US20180284246A1 - Using Acoustic Signals to Modify Operation of a Lidar System - Google Patents

Using Acoustic Signals to Modify Operation of a Lidar System Download PDF

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US20180284246A1
US20180284246A1 US15/840,993 US201715840993A US2018284246A1 US 20180284246 A1 US20180284246 A1 US 20180284246A1 US 201715840993 A US201715840993 A US 201715840993A US 2018284246 A1 US2018284246 A1 US 2018284246A1
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lidar system
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US15/840,993
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Joseph G. LaChapelle
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Luminar Technologies Inc
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Luminar Technologies Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • G01S17/08Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/023Combination of lidar systems, with systems other than lidar, radar or sonar, e.g. with direction finder
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/02Systems using the reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S17/06Systems determining position data of a target
    • G01S17/08Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only
    • G01S17/10Systems determining position data of a target for measuring distance only using transmission of interrupted pulse-modulated waves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/89Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4817Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements relating to scanning
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/483Details of pulse systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/497Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/14Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation
    • H01L27/144Devices controlled by radiation
    • H01L27/146Imager structures
    • H01L27/14643Photodiode arrays; MOS imagers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/87Combinations of systems using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/88Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S17/93Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for anti-collision purposes
    • G01S17/936Lidar systems specially adapted for specific applications for anti-collision purposes between land vehicles; between land vehicles and fixed obstacles
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/18Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves
    • G01S5/22Position of source determined by co-ordinating a plurality of position lines defined by path-difference measurements

Abstract

A system includes an acoustic source localization system configured to detect an acoustic signal and determine its location relative to the system. The system also includes a lidar system and a controller. The lidar system includes a light source to emit pulses of light, a scanner to scan a field of regard of the lidar system according to a scan pattern, and a detector to detect light from some of the light pulses scattered by remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard. The controller configured to receive, from the acoustic source localization system, an indication of the determined location, identify a region of interest within the field of regard that includes the determined location of the source, and cause the lidar system to obtain more data within the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to provisional U.S. Application Ser. No. 62/480,349, filed on Mar. 31, 2017, entitled “Improving Operation of a Lidar System,” the entire disclosure of which is hereby expressly incorporated by reference herein.
  • FIELD OF TECHNOLOGY
  • This disclosure generally relates to lidar systems and, more particularly, improving operation of such a system using acoustic signals.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The background description provided herein is for the purpose of generally presenting the context of the disclosure. Work of the presently named inventors, to the extent it is described in this background section, as well as aspects of the description that may not otherwise qualify as prior art at the time of filing, are neither expressly nor impliedly admitted as prior art against the present disclosure.
  • Light detection and ranging (lidar) is a technology that can be used to measure distances to remote targets. Typically, a lidar system includes a light source and an optical receiver. The light source can be, for example, a laser which emits light having a particular operating wavelength. The operating wavelength of a lidar system may lie, for example, in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The light source emits light toward a target which then scatters the light. Some of the scattered light is received back at the receiver. The system determines the distance to the target based on one or more characteristics associated with the returned light. For example, the system may determine the distance to the target based on the time of flight of a returned pulse of light.
  • SUMMARY
  • Generally speaking, a lidar system of this disclosure identifies a region of interest within its field of regard in view of an acoustic signal whose source is positioned relative to the lidar system using acoustic source localization techniques. When operating in an autonomous vehicle, the lidar system can collect more data for the region of interest when, for example, the sound of a police siren appears to come from a certain location within the region of interest.
  • One example embodiment of the techniques of this disclosure is a system comprising an acoustic source localization system, a lidar system, and a controller communicatively coupled to the acoustic source localization system and the lidar system. The acoustic source localization system is configured to detect an acoustic signal and determine a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the system. The lidar system a light source configured to emit pulses of light, a scanner configured to scan a field of regard of the lidar system according to a scan pattern, and a detector configured to detect light from some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard. The controller is configured to (i) receive, from the acoustic source localization system, an indication of the determined location, (ii) identify a region of interest within the field of regard of the lidar system, the region of interest including the determined location of the source of the acoustic signal, and (iii) cause the lidar system to obtain more data within the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard.
  • Another example embodiment of the techniques of this disclosure is a method for scanning a field of regard of a lidar system. The method includes emitting light pulses by a light source in the lidar system; scanning, by a scanner in the lidar system, the field of regard of the lidar system in accordance with a certain scan pattern, including directing the light pulses toward different points within the field of regard to illuminate a field of view of the light source; receiving an acoustic signal; determining a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the lidar system; identifying a region of interest within the field of regard based at least in part on the determined location of the source of the sound; modifying at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data within the identified region of interest, relative to other regions within the field of regard; and detecting light from at least some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard.
  • Yet another example embodiment of the techniques of this disclosure is an autonomous vehicle comprising one or more components configured to maneuver the autonomous vehicle, an acoustic source localization system configured to detect an acoustic signal and determine a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the autonomous vehicle, a lidar system, and a controller communicatively coupled to the one or more components configured to maneuver the autonomous vehicle, the acoustic source localization system, and the lidar system. The lidar system includes a light source configured to emit pulses of light, a scanner configured to scan a field of regard of the lidar system according to a scan pattern, a detector configured to detect light from some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard. The controller is configured to (i) receive, from the acoustic source localization system, an indication of the determined location, (ii) identify a region of interest within the field of regard of the lidar system, the region of interest including the determined location of the source of the acoustic signal, (iii) cause the lidar system to obtain more data within the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard, and (iv) maneuver the autonomous vehicle based at least in part on the point cloud generated by the lidar system.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example light detection and ranging (lidar) system in which the techniques of this disclosure can be implemented;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates in more detail several components that can operate in the system of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates an example configuration in which the components of FIG. 1 scan a 360-degree field of regard through a window in a rotating housing;
  • FIG. 4 illustrates another configuration in which the components of FIG. 1 scan a 360-degree field of regard through a substantially transparent stationary housing;
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an example scan pattern which the lidar system of FIG. 1 can produce when identifying targets within a field of regard;
  • FIG. 6 illustrates an example scan pattern which the lidar system of FIG. 1 can produce when identifying targets within a field of regard using multiple beams;
  • FIG. 7 schematically illustrates fields of view (FOVs) of a light source and a detector that can operate in the lidar system of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 8 illustrates an example configuration of the lidar system of FIG. 1 or another suitable lidar system, in which a laser is disposed away from sensor components;
  • FIG. 9 illustrates an example vehicle in which the lidar system of FIG. 1 can operate;
  • FIG. 10 illustrates an example InGaAs avalanche photodiode which can operate in the lidar system of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 11 illustrates an example photodiode coupled to a pulse-detection circuit, which can operate in the lidar system of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 12 is a block diagram of an example computing system for generating control signals for a lidar system based on acoustic signals, which may be used with the lidar system of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 13 illustrates an example region of interest within a field of regard of a lidar system, which the computing system of FIG. 12 can select for a certain acoustic signature detected within an acoustic signal;
  • FIG. 14 illustrates another example region of interest moving across a field of regard of a lidar system, which the computing system of FIG. 12 can select for another acoustic signature detected within an acoustic signal; and
  • FIG. 15 is a flow diagram of an example method for modifying operation of a lidar system in view of acoustic signals, which can be implemented in the computing system of FIG. 12, for example.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION Overview
  • A lidar system of this disclosure is equipped with an acoustic source localization system, or communicates with an acoustic source localization system operating independently of the lidar system in an autonomous vehicle, for example. The acoustic source localization system can include a microphone array and a processing module to estimate locations of currently active sources of acoustic signals and, in some cases, distances to these sources. The acoustic source localization system can be mounted on the roof of the vehicle or built into the frame of the vehicle, for example.
  • In operation, the acoustic source localization system detects an acoustic signal including amplitudes exceeding a certain threshold and provides an estimate of a location of the source of this acoustic signal to a controller. Depending on the implementation, the controller can be responsible for controlling a lidar system only, controlling a perception system including the lidar system, or maneuvering an autonomous vehicle, for example. The acoustic source localization system in some cases may further analyze the acoustic signal and provide a representation of the acoustic signal to the controller in any suitable format (e.g., as a time-domain description or a frequency-domain description). Using the information received from the acoustic source localization system, the controller can identify a region of interest within the field of regard of the lidar system. The lidar system then may modify, for a certain period of time, one or more operational parameters to obtain more data and/or increase the quality of the obtained data for the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard. These operational parameters can include pulse rate, scan rate, scan pattern, etc. Of course, the lidar system need not select regions of interest based solely on indications related to sources of acoustic signals, and in general can select regions of interest in view of any suitable number of signals.
  • The controller in some implementations analyzes the detected acoustic signal and determines a likely type of a source of the acoustic signal based on a set of pre-stored acoustic “signatures” such as a police siren, another emergency vehicle siren, the screeching of brakes, the screeching of tires, the sound of collision, the sound of a car horn, etc. The lidar system may modify the one or more operational parameters further in view of the determined type of the source of the acoustic signals. For example, the controller may determine that for a certain type of a source, the zone of interest is likely to move relative to the field of regard, and that the lidar system should follow the sound for some time.
  • In an example scenario, an autonomous vehicle equipped with a lidar system of this disclosure and an acoustic source localization system approaches an intersection, just as a police car with an activated siren approaches the same intersection from the left. The acoustic source localization system detects an acoustic signal with an amplitude above the threshold value (e.g., 90 decibel) and determines an approximate direction from which the acoustic signal arrived, along with an approximate distance to the source of this acoustic signal. A controller operating in the autonomous vehicle compares the acoustic signal to a set of pre-stored acoustic signatures and determines that the acoustic signal includes the sound of a police siren. The controller retrieves a record from a local database indicating that the lidar system should double the information density for a region of interest that spans ten degrees along the horizontal dimension, centered at the current location of the signal source relative to the autonomous vehicle, and that the lidar system should do so for a period of ten milliseconds. The controller then provides signals to the lidar system specifying the dimensions of the region of interest, the increase in information density (in this case, double) relative to other regions within the field of regard, and the duration of the period during which the information density should be increased.
  • An example lidar system in which these techniques can be implemented is considered next with reference to FIGS. 1-4, followed by a discussion of the techniques which the lidar system can implement to scan a field of regard and generate individual pixels (FIGS. 5-7). An example implementation in a vehicle is then discussed with reference to FIGS. 8 and 9. Then, an example photo detector and an example pulse-detection circuit are discussed with reference to FIGS. 10 and 11. Example techniques for scanning a field of a regard of a lidar system in view of acoustic signals are discussed with reference to FIGS. 12-15
  • System Overview
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an example light detection and ranging (lidar) system 100. The lidar system 100 may be referred to as a laser ranging system, a laser radar system, a LIDAR system, a lidar sensor, or a laser detection and ranging (LADAR or ladar) system. The lidar system 100 may include a light source 110, a mirror 115, a scanner 120, a receiver 140, and a controller 150. The light source 110 may be, for example, a laser which emits light having a particular operating wavelength in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. As a more specific example, the light source 110 may include a laser with an operating wavelength between approximately 1.2 μm and 1.7 μm.
  • In operation, the light source 110 emits an output beam of light 125 which may be continuous-wave, pulsed, or modulated in any suitable manner for a given application. The output beam of light 125 is directed downrange toward a remote target 130 located a distance D from the lidar system 100 and at least partially contained within a field of regard of the system 100. Depending on the scenario and/or the implementation of the lidar system 100, D can be between 1 m and 1 km, for example.
  • Once the output beam 125 reaches the downrange target 130, the target 130 may scatter or, in some cases, reflect at least a portion of light from the output beam 125, and some of the scattered or reflected light may return toward the lidar system 100. In the example of FIG. 1, the scattered or reflected light is represented by input beam 135, which passes through the scanner 120, which may be referred to as a beam scanner, optical scanner, or laser scanner. The input beam 135 passes through the scanner 120 to the mirror 115, which may be referred to as an overlap mirror, superposition mirror, or beam-combiner mirror. The mirror 115 in turn directs the input beam 135 to the receiver 140. The input 135 may contain only a relatively small fraction of the light from the output beam 125. For example, the ratio of average power, peak power, or pulse energy of the input beam 135 to average power, peak power, or pulse energy of the output beam 125 may be approximately 10−1, 10−2, 10−3, 10−4, 10−5, 10−6, 10−7, 10−8, 10−9, 10−10, 10−11, or 10−12. As another example, if a pulse of the output beam 125 has a pulse energy of 1 microjoule (μJ), then the pulse energy of a corresponding pulse of the input beam 135 may have a pulse energy of approximately 10 nanojoules (nJ), 1 nJ, 100 picojoules (pJ), 10 pJ, 1 pJ, 100 femtojoules (fJ), 10 fJ, 1 fJ, 100 attojoules (aJ), 10 aJ, or 1 aJ.
