable jack-up legs 412 b. Such a staircase-bridge 470 a operated by means of hydraulic systems may be raised up and lowered down when required; by extending/or retracting the jack-up legs 412 b; and by means of adjusting the spread of the wheel base (narrow/or wide) and height of body from the floor by means of the hydraulic arms 412 a. During movement from one location to another, the platform may be lowered by means of hydraulic legs 412 b; and the hydraulic legs spread out by means of hydraulic arms 412 a. This enables the platform to have a lower centre of gravity (wider wheel base), improving stability and operational safety as shown in FIG. 6B. At the desired work location the extendable hydraulic legs 412 b may be raised to the appropriate height; the platform may also be raised by bringing the wheels closer together using hydraulic arms 412 a as shown in FIG. 6C. The wheels may be locked by means of brakes for workers 378 to carry out activities on the overhead ceiling such as edible nests harvesting, inspection, repair, etc. Work platform 470 a may also be anchored in position by means of anchoring poles 450 and apparatus 450 b.
  • FIG. 6D illustrates an enlarged diagram of a wheel 411 mounted in body frame 469 with axle 471 and ball bearing 472 resting in rut 405 built into the top surface of horizontal beam 403. Such a wheel running in rut 405 may be used with ladder 410, 470, 470 a, 470 b, 470 c. Rut 405 may be covered with a layer of tractable material at the bottom to enable effective traction and braking. While a layer of metal sheet or other suitable materials 473 may be used to cover and reinforce the sides of rut 405. FIG. 6E illustrates a modified variant wheel 411 of FIG. 6D such that the modified wheels had an extended horizontal leg portion 468 attached to leg 412 b. This may be useful in a constricted area with narrow space between the horizontal beams 403 and the vertical beams 404. Such a wheel configuration allows a larger space in between the body of ladder 470 c and main pillars 98 or vertical beams 404, minimizing accidental collision or abrasion of ladder against the vertical beam. Dotted lines show a variant leg 412 c attached to wheel 411 which may be used in a hanging form to support the suspended harvesting apparatus of FIG. 6Q.
  • FIG. 6F illustrates various variants of the ladder of FIG. 6A; including a short mobile staircase 474; and a work cart 475 mounted on an inclined beam 408 propelled by a cable-pulley mechanism 160, pulling the harvesting apparatus 474 and 475 up and down the inclined slope of beam 408 by means of cable 90. The cable-pulley mechanism 160 may be mounted on mobile apparatus 167, which is securely affixed to rail 168 and moves by means of ball bearings 169. In another arrangement a mobile ladder 470 b may be suspended from the bottom of horizontal beams 403. The suspension ladder 470 b may be attached to overhead C-channel groove 477 by means of metal bars 478 affixed to movable roller wheels 433 and ball bearings 472 running in the groove of C-channel 477 as illustrated in FIG. 6G. Such a suspension method may be used to support the ladder while it is being moved but may not be strong enough to fully support the weight of more than one harvester 378. The weight of more harvesters may be supported by means of extendable and retractable jack up legs 412 a powered by means of pneumatic or hydraulic systems which at the same time immobilizes ladder 470 b during harvesting works. Anchoring apparatus 450 may also be used to secure and immobilize ladder 470 b. Also illustrated is a long harvesting pole or beam 480 a, vertically inclined at an angular disposition enabling harvester 378 lying on mobile work board 490 b (substitutes inclined work-chair 490 a), in order to harvest edible nests from beneath the vertically inclined nesting wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; or roof-attics 400; W-shaped ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 420. Sliding board 490 b may be ergonomically shaped to fit the contour of the human body to maximize comfort. Top portion of beam 480 a may comprise of the mechanism illustrated in FIG. 6G and FIG. 6K while the bottom portion of the beam may comprise of the mechanism illustrated in FIG. 6L, FIG. 6M, FIG. 6N and FIG. 6O.
  • FIG. 6H, FIG. 6I and FIG. 6J illustrates a long vertically positioned pole or beam 480 for harvesting edible nests. FIG. 6H illustrates a perspective view of a motorized rectangular beam 480 to which is securely affixed a mobile work-chair 490, by means of wholly embracing brackets 481. FIG. 6I illustrates the side view; while FIG. 6J illustrates the sectional view 6J-6J. Harvesting beam 480 and mobile work-chair/or work-seat 490 may be configured vertically for working on vertical wall 69; or inclined at an angular disposition as illustrated in FIG. 6F by inclined beam 480 a including sliding board 490 b. Inclined board 490 b may be used to substitute inclined work chair 490 a for working on inclined wall 69 e, 69 f, 69 g; roof-attics 400, “W”-shaped overhead structure 420, etc. especially the downward facing side of the overhanging roosting structures. Mobile work-chair 490 is mounted securely onto beam 480 by means of sliding brackets 481. A plurality of rollers 479 mounted in the brackets 481 provides sliding mobility for work-chair 490 to move up and down the beam 480. Propulsion may be provided by means of electric motor 409 driving a looped cable 90 mounted inside the hollow cavity of beam 480. Work chair 490 mounted on a thick metal back-plate 486 may be attached to securing brackets 481 as illustrated in FIG. 6I and FIG. 6J. Brackets 481 may be configured to slide easily up and down beam 480 by means of a plurality of rollers 479 and ball bearing 472 propelled by a looped cable 90 mounted inside the hollow beam 480. Cable 90 may be powered by means of electric motor 409. Brackets 481 may be attached to lifting cable 90 by means of extension metal piece 487; clamped by means of clamps 487 a, bolts and nuts 447 onto lifting cable 90.
  • FIG. 6K illustrates the front view of the top portion comprising the anchoring cum propulsion mechanism of the mechanized harvesting beam 480. Vertical beam 480 may be affixed to a short horizontal piece 491. In turn, horizontal piece 491 may be suspended, hanging down from metal bars 478 affixed to a pair of movable roller wheels 433 running in fixed C-channel 477 as illustrated in FIG. 6F and FIG. 6G. Suspension metal bars 478 may incorporate spring 422 to cushion and absorb the lateral movement of beam 480. The top portion of mobile beam 480 may be powered by means of motor 409 and gear rail 493 which may be secured to C-channel 477 with holding bars 493 a. Cables 90 may be wound around the pulley wheel 176. Wheel 176 may be securely affixed to beam 480 by means of shaft 471 and nuts 447. Disc brakes 488 affixed to pulley shaft 471 incorporates brake pads 488 a mounted in a brake housing 484. Pulley wheel 176, cable 90, shaft 471, nut 447; braking system comprising brake disc 488, brake pads 488 a, brake housing 484; and a cable 90 propulsion system may also be used in a similar arrangement at the bottom portion of vertical beam 480. It may also be used together with the broad wheel 411 apparatus of FIG. 6O. Inclined beam 480 a of FIG. 6F may also be used with such a configuration.
  • FIG. 6L illustrates the front view while FIG. 6M illustrates the sectional side view of the bottom-most portion of an inclined mechanized harvesting beam 480 a. These two figures illustrate the bottom working mechanisms of the inclined beam 480 a enabling harvester 378 to pluck edible nests built high up on vertically inclined walls 69 e, 69 f, 69 g, etc. A motorized lifting apparatus providing mobility to harvest nests built on roosting substrate inclined at an angular disposition (refer FIG. 6F, FIG. 6P, FIG. 6Q). In this configuration beam 480 a rests on a horizontal piece 491 with a plurality of wheels 411 a running on top of a thin skate-blade rail 413. Such an apparatus avoids problems associated with deposits of bird feces 224 which may require frequent cleaning of wheel ruts 405. Motive force provided by the prime mover, an electric motor 409 is transmitted by means of gear wheel 492 to a gear toothed rail 493 running parallel to the length of skate-blade 413. Gear toothed rail 493 is held in position by means of holding bars 493 a connected along the length of skate-blade 413 at regular intervals. Motor 409 may also provide motive power to drive a winching mechanism 160 (167, 168, 169) as illustrated in FIG. 6F, and in moving cable 90 and work-chair 490 a carrying harvester 378 up and down the length and height of the beam 480 a. Winching cables 90 bearing the load comprising work-chair 490 a and harvester 378 may be kept inside hollow beam 480 a.
  • FIG. 6N illustrates the sectional side view of a variant wheel apparatus for supporting the angular load of inclined beam 480 a, inclined work chair 490 a, or work board 490 b, harvester 378 and other equipment as illustrated in FIG. 6L and FIG. 6M. Such an apparatus combines the use of a normal wheel 411 together with a roller-wheel 433. The roller-wheel 433 attached to shaft 468 mounted directly below the beam 480 a bears the direct load; while side wheel 411 mounted side-ways, takes the inclined load. Electric motor 409 powered gear wheel 492 which in turn drove gear wheel 494. Gear wheel 494 turns a shaft 495 which propelled wheel 411. The apparatus of FIG. 6L may also be used together with the broad wheel of FIG. 6O. FIG. 6O illustrates a simplified apparatus configured to provide mobility for a vertically disposed harvesting beam 480 running on enlarged wheels 411 in rut 405. The heavy duty wheel is preferred to take the heavy load of a long and heavy vertical beam 480, work chair 490 and harvester 378. Such a broad wheel also provides increased contact surface area to maximize traction. Long harvesting beam 480 may provide a substitute for the lifting system 82 for accessing vertical walls 69 as disclosed in prior art and parent, U.S. Pat. No. 7,661,391. Alternatively, beam 480 may be substituted by a tall monkey ladder 476; or an elongated harvesting pole 420 with the use of safety harness. In another embodiment, winching cables 90 may be configured without beam 480 and chair 490; but affixed to two anchoring pulley apparatus as illustrated by FIG. 6G and FIG. 6K; including propulsion components 409, 492, 493, 493 a as illustrated by FIG. 6L and FIG. 6M at the top and bottom portions of the nest harvesting apparatus. Such a cable pulley apparatus for harvesting edible nests 62 from the inclined roosting structure is illustrated in FIG. 6P. Harvester 378 may be moved up and down roosting substrates by means of the cable 90; securely attached to cable 90 by means of lanyards from his body harness.
  • Multiple layers of fall arrest protection systems configured into the harvesting apparatus 480 and 490 ensured the safety of harvester 378. Seat belt 482 provides fall arrest protection for harvester 378 who may operate the harvesting apparatus from the integrated arm-rest cum control apparatus 482 a built into seat belt 482. A weight activated emergency braking system 483 linked to multiple brakes 484 mounted on securing brackets 481 provides emergency braking whenever necessary. In case the lifting cable 90 breaks and the harvester 378 falls together with work-chair 490, the weight of free-falling harvester 378 is lifted from the seat; spring loaded emergency breaking system 483 activates, locking and jamming emergency brakes 484. Emergency braking system 483 may employ limit switches, proximity switches, pressure switches or dead man's switches for activation. Such switches are triggered by means of physical contact, or due to the lack of physical contact. Position and weight of seat belt 482 cum control apparatus 482 a provides another activation mechanism; wherein, during a sudden fall, the arm-rest cum control apparatus 482 a of seat belt 482 became lighter and is lifted upward, activating the emergency braking system 483. The fail-safe safety system may be configured such that all units of emergency brake 484 remains permanently locked in position/armed. Only when the belt 482 is in a depressed position (due to weight of harvester 378) may the emergency brakes 484 be freed/or disarmed. Manual activation switches or buttons mounted on the work-chair 490 or arm-rest 482 a provides another layer of safety. A limit switch 485 mounted at the ground level ensures that harvester 378 is always buckled up; such that only when the harvester fully sits on work-chair/work-seat 490, depressing the spring loaded limit switch 485 may the fail-safe logic of the PLC control mechanism be disarmed, allowing seat belt 482 to be unbuckled for the harvester 378 to get down. Likewise, only when harvester 378 buckled up his seat belt 482 and hooked on to safety line 85 may the PLC allows power be supplied to the electric motor 409 to winch the lifting cable 90 carrying work-chair 490 and harvester 490 upwards. Independent safety line 85 provides harvester 378 with the last line of fall arrest protection. Industrial fall arrest systems comprising air bags may be deployed at the bottom of the harvesting beams 480 to provide fall arrest protection in case of an accidental fall. The air bags may be powered by large bottled CO2; triggered by means of radio transmitters activated by means of electronic detectors detecting a high speed descent of work chair 490. A plurality of individual air bags attached together vertically may be inflated simultaneously, forming a multi-layered cushion stacked up, one on top of another to break the fall of work chair 490 and harvester 378. Such air-bags may be constructed of soft and pliable, yet tough, tear resistant materials comprising thick tarpaulin, Kevlar and other composites; providing adequate safety margin to ensure the safety of harvesting crew 378. The design configuration of such industrial air-bags may incorporate a plurality of smaller bags (buds) branching off, attached to the sides of the main air-bag; internally segregated by a layer of thinner materials (between main air-bag and the buds) of different pressure ratings designed to rupture easily. Such that after inflation and upon impact, the sudden increase in the pressure of the main air-bag ruptures the layers of thinner materials progressively, releasing the main air-bag's content into the smaller bags attached side-wise, forming a plurality of buds. Such a “budding” configuration of the air-bag helps in absorbing the sudden impact of a fall by deflating partially; and yet, retains adequate inflatable capacity/or buoyancy to provide a soft cushion for landing.
  • FIG. 6P illustrates an embodiment in which a vertically disposed staircase-ladder 470 b inclined at a steep angle may be used for working on a system of vertically inclined nesting panel 69 g or beneath “A”-shaped roofing structure 400. Such a mobile ladder made from light-weight materials e.g. aluminum alloys, may be configured with wheels 411 traveling in ruts 405. The top leg of ladder 470 b may be secured in a “C”-channel 496 installed on the top beam 403 by means of an inter-locking pinion 497 to prevent the climbing apparatus from toppling over. Extended guard and hand rail 467 serves a similar purpose and provides an additional layer of safety. Such a mechanism may be suitable for a high inclined roosting structure e.g. 10 to 20 meters in height. Also illustrated is a modified variant harvesting apparatus 90 illustrated in FIG. 6F to FIG. 6O in which only the cable-pulley system 90 and winch 160, propulsion apparatus 409, 492, 493; and anchoring apparatus 433, 477 478 are employed; devoid of harvesting beam 480 or work-chair 490. The anchoring and propulsion apparatus of FIG. 6G and FIG. 6K, including components of FIG. 6L and FIG. 6M may be used at the top and bottom of winching cable 90. Harvester 378 attached by means of lanyards to his body harness, may be moved vertically up and down the roosting substrate by means of cable 90, moved horizontally to and fro by means of components 409, 492, 493. Such a simplified low-cost cable-pulley winching apparatus may be configured to access nests built at height on vertically disposed wall 69; inclined structure 69 e, 69 f and 69 g safely, securely, efficiently and quickly. Working body harness may be integrated and incorporated into a body suit, suitably and ergonomically configured for the body weight of a work crew to be distributed more evenly, thus assisting in the normal blood flow from the legs back to the heart, etc. FIG. 6Q illustrates a variant of FIG. 6P in which the bottom portion of the mobile ladder 470 c may be extended downwards by means of monkey ladder 476 enabling harvesters 378 to access edible nests built on the top portion of the nesting panel 69 e directly below ladder 470 c. Mobile ladder 470 c is suspended in mid-air with the bottom portion modified to form a hanging monkey ladder 476 dangling down from above ending with a work cage 436. Wheels 411 may run in ruts 405 built into two horizontal beams 403 located at the same level. Ladder 470 c rests on horizontal metal gratings 498 connecting the left and right side of wheels 411 hanging down via legs 412 c as illustrated in FIG. 6E; with the top portion standing agape by means of modified legs 412 b.