  • The output beam 125 may be referred to as a laser beam, light beam, optical beam, emitted beam, or just beam; and the input beam 135 may be referred to as a return beam, received beam, return light, received light, input light, scattered light, or reflected light. As used herein, scattered light may refer to light that is scattered or reflected by the target 130. The input beam 135 may include light from the output beam 125 that is scattered by the target 130, light from the output beam 125 that is reflected by the target 130, or a combination of scattered and reflected light from target 130.
  • The operating wavelength of a lidar system 100 may lie, for example, in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Sun also produces light in these wavelength ranges, and thus sunlight can act as background noise which can obscure signal light detected by the lidar system 100. This solar background noise can result in false-positive detections or can otherwise corrupt measurements of the lidar system 100, especially when the receiver 140 includes SPAD detectors (which can be highly sensitive).
  • Generally speaking, the light from the Sun that passes through the Earth's atmosphere and reaches a terrestrial-based lidar system such as the system 100 can establish an optical background noise floor for this system. Thus, in order for a signal from the lidar system 100 to be detectable, the signal must rise above the background noise floor. It is generally possible to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the lidar system 100 by raising the power level of the output beam 125, but in some situations it may be desirable to keep the power level of the output beam 125 relatively low. For example, increasing transmit power levels of the output beam 125 can result in the lidar system 100 not being eye-safe.
  • In some implementations, the lidar system 100 operates at one or more wavelengths between approximately 1400 nm and approximately 1600 nm. For example, the light source 110 may produce light at approximately 1550 nm.
  • In some implementations, the lidar system 100 operates at frequencies at which atmospheric absorption is relatively low. For example, the lidar system 100 can operate at wavelengths in the approximate ranges from 980 nm to 1110 nm or from 1165 nm to 1400 nm.
  • In other implementations, the lidar system 100 operates at frequencies at which atmospheric absorption is high. For example, the lidar system 100 can operate at wavelengths in the approximate ranges from 930 nm to 980 nm, from 1100 nm to 1165 nm, or from 1400 nm to 1460 nm.
  • According to some implementations, the lidar system 100 can include an eye-safe laser, or the lidar system 100 can be classified as an eye-safe laser system or laser product. An eye-safe laser, laser system, or laser product may refer to a system with an emission wavelength, average power, peak power, peak intensity, pulse energy, beam size, beam divergence, exposure time, or scanned output beam such that emitted light from the system presents little or no possibility of causing damage to a person's eyes. For example, the light source 110 or lidar system 100 may be classified as a Class 1 laser product (as specified by the 60825-1 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)) or a Class I laser product (as specified by Title 21, Section 1040.10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)) that is safe under all conditions of normal use. In some implementations, the lidar system 100 may be classified as an eye-safe laser product (e.g., with a Class 1 or Class I classification) configured to operate at any suitable wavelength between approximately 1400 nm and approximately 2100 nm. In some implementations, the light source 110 may include a laser with an operating wavelength between approximately 1400 nm and approximately 1600 nm, and the lidar system 100 may be operated in an eye-safe manner. In some implementations, the light source 110 or the lidar system 100 may be an eye-safe laser product that includes a scanned laser with an operating wavelength between approximately 1530 nm and approximately 1560 nm. In some implementations, the lidar system 100 may be a Class 1 or Class I laser product that includes a fiber laser or solid-state laser with an operating wavelength between approximately 1400 nm and approximately 1600 nm.
  • The receiver 140 may receive or detect photons from the input beam 135 and generate one or more representative signals. For example, the receiver 140 may generate an output electrical signal 145 that is representative of the input beam 135. The receiver may send the electrical signal 145 to the controller 150. Depending on the implementation, the controller 150 may include one or more processors, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and/or other suitable circuitry configured to analyze one or more characteristics of the electrical signal 145 to determine one or more characteristics of the target 130, such as its distance downrange from the lidar system 100. More particularly, the controller 150 may analyze the time of flight or phase modulation for the beam of light 125 transmitted by the light source 110. If the lidar system 100 measures a time of flight of T (e.g., T represents a round-trip time of flight for an emitted pulse of light to travel from the lidar system 100 to the target 130 and back to the lidar system 100), then the distance D from the target 130 to the lidar system 100 may be expressed as D=c·T/2, where c is the speed of light (approximately 3.0×108 m/s).
  • As a more specific example, if the lidar system 100 measures the time of flight to be T=300 ns, then the lidar system 100 can determine the distance from the target 130 to the lidar system 100 to be approximately D=45.0 m. As another example, the lidar system 100 measures the time of flight to be T=1.33 μs and accordingly determines that the distance from the target 130 to the lidar system 100 is approximately D=199.5 m. The distance D from lidar system 100 to the target 130 may be referred to as a distance, depth, or range of the target 130. As used herein, the speed of light c refers to the speed of light in any suitable medium, such as for example in air, water, or vacuum. The speed of light in vacuum is approximately 2.9979×108 m/s, and the speed of light in air (which has a refractive index of approximately 1.0003) is approximately 2.9970×108 m/s.
  • The target 130 may be located a distance D from the lidar system 100 that is less than or equal to a maximum range RMAX of the lidar system 100. The maximum range RMAX (which also may be referred to as a maximum distance) of a lidar system 100 may correspond to the maximum distance over which the lidar system 100 is configured to sense or identify targets that appear in a field of regard of the lidar system 100. The maximum range of lidar system 100 may be any suitable distance, such as for example, 25 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 500 m, or 1 km. As a specific example, a lidar system with a 200-m maximum range may be configured to sense or identify various targets located up to 200 m away. For a lidar system with a 200-m maximum range (RMAX=200 m), the time of flight corresponding to the maximum range is approximately 2·RMAX/c≅1.33 μs.
  • In some implementations, the light source 110, the scanner 120, and the receiver 140 may be packaged together within a single housing 155, which may be a box, case, or enclosure that holds or contains all or part of a lidar system 100. The housing 155 includes a window 157 through which the beams 125 and 135 pass. In one example implementation, the lidar-system housing 155 contains the light source 110, the overlap mirror 115, the scanner 120, and the receiver 140 of a lidar system 100. The controller 150 may reside within the same housing 155 as the components 110, 120, and 140, or the controller 150 may reside remotely from the housing.
  • Moreover, in some implementations, the housing 155 includes multiple lidar sensors, each including a respective scanner and a receiver. Depending on the particular implementation, each of the multiple sensors can include a separate light source or a common light source. The multiple sensors can be configured to cover non-overlapping adjacent fields of regard or partially overlapping fields of regard, depending on the implementation.
  • The housing 155 may be an airtight or watertight structure that prevents water vapor, liquid water, dirt, dust, or other contaminants from getting inside the housing 155. The housing 155 may be filled with a dry or inert gas, such as for example dry air, nitrogen, or argon. The housing 155 may include one or more electrical connections for conveying electrical power or electrical signals to and/or from the housing.
  • The window 157 may be made from any suitable substrate material, such as for example, glass or plastic (e.g., polycarbonate, acrylic, cyclic-olefin polymer, or cyclic-olefin copolymer). The window 157 may include an interior surface (surface A) and an exterior surface (surface B), and surface A or surface B may include a dielectric coating having particular reflectivity values at particular wavelengths. A dielectric coating (which may be referred to as a thin-film coating, interference coating, or coating) may include one or more thin-film layers of dielectric materials (e.g., SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Ta2O5, MgF2, LaF3, or AlF3) having particular thicknesses (e.g., thickness less than 1 μm) and particular refractive indices. A dielectric coating may be deposited onto surface A or surface B of the window 157 using any suitable deposition technique, such as for example, sputtering or electron-beam deposition.
  • The dielectric coating may have a high reflectivity at a particular wavelength or a low reflectivity at a particular wavelength. A high-reflectivity (HR) dielectric coating may have any suitable reflectivity value (e.g., a reflectivity greater than or equal to 80%, 90%, 95%, or 99%) at any suitable wavelength or combination of wavelengths. A low-reflectivity dielectric coating (which may be referred to as an anti-reflection (AR) coating) may have any suitable reflectivity value (e.g., a reflectivity less than or equal to 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, or 0.2%) at any suitable wavelength or combination of wavelengths. In particular embodiments, a dielectric coating may be a dichroic coating with a particular combination of high or low reflectivity values at particular wavelengths. For example, a dichroic coating may have a reflectivity of less than or equal to 0.5% at approximately 1550-1560 nm and a reflectivity of greater than or equal to 90% at approximately 800-1500 nm.
  • In some implementations, surface A or surface B has a dielectric coating that is anti-reflecting at an operating wavelength of one or more light sources 110 contained within enclosure 155. An AR coating on surface A and surface B may increase the amount of light at an operating wavelength of light source 110 that is transmitted through the window 157. Additionally, an AR coating at an operating wavelength of the light source 110 may reduce the amount of incident light from output beam 125 that is reflected by the window 157 back into the housing 155. In an example implementation, each of surface A and surface B has an AR coating with reflectivity less than 0.5% at an operating wavelength of light source 110. As an example, if the light source 110 has an operating wavelength of approximately 1550 nm, then surface A and surface B may each have an AR coating with a reflectivity that is less than 0.5% from approximately 1547 nm to approximately 1553 nm. In another implementation, each of surface A and surface B has an AR coating with reflectivity less than 1% at the operating wavelengths of the light source 110. For example, if the housing 155 encloses two sensor heads with respective light sources, the first light source emits pulses at a wavelength of approximately 1535 nm and the second light source emits pulses at a wavelength of approximately 1540 nm, then surface A and surface B may each have an AR coating with reflectivity less than 1% from approximately 1530 nm to approximately 1545 nm.
  • The window 157 may have an optical transmission that is greater than any suitable value for one or more wavelengths of one or more light sources 110 contained within the housing 155. As an example, the window 157 may have an optical transmission of greater than or equal to 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, or 99% at a wavelength of light source 110. In one example implementation, the window 157 can transmit greater than or equal to 95% of light at an operating wavelength of the light source 110. In another implementation, the window 157 transmits greater than or equal to 90% of light at the operating wavelengths of the light sources enclosed within the housing 155.
  • Surface A or surface B may have a dichroic coating that is anti-reflecting at one or more operating wavelengths of one or more light sources 110 and high-reflecting at wavelengths away from the one or more operating wavelengths. For example, surface A may have an AR coating for an operating wavelength of the light source 110, and surface B may have a dichroic coating that is AR at the light-source operating wavelength and HR for wavelengths away from the operating wavelength. A coating that is HR for wavelengths away from a light-source operating wavelength may prevent most incoming light at unwanted wavelengths from being transmitted through the window 117. In one implementation, if light source 110 emits optical pulses with a wavelength of approximately 1550 nm, then surface A may have an AR coating with a reflectivity of less than or equal to 0.5% from approximately 1546 nm to approximately 1554 nm. Additionally, surface B may have a dichroic coating that is AR at approximately 1546-1554 nm and HR (e.g., reflectivity of greater than or equal to 90%) at approximately 800-1500 nm and approximately 1580-1700 nm.
  • Surface B of the window 157 may include a coating that is oleophobic, hydrophobic, or hydrophilic. A coating that is oleophobic (or, lipophobic) may repel oils (e.g., fingerprint oil or other non-polar material) from the exterior surface (surface B) of the window 157. A coating that is hydrophobic may repel water from the exterior surface. For example, surface B may be coated with a material that is both oleophobic and hydrophobic. A coating that is hydrophilic attracts water so that water may tend to wet and form a film on the hydrophilic surface (rather than forming beads of water as may occur on a hydrophobic surface). If surface B has a hydrophilic coating, then water (e.g., from rain) that lands on surface B may form a film on the surface. The surface film of water may result in less distortion, deflection, or occlusion of an output beam 125 than a surface with a non-hydrophilic coating or a hydrophobic coating.
  • With continued reference to FIG. 1, the light source 110 may include a pulsed laser configured to produce or emit pulses of light with a certain pulse duration. In an example implementation, the pulse duration or pulse width of the pulsed laser is approximately 10 picoseconds (ps) to 20 nanoseconds (ns). In another implementation, the light source 110 is a pulsed laser that produces pulses with a pulse duration of approximately 1-4 ns. In yet another implementation, the light source 110 is a pulsed laser that produces pulses at a pulse repetition frequency of approximately 100 kHz to 5 MHz or a pulse period (e.g., a time between consecutive pulses) of approximately 200 ns to 10 μs. The light source 110 may have a substantially constant or a variable pulse repetition frequency, depending on the implementation. As an example, the light source 110 may be a pulsed laser that produces pulses at a substantially constant pulse repetition frequency of approximately 640 kHz (e.g., 640,000 pulses per second), corresponding to a pulse period of approximately 1.56 μs. As another example, the light source 110 may have a pulse repetition frequency that can be varied from approximately 500 kHz to 3 MHz. As used herein, a pulse of light may be referred to as an optical pulse, a light pulse, or a pulse, and a pulse repetition frequency may be referred to as a pulse rate.
  • In general, the output beam 125 may have any suitable average optical power, and the output beam 125 may include optical pulses with any suitable pulse energy or peak optical power. Some examples of the average power of the output beam 125 include the approximate values of 1 mW, 10 mW, 100 mW, 1 W, and 10 W. Example values of pulse energy of the output beam 125 include the approximate values of 0.1 μJ, 1 μJ, 10 μJ, 100 μJ, and 1 mJ. Examples of peak power values of pulses included in the output beam 125 are the approximate values of 10 W, 100 W, 1 kW, 5 kW, 10 kW. An example optical pulse with a duration of 1 ns and a pulse energy of 1 μJ has a peak power of approximately 1 kW. If the pulse repetition frequency is 500 kHz, then the average power of the output beam 125 with 1-μJ pulses is approximately 0.5 W, in this example.
  • The light source 110 may include a laser diode, such as a Fabry-Perot laser diode, a quantum well laser, a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, a distributed feedback (DFB) laser, or a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The laser diode operating in the light source 110 may be an aluminum-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs) laser diode, an indium-gallium-arsenide (InGaAs) laser diode, or an indium-gallium-arsenide-phosphide (InGaAsP) laser diode, or any other suitable diode. In some implementations, the light source 110 includes a pulsed laser diode with a peak emission wavelength of approximately 1400-1600 nm. Further, the light source 110 may include a laser diode that is current-modulated to produce optical pulses.
  • In some implementation, the light source 110 includes a pulsed laser diode followed by one or more optical-amplification stages. For example, the light source 110 may be a fiber-laser module that includes a current-modulated laser diode with a peak wavelength of approximately 1550 nm, followed by a single-stage or a multi-stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). As another example, the light source 110 may include a continuous-wave (CW) or quasi-CW laser diode followed by an external optical modulator (e.g., an electro-optic modulator), and the output of the modulator may be fed into an optical amplifier. In yet other implementations, the light source 110 may include a pulsed solid-state laser or a pulsed fiber laser.
  • In some implementations, the output beam of light 125 emitted by the light source 110 is a collimated optical beam with any suitable beam divergence, such as a divergence of approximately 0.1 to 3.0 milliradian (mrad). Divergence of the output beam 125 may refer to an angular measure of an increase in beam size (e.g., a beam radius or beam diameter) as the output beam 125 travels away from the light source 110 or the lidar system 100. The output beam 125 may have a substantially circular cross section with a beam divergence characterized by a single divergence value. For example, the output beam 125 with a circular cross section and a divergence of 1 mrad may have a beam diameter or spot size of approximately 10 cm at a distance of 100 m from the lidar system 100. In some implementations, the output beam 125 may be an astigmatic beam or may have a substantially elliptical cross section and may be characterized by two divergence values. As an example, the output beam 125 may have a fast axis and a slow axis, where the fast-axis divergence is greater than the slow-axis divergence. As another example, the output beam 125 may be an astigmatic beam with a fast-axis divergence of 2 mrad and a slow-axis divergence of 0.5 mrad.
  • The output beam of light 125 emitted by light source 110 may be unpolarized or randomly polarized, may have no specific or fixed polarization (e.g., the polarization may vary with time), or may have a particular polarization (e.g., the output beam 125 may be linearly polarized, elliptically polarized, or circularly polarized). As an example, the light source 110 may produce linearly polarized light, and the lidar system 100 may include a quarter-wave plate that converts this linearly polarized light into circularly polarized light. The lidar system 100 may transmit the circularly polarized light as the output beam 125, and receive the input beam 135, which may be substantially or at least partially circularly polarized in the same manner as the output beam 125 (e.g., if the output beam 125 is right-hand circularly polarized, then the input beam 135 may also be right-hand circularly polarized). The input beam 135 may pass through the same quarter-wave plate (or a different quarter-wave plate), resulting in the input beam 135 being converted to linearly polarized light which is orthogonally polarized (e.g., polarized at a right angle) with respect to the linearly polarized light produced by light source 110. As another example, the lidar system 100 may employ polarization-diversity detection where two polarization components are detected separately. The output beam 125 may be linearly polarized, and the lidar system 100 may split the input beam 135 into two polarization components (e.g., s-polarization and p-polarization) which are detected separately by two photodiodes (e.g., a balanced photoreceiver that includes two photodiodes).
  • With continued reference to FIG. 1, the output beam 125 and input beam 135 may be substantially coaxial. In other words, the output beam 125 and input beam 135 may at least partially overlap or share a common propagation axis, so that the input beam 135 and the output beam 125 travel along substantially the same optical path (albeit in opposite directions). As the lidar system 100 scans the output beam 125 across a field of regard, the input beam 135 may follow along with the output beam 125, so that the coaxial relationship between the two beams is maintained.
  • The lidar system 100 also may include one or more optical components configured to condition, shape, filter, modify, steer, or direct the output beam 125 and/or the input beam 135. For example, lidar system 100 may include one or more lenses, mirrors, filters (e.g., bandpass or interference filters), beam splitters, polarizers, polarizing beam splitters, wave plates (e.g., half-wave or quarter-wave plates), diffractive elements, or holographic elements. In some implementations, lidar system 100 includes a telescope, one or more lenses, or one or more mirrors to expand, focus, or collimate the output beam 125 to a desired beam diameter or divergence. As an example, the lidar system 100 may include one or more lenses to focus the input beam 135 onto an active region of the receiver 140. As another example, the lidar system 100 may include one or more flat mirrors or curved mirrors (e.g., concave, convex, or parabolic mirrors) to steer or focus the output beam 125 or the input beam 135. For example, the lidar system 100 may include an off-axis parabolic mirror to focus the input beam 135 onto an active region of receiver 140. As illustrated in FIG. 1, the lidar system 100 may include the mirror 115, which may be a metallic or dielectric mirror. The mirror 115 may be configured so that the light beam 125 passes through the mirror 115. As an example, mirror 115 may include a hole, slot, or aperture through which the output light beam 125 passes. As another example, the mirror 115 may be configured so that at least 80% of the output beam 125 passes through the mirror 115 and at least 80% of the input beam 135 is reflected by the mirror 115. In some implementations, the mirror 115 may provide for the output beam 125 and the input beam 135 to be substantially coaxial, so that the beams 125 and 135 travel along substantially the same optical path, in opposite directions.
  • Generally speaking, the scanner 120 steers the output beam 125 in one or more directions downrange. The scanner 120 may include one or more scanning mirrors and one or more actuators driving the mirrors to rotate, tilt, pivot, or move the mirrors in an angular manner about one or more axes, for example. For example, the first mirror of the scanner may scan the output beam 125 along a first direction, and the second mirror may scan the output beam 125 along a second direction that is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. Example implementations of the scanner 120 are discussed in more detail below with reference to FIG. 2.
  • The scanner 120 may be configured to scan the output beam 125 over a 5-degree angular range, 20-degree angular range, 30-degree angular range, 60-degree angular range, or any other suitable angular range. For example, a scanning mirror may be configured to periodically rotate over a 15-degree range, which results in the output beam 125 scanning across a 30-degree range (e.g., a 0-degree rotation by a scanning mirror results in a 20-degree angular scan of the output beam 125). A field of regard (FOR) of the lidar system 100 may refer to an area, region, or angular range over which the lidar system 100 may be configured to scan or capture distance information. When the lidar system 100 scans the output beam 125 within a 30-degree scanning range, the lidar system 100 may be referred to as having a 30-degree angular field of regard. As another example, a lidar system 100 with a scanning mirror that rotates over a 30-degree range may produce the output beam 125 that scans across a 60-degree range (e.g., a 60-degree FOR). In various implementations, the lidar system 100 may have a FOR of approximately 10°, 20°, 40°, 60°, 120°, or any other suitable FOR. The FOR also may be referred to as a scan region.
  • The scanner 120 may be configured to scan the output beam 125 horizontally and vertically, and the lidar system 100 may have a particular FOR along the horizontal direction and another particular FOR along the vertical direction. For example, the lidar system 100 may have a horizontal FOR of 10° to 120° and a vertical FOR of 2° to 45°.
  • The one or more scanning mirrors of the scanner 120 may be communicatively coupled to the controller 150 which may control the scanning mirror(s) so as to guide the output beam 125 in a desired direction downrange or along a desired scan pattern. In general, a scan pattern may refer to a pattern or path along which the output beam 125 is directed, and also may be referred to as an optical scan pattern, optical scan path, or scan path. As an example, the scanner 120 may include two scanning mirrors configured to scan the output beam 125 across a 60° horizontal FOR and a 20° vertical FOR. The two scanner mirrors may be controlled to follow a scan path that substantially covers the 60°×20° FOR. The lidar system 100 can use the scan path to generate a point cloud with pixels that substantially cover the 60°×20° FOR. The pixels may be approximately evenly distributed across the 60°×20° FOR. Alternately, the pixels may have a particular non-uniform distribution (e.g., the pixels may be distributed across all or a portion of the 60°×20° FOR, and the pixels may have a higher density in one or more particular regions of the 60°×20° FOR).
  • In operation, the light source 110 may emit pulses of light which the scanner 120 scans across a FOR of lidar system 100. The target 130 may scatter one or more of the emitted pulses, and the receiver 140 may detect at least a portion of the pulses of light scattered by the target 130.
  • The receiver 140 may be referred to as (or may include) a photoreceiver, optical receiver, optical sensor, detector, photodetector, or optical detector. The receiver 140 in some implementations receives or detects at least a portion of the input beam 135 and produces an electrical signal that corresponds to the input beam 135. For example, if the input beam 135 includes an optical pulse, then the receiver 140 may produce an electrical current or voltage pulse that corresponds to the optical pulse detected by the receiver 140. In an example implementation, the receiver 140 includes one or more avalanche photodiodes (APDs) or one or more single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). In another implementation, the receiver 140 includes one or more PN photodiodes (e.g., a photodiode structure formed by a p-type semiconductor and a n-type semiconductor) or one or more PIN photodiodes (e.g., a photodiode structure formed by an undoped intrinsic semiconductor region located between p-type and n-type regions).
  • The receiver 140 may have an active region or an avalanche-multiplication region that includes silicon, germanium, or InGaAs. The active region of receiver 140 may have any suitable size, such as for example, a diameter or width of approximately 50-500 μm. The receiver 140 may include circuitry that performs signal amplification, sampling, filtering, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, time-to-digital conversion, pulse detection, threshold detection, rising-edge detection, or falling-edge detection. For example, the receiver 140 may include a transimpedance amplifier that converts a received photocurrent (e.g., a current produced by an APD in response to a received optical signal) into a voltage signal. The receiver 140 may direct the voltage signal to pulse-detection circuitry that produces an analog or digital output signal 145 that corresponds to one or more characteristics (e.g., rising edge, falling edge, amplitude, or duration) of a received optical pulse. For example, the pulse-detection circuitry may perform a time-to-digital conversion to produce a digital output signal 145. The receiver 140 may send the electrical output signal 145 to the controller 150 for processing or analysis, e.g., to determine a time-of-flight value corresponding to a received optical pulse.
  • The controller 150 may be electrically coupled or otherwise communicatively coupled to one or more of the light source 110, the scanner 120, and the receiver 140. The controller 150 may receive electrical trigger pulses or edges from the light source 110, where each pulse or edge corresponds to the emission of an optical pulse by the light source 110. The controller 150 may provide instructions, a control signal, or a trigger signal to the light source 110 indicating when the light source 110 should produce optical pulses. For example, the controller 150 may send an electrical trigger signal that includes electrical pulses, where the light source 110 emits an optical pulse in response to each electrical pulse. Further, the controller 150 may cause the light source 110 to adjust one or more of the frequency, period, duration, pulse energy, peak power, average power, or wavelength of the optical pulses produced by light source 110.