  • In another embodiment, present invention discloses new structural configurations comprising utilization of the horizontally disposed overhead ceiling/or roofing substrate equipped with new gripping and clinging apparatus for roosting swiftlets to anchor their bodies securely using their beaks (bills/or mouth-parts) and the sharp claws of their feet; their bodies hanging upside down from beneath the horizontally disposed overhead roosting substrate. Just like cave bats at rest with their bodies hanging upside down from the cave roof; secured to the roosting substrate by the sharp claws of their feet/legs! Except that in the case of swiftlets, due to their inherently short legs, their bodies are aligned with/or parallel to the horizontally disposed substrate comprising the ceilings of roosting shelters or cave roofs. These newly disclosed apparatus comprising beak-holds and claw-holds for swiftlets may also be used on all previously disclosed roosting substrates comprising vertically disposed walls 69, overhead nesting boards 196, triangular shaped apparatus 196 a, triangular stepped apparatus 196 b; cylindrical stalactites 375; conical stalactites 376, etc. affixed and attached to the ceiling structure. Likewise, all of the previously disclosed gripping and clinging apparatus comprising indentations 59, protrusions 60, saw-toothed claw-grips 204, thorns 377; claw-lines 245, claw-holes 246; short small pieces of protuberances 360, 360 a, 360 b, 360 c; etc. including their variants; may be applied on the newly disclosed roosting dimension for swiftlets comprising horizontally disposed ceiling and/or roofing substrate. Swiftlets 61 roosts directly on the ceiling-roofing substrate, without the vertically disposed roosting substrate 196. In traditional swiftlets shelters, roosting boards 196 are normally spaced approximately 1 metre apart. The empty horizontal space in between the roosting boards 196 is left unused. Utility purpose made of such a previously unused space/unproductive/wasted resource in existing swiftlets housing structures 11, 14, 100, 200 translates into 100% usage; and a multi-fold increase in the roosting and thus, the edible nests production capacity of a swiftlets farm. Swiftlets attains flight speeds up to 100 km/hr. Flying to great heights/the flight space of migratory fowls due to the special oxygen absorbing and carrying capacity of the blood. Swiftlets can hover in a stationary position much alike a helicopter or VTOL aircrafts. They can dive vertically from great heights toward their nesting ground; turn at precarious angles before entering the cave chasm or mouth horizontally. Swiftlets possesses extreme maneuverability and are adept aerial acrobats. Clinging to ceiling surfaces 196, 193 with their bodies dangling upside down from the overhead ceiling substrate.
  • FIG. 7A to FIG. 7E illustrates this new structural configuration of using fasteners comprising nails, screws, pins, etc for providing a gripping and clinging apparatus 500. FIG. 7A illustrates a group of nails 500 including modifications and adaptations made to its variants to enable apparatus 500 to perform the task of providing a gripping and clinging apparatus more efficiently. Adaptations specially configured for this purpose includes indentations and depressions 59 a; extensions and protrusions 60 a; attachments comprising strings and cords 502; attachments comprising enlarged nail heads 503 a, 503 b, 503 c, 503 d, 503 e which is rigid, firm, yet pliable and soft enough to provide an easy claw hold and beak hold. Such an attachment may be made of materials comprising rubber, plastics, etc. In one embodiment, nail 500 may comprise of a screw 501. Attachment 503 a provides a stand-alone beak-hold cum foot-hold wherein, a swiftlet gripping on to the edge of apparatus 503 a may flip upside down to grip the inner opposite edge of the apparatus with the claws of its feet. Nails may be coated and galvanized to increase corrosion resistance; or made of stainless steel 316, stainless steel 304. In another embodiment, nail 500 may be configured with extensions 504 of 3-5 cm with a hole at the end for tying a cord 502 securely. When nail 500 is hammered into substrate 192 on the ceiling 194, extension 504 acts as a stopper and is forced against ceiling 194. Short cords 502 with a length of 3-5 cm hangs down vertically near to nail head 500. Swiftlets 61 flying near to ceiling 194 grips a cord with its beak and pulls on the cord 502; flapped its wings in a peculiar manner; flipped over to grip the nail 500 head with the claws of its feet/legs; clinging securely on to apparatus 500 with its body hanging in an upside down position; parallel to the horizontally disposed ceiling 194 which forms the underside of substrate 192. Its white colored under-belly facing skyward towards the ceiling 194; its black colored back and wings facing downward, towards the floor 195 or ground. Other apparatus disclosed herein may be used in tandem with, and to supplement each other's functionality; such that one apparatus may be used as a beak-hold while another one nearby may provide the foot-hold for swiftlets to alight on the ceiling 194.
  • FIG. 7B, FIG. 7C and FIG. 7D illustrates a horizontally disposed structural frame work cum roosting substrate 192 which forms the ceiling-floor 194-195 structures; the bottom under-side may be affixed with apparatus 500 and its numerous variants. FIG. 7B illustrates a multitude of nails configured with non standard protruding heads: such as nail 500 a with an attachment on the head; arrow-shape headed nail 500 b; hook-shape headed nail 500 c; hook-shape headed nail 500 d; curved head nail 500 i; “J”-shape headed nail 500 j; “L”-shape headed nail 500 i; “M”-shape headed nail 500 m; “O”-ring headed nail 500 o; “T”-shape headed nail 500 t; “U”-shaped nail 500 u; “V”-shaped nail 500 v; “W”-shape headed nail 500 w; two “Y”-shape headed nails 500 y. FIG. 7B illustrates the cross-section view of another embodiment in which rows upon rows of gripping and clinging apparatus 500 are affixed to long thin narrow rafters 505 a, 505 b, 505 c, 505 d, 505 e for alighting by swiftlets. Rafters 505 are then attached to ceiling 194. Rafters may also comprise building components such as battens, purlins or trusses. Rafter 505 d may comprise of a long, thin and narrow wood measuring 10 feet×1 inch×½ inch. A cross-section view comprising long pieces of thin narrow rafters 505 a, 505 b, 505 c, 505 d, 505 e attached lengthwise to ceiling 194, forming a long stretch of gripping and clinging apparatus for alighting by swiftlets; the rafters may also be configured with rows comprising multiple pieces/or units of gripping and clinging apparatus 500 for alighting by swiftlets. Apart from iron, steel and stainless steel, apparatus 500 may also be made from materials comprising: hard wood such as teak, “belian”; porcelain; fired earthen-wares; plastics; etc. Pliant strings and cords 502 may be used to simulate and imitate the functionality of vegetative growth 399 comprising vines, rattan, tendrils and roots of jungle vines, rattan, climbers; roots of plants, etc. providing beak-holds and claw-holds for swiftlets. Apparatus 505 a may comprise of a long length of rafter comprising thin silvers of wood, plastics, etc. attached to the ceiling by nails 500 with an empty gap of 3-5 mm in between the rafter and the ceiling. Apparatus 505 b may comprise of a length of rafter bearing a multitude of cords 502. Apparatus 505 c may comprise of a length of rafter configured with a cross-section similar to gripping and clinging apparatus 503 a. Apparatus 505 d may comprise of a length of machined rafter with a “T”-shaped cross section. The “T”-shaped rafter may be positioned upside down and affixed to ceiling 194 and substrate 192 with nails 500; with a gap of approx. 5 mm between the ceiling and twin protruding edges of rafter 505 d. Apparatus 502 may be installed next to apparatus 505 d. A variant apparatus 505 e installed at an angular disposition may also be used.