  • The controller 150 may determine a time-of-flight value for an optical pulse based on timing information associated with when the pulse was emitted by light source 110 and when a portion of the pulse (e.g., the input beam 135) was detected or received by the receiver 140. The controller 150 may include circuitry that performs signal amplification, sampling, filtering, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, time-to-digital conversion, pulse detection, threshold detection, rising-edge detection, or falling-edge detection.
  • As indicated above, the lidar system 100 may be used to determine the distance to one or more downrange targets 130. By scanning the lidar system 100 across a field of regard, the system can be used to map the distance to a number of points within the field of regard. Each of these depth-mapped points may be referred to as a pixel or a voxel. A collection of pixels captured in succession (which may be referred to as a depth map, a point cloud, or a frame) may be rendered as an image or may be analyzed to identify or detect objects or to determine a shape or distance of objects within the FOR. For example, a depth map may cover a field of regard that extends 60° horizontally and 15° vertically, and the depth map may include a frame of 100-2000 pixels in the horizontal direction by 4-400 pixels in the vertical direction.
  • The lidar system 100 may be configured to repeatedly capture or generate point clouds of a field of regard at any suitable frame rate between approximately 0.1 frames per second (FPS) and approximately 1,000 FPS. For example, the lidar system 100 may generate point clouds at a frame rate of approximately 0.1 FPS, 0.5 FPS, 1 FPS, 2 FPS, 5 FPS, 10 FPS, 20 FPS, 100 FPS, 500 FPS, or 1,000 FPS. In an example implementation, the lidar system 100 is configured to produce optical pulses at a rate of 5×105 pulses/second (e.g., the system may determine 500,000 pixel distances per second) and scan a frame of 1000×50 pixels (e.g., 50,000 pixels/frame), which corresponds to a point-cloud frame rate of 10 frames per second (e.g., 10 point clouds per second). The point-cloud frame rate may be substantially fixed or dynamically adjustable, depending on the implementation. For example, the lidar system 100 may capture one or more point clouds at a particular frame rate (e.g., 1 Hz) and then switch to capture one or more point clouds at a different frame rate (e.g., 10 Hz). In general, the lidar system can use a slower frame rate (e.g., 1 Hz) to capture one or more high-resolution point clouds, and use a faster frame rate (e.g., 10 Hz) to rapidly capture multiple lower-resolution point clouds.
  • The field of regard of the lidar system 100 can overlap, encompass, or enclose at least a portion of the target 130, which may include all or part of an object that is moving or stationary relative to lidar system 100. For example, the target 130 may include all or a portion of a person, vehicle, motorcycle, truck, train, bicycle, wheelchair, pedestrian, animal, road sign, traffic light, lane marking, road-surface marking, parking space, pylon, guard rail, traffic barrier, pothole, railroad crossing, obstacle in or near a road, curb, stopped vehicle on or beside a road, utility pole, house, building, trash can, mailbox, tree, any other suitable object, or any suitable combination of all or part of two or more objects.
  • With continued reference to FIG. 1, audio sensors 159A-C may be disposed in any suitable location on the vehicle to detect acoustic signals, so that a processing module (discussed below) can locate the sources of the acoustic signals. In the depicted example implementation, the audio sensors 159A and 159B are disposed on two sides of the housing 155, and the audio sensor 159 is disposed above or below the housing 155. In another implementation (illustrated in FIG. 9, for example), the audio sensors are organized into a microphone array enclosed within a single housing unit, which can be mounted on the roof of the vehicle, inside the vehicle on the dashboard, on the frame of the vehicle, etc. In any case, the audio sensors 159A-C may operate as components of an acoustic source localization system that estimates the location of a signal source using triangulation or another suitable technique.
  • Now referring to FIG. 2, a scanner 162 and a receiver 164 can operate in the lidar system of FIG. 1 as the scanner 120 and the receiver 140, respectively. More generally, the scanner 162 and the receiver 164 can operate in any suitable lidar system.
  • The scanner 162 may include any suitable number of mirrors driven by any suitable number of mechanical actuators. For example, the scanner 162 may include a galvanometer scanner, a resonant scanner, a piezoelectric actuator, a polygonal scanner, a rotating-prism scanner, a voice coil motor, a DC motor, a brushless DC motor, a stepper motor, or a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device, or any other suitable actuator or mechanism.
  • A galvanometer scanner (which also may be referred to as a galvanometer actuator) may include a galvanometer-based scanning motor with a magnet and coil. When an electrical current is supplied to the coil, a rotational force is applied to the magnet, which causes a mirror attached to the galvanometer scanner to rotate. The electrical current supplied to the coil may be controlled to dynamically change the position of the galvanometer mirror. A resonant scanner (which may be referred to as a resonant actuator) may include a spring-like mechanism driven by an actuator to produce a periodic oscillation at a substantially fixed frequency (e.g., 1 kHz). A MEMS-based scanning device may include a mirror with a diameter between approximately 1 and 10 mm, where the mirror is rotated using electromagnetic or electrostatic actuation. A voice coil motor (which may be referred to as a voice coil actuator) may include a magnet and coil. When an electrical current is supplied to the coil, a translational force is applied to the magnet, which causes a mirror attached to the magnet to move or rotate.
  • In an example implementation, the scanner 162 includes a single mirror configured to scan an output beam 170 along a single direction (e.g., the scanner 162 may be a one-dimensional scanner that scans along a horizontal or vertical direction). The mirror may be a flat scanning mirror attached to a scanner actuator or mechanism which scans the mirror over a particular angular range. The mirror may be driven by one actuator (e.g., a galvanometer) or two actuators configured to drive the mirror in a push-pull configuration. When two actuators drive the mirror in one direction in a push-pull configuration, the actuators may be located at opposite ends or sides of the mirror. The actuators may operate in a cooperative manner so that when one actuator pushes on the mirror, the other actuator pulls on the mirror, and vice versa. In another example implementation, two voice coil actuators arranged in a push-pull configuration drive a mirror along a horizontal or vertical direction.
  • In some implementations, the scanner 162 may include one mirror configured to be scanned along two axes, where two actuators arranged in a push-pull configuration provide motion along each axis. For example, two resonant actuators arranged in a horizontal push-pull configuration may drive the mirror along a horizontal direction, and another pair of resonant actuators arranged in a vertical push-pull configuration may drive mirror along a vertical direction. In another example implementation, two actuators scan the output beam 170 along two directions (e.g., horizontal and vertical), where each actuator provides rotational motion along a particular direction or about a particular axis.
  • The scanner 162 also may include one mirror driven by two actuators configured to scan the mirror along two substantially orthogonal directions. For example, a resonant actuator or a galvanometer actuator may drive one mirror along a substantially horizontal direction, and a galvanometer actuator may drive the mirror along a substantially vertical direction. As another example, two resonant actuators may drive a mirror along two substantially orthogonal directions.
  • In some implementations, the scanner 162 includes two mirrors, where one mirror scans the output beam 170 along a substantially horizontal direction and the other mirror scans the output beam 170 along a substantially vertical direction. In the example of FIG. 2, the scanner 162 includes two mirrors, a mirror 180-1 and a mirror 180-2. The mirror 180-1 may scan the output beam 170 along a substantially horizontal direction, and the mirror 180-2 may scan the output beam 170 along a substantially vertical direction (or vice versa). Mirror 180-1 or mirror 180-2 may be a flat mirror, a curved mirror, or a polygon mirror with two or more reflective surfaces.
  • The scanner 162 in other implementations includes two galvanometer scanners driving respective mirrors. For example, the scanner 162 may include a galvanometer actuator that scans the mirror 180-1 along a first direction (e.g., vertical), and the scanner 162 may include another galvanometer actuator that scans the mirror 180-2 along a second direction (e.g., horizontal). In yet another implementation, the scanner 162 includes two mirrors, where a galvanometer actuator drives one mirror, and a resonant actuator drives the other mirror. For example, a galvanometer actuator may scan the mirror 180-1 along a first direction, and a resonant actuator may scan the mirror 180-2 along a second direction. The first and second scanning directions may be substantially orthogonal to one another, e.g., the first direction may be substantially vertical, and the second direction may be substantially horizontal. In yet another implementation, the scanner 162 includes two mirrors, where one mirror is a polygon mirror that is rotated in one direction (e.g., clockwise or counter-clockwise) by an electric motor (e.g., a brushless DC motor). For example, mirror 180-1 may be a polygon mirror that scans the output beam 170 along a substantially horizontal direction, and mirror 180-2 may scan the output beam 170 along a substantially vertical direction. A polygon mirror may have two or more reflective surfaces, and the polygon mirror may be continuously rotated in one direction so that the output beam 170 is reflected sequentially from each of the reflective surfaces. A polygon mirror may have a cross-sectional shape that corresponds to a polygon, where each side of the polygon has a reflective surface. For example, a polygon mirror with a square cross-sectional shape may have four reflective surfaces, and a polygon mirror with a pentagonal cross-sectional shape may have five reflective surfaces.
  • To direct the output beam 170 along a particular scan pattern, the scanner 162 may include two or more actuators driving a single mirror synchronously. For example, the two or more actuators can drive the mirror synchronously along two substantially orthogonal directions to make the output beam 170 follow a scan pattern with substantially straight lines. In some implementations, the scanner 162 may include two mirrors and actuators driving the two mirrors synchronously to generate a scan pattern that includes substantially straight lines. For example, a galvanometer actuator may drive the mirror 180-2 with a substantially linear back-and-forth motion (e.g., the galvanometer may be driven with a substantially sinusoidal or triangle-shaped waveform) that causes the output beam 170 to trace a substantially horizontal back-and-forth pattern, and another galvanometer actuator may scan the mirror 180-1 along a substantially vertical direction. The two galvanometers may be synchronized so that for every 64 horizontal traces, the output beam 170 makes a single trace along a vertical direction. Whether one or two mirrors are used, the substantially straight lines can be directed substantially horizontally, vertically, or along any other suitable direction.
  • The scanner 162 also may apply a dynamically adjusted deflection along a vertical direction (e.g., with a galvanometer actuator) as the output beam 170 is scanned along a substantially horizontal direction (e.g., with a galvanometer or resonant actuator) to achieve the straight lines. If a vertical deflection is not applied, the output beam 170 may trace out a curved path as it scans from side to side. In some implementations, the scanner 162 uses a vertical actuator to apply a dynamically adjusted vertical deflection as the output beam 170 is scanned horizontally as well as a discrete vertical offset between each horizontal scan (e.g., to step the output beam 170 to a subsequent row of a scan pattern).
  • With continued reference to FIG. 2, an overlap mirror 190 in this example implementation is configured to overlap the input beam 172 and output beam 170, so that the beams 170 and 172 are substantially coaxial. In FIG. 2, the overlap mirror 190 includes a hole, slot, or aperture 192 through which the output beam 170 passes, and a reflecting surface 194 that reflects at least a portion of the input beam 172 toward the receiver 164. The overlap mirror 190 may be oriented so that input beam 172 and output beam 170 are at least partially overlapped.
  • In some implementations, the overlap mirror 190 may not include a hole 192. For example, the output beam 170 may be directed to pass by a side of mirror 190 rather than passing through an aperture 192. The output beam 170 may pass alongside mirror 190 and may be oriented at a slight angle with respect to the orientation of the input beam 172. As another example, the overlap mirror 190 may include a small reflective section configured to reflect the output beam 170, and the rest of the overlap mirror 190 may have an AR coating configured to transmit the input beam 172.
  • The input beam 172 may pass through a lens 196 which focuses the beam onto an active region 166 of the receiver 164. The active region 166 may refer to an area over which receiver 164 may receive or detect input light. The active region may have any suitable size or diameter d, such as for example, a diameter of approximately 25 μm, 50 μm, 80 μm, 100 μm, 200 μm, 500 μm, 1 mm, 2 mm, or 5 mm. The overlap mirror 190 may have a reflecting surface 194 that is substantially flat or the reflecting surface 194 may be curved (e.g., the mirror 190 may be an off-axis parabolic mirror configured to focus the input beam 172 onto an active region of the receiver 140).
  • The aperture 192 may have any suitable size or diameter Φ1, and the input beam 172 may have any suitable size or diameter Φ2, where Φ2 is greater than Φ1. For example, the aperture 192 may have a diameter Φ1 of approximately 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, or 10 mm, and the input beam 172 may have a diameter Φ2 of approximately 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm, or 50 mm. In some implementations, the reflective surface 194 of the overlap mirror 190 may reflect 70% or more of input beam 172 toward the receiver 164. For example, if the reflective surface 194 has a reflectivity R at an operating wavelength of the light source 160, then the fraction of input beam 172 directed toward the receiver 164 may be expressed as R×[1−(Φ12)2]. As a more specific example, if R is 95%, Φ1 is 2 mm, and Φ2 is 10 mm, then approximately 91% of the input beam 172 may be directed toward the receiver 164 by the reflective surface 194.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates an example configuration in which several components of the lidar system 100 may operate to scan a 360-degree view of regard. Generally speaking, the field of view of a light source in this configuration follows a circular trajectory and accordingly defines a circular scan pattern on a two-dimensional plane. All points on the trajectory remain at the same elevation relative to the ground level, according to one implementation. In this case, separate beams may follow the circular trajectory with certain vertical offsets relative to each other. In another implementation, the points of the trajectory may define a spiral scan pattern in three-dimensional space. A single beam can be sufficient to trace out the spiral scan pattern but, if desired, multiple beams can be used.
  • In the example of FIG. 3, a rotating scan module 200 revolves around a central axis in one or both directions as indicated. An electric motor may drive the rotating scan module 200 around the central axis at a constant speed, for example. The rotating scan module 200 includes a scanner, a receiver, an overlap mirror, etc. The components of the rotating module 200 may be similar to the scanner 120, the receiver 140, and the overlap mirror 115. In some implementations, the subsystem 200 also includes a light source and a controller. In other implementations, the light source and/or the controller are disposed apart from the rotating scan module 200 and/or exchange optical and electrical signals with the components of the rotating scan module 200 via corresponding links.
  • The rotating scan module 200 may include a housing 210 with a window 212. Similar to the window 157 of FIG. 1, the window 212 may be made of glass, plastic, or any other suitable material. The window 212 allows outbound beams as well as return signals to pass through the housing 210. The arc length defined by the window 212 can correspond to any suitable percentage of the circumference of the housing 210. For example, the arc length can correspond to 5%, 20%, 30%, 60%, or possibly even 100% of the circumference.
  • Now referring to FIG. 4, a rotating scan module 220 is generally similar to the rotating scan module 200. In this implementation, however, the components of the rotating scan module 220 are disposed on a platform 222 which rotates inside a stationary circular housing 230. In this implementation, the circular housing 230 is substantially transparent to light at the lidar-system operating wavelength to pass inbound and outbound light signals. The circular housing 230 in a sense defines a circular window similar to the window 212, and may be made of similar material.
  • In some implementations, a lidar system may include or may be referred to as a flash lidar system, a staring lidar system, or a time-of-flight camera. A flash lidar system may include a pulsed light source and a receiver. A flash lidar system may not include a scanner, and the light source of a flash lidar system may not be scanned across the field of regard. The receiver may include multiple detectors, and the flash lidar system may capture a point cloud with a single emitted pulse of light that illuminates a field of regard.
  • Generating Pixels Within a Field of Regard of the Lidar System
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an example scan pattern 240 which the lidar system 100 of FIG. 1 can produce. The lidar system 100 may be configured to scan output optical beam 125 along one or more scan patterns 240. In some implementations, the scan pattern 240 corresponds to a scan across any suitable field of regard (FOR) having any suitable horizontal FOR (FORH) and any suitable vertical FOR (FORV). For example, a certain scan pattern may have a field of regard represented by angular dimensions (e.g., FORH×FORV) 40°×30°, 90°×40°, or 60°×15°. As another example, a certain scan pattern may have a FORII greater than or equal to 10°, 25°, 30°, 40°, 60°, 90°, or 120°. As yet another example, a certain scan pattern may have a FORV greater than or equal to 2°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 30°, or 45°. In the example of FIG. 5, reference line 246 represents a center of the field of regard of scan pattern 240. The reference line 246 may have any suitable orientation, such as, a horizontal angle of 0° (e.g., reference line 246 may be oriented straight ahead) and a vertical angle of 0° (e.g., reference line 246 may have an inclination of 0°), or the reference line 246 may have a nonzero horizontal angle or a nonzero inclination (e.g., a vertical angle of +10° or −10°). In FIG. 5, if the scan pattern 240 has a 60°×15° field of regard, then the scan pattern 240 covers a ±30° horizontal range with respect to reference line 246 and a ±7.5° vertical range with respect to reference line 246. Additionally, the optical beam 125 in FIG. 5 has an orientation of approximately −15° horizontal and +3° vertical with respect to reference line 246. The beam 125 may be referred to as having an azimuth of −15° and an altitude of +3° relative to the reference line 246. An azimuth (which may be referred to as an azimuth angle) may represent a horizontal angle with respect to the reference line 246, and an altitude (which may be referred to as an altitude angle, elevation, or elevation angle) may represent a vertical angle with respect to the reference line 246.
  • The scan pattern 240 may include multiple pixels 242, and each pixel 242 may be associated with one or more laser pulses and one or more corresponding distance measurements. A cycle of scan pattern 240 may include a total of Px×Py pixels 242 (e.g., a two-dimensional distribution of Px by Py pixels). For example, the scan pattern 240 may include a distribution with dimensions of approximately 100-2,000 pixels 242 along a horizontal direction and approximately 4-400 pixels 242 along a vertical direction. As another example, the scan pattern 240 may include a distribution of 1,000 pixels 242 along the horizontal direction by 64 pixels 242 along the vertical direction (e.g., the frame size is 1000×64 pixels) for a total of 64,000 pixels per cycle of scan pattern 240. The number of pixels 242 along a horizontal direction may be referred to as a horizontal resolution of the scan pattern 240, and the number of pixels 242 along a vertical direction may be referred to as a vertical resolution of the scan pattern 240. As an example, the scan pattern 240 may have a horizontal resolution of greater than or equal to 100 pixels 242 and a vertical resolution of greater than or equal to 4 pixels 242. As another example, the scan pattern 240 may have a horizontal resolution of 100-2,000 pixels 242 and a vertical resolution of 4-400 pixels 242.
  • Each pixel 242 may be associated with a distance (e.g., a distance to a portion of a target 130 from which the corresponding laser pulse was scattered) or one or more angular values. As an example, the pixel 242 may be associated with a distance value and two angular values (e.g., an azimuth and altitude) that represent the angular location of the pixel 242 with respect to the lidar system 100. A distance to a portion of the target 130 may be determined based at least in part on a time-of-flight measurement for a corresponding pulse. An angular value (e.g., an azimuth or altitude) may correspond to an angle (e.g., relative to reference line 246) of the output beam 125 (e.g., when a corresponding pulse is emitted from lidar system 100) or an angle of the input beam 135 (e.g., when an input signal is received by lidar system 100). In some implementations, the lidar system 100 determines an angular value based at least in part on a position of a component of the scanner 120. For example, an azimuth or altitude value associated with the pixel 242 may be determined from an angular position of one or more corresponding scanning mirrors of the scanner 120.
  • In some implementations, the lidar system 100 concurrently directs multiple beams across the field of regard. In the example implementation of FIG. 6, the lidar system generates output beams 250A, 250B, 250C, . . . 250N etc., each of which follows a linear scan pattern 254A, 254B, 254C, . . . 254N. The number of parallel lines can be 2, 4, 12, 20, or any other suitable number. The lidar system 100 may angularly separate the beams 250A, 250B, 250C, . . . 250N, so that, for example, the separation between beams 250A and 250B at a certain distance may be 30 cm, and the separation between the same beams 250A and 250B at a longer distance may be 50 cm.
  • Similar to the scan pattern 240, each of the linear scan patterns 254A-N includes pixels associated with one or more laser pulses and distance measurements. FIG. 6 illustrates example pixels 252A, 252B and 252C along the scan patterns 254A, 254B and 254C, respectively. The lidar system 100 in this example may generate the values for the pixels 252A-252N at the same time, thus increasing the rate at which values for pixels are determined.
  • Depending on the implementation, the lidar system 100 may output the beams 250A-N at the same wavelength or different wavelengths. The beam 250A for example may have the wavelength of 1540 nm, the beam 250B may have the wavelength of 1550 nm, the beam 250C may have the wavelength of 1560 nm, etc. The number of different wavelengths the lidar system 100 uses need not match the number of beams. Thus, the lidar system 100 in the example implementation of FIG. 6 may use M wavelengths with N beams, where 1≤M≤N.
  • Next, FIG. 7 illustrates an example light-source field of view (FOVL) and receiver field of view (FOVR) for the lidar system 100. The light source 110 may emit pulses of light as the FOVL and FOVR are scanned by the scanner 120 across a field of regard (FOR). The light-source field of view may refer to an angular cone illuminated by the light source 110 at a particular instant of time. Similarly, a receiver field of view may refer to an angular cone over which the receiver 140 may receive or detect light at a particular instant of time, and any light outside the receiver field of view may not be received or detected. For example, as the scanner 120 scans the light-source field of view across a field of regard, the lidar system 100 may send the pulse of light in the direction the FOVL is pointing at the time the light source 110 emits the pulse. The pulse of light may scatter off the target 130, and the receiver 140 may receive and detect a portion of the scattered light that is directed along or contained within the FOVR.
  • In some implementations, the scanner 120 is configured to scan both a light-source field of view and a receiver field of view across a field of regard of the lidar system 100. The lidar system 100 may emit and detect multiple pulses of light as the scanner 120 scans the FOVL and FOVR across the field of regard while tracing out the scan pattern 240. The scanner 120 in some implementations scans the light-source field of view and the receiver field of view synchronously with respect to one another. In this case, as the scanner 120 scans FOVL across a scan pattern 240, the FOVR follows substantially the same path at the same scanning speed. Additionally, the FOVL and FOVR may maintain the same relative position to one another as the scanner 120 scans FOVL and FOVR across the field of regard. For example, the FOVL may be substantially overlapped with or centered inside the FOVR (as illustrated in FIG. 7), and the scanner 120 may maintain this relative positioning between FOVL and FOVR throughout a scan. As another example, the FOVR may lag behind the FOVL by a particular, fixed amount throughout a scan (e.g., the FOVR may be offset from the FOVL in a direction opposite the scan direction).
  • The FOVL may have an angular size or extent ΘL that is substantially the same as or that corresponds to the divergence of the output beam 125, and the FOVR may have an angular size or extent ΘR that corresponds to an angle over which the receiver 140 may receive and detect light. The receiver field of view may be any suitable size relative to the light-source field of view. For example, the receiver field of view may be smaller than, substantially the same size as, or larger than the angular extent of the light-source field of view. In some implementations, the light-source field of view has an angular extent of less than or equal to 50 milliradians, and the receiver field of view has an angular extent of less than or equal to 50 milliradians. The FOVL may have any suitable angular extent ΘL, such as for example, approximately 0.1 mrad, 0.2 mrad, 0.5 mrad, 1 mrad, 1.5 mrad, 2 mrad, 3 mrad, 5 mrad, 10 mrad, 20 mrad, 40 mrad, or 50 mrad. Similarly, the FOVR may have any suitable angular extent ΘR, such as for example, approximately 0.1 mrad, 0.2 mrad, 0.5 mrad, 1 mrad, 1.5 mrad, 2 mrad, 3 mrad, 5 mrad, 10 mrad, 20 mrad, 40 mrad, or 50 mrad. The light-source field of view and the receiver field of view may have approximately equal angular extents. As an example, ΘL and ΘR may both be approximately equal to 1 mrad, 2 mrad, or 3 mrad. In some implementations, the receiver field of view is larger than the light-source field of view, or the light-source field of view is larger than the receiver field of view. For example, ΘL may be approximately equal to 1.5 mrad, and ΘR may be approximately equal to 3 mrad.
  • A pixel 242 may represent or correspond to a light-source field of view. As the output beam 125 propagates from the light source 110, the diameter of the output beam 125 (as well as the size of the corresponding pixel 242) may increase according to the beam divergence ΘL. As an example, if the output beam 125 has a ΘL of 2 mrad, then at a distance of 100 m from the lidar system 100, the output beam 125 may have a size or diameter of approximately 20 cm, and a corresponding pixel 242 may also have a corresponding size or diameter of approximately 20 cm. At a distance of 200 m from the lidar system 100, the output beam 125 and the corresponding pixel 242 may each have a diameter of approximately 40 cm.