  • FIG. 7C illustrates a nesting board 196 and a beam 193 incorporating apparatus 500, 501 affixed on the vertically disposed surface; and apparatus 503 a, 500 t affixed on the horizontally disposed bottom surface; including a length of wire rod or cord 506 stretched in between two nails 500. Long pieces of thin narrow rafters 505 f and 505 g may be attached to structural framework cum substrate 192. Apparatus 505 f may be fitted with a variety of gripping and clinging apparatus comprising: “O” ring headed nail head 500 o; “L”-shape headed nail 500 i; “U”-shape headed nail 500 u; nails with inclined head 500 f; indentations 59 b and protrusions 60 b built and machined into the rafter. Apparatus 505 g may be fitted with a plurality of thorns 377 a. FIG. 7D illustrates a similar apparatus 505 h fitted with a plurality of saw-toothed claw-grips 204 a; and apparatus 505 i fitted with a plurality of horizontally positioned beak-hold and claw-hold 505 i. FIG. 7E illustrates a perspective view of the standard overhead ceiling-floor 194-195 structural framework 192 of FIG. 7B, 7C, 7D; with a vertically disposed beam 193. A variety of apparatus 500 may be affixed onto the overhead ceiling 194 and beam 193 comprising: nail 500, nail 500 v and nail 500 y on the vertically disposed surface; nail 500 w, nail 500 t, nail with attachment 503 e and screw 501 on the horizontally disposed bottom of beam 193; including nail 500 j, 500 o and 500 u on the horizontally disposed substrate 192. Long narrow strips of mesh 507 and 507 a may be installed on to the horizontal substrate 192 and vertical surface of beam 193 with a gap of 5 mm between the mesh and substrate. The mesh may be made of wire, plastics, etc. For ease of reference, this group of features comprising nails 500, including variants 501, 502; nails 500 mounted on rafters 505; and wire mesh 507 may be referred to collectively as apparatus 500.
  • FIG. 8A illustrates a swiftlets housing cum breeding structure in the form of production facility 200, which is connected to a still-well 510 by means of a plurality of interlinked tunnel like passage-ways 79 a; and the external environment by means of a plurality of access-ways 12, 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d built into stilling-well 510. Physical configuration of a still well 510 may measure 2 to 3 meters, optimally 6 meters in diameter providing a circling chamber 259 a. Still well 510 comprises an empty void, a vertical shaft or chasm 432 rising from the ground level right up to the top of the chimney-like structure providing a flight space/or aerial passage connecting all levels of structure 200. The ceiling-floor 194-195 substrate 192; devoid of vertically disposed nesting boards 196 or walls 69; may be directly configured for roosting by swiftlets 61. Clinging apparatus 500, 501, 502, 505, 507 may be affixed directly onto the ceiling 194 to provide beak holds and claw holds for swiftlets 61 to cling onto. FIG. 8B illustrates a plan view of the still well 510 structure with a plurality of access ways 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d configured for swiftlets to access and egress from the roosting cum breeding structure 200 while minimizing the entry of external drafts of wind. Structure 200 may form a fully enclosed multi-storied swiftlets-housing structure rising a hundred meters high spread over hectares of land area. Externally such fortress-like-buildings 200 appears pock-marked with rows of neatly arranged ventilation ducts 197 and multiple aerial access-ways 12 of various structural configurations may also be built linking the roosting habitat 17, 17 a, etc.
  • FIG. 8C and FIG. 8D illustrates a modified variant of FIG. 8A and FIG. 8B comprising miniaturized still-wells 511 and 511 a. Basically, two types of access ways may be configured for swiftlets housing structures. FIG. 8C illustrates a miniaturized still-well 511 with horizontally mounted opening 12 a constructed on top of roof-ceiling 11 requiring vertical entry and exit. Swiftlets flew in and out of such access-way 12 and/or passage-way 79 vertically. FIG. 8D illustrates a miniaturized still-well 511 a with vertically mounted opening 12 a and 12 b constructed on top of roof-ceiling 11 requiring horizontal entry and exit. Swiftlets flew in and out of such access-way 12 and/or passage-way 79 horizontally (normally), level to the ground. The access way may be shaped in the form of a square, rectangle, circular, oblong, etc. Such small scale still-wells 511, 511 a incorporating access-ways 12 as shown in FIG. 8C and FIG. 8D may be roof mounted/or mounted on the walls of the shelters 11, 14, 100, 200, 356; linked by means of internal flight passages 79 a; or, it may be directly integrated into the nesting habitat 17. Such small still wells 511, 511 a may be used with small scale habitats in structure 11, 14; but it may not be desirable as the internals of habitat 17 may be susceptible to wind buffeting during rough weather conditions. The surroundings of stilling well 511, 511 a comprising the top and three sides may be covered up to keep out rain, wind and bright sunlight.
  • Aerial entrance to and exit from swiftlets shelters may also comprise of apertures 12 mounted on the roof top or, high up on the vertical walls for swiftlets to enter and exit. The aperture 12 may be configured as a square shaped hole 12 a/or, a round man hole 12 b; large enough for a plurality of swiftlets to enter/exit at any one time. Such airborne access-ways 12 which also serves as air intake or exhaust ports for the swiftlets-house 11, 14, 100, 200, 356; may be located on the roof top or high up on the vertical walls of the structure. In the natural environment, to avoid and escape pursuits by predatory bat hawks, swiftlets dives in at a steep angle from high up, turning at sharp precarious angles, swooping in to enter cave entrances/holes; much alike “Stuka” dive-bombers of World War II. Aerial access-ways 12 and caves-tunnels access-ways 79 for swiftlets housing structures 11, 14, 100, 200, 356 may comprise of: square openings/or rectangular shaped openings 12 a; circular, round, elliptical or oval shaped orifices 12 b; rows upon rows of long vertical slits 12 c and horizontal slits 12 d; built on the walls of structure 100, 200, 365 adequately sized for swiftlets to enter and exit. For small scale farms, such access-ways 12 a or 12 b may measure: 3 feet by 3 feet wide; or five feet by five feet wide; vertical slits 12 c or horizontal slits 12 d may measure 12 cm long×5 cm wide; with a multitude of such adequately sized openings for swiftlets to enter and exit. Large scale farms may also be configured with such access ways 12, cave-tunnel like passage-ways 79 a; including large scale still-wells 510.
  • Incorporation of a still-well 510, 511, 511 a into the construction of access-ways 12 and flight tunnel passage-ways 79 may be used to stabilize air flow patterns and provide better control of the aerodynamics inside the enclosure 17. Such an apparatus in the form of a snout-like tunnel, or chimney may be used to minimize air turbulence in the swiftlets nesting enclosure 17 and micro-habitat 17 a, 17 b. A still-well constructed on top of and around a horizontally mounted opening 12 a on the roof-top may appear like a short snout or chimney sticking out from the roof-top as illustrated in FIG. 8C. While a still-well installed on a vertically mounted opening as illustrated in FIG. 8D may appear like a tunnel. The protruding portion may reside inside of the housing cum roofing structure. A combination of both vertical and level entry and exit may be used in swiftlets housing structures configured with a common specialized still-well 510 built at one corner of the structure 200. Still well 510 may be connected to all of the plurality of nesting levels in the housing structure 200. Such a structure reduces and minimizes external air turbulence/high wind currents from entering and affecting the internal micro-habitat 17 a. A slow moving air current or still air is preferred by swiftlets in their nesting habitat. Sudden drafts of fast moving air or gusts of wind at high speed should be avoided at all costs in the micro-habitat 17 a, 17 b. Access-ways 12 and cave-tunnel like passage-ways 79 provides a conduit between the point of entrance/exit and internally built vertical chasms or flight passage ways 432 connecting together the multi-tiered nesting structures stacked one on top of another. Providing a common flight passage way linking together different levels in the cave like housing structures 100, 200, 356.
  • FIG. 8E illustrates a structural configuration in which still-well 510 is connected by means of cave-tunnel like passage-ways 79 a to swiftlets housing structure 200; passage-ways 79 a are in turn connected to rectangular shaped vertical chasms 432 located at the side and/or a square shaped vertical chasm 432 at the centre of the structure 200. Vertical chasms 432, similar to still wells 510 are empty spaces devoid of any obstruction, configured into the internal structure, starting vertically from the ground to the top of the building. Chasm 432 may have an open top structure for vertical entry-exit; or covered by solid roof 97. Vertical chasms 432 provides an internal vertical flight space connecting horizontal flight spaces at all levels of the structure together, such that swiftlets may fly to any part of the internal habitat and enclosure it wishes to. FIG. 8F illustrates another embodiment in which housing structure 200 may be constructed in an encircling manner and/or arrangement in which the macro-habitat structure surrounds a large empty space purposely left alone in the middle. This empty space forms a natural still well 510 which regulates airflow and wind speed; and for swiftlets to enter and exit their habitat. All access-ways 12 may be configured to face this internal still well 510. The enclosed encircling outer wall of structure 200 provides a natural wind break preventing the entry of turbulent and high speed wind. A pond built at the centre of the still well 510 may be equipped with a water fountain and sprinkling system/or mist generator. Evaporating water provides saturated air with a humidity of 80%-100% which enters the encircling structure and habitat 200. Alternatively, still-well 510 may also be connected to the external environment by means of a chasm 432 for ease of access by swiftlets; with the external entrance shielded by a wind-breaker comprising wall 512. Wall 512 configured with top and bottom mounted wheels running in groves 405 may be moved by means of mechanized systems into desirable positions and secured; to deflect and prevent strong winds from directly entering chasm 432. Such a structural configuration drastically reduces and/or eliminates external wind turbulence. Chasms 432 may also be configured with bends, twists and turns to reduce wind speed. In this embodiment, structure 200 may be built in segments over time. An advantage of such a segmented construction lies in costs and economics. Farmers only need to build portions of the structure 200 as and when required. To start with, only segment (a) and (b) of the macro-habitat structure needs to be built together with the internal wall of still-well 510. Segment (a) may be used for establishing an initial breeding stock of swiftlets while segment (b) is kept empty. When the swiftlets population increases over time; and before segment (a) nears full capacity, segment (c) is built and readied before segment (b) is opened for occupation by swiftlets. Similarly other segments (d) to (h) are built as and when needed until the whole structure 200 completely surrounds the stilling well 510.
  • FIG. 8G illustrates a chimney like still-well 510 integrated into the swiftlets housing structure 200. The chimney like still-well 510 is located at one side of the building protected by wind shields 512 on both sides, and inter-connected with the tubular chasms 432 located in the middle of the structure by means of tunnels/or passage ways 79 a. FIG. 8H illustrates a method of utilizing a series of bends, twists and turns configured into the passage way 79 a located in the roof of housing structure 11, and/or 14 leading from access-way 12 a into the internal micro-habitat 17 a where swiftlets roosts. Speakers and tweeters 211 may be installed inside and outside the housing structure to broadcast bird calls making the atmosphere cozy and home-like. The above bends, twists and turns oriented horizontally or vertically, may also be used in combination with wind diversion chutes 79 x; mesh screen 513 and pressure activated louvers 514. Mesh screen 513 may be substituted with fixed louvers 514. Such an arrangement is designed to minimize entry of light; slow down external wind currents entering the habitat 17 a and to regulate air speed. The internal habitat 17 a environment should not have any strong/or turbulent air current. Shelter 11 or building 14 serves as the macro-habitat for breeding swiftlets; micro-habitat 17 a comprises rows of suitably configured roosting/nesting apparatus 196 affixed onto the ceiling structure 194; and apparatus 500 which may be directly affixed onto ceiling 194; including suitable temperature, humidity and darkness. High speed wind entering access way 12 a from the side marked “L” may be dissipated, dispersed and reduced drastically by means of an arrangement of diversion chutes 79 x, perforated screens 513 and wind louvers 514. Such that the little amount of wind entering habitat 17 a causes minimal turbulence for roosting swiftlets. Diversion chute 79 x located opposite access-way 12 a, lies directly in the path of incoming wind; diverts high speed wind by channeling it away from the bends, twists and turns that swiftlets enters; while perforated screen 513 at the entrance keeps swiftlets from entering diversion chute 79 x. High speed wind exiting from chute 79 x pushes against self-opening louvers 514. Without the pushing force from the wind, louvers 514 close back. This prevents wind blowing from the side marked “R” from entering access way 79 a, and thus does not affect swiftlets habitat 17 a. Wind vanes 118 mounted on the roof may be configured to provide signals for operating variable louvers 514; such that during windy conditions, the energy of high winds turning the wind vanes 118 may be converted into an electrical signal used to activate an electrical switch supplying power to adjust the angular variation of louvers 514.
  • FIG. 8I illustrates a sectional view while FIG. 8J illustrates a plan view of housing structure 200. FIG. 8I illustrates a structure 200 with a still well 510 in the middle incorporating a spherically shaped flight chamber 259 a and/or, a square shaped flight chamber 259 b for exiting swiftlets to circle around to orientate themselves. Swiftlets may circle to build up flight speed as they ascended, before finally shooting upwards vertically to exit the top of access way 12 a. Swiftlets may also exit from horizontal access-ways 12 b and tunnel passage-ways 79 a located at various heights of the structure. It also provides a large internal flight chamber for incoming swiftlets to slow down their speed, orientate themselves relative to the internal access ways leading to the roosting habitat 17; or, to perform mating dance, socializing, etc. Access ways 12 a and 12 b built on the sides of structure 200 provides a horizontal passage-way 79 a linking still well 510 to the external environment. Apart from regulating wind speed, still wells also reduce light from entering the structure; internal habitat darkness with a luminous factor of between 1 to 2 lux is preferred. In the wild, the natural propensity of cave swiftlets (and cave dwelling bats too) to circle around natural cave entrances demonstrates an inherent need for provision of such a facility within the habitat. A forced draught fan 515 powered by prime mover 409 may be used to create an upward draft of air current to provide artificial assistance to carry exiting swiftlets through the top access way 12 a. The top portion of still well 510 may be constricted to increase the speed of airflow passing through, carrying swiftlets exiting the habitat. Perforated screen 513 may be used to keep out birds from the fan 515. Fan 515 may also be mounted vertically at the bottom of chasm 432 facing skyward; together with the injection of fine jets of water droplets which is speedily vaporized by the forced draught. Air saturated with water vapor, being lighter than dry air, rises naturally. When water vaporizes from liquid form into vapor form, its volume increases exponentially by 1760 times. This uptake of a fixed volume of space in still well 510 plus its lighter specific gravity displaces and pushes out air outward and upward, creating a net natural outflow. Specific gravity of air=N2+O2=34 [79%]+16 [21%]=30; while the specific gravity of water H2O=1+1+16=18. This method of providing a forced draft as well as naturally induced draft is equivalent to the creation of an artificial thermal effect, just like a natural current of rising hot air. Such an artificial source of man-made aerial lift created using mechanical means and injected water vapor provides the equivalence of naturally rising thermals used by birds (including gliders bearing humans) to soar high up in the skies effortlessly. Insects may be injected into chamber 259 a for feeding swiftlets by means of pneumatic systems via pipes and carried upwards by the artificial thermals. The bottom of structure 200 may be excavated during construction such that the basement portion may be partially buried underground; increasing the roosting and production capacity of the farm.