  • A Lidar System Operating in a Vehicle
  • As indicated above, one or more lidar systems 100 may be integrated into a vehicle. In one example implementation, multiple lidar systems 100 may be integrated into a car to provide a complete 360-degree horizontal FOR around the car. As another example, 4-10 lidar systems 100, each system having a 45-degree to 90-degree horizontal FOR, may be combined together to form a sensing system that provides a point cloud covering a 360-degree horizontal FOR. The lidar systems 100 may be oriented so that adjacent FORs have an amount of spatial or angular overlap to allow data from the multiple lidar systems 100 to be combined or stitched together to form a single or continuous 360-degree point cloud. As an example, the FOR of each lidar system 100 may have approximately 1-15 degrees of overlap with an adjacent FOR. In particular embodiments, a vehicle may refer to a mobile machine configured to transport people or cargo. For example, a vehicle may include, may take the form of, or may be referred to as a car, automobile, motor vehicle, truck, bus, van, trailer, off-road vehicle, farm vehicle, lawn mower, construction equipment, golf cart, motorhome, taxi, motorcycle, scooter, bicycle, skateboard, train, snowmobile, watercraft (e.g., a ship or boat), aircraft (e.g., a fixed-wing aircraft, helicopter, or dirigible), or spacecraft. In particular embodiments, a vehicle may include an internal combustion engine or an electric motor that provides propulsion for the vehicle.
  • In some implementations, one or more lidar systems 100 are included in a vehicle as part of an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) to assist a driver of the vehicle in the driving process. For example, a lidar system 100 may be part of an ADAS that provides information or feedback to a driver (e.g., to alert the driver to potential problems or hazards) or that automatically takes control of part of a vehicle (e.g., a braking system or a steering system) to avoid collisions or accidents. The lidar system 100 may be part of a vehicle ADAS that provides adaptive cruise control, automated braking, automated parking, collision avoidance, alerts the driver to hazards or other vehicles, maintains the vehicle in the correct lane, or provides a warning if an object or another vehicle is in a blind spot.
  • In some cases, one or more lidar systems 100 are integrated into a vehicle as part of an autonomous-vehicle driving system. In an example implementation, the lidar system 100 provides information about the surrounding environment to a driving system of an autonomous vehicle. An autonomous-vehicle driving system may include one or more computing systems that receive information from the lidar system 100 about the surrounding environment, analyze the received information, and provide control signals to the vehicle's driving systems (e.g., steering wheel, accelerator, brake, or turn signal). For example, the lidar system 100 integrated into an autonomous vehicle may provide an autonomous-vehicle driving system with a point cloud every 0.1 seconds (e.g., the point cloud has a 10 Hz update rate, representing 10 frames per second). The autonomous-vehicle driving system may analyze the received point clouds to sense or identify targets 130 and their respective locations, distances, or speeds, and the autonomous-vehicle driving system may update control signals based on this information. As an example, if the lidar system 100 detects a vehicle ahead that is slowing down or stopping, the autonomous-vehicle driving system may send instructions to release the accelerator and apply the brakes.
  • An autonomous vehicle may be referred to as an autonomous car, driverless car, self-driving car, robotic car, or unmanned vehicle. An autonomous vehicle may be a vehicle configured to sense its environment and navigate or drive with little or no human input. For example, an autonomous vehicle may be configured to drive to any suitable location and control or perform all safety-critical functions (e.g., driving, steering, braking, parking) for the entire trip, with the driver not expected to control the vehicle at any time. As another example, an autonomous vehicle may allow a driver to safely turn their attention away from driving tasks in particular environments (e.g., on freeways), or an autonomous vehicle may provide control of a vehicle in all but a few environments, requiring little or no input or attention from the driver.
  • An autonomous vehicle may be configured to drive with a driver present in the vehicle, or an autonomous vehicle may be configured to operate the vehicle with no driver present. As an example, an autonomous vehicle may include a driver's seat with associated controls (e.g., steering wheel, accelerator pedal, and brake pedal), and the vehicle may be configured to drive with no one seated in the driver's seat or with little or no input from a person seated in the driver's seat. As another example, an autonomous vehicle may not include any driver's seat or associated driver's controls, and the vehicle may perform substantially all driving functions (e.g., driving, steering, braking, parking, and navigating) without human input. As another example, an autonomous vehicle may be configured to operate without a driver (e.g., the vehicle may be configured to transport human passengers or cargo without a driver present in the vehicle). As another example, an autonomous vehicle may be configured to operate without any human passengers (e.g., the vehicle may be configured for transportation of cargo without having any human passengers onboard the vehicle).
  • In some implementations, a light source of a lidar system is located remotely from some of the other components of the lidar system such as the scanner and the receiver. Moreover, a lidar system implemented in a vehicle may include fewer light sources than scanners and receivers.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates an example configuration in which a laser-sensor link 320 includes an optical link 330 and an electrical link 350 coupled between a laser 300 and a sensor 310. The laser 300 may be configured to emit pulses of light and may be referred to as a laser system, laser head, or light source. The laser 300 may include, may be part of, may be similar to, or may be substantially the same as the light source 110 illustrated in FIG. 1 and discussed above. Further, the scanner 302, the receiver 304, the controller 306, and the mirror 308 may be similar to the scanner 120, the receiver 140, the controller 150, and the mirror 115 discussed above. In the example of FIG. 8, the laser 300 is coupled to the remotely located sensor 310 by a laser-sensor link 320 (which may be referred to as a link). The sensor 310 may be referred to as a sensor head and may include the mirror 308, the scanner 302, the receiver 304, and the controller 306. In an example implementation, the laser 300 includes a pulsed laser diode (e.g., a pulsed DFB laser) followed by an optical amplifier, and light from the laser 300 is conveyed by an optical fiber of the laser-sensor link 320 of a suitable length to the scanner 120 in a remotely located sensor 310.
  • The laser-sensor link 320 may include any suitable number of optical links 330 (e.g., 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10) and any suitable number of electrical links 350 (e.g., 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10). In the example configuration depicted in FIG. 8, the laser-sensor link 320 includes one optical link 330 from the laser 300 to an output collimator 340 and one electrical link 350 that connects the laser 300 to the controller 150. The optical link 330 may include optical fiber (which may be referred to as fiber-optic cable or fiber) that conveys, carries, transports, or transmits light between the laser 300 and the sensor 310. The optical fiber may be, for example, single-mode (SM) fiber, multi-mode (MM) fiber, large-mode-area (LMA) fiber, polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber, photonic-crystal or photonic-bandgap fiber, gain fiber (e.g., rare-earth-doped optical fiber for use in an optical amplifier), or any suitable combination thereof. The output collimator 340 receives optical pulses conveyed from the laser 300 by the optical link 330 and produces a free-space optical beam 312 that includes the optical pulses. The output collimator 340 directs the free-space optical beam 312 through the mirror 308 and to the scanner 302.
  • The electrical link 350 may include electrical wire or cable (e.g., a coaxial cable or twisted-pair cable) that conveys or transmits electrical power and/or one or more electrical signals between the laser 300 and the sensor 310. For example, the laser 300 may include a power supply or a power conditioner that provides electrical power to the laser 300, and additionally, the power supply or power conditioner may provide power to one or more components of the sensor 310 (e.g., the scanner 304, the receiver 304, and/or the controller 306) via the one or more electrical links 350. The electrical link 350 in some implementations may convey electrical signals that include data or information in analog or digital format. Further, the electrical link 350 may provide an interlock signal from the sensor 310 to the laser 300. If the controller 306 detects a fault condition indicating a problem with the sensor 310 or the overall lidar system, the controller 306 may change a voltage on the interlock line (e.g., from 5 V to 0 V) indicating that the laser 300 should shut down, stop emitting light, or reduce the power or energy of emitted light. A fault condition may be triggered by a failure of the scanner 302, a failure of the receiver 304, or by a person or object coming within a threshold distance of the sensor 310 (e.g., within 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1 m, 5 m, or any other suitable distance).
  • As discussed above, a lidar system can include one or more processors to determine a distance D to a target. In the implementation illustrated in FIG. 8, the controller 306 may be located in the laser 300 or in the sensor 310, or parts of the controller 150 may be distributed between the laser 300 and the sensor 310. In an example implementation, each sensor head 310 of a lidar system includes electronics (e.g., an electronic filter, transimpedance amplifier, threshold detector, or time-to-digital (TDC) converter) configured to receive or process a signal from the receiver 304 or from an APD or SPAD of the receiver 304. Additionally, the laser 300 may include processing electronics configured to determine a time-of-flight value or a distance to the target based on a signal received from the sensor head 310 via the electrical link 350.
  • Next, FIG. 9 illustrates an example vehicle 354 with a lidar system 351 that includes a laser 352 with multiple sensor heads 360 coupled to the laser 352 via multiple laser-sensor links 370. The laser 352 and the sensor heads 360 may be similar to the laser 300 and the sensor 310 discussed above, in some implementations. For example, each of the laser-sensor links 370 may include one or more optical links and/or one or more electrical links. The sensor heads 360 in FIG. 9 are positioned or oriented to provide a greater than 30-degree view of an environment around the vehicle. More generally, a lidar system with multiple sensor heads may provide a horizontal field of regard around a vehicle of approximately 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 180°, 270°, or 360°. Each of the sensor heads may be attached to or incorporated into a bumper, fender, grill, side panel, spoiler, roof, headlight assembly, taillight assembly, rear-view mirror assembly, hood, trunk, window, or any other suitable part of the vehicle.
  • In the example of FIG. 9, four sensor heads 360 are positioned at or near the four corners of the vehicle (e.g., the sensor heads may be incorporated into a light assembly, side panel, bumper, or fender), and the laser 352 may be located within the vehicle (e.g., in or near the trunk). The four sensor heads 360 may each provide a 90° to 120° horizontal field of regard (FOR), and the four sensor heads 360 may be oriented so that together they provide a complete 360-degree view around the vehicle. As another example, the lidar system 351 may include six sensor heads 360 positioned on or around a vehicle, where each of the sensor heads 360 provides a 60° to 90° horizontal FOR. As another example, the lidar system 351 may include eight sensor heads 360, and each of the sensor heads 360 may provide a 45° to 60° horizontal FOR. As yet another example, the lidar system 351 may include six sensor heads 360, where each of the sensor heads 360 provides a 70° horizontal FOR with an overlap between adjacent FORs of approximately 10°. As another example, the lidar system 351 may include two sensor heads 360 which together provide a forward-facing horizontal FOR of greater than or equal to 30°.
  • Data from each of the sensor heads 360 may be combined or stitched together to generate a point cloud that covers a greater than or equal to 30-degree horizontal view around a vehicle. For example, the laser 352 may include a controller or processor that receives data from each of the sensor heads 360 (e.g., via a corresponding electrical link 370) and processes the received data to construct a point cloud covering a 360-degree horizontal view around a vehicle or to determine distances to one or more targets. The point cloud or information from the point cloud may be provided to a vehicle controller 372 via a corresponding electrical, optical, or radio link 370. In some implementations, the point cloud is generated by combining data from each of the multiple sensor heads 360 at a controller included within the laser 352 and provided to the vehicle controller 372. In other implementations, each of the sensor heads 360 includes a controller or process that constructs a point cloud for a portion of the 360-degree horizontal view around the vehicle and provides the respective point cloud to the vehicle controller 372. The vehicle controller 372 then combines or stitches together the points clouds from the respective sensor heads 360 to construct a combined point cloud covering a 360-degree horizontal view. Still further, the vehicle controller 372 in some implementations communicates with a remote server to process point cloud data.
  • In any event, the vehicle 354 may be an autonomous vehicle where the vehicle controller 372 provides control signals to various components 390 within the vehicle 354 to maneuver and otherwise control operation of the vehicle 354. The components 390 are depicted in an expanded view in FIG. 9 for ease of illustration only. The components 390 may include an accelerator 374, brakes 376, a vehicle engine 378, a steering mechanism 380, lights 382 such as brake lights, head lights, reverse lights, emergency lights, etc., a gear selector 384, and/or other suitable components that effectuate and control movement of the vehicle 354. The gear selector 384 may include the park, reverse, neutral, drive gears, etc. Each of the components 390 may include an interface via which the component receives commands from the vehicle controller 372 such as “increase speed,” “decrease speed,” “turn left 5 degrees,” “activate left turn signal,” etc. and, in some cases, provides feedback to the vehicle controller 372.
  • With continued reference to FIG. 9, a microphone array 392 may be installed on the roof, below the roof, or in any other suitable location on the vehicle 354. The microphone array 392 may be communicatively coupled to the vehicle controller 372 via a wired or wireless communication link 394. In some implementations, the microphone array 392 also may be connected to the sensor heads 360 or a controller of the lidar system that includes the sensor heads 360. The microphone array 392 may be a component in an acoustic source localization system that also includes a processing module that analyzes acoustic signals received by the microphone array 392. Processing of acoustic signals is discussed further below with reference to FIGS. 12-15.
  • In some implementations, the vehicle controller 372 receives point cloud data from the laser 352 or sensor heads 360 via the link 370 and analyzes the received point cloud data to sense or identify targets 130 and their respective locations, distances, speeds, shapes, sizes, type of target (e.g., vehicle, human, tree, animal), etc. The vehicle controller 372 then provides control signals via the link 370 to the components 390 to control operation of the vehicle based on the analyzed information. For example, the vehicle controller 372 may identify an intersection based on the point cloud data and determine that the intersection is the appropriate location at which to make a left turn. Accordingly, the vehicle controller 372 may provide control signals to the steering mechanism 380, the accelerator 374, and brakes 376 for making a proper left turn. In another example, the vehicle controller 372 may identify a traffic light based on the point cloud data and determine that the vehicle 354 needs to come to a stop. As a result, the vehicle controller 372 may provide control signals to release the accelerator 374 and apply the brakes 376.
  • Example Receiver Implementation
  • FIG. 10 illustrates an example InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) 400. Referring back to FIG. 1, the receiver 140 may include one or more APDs 400 configured to receive and detect light from input light such as the beam 135. More generally, the APD 400 can operate in any suitable receiver of input light. The APD 400 may be configured to detect a portion of pulses of light which are scattered by a target located downrange from the lidar system in which the APD 400 operates. For example, the APD 400 may receive a portion of a pulse of light scattered by the target 130 depicted in FIG. 1, and generate an electrical-current signal corresponding to the received pulse of light.
  • The APD 400 may include doped or undoped layers of any suitable semiconductor material, such as for example, silicon, germanium, InGaAs, InGaAsP, or indium phosphide (InP). Additionally, the APD 400 may include an upper electrode 402 and a lower electrode 406 for coupling the ADP 400 to an electrical circuit. The APD 400 for example may be electrically coupled to a voltage source that supplies a reverse-bias voltage V to the APD 400. Additionally, the APD 400 may be electrically coupled to a transimpedance amplifier which receives electrical current generated by the APD 400 and produces an output voltage signal that corresponds to the received current. The upper electrode 402 or lower electrode 406 may include any suitable electrically conductive material, such as for example a metal (e.g., gold, copper, silver, or aluminum), a transparent conductive oxide (e.g., indium tin oxide), a carbon-nanotube material, or polysilicon. In some implementations, the upper electrode 402 is partially transparent or has an opening to allow input light 410 to pass through to the active region of the APD 400. In FIG. 10, the upper electrode 402 may have a ring shape that at least partially surrounds the active region of the APD 400, where the active region refers to an area over which the APD 400 may receive and detect the input light 410. The active region may have any suitable size or diameter d, such as for example, a diameter of approximately 25 μm, 50 μm, 80 μm, 100 μm, 200 μm, 500 μm, 1 mm, 2 mm, or 5 mm.
  • The APD 400 may include any suitable combination of any suitable semiconductor layers having any suitable doping (e.g., n-doped, p-doped, or intrinsic undoped material). In the example of FIG. 10, the InGaAs APD 400 includes a p-doped InP layer 420, an InP avalanche layer 422, an absorption layer 424 with n-doped InGaAs or InGaAsP, and an n-doped InP substrate layer 426. Depending on the implementation, the APD 400 may include separate absorption and avalanche layers, or a single layer may act as both an absorption and avalanche region. The APD 400 may operate electrically as a PN diode or a PIN diode, and, during operation, the APD 400 may be reverse-biased with a positive voltage V applied to the lower electrode 406 with respect to the upper electrode 402. The applied reverse-bias voltage V may have any suitable value, such as for example approximately 5 V, 10 V, 20 V, 30 V, 50 V, 75 V, 100 V, or 200 V.
  • In FIG. 10, photons of the input light 410 may be absorbed primarily in the absorption layer 424, resulting in the generation of electron-hole pairs (which may be referred to as photo-generated carriers). For example, the absorption layer 424 may be configured to absorb photons corresponding to the operating wavelength of the lidar system 100 (e.g., any suitable wavelength between approximately 1400 nm and approximately 1600 nm). In the avalanche layer 422, an avalanche-multiplication process occurs where carriers (e.g., electrons or holes) generated in the absorption layer 424 collide with the semiconductor lattice of the absorption layer 424, and produce additional carriers through impact ionization. This avalanche process can repeat numerous times so that one photo-generated carrier may result in the generation of multiple carriers. As an example, a single photon absorbed in the absorption layer 424 may lead to the generation of approximately 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 10,000, or any other suitable number of carriers through an avalanche-multiplication process. The carriers generated in an APD 400 may produce an electrical current that is coupled to an electrical circuit which may perform signal amplification, sampling, filtering, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, time-to-digital conversion, pulse detection, threshold detection, rising-edge detection, or falling-edge detection.
  • The number of carriers generated from a single photo-generated carrier may increase as the applied reverse bias V is increased. If the applied reverse bias V is increased above a particular value referred to as the APD breakdown voltage, then a single carrier can trigger a self-sustaining avalanche process (e.g., the output of the APD 400 is saturated regardless of the input light level). The APD 400 that is operated at or above a breakdown voltage may be referred to as a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and may be referred to as operating in a Geiger mode or a photon-counting mode. The APD 400 that is operated below a breakdown voltage may be referred to as a linear APD, and the output current generated by the APD 400 may be sent to an amplifier circuit (e.g., a transimpedance amplifier). The receiver 140 (see FIG. 1) may include an APD configured to operate as a SPAD and a quenching circuit configured to reduce a reverse-bias voltage applied to the SPAD when an avalanche event occurs in the SPAD. The APD 400 configured to operate as a SPAD may be coupled to an electronic quenching circuit that reduces the applied voltage V below the breakdown voltage when an avalanche-detection event occurs. Reducing the applied voltage may halt the avalanche process, and the applied reverse-bias voltage may then be re-set to await a subsequent avalanche event. Additionally, the APD 400 may be coupled to a circuit that generates an electrical output pulse or edge when an avalanche event occurs.
  • In some implementations, the APD 400 or the APD 400 along with transimpedance amplifier have a noise-equivalent power (NEP) that is less than or equal to 100 photons, 50 photons, 30 photons, 20 photons, or 10 photons. For example, the APD 400 may be operated as a SPAD and may have a NEP of less than or equal to 20 photons. As another example, the APD 400 may be coupled to a transimpedance amplifier that produces an output voltage signal with a NEP of less than or equal to 50 photons. The NEP of the APD 400 is a metric that quantifies the sensitivity of the APD 400 in terms of a minimum signal (or a minimum number of photons) that the APD 400 can detect. The NEP may correspond to an optical power (or to a number of photons) that results in a signal-to-noise ratio of 1, or the NEP may represent a threshold number of photons above which an optical signal may be detected. For example, if the APD 400 has a NEP of 20 photons, then the input beam 410 with 20 photons may be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1 (e.g., the APD 400 may receive 20 photons from the input beam 410 and generate an electrical signal representing the input beam 410 that has a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1). Similarly, the input beam 410 with 100 photons may be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 5. In some implementations, the lidar system 100 with the APD 400 (or a combination of the APD 400 and transimpedance amplifier) having a NEP of less than or equal to 100 photons, 50 photons, 30 photons, 20 photons, or 10 photons offers improved detection sensitivity with respect to a conventional lidar system that uses a PN or PIN photodiode. For example, an InGaAs PIN photodiode used in a conventional lidar system may have a NEP of approximately 104 to 105 photons, and the noise level in a lidar system with an InGaAs PIN photodiode may be 103 to 104 times greater than the noise level in a lidar system 100 with the InGaAs APD detector 400.
  • Referring back to FIG. 1, an optical filter may be located in front of the receiver 140 and configured to transmit light at one or more operating wavelengths of the light source 110 and attenuate light at surrounding wavelengths. For example, an optical filter may be a free-space spectral filter located in front of APD 400 of FIG. 10. This spectral filter may transmit light at the operating wavelength of the light source 110 (e.g., between approximately 1530 nm and 1560 nm) and attenuate light outside that wavelength range. As a more specific example, light with wavelengths of approximately 400-1530 nm or 1560-2000 nm may be attenuated by any suitable amount, such as for example, by at least 5 dB, 10 dB, 20 dB, 30 dB, or 40 dB.
  • Next, FIG. 11 illustrates an APD 502 coupled to an example pulse-detection circuit 504. The APD 502 can be similar to the APD 400 discussed above with reference to FIG. 10, or can be any other suitable detector. The pulse-detection circuit 504 can operate in the lidar system of FIG. 1 as part of the receiver 140. Further, the pulse-detection circuit 504 can operate in the receiver 164 of FIG. 2, the receiver 304 of FIG. 8, or any other suitable receiver. The pulse-detection circuit 504 alternatively can be implemented in the controller 150, the controller 306, or another suitable controller. In some implementations, parts of the pulse-detection circuit 504 can operate in a receiver and other parts of the pulse-detection circuit 504 can operate in a controller. For example, components 510 and 512 may be a part of the receiver 140, and components 514 and 516 may be a part of the controller 150.
  • The pulse-detection circuit 504 may include circuitry that receives a signal from a detector (e.g., an electrical current from the APD 502) and performs current-to-voltage conversion, signal amplification, sampling, filtering, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, time-to-digital conversion, pulse detection, threshold detection, rising-edge detection, or falling-edge detection. The pulse-detection circuit 504 may determine whether an optical pulse has been received by the APD 502 or may determine a time associated with receipt of an optical pulse by the APD 502. Additionally, the pulse-detection circuit 504 may determine a duration of a received optical pulse. In an example implementation, the pulse-detection circuit 504 includes a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) 510, a gain circuit 512, a comparator 514, and a time-to-digital converter (TDC) 516.
  • The TIA 510 may be configured to receive an electrical-current signal from the APD 502 and produce a voltage signal that corresponds to the received electrical-current signal. For example, in response to a received optical pulse, the APD 502 may produce a current pulse corresponding to the optical pulse. The TIA 510 may receive the current pulse from the APD 502 and produce a voltage pulse that corresponds to the received current pulse. The TIA 510 may also act as an electronic filter. For example, the TIA 510 may be configured as a low-pass filter that removes or attenuates high-frequency electrical noise by attenuating signals above a particular frequency (e.g., above 1 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz, 50 MHz, 100 MHz, 200 MHz, or any other suitable frequency).
  • The gain circuit 512 may be configured to amplify a voltage signal. As an example, the gain circuit 512 may include one or more voltage-amplification stages that amplify a voltage signal received from the TIA 510. For example, the gain circuit 512 may receive a voltage pulse from the TIA 510, and the gain circuit 512 may amplify the voltage pulse by any suitable amount, such as for example, by a gain of approximately 3 dB, 10 dB, 20 dB, 30 dB, 40 dB, or 50 dB. Additionally, the gain circuit 512 may also act as an electronic filter configured to remove or attenuate electrical noise.
  • The comparator 514 may be configured to receive a voltage signal from the TIA 510 or the gain circuit 512 and produce an electrical-edge signal (e.g., a rising edge or a falling edge) when the received voltage signal rises above or falls below a particular threshold voltage VT. As an example, when a received voltage rises above VT, the comparator 514 may produce a rising-edge digital-voltage signal (e.g., a signal that steps from approximately 0 V to approximately 2.5 V, 3.3 V, 5 V, or any other suitable digital-high level). As another example, when a received voltage falls below VT, the comparator 514 may produce a falling-edge digital-voltage signal (e.g., a signal that steps down from approximately 2.5 V, 3.3 V, 5 V, or any other suitable digital-high level to approximately 0 V). The voltage signal received by the comparator 514 may be received from the TIA 510 or the gain circuit 512 and may correspond to an electrical-current signal generated by the APD 502. For example, the voltage signal received by the comparator 514 may include a voltage pulse that corresponds to an electrical-current pulse produced by the APD 502 in response to receiving an optical pulse. The voltage signal received by the comparator 514 may be an analog signal, and an electrical-edge signal produced by the comparator 514 may be a digital signal.