  • FIG. 8K illustrates a variant form of the embodiment of FIG. 8I and FIG. 8J in which an artificial vertical chasm or crevasse-like valley 432 built in the middle of one side of the structure 200 leads to a still well 510 (vertical shaft) located in the centre of structure 200 with flight chambers 259 a. Such a structural configuration provides an access way for swiftlets entering and exiting the shelter 200. Chasm/or crevasse 432, functions like the tunnels of passage-way 79; but provides an extremely large empty flight space rising from the ground to the roof top, surrounded on three sides, hemmed in by; and kept within the steep vertical walls of shelter 200. A vertical wall 512 a may be erected some distance away from the huge gaping open access way 12 e to prevent wind from blowing directly into access way 12 e and crevasse 432. The top of crevasse 432 and flight chamber 259 a may be covered; or it may be left open just like the open top still well 510. Access-way 12 e illustrates a large rectangular passage way or opening; spanning from the ground level right up to the top of building 200 with a width of 2-3 meters.
  • In the open skies, swiftlets experiences and are used to the most severe air turbulence such as air current buffeting, thermals, vortices, vortexes, etc. that external atmospheric effects and weather conditions provides. But at rest in the shelters, nesting enclosure 17 and micro-habitat 17 a, 17 b, swiftlets inherently prefers slow moving and non-turbulent air flows. Suitable air flow patterns must be maintained in the nesting enclosures at all times. Extremely fast, and/or excessively turbulent air flows in the nesting enclosure may cause swiftlets to abandon their established roosts, seeking new habitats to colonize. Favorable air flow patterns suitably configured for breeding swiftlets shall be established in production facilities of present invention. Air flow patterns may be projected, anticipated, forecast and established in production facilities by means of studies and experiments, including live testing with large industrial fans in combination with 3-D computerized simulation. Besides regulating air flow within the swiftlets habitat, stilling wells 510 and 511 also controls/reduces the amount of light admitted into the internals of structure 100, 200, 356. The required amount of light is preferably regulated to a low luminous intensity of between 1 to 2 lux; though total darkness may provide a sense of security preferred by swiftlets in the natural cave environment. All such nesting structures of present application are specially designed solely for swifts and swiftlets to occupy. Such a structural configuration is not inhabitable for other terrestrial based humans and animals such as cats, dogs; birds such as chicken, ducks, poultry, fowls, etc. as there is no light and no significant level or horizontal portions to occupy.
  • In another embodiment of present invention, after cleaning, edible nests may be treated with a sulfite solution to remove bacteria and pathogens; in particular, Clostridium spp. Alternatively, nests may be treated with other disinfection systems to kill, inactivate, incapacitate and eliminate clostridium bacteria and their spores. One such method may comprise the use of an electrochemically produced mixed-oxidant solution for disinfection of hardy pathogens such as Clostridium spp. Quote: “The United States does not import raw nests because of the presence of a bacteria, clostridium. All nests destined for the North American market are washed in a sulfite solution and cleaned of impurities before export. (Source: The National Geographic January 1990, Nest Gatherers of Tiger Cave: Page 117)” Unquote.
  • After cleaning, treatment and processing, edible nests of swiftlets may be dried in an enclosed apparatus 152; or, a confined room using dry air in combination with a vacuuming compressor. Such a method creates a partial vacuum in the confined room which in combination with dried air, vaporizes water on the wet nests speedily. Introduction of vacuum shifted the equilibrium of relative humidity, partial pressure of water vapor and the vaporization rate of water in the confined space. The cycle may be repeated with the injection of dry air and vacuuming several times in a batch drying process. Alternatively, a continuous process may be used in which continuous removal of air at one end may be combined with controlled injection of dried air into the confined room at the other end. When the required water content (specification) is reached, the process is stopped and processed nests are removed from the room for packaging.
  • FIG. 8L illustrates the plain view while FIG. 8M illustrates the side view of the underground configuration of swiftlets shelter 200 in present invention in which safety and security features were incorporated right from the conceptual stage. All swiftlets shelters of present invention may be configured with such enhanced safety and security features to prevent illegal entry by poachers and nests robbers. To discourage nests robbers from tunneling into the shelters, the ground level cement flooring of the structures 100, 200, 356, etc. may be configured with large diameter metal bars and/or rods to construct a reinforced concrete base 516; resting on top of large pieces of loose rocks 101. This horizontal base may be surrounded by a vertical reinforced subterranean wall 517, which encircles the underground perimeter of the base of shelter 200. Breaking through the vertical wall 517 and horizontal base 516 requires the use of heavy duty pneumatic jack hammers and heavy caliber tools. The wall 517 may in turn be surrounded by an underground dyke 518 with a plastic bag 519 containing chemicals 520 comprising diluted acids, alkalis and irritating gases. The plastic bags 519 may be placed in the cavity formed between the vertical wall 517 and a thin retaining dyke wall 518; with the top portion covered by a sealed lid 522. Concrete floor 521 surrounds the shelter 200. The acids and alkalis may comprise hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, formic acid, sodium hydroxide, etc; while gases may comprise of sulfur-dioxide, chlorine, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, etc. at various concentration. The plastic bags used to contain the chemicals are very thin, fragile and easily broken; thus easily releasing its content to repulse any intruders—irritate, itch, burn, choke, suffocate, knock out, incapacitate them to a certain degree. At the same time, released gases are easily detected by smell (human nose) and gas detectors installed in the vicinity which activates security alarms; to warn farm security guards of such underground security breaches. The dyke may also be configured to contain water and/or, linked to a large volume of water stored above ground level. Released fluids may then rush in to inundate the tunnels, flooding them; flushing out the tunneling intruders. If intruders evade and overcome the defenses of the subterranean wall 517 and continued tunneling upwards from beneath the floor 516, large pieces of rocks 101 will fall down into the tunnels to crash them. When the rocks dropped, fine strands of trip-wires are broken, activating alarms and sirens. As the reinforced concrete structures of floor 516 and wall 517 requires the use of heavy machineries to break; vibration sensors may be installed and seismic fluctuations monitored by the control centre. The bottom portion of wall 191 may also be reinforced with heavy duty concrete; while the wall itself may comprise of dual layers 191 with a thick layer (1 to 3 feet width) of earth 523 in between for insulation.
  • FIG. 8N illustrates an insects 525 breeding apparatus 530 comprising of an enclosed habitat provided by a plywood box 526 with vertically disposed climbing surface provided by sheets of plastics or old discarded newspapers 527 hanging down from a rack 528 located at the upper portion of apparatus 530. Insects comprising crickets and/or cockroaches may be bred in such an apparatus. The vertically disposed resting surface 527 may comprise fixed sheets of plywood, plastics, metal sheets, etc. Alternatively, a vertically inclined structural configuration of the breeding substrate 527 may be used. The top-most portion of the enclosure may be covered by a fine mesh netting 529 held in place by a light wooden frame 531 to keep the insects inside. The frame 531 may be configured to form a pair of doors which are opened by lifting the outer ends upwards. Feed materials 532 may be placed inside the feeding trays 533 and water topped up in water dispenser 534. Trays 533 a containing sand or loose earth 535 may be placed at the bottom of apparatus 530 for female crickets 521 to lay their eggs. Seeded trays 533 a may be removed periodically via trap doors 536 at the bottom portion to a separate incubator for hatching. Insects of appropriate size may be removed from the breeding apparatus 530 for feeding swiftlets by means of air blown harvesting. Apparatus 530 may be used to breed insects such as cockroaches, crickets, etc. The structural configuration comprising vertically disposed climbing surfaces 527; and/or vertically inclined breeding substrate 527 used in apparatus 530 may also be cross-applied for use in insects breeding apparatus 263, 265, and in containerized transportation apparatus 290 as disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 11/949,695; 12/630,309.
  • In their natural habitat and the wild environment, humans may be the worst enemies of edible nest swiftlets 61. In the mutually beneficial symbiotic farmed environment of present invention, mankind may well be the saviour of edible nest swiftlets; their greatest benefactor cum beneficiary. Given private ownership of a resource, man-kind may be turned from destructive exploitation, from being the destroyer, the bane of edible nest swiftlets very survival; into champions of wildlife conservation and protectors of swiftlets! Edible bird's nests are derived from cave swiftlets of the genus Aerodramus; Collocalia; and Apus. In particular the species comprising: A. unicolor, A. fuciphagus, A. maximus, A. germani; C. unicolor, C. fuciphaga, C. maxima, C. germani, C. esculenta, C. linchi; Apus pacificus.
  • Features of present invention not only provides a conducive environment for full filling and meeting the habitat requirements of swiftlets; but far exceeded any naturally existing conditions for wild breeding swiftlets. The structures and apparatus disclosed herein are specially and specifically configured for this single purpose—to breed swiftlets for their edible nests. All features and individual components, apparatus, techniques, systems and methods as disclosed in present invention may be cross applied, used in combination and integrated with each other for breeding of edible nest swiftlets 61 to produce edible bird's nests 62 for human consumption; including all related prior art disclosures of the parent applications, child applications, continuation-in-part applications, continuation applications and divisional applications. Finally, it is to be understood that various alterations, modifications and/or additions may be introduced into the constructions and arrangements of parts previously described without departing from the spirit or ambit of the invention.

Claims (1)

We claim:
1. A method of collecting swiftlets edible nests from within an artificial roosting structure comprising the steps of:
positioning a mounting beam having a first end and a second end within the roosting structure, the mounting beam positioned at an incline from a first wall of the roosting structure to a second opposite wall of the roosting structure;
slidably engaging a chair to the mounting beam;
providing a motorized propulsion system to propel the chair along the mounting beam;
providing a safety system to protect against falls from the chair; and
causing slidable movement of the chair by the motorized propulsion system between the first end and the second end to collect the swiftlets edible nests from the chair via a harvesting pole.
US15/973,850 2006-12-01 2018-05-08 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests Pending US20180325084A1 (en)

Priority Applications (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SG200608249-9A SG136025A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2006-12-01 Swiftlets farming for production of edible birdæs nests
SGSG200608249-9 2006-12-01
SG200718112-6A SG152946A1 (en) 2007-11-23 2007-11-23 Swiftlets farming for production of edible birdæs nests
SGSG200718112-6 2007-11-23
US11/949,695 US8210126B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2007-12-03 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US13/218,197 US20120048205A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2011-08-25 Swiftlets Farming For Production of Edible Bird's Nests
US14/328,285 US20140318468A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-07-10 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US15/973,850 US20180325084A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2018-05-08 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US15/973,850 US20180325084A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2018-05-08 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/328,285 Continuation US20140318468A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-07-10 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20180325084A1 true US20180325084A1 (en) 2018-11-15

Family

ID=39666516

Family Applications (10)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/949,695 Expired - Fee Related US8210126B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2007-12-03 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US12/630,309 Expired - Fee Related US8205577B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2009-12-03 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US13/218,197 Abandoned US20120048205A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2011-08-25 Swiftlets Farming For Production of Edible Bird's Nests
US13/526,929 Active US8651061B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2012-06-19 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/179,985 Expired - Fee Related US9066501B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-02-13 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/328,285 Abandoned US20140318468A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-07-10 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/755,493 Active US9839201B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2015-06-30 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US15/838,555 Active US10080350B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2017-12-12 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US15/973,850 Pending US20180325084A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2018-05-08 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US16/140,975 Abandoned US20190090460A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2018-09-25 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Family Applications Before (8)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/949,695 Expired - Fee Related US8210126B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2007-12-03 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US12/630,309 Expired - Fee Related US8205577B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2009-12-03 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US13/218,197 Abandoned US20120048205A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2011-08-25 Swiftlets Farming For Production of Edible Bird's Nests
US13/526,929 Active US8651061B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2012-06-19 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/179,985 Expired - Fee Related US9066501B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-02-13 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/328,285 Abandoned US20140318468A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2014-07-10 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US14/755,493 Active US9839201B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2015-06-30 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
US15/838,555 Active US10080350B2 (en) 2006-12-01 2017-12-12 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US16/140,975 Abandoned US20190090460A1 (en) 2006-12-01 2018-09-25 Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (10) US8210126B2 (en)
MY (1) MY167009A (en)

Families Citing this family (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101035455A (en) * 2005-07-26 2007-09-12 三菱电机株式会社 Hand dryer
SG135977A1 (en) * 2006-03-13 2007-10-29 Sia Yik Hei Swiftlets farming for production of edible birdæs nests
US7748137B2 (en) * 2007-07-15 2010-07-06 Yin Wang Wood-drying solar greenhouse
KR101308510B1 (en) * 2007-11-05 2013-09-12 동부대우전자 주식회사 Dryer having indrawn tube with heater
KR101256145B1 (en) * 2007-11-05 2013-04-23 동부대우전자 주식회사 Dryer having indrawn tube with heater
US20110174222A1 (en) * 2008-07-01 2011-07-21 Sang Hoon Lee Method for rearing soldier flies
PL2391202T3 (en) * 2009-02-02 2019-06-28 Priva Bv Control system for the climate in a spatial environment for organisms, spatial environment adapted thereto, control system and program therefor
US9497938B1 (en) * 2009-03-19 2016-11-22 Julie A. Bodette Receptacle for nesting material
GB2476510A (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-29 John Quentin Phillipps Feeding aerial insectivores
US9069362B2 (en) * 2010-02-12 2015-06-30 Kevin S. WEEDEN System and method for cooling and promoting physical activity of poultry
WO2011116251A1 (en) 2010-03-17 2011-09-22 Once Innovations, Inc. Light sources adapted to spectral sensitivity of diurnal avians and humans
US9482397B2 (en) * 2010-03-17 2016-11-01 Once Innovations, Inc. Light sources adapted to spectral sensitivity of diurnal avians and humans
WO2012103094A1 (en) * 2011-01-24 2012-08-02 Once Innovations Inc. Differential illumination to select egg laying sites
WO2014025324A1 (en) * 2012-08-10 2014-02-13 Charoenthitiwong Boonying A set precast of construction
US8874283B1 (en) 2012-12-04 2014-10-28 United Dynamics Advanced Technologies Corporation Drone for inspection of enclosed space and method thereof
US9931573B2 (en) 2013-02-11 2018-04-03 University Of Southern California Optimal patrol strategy for protecting moving targets with multiple mobile resources
US20140279818A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 University Of Southern California Game theory model for patrolling an area that accounts for dynamic uncertainty
EP2789786B1 (en) * 2013-04-10 2016-02-10 Iveco Magirus Ag Aerial system, in particular turntable ladder system
CN103310250A (en) * 2013-05-12 2013-09-18 安徽工程大学 RFID-based (radio frequency identification-based) animal migration process positioning and alarm system
AU2013206348B2 (en) * 2013-06-15 2017-09-07 John Goedemans Improvements in the manufacture of perfume stones
WO2015017655A1 (en) 2013-08-02 2015-02-05 Once Innovations, Inc. System and method of illuminating livestock
US10779513B2 (en) * 2013-11-04 2020-09-22 Rose Acre Farms, Inc. Aviary building construction system and method
US10375935B2 (en) 2013-11-04 2019-08-13 Rose Acre Farms, Inc. Aviary walkway and ventilation system and method of circulating air in an aviary
US10206378B2 (en) 2014-01-07 2019-02-19 Once Innovations, Inc. System and method of enhancing swine reproduction
USD767215S1 (en) * 2014-01-17 2016-09-20 Marc J. Lalonde Portable chicken coop
US20150300673A1 (en) * 2014-04-22 2015-10-22 NCB Autohaus Incorporated Humidifier control system
CN105265322A (en) * 2014-05-29 2016-01-27 茅虞 Temperature and humidity regulation system used for livestock farming
ES2684049T3 (en) * 2014-06-30 2018-10-01 Alessandro PALLADINO Fire wall cladding system
CN105052755B (en) * 2015-08-25 2017-05-31 长沙生态动物园 A kind of Combined multifunctional for animals is dwelt platform
US20170112705A1 (en) * 2015-10-21 2017-04-27 Rehabilitation Institute Of Chicago Staircase Gait System and Methods
US10280613B2 (en) * 2016-03-23 2019-05-07 Southern Ag Builders & Supply, Llc Insulation system and method for buildings
US9672967B1 (en) * 2016-03-23 2017-06-06 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Electromagnetic cart lock
WO2017172869A1 (en) 2016-03-29 2017-10-05 Zdenko Grajcar System and method of illuminating livestock
CN106234300B (en) * 2016-07-28 2019-04-16 海南大洲金丝燕生态农业开发有限公司 A kind of feeding method of esculent swift nestling
CN106212322A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-14 西双版纳傣金湾农业科技有限公司 A kind of lion-headed goose cultivation device for feeding controlled based on PLC and the manufacture method of lion-headed goose feedstuff
US10736348B2 (en) * 2017-01-03 2020-08-11 Chee Hong Moh Three dimensional printing of biotic material originated from swiftlet edible bird nest
WO2018208558A1 (en) 2017-05-11 2018-11-15 Ecolab Usa Inc. Compositions and method for floor cleaning or restoration
US10897878B2 (en) * 2017-10-15 2021-01-26 Thomas Boehm Systems, devices, and/or methods for monitoring birds
CN108056042B (en) * 2017-12-21 2020-09-25 淮阴工学院 Sharing intelligent artificial bird nest system
RU2689692C9 (en) * 2018-03-27 2019-07-24 Акционерное общество "Уральский электромеханический завод"(АО "УЭМЗ") Laboratory actographic bench for chronobiological and chronopharmacological studies on animals
CN108873846A (en) * 2018-07-12 2018-11-23 淄博正邦知识产权企划有限公司 A kind of livestock-raising Internet of Things network control system
CN109006685A (en) * 2018-08-18 2018-12-18 盐津吉瑞农业有限责任公司 A kind of black-bone chicken cultural method improving chicken delicious degree
CN109169382A (en) * 2018-10-08 2019-01-11 吕桂英 A kind of raising shed of the livestock breed aquatics convenient for adjusting
WO2020263085A1 (en) * 2019-06-24 2020-12-30 Protix B.V. Feeder arrangement
CN111472807B (en) * 2020-04-08 2020-12-22 北京科技大学 Tunnel or tunnel surrounding rock shielding and protecting structure and method

Family Cites Families (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1083318A (en) * 1913-05-13 1914-01-06 Charles A R Campbell Bat-roost.
US1823584A (en) * 1930-11-12 1931-09-15 Barker Poultry Equipment Compa Brooder ventilation structure
US2881733A (en) * 1953-08-31 1959-04-14 Jr George A Young Brooder for quadrupeds
US3530831A (en) * 1968-10-17 1970-09-29 William J Conover Method of and cleaning apparatus for farm animal feeding house
US3939802A (en) * 1971-12-30 1976-02-24 Neff Gregor N Insect feeding
US3867903A (en) * 1973-09-11 1975-02-25 Roger L Fleshman Egg layer system
US4116137A (en) * 1977-05-25 1978-09-26 Henry Westerhoven Planter for trees, herbs, shrubs and similar plants
US4235196A (en) * 1979-01-26 1980-11-25 Moliterni Samuel S Bird feeder, cage and bag assembly
US4736574A (en) * 1985-05-23 1988-04-12 Walker David L Harvesting aid
US4924810A (en) * 1989-07-06 1990-05-15 Kabushiki Kaisha Tominaga Jyushi Kogyosho Insect keeping and observing container
NL9300609A (en) * 1992-04-10 1993-11-01 Gye Sung Wi Agricultural system for cultivating crops.
US5437146A (en) * 1993-09-15 1995-08-01 Erickson; Merritt C. Fruit stripping rakes
US6029607A (en) * 1998-03-11 2000-02-29 Smigelski; Timothy E. Bird arbor
US6095089A (en) * 1998-05-13 2000-08-01 Finn; Joseph Multiple nesting structure for cliff swallows
US6311642B1 (en) * 1999-04-29 2001-11-06 Joseph Finn Nesting structure for earth-burrowing birds
NL1014338C2 (en) * 2000-02-10 2001-08-13 Valstar W P S B V Method and device for harvesting agricultural products, in particular fruits.
US6530344B2 (en) * 2000-05-11 2003-03-11 Joseph Finn Nesting structure for northern rough-winged swallows
US6591593B1 (en) * 2000-10-23 2003-07-15 Dennis Brandon Electric riding lawn mower powered by an internal combustion engine and generator system
US6938577B2 (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-09-06 Ctb Ip, Inc System for moving feeders and/or drinkers within a livestock house
US7174847B1 (en) * 2003-05-28 2007-02-13 Hulteen Iii William A Insect habitat and feeder
SG135977A1 (en) * 2006-03-13 2007-10-29 Sia Yik Hei Swiftlets farming for production of edible birdæs nests
US10674714B2 (en) * 2014-03-24 2020-06-09 Ronald J. Kendall Wild bird treatment system and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US9839201B2 (en) 2017-12-12
US10080350B2 (en) 2018-09-25
US20150296749A1 (en) 2015-10-22
US8210126B2 (en) 2012-07-03
US20190090460A1 (en) 2019-03-28
US20140230744A1 (en) 2014-08-21
US8651061B2 (en) 2014-02-18
US8205577B2 (en) 2012-06-26
MY167009A (en) 2018-07-31
US20120255501A1 (en) 2012-10-11
US20120048205A1 (en) 2012-03-01
US20080178819A1 (en) 2008-07-31
US20100139572A1 (en) 2010-06-10
US9066501B2 (en) 2015-06-30
US20140318468A1 (en) 2014-10-30
US20180098527A1 (en) 2018-04-12

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Heaney District and Circle: Poems
Gould et al. Animal architects: building and the evolution of intelligence
Lumholtz Among cannibals: an account of four years' travels in Australia and of camp life with the Aborigines of Queensland
Crisler Arctic wild
Brassey A Voyage in the'Sunbeam', Our Home on the Ocean for Eleven Months
Watkins et al. Crystals
Jones et al. Capturing mammals
Angas Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand: Being an Artist's Impressions of Countries and People at the Antipodes
Hansell Built by animals: the natural history of animal architecture
US7921601B2 (en) Water amusement system with trees
US20190090460A1 (en) Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
MacGillivray Notes on some north Queensland birds
US8550034B2 (en) Poultry coop
CN104770326B (en) locust breeding new model and technology
DeGraaf Managing cavity trees for wildlife in the Northeast
Mills The adventures of a nature guide
Muir The Wilderness Essays
Russell Explorations in the far north
Damerow Guide to Raising Chickens
Snow Lek behaviour and breeding of Guy's Hermit Hummingbird Phaethornis guy
Atkinson Oriental and Western Siberia: a narrative of seven years' explorations and adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the Kirghis Steppes, Chinese Tartary, and part of Central Asia
Calvert et al. A year of Costa Rican natural history
US8082884B2 (en) Swiftlets farming for production of edible bird's nests
Brown Canoe and camp life in British Guiana
Markham Cuzco and Lima

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: DOCKETED NEW CASE - READY FOR EXAMINATION

STPP Information on status: patent application and granting procedure in general

Free format text: EX PARTE QUAYLE ACTION MAILED