  • The time-to-digital converter (TDC) 516 may be configured to receive an electrical-edge signal from the comparator 514 and determine an interval of time between emission of a pulse of light by the light source and receipt of the electrical-edge signal. The output of the TDC 516 may be a numerical value that corresponds to the time interval determined by the TDC 516. In some implementations, the TDC 516 has an internal counter or clock with any suitable period, such as for example, 5 ps, 10 ps, 15 ps, 20 ps, 30 ps, 50 ps, 100 ps, 0.5 ns, 1 ns, 2 ns, 5 ns, or 10 ns. The TDC 516 for example may have an internal counter or clock with a 20 ps period, and the TDC 516 may determine that an interval of time between emission and receipt of a pulse is equal to 25,000 time periods, which corresponds to a time interval of approximately 0.5 microseconds. Referring back to FIG. 1, the TDC 516 may send the numerical value “25000” to a processor or controller 150 of the lidar system 100, which may include a processor configured to determine a distance from the lidar system 100 to the target 130 based at least in part on an interval of time determined by a TDC 516. The processor may receive a numerical value (e.g., “25000”) from the TDC 516 and, based on the received value, the processor may determine the distance from the lidar system 100 to a target 130.
  • Using Acoustic Signals to Focus the Lidar System
  • FIG. 12 is a block diagram of an example computing system 600 for generating control signals for a lidar system based on acoustic signals. Generally speaking, the functionality of the computing system 600 can be implemented in a dedicated device, multiple dedicated devices, or one or more devices performing other functions in a lidar system or in an autonomous vehicle. As one example, the computing system 600 can be implemented in the vehicle controller 372 depicted in FIG. 9. As another example, the computing system 600 can be implemented in the controller 150 or 306. As yet another example, components 610 and 612 can be provided as a standalone acoustic source localization module, while the components 612 and 614 can be provided as a separate module for analyzing sound patterns. Further, some of the functionality of the computing system 600 can be implemented in a network server with which the vehicle controller 372 can communicate with a wireless communication link.
  • In this example implementation, the computing system 600 is communicatively coupled to the microphone array 392 (or the audio sensors 159A-C of FIG. 1, or any other suitable audio sensors), the lidar system 100, and the vehicle components 390 (see FIGS. 1 and 9).
  • The computing system 600 can include one or more processors 602, which can include one or more CPUs, one or more GPUs, or other types of processors. The computing system 600 also can include a non-transitory memory unit 604 storing software instructions that implement a localization module 610 and a sound pattern analysis module 612. The localization module 610 can implement any suitable acoustic localization techniques based on triangulation, trilateration, etc. The localization module 610 also can provide a description of the detected acoustic signal in any suitable format and provide the description to the sound pattern analysis module 612, which in turn can implement any suitable analog or digital signal processing techniques for comparing acoustic signatures to acoustic signals.
  • In addition to software instructions, the memory 604 can store a mapping 614 that specifies how various sound patterns are mapped to various actions to be applied to the lidar system. The sound pattern analysis module 612 can utilize the mapping 614 when analyzing acoustic signals. The mapping 614 can be implemented as one or more tables of a relational database, for example, or in any other suitable manner. The mapping 614 can include descriptions of sound patterns, or acoustic signatures, for various situations which an autonomous vehicle can encounter during operation. The descriptions can be stored in any suitable digital or analog format. Some of the examples of acoustic signatures can include the sound of tires screeching during abrupt breaking, the sound of the horn of a typical car, the sound of the horn of a large truck, the sound of a bell at a railroad crossing, the sound of a whistle at a pedestrian crossing, the sound of an impact during collision, various sounds for sirens of different types (e.g., ambulance, police, fire truck), etc.
  • For each acoustic signature, the mapping 614 can specify an action or a sequence of actions to be performed at the lidar system. For example, when the acoustic signature is that of a car abruptly breaking, and when the localization module 610 indicates that the abrupt breaking occurs in front of the autonomous vehicle in which the system 600 operates, the prescribed action may include increasing information density directly ahead of the autonomous vehicle at the lower portion of the vertical field of regard. It is noted that the sound of breaking may come from a source not currently visible to the lidar system (e.g., from a source several vehicles ahead of the autonomous vehicle), and that by collecting additional information within the region of interest 652, the lidar system can more quickly detect that the vehicle immediately ahead of the autonomous vehicle is also abruptly breaking, for example, and cause the vehicle controller to take appropriate defensive action.
  • As a more particular example, FIG. 13 illustrates an example region of interest 652 within a field of regard 650, which the mapping 614 can specify as a part of the action corresponding to the acoustic signature of abrupt breaking in front of the autonomous vehicle. The mapping 614 can specify for the region of interest 652 a certain angular width, a certain angular height, a certain size, or a certain positioning relative of the center of the field of regard 650. Further, the mapping 614 can indicate the period of time during which the region of interest 652 should remain active. Still further, the mapping 614 can indicate whether the region of interest 652 moves across the field of regard 650 or remains static within the field of regard 650. The angular width, angular height, size, or positioning of the region of interest 652 may be determined based on lidar data (e.g., point-cloud data) or data from another sensor (e.g., a camera). For example, an acoustic source localization system may determine the location of a source of an acoustic signal, and point-cloud data or a camera image may be used to determine that an object of interest (e.g., a vehicle in the distance) is the likely source of the acoustic signal. The size or location of the region of interest 652 may be specified to encompass all or part of the object of interest.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates another example region of interest 654 within the field of regard 650. According to the mapping 614, the region of interest 654 can correspond to a different acoustic signature, such as that of a police siren. Unlike the region of interest 652, the region of interest 654 moves across the field of regard 650 at a certain speed specified by the mapping 614. The regions 652 and 654 also may differ in size and initial positioning within the field of regard 650, as illustrated in FIGS. 13 and 14. In some implementations, a region of interest 654 may be transferred from one lidar system to another lidar system. For example, the source of an acoustic signal associated with the region of interest 654 may move across a first field of regard and into a second field of regard that partially overlaps or is adjacent to the first field of regard, and a controller may move the corresponding region of interest 654 from the first field of regard to the second field of regard. In FIG. 14, the lidar system 100 may move the region of interest 654 across the field of regard 650 in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal. The source of the acoustic signal may move outside the field of regard 650 or may move at least partially within a second field of regard of a second lidar system. The region of interest 654 may then be transferred to the second field of regard so that the second lidar system is used to track the movement of the source of the acoustic signal across the second field of regard.
  • For each region of interest, the lidar system 100 can increase the pulse rate, reduce scan speed, and/or modify the scan pattern to increase information density in the region of interest. In some implementations, the mapping 614 can specify which operational parameters the lidar system 100 is to modify when scanning the region of interest. In other implementations, it is the controller 150 in the lidar system 100 that determines how the region of interest should be scanned relative to other regions of the field of regard. As one example, the lidar system 100 can increase the pulse rate when scanning the region of interest, so that the pulse rate is higher for the region of interest relative to the remainder of the field of regard. As another example, the lidar system 100 can decrease the scan speed when scanning the region of interest. At the same pulse rate, decreasing the scan speed results in higher pixel density. More generally, the lidar system 100 can focus on regions of interest to obtain more data or more accurate data by varying one or more of the pulse rate, scan speed, scan pattern (e.g., by retracing the region of interest without retracing the other regions), etc.
  • Next, FIG. 15 depicts a flow diagram of an example method 700 for modifying operation of a lidar system in view of acoustic signals. For convenience, the method 700 is discussed with reference to the computing system 600 discussed above, but in general the method 700 can be implemented in any suitable system.
  • The method 700 begins at block 702, where an acoustic signal with an amplitude exceeding a certain threshold value is detected. The threshold value can be selected so as to exceed the ambient noise level. For example, the threshold in various implementations can be 90 decibel, 100 decibel, 110 decibel, etc. In some implementations, the computing system 600 dynamically adjusts the threshold value in view of the ambient noise level. For example, the computing system 600 can decrease the threshold value at night to improve sensitivity to acoustic signals, and increase the threshold value during the day (or in busy places) to reduce the number of false positives.
  • The probable source of the acoustic signal is localized at block 704. As discussed above, any suitable technique such as triangulation, trilateration, etc. can be used to estimate the direction and, when possible, the distance to the source of the signal. Then, at block 706, the acoustic signal can be analyzed to determine the likely type of the source: e.g., a breaking car, an ambulance, a police car.
  • At block 708, one or more operational parameters of the lidar system are modified in view of the determined probable source and its location. To this end, the computing system 600 can identify one or several regions of interest within the field of regard. As discussed above, the one or more operational parameters can include pulse rate, scan rate, scan pattern, etc. The results of processing the acoustic signal at block 704 and 708 can be used in conjunction with other signals to modify the scan of a field of regard. For example, the lidar system can receive other signals, such as those based on the results of image processing performed on point clouds generated during previous scans, or those from the vehicle controller executing a maneuver, and modify one or more operational parameters in view of multiple signals. As a more specific example, the lidar system can receive, from the vehicle controller, a request to increase pixel density in a certain region of interest within the field of regard. The request may be related to the upcoming left turn, for example. At substantially the same time, the lidar system can receive a request to increase pixel density in a different region of interest determined based on acoustic signal. Depending on the implementation, the lidar system can prioritize one region of interest over the other region of interest in view of the sources of the request, attempt to focus on both regions of interest, determine that neither region of interest should be the subject of a focus, etc.
  • General Considerations
  • In some cases, a computing device may be used to implement various modules, circuits, systems, methods, or algorithm steps disclosed herein. As an example, all or part of a module, circuit, system, method, or algorithm disclosed herein may be implemented or performed by a general-purpose single- or multi-chip processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an ASIC, a FPGA, any other suitable programmable-logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any suitable combination thereof. A general-purpose processor may be a microprocessor, or, any conventional processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. A processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing devices, e.g., a combination of a DSP and a microprocessor, a plurality of microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such configuration.
  • In particular embodiments, one or more implementations of the subject matter described herein may be implemented as one or more computer programs (e.g., one or more modules of computer-program instructions encoded or stored on a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium). As an example, the steps of a method or algorithm disclosed herein may be implemented in a processor-executable software module which may reside on a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium. In particular embodiments, a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium may include any suitable storage medium that may be used to store or transfer computer software and that may be accessed by a computer system. Herein, a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium or media may include one or more semiconductor-based or other integrated circuits (ICs) (such, as for example, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or application-specific ICs (ASICs)), hard disk drives (HDDs), hybrid hard drives (HHDs), optical discs (e.g., compact discs (CDs), CD-ROM, digital versatile discs (DVDs), blue-ray discs, or laser discs), optical disc drives (ODDs), magneto-optical discs, magneto-optical drives, floppy diskettes, floppy disk drives (FDDs), magnetic tapes, flash memories, solid-state drives (SSDs), RAM, RAM-drives, ROM, SECURE DIGITAL cards or drives, any other suitable computer-readable non-transitory storage media, or any suitable combination of two or more of these, where appropriate. A computer-readable non-transitory storage medium may be volatile, non-volatile, or a combination of volatile and non-volatile, where appropriate.
  • In some cases, certain features described herein in the context of separate implementations may also be combined and implemented in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation may also be implemented in multiple implementations separately or in any suitable sub-combination. Moreover, although features may be described above as acting in certain combinations and even initially claimed as such, one or more features from a claimed combination may in some cases be excised from the combination, and the claimed combination may be directed to a sub-combination or variation of a sub-combination.
  • While operations may be depicted in the drawings as occurring in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, or that all operations be performed. Further, the drawings may schematically depict one more example processes or methods in the form of a flow diagram or a sequence diagram. However, other operations that are not depicted may be incorporated in the example processes or methods that are schematically illustrated. For example, one or more additional operations may be performed before, after, simultaneously with, or between any of the illustrated operations. Moreover, one or more operations depicted in a diagram may be repeated, where appropriate. Additionally, operations depicted in a diagram may be performed in any suitable order. Furthermore, although particular components, devices, or systems are described herein as carrying out particular operations, any suitable combination of any suitable components, devices, or systems may be used to carry out any suitable operation or combination of operations. In certain circumstances, multitasking or parallel processing operations may be performed. Moreover, the separation of various system components in the implementations described herein should not be understood as requiring such separation in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described program components and systems may be integrated together in a single software product or packaged into multiple software products.
  • Various implementations have been described in connection with the accompanying drawings. However, it should be understood that the figures may not necessarily be drawn to scale. As an example, distances or angles depicted in the figures are illustrative and may not necessarily bear an exact relationship to actual dimensions or layout of the devices illustrated.
  • The scope of this disclosure encompasses all changes, substitutions, variations, alterations, and modifications to the example embodiments described or illustrated herein that a person having ordinary skill in the art would comprehend. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to the example embodiments described or illustrated herein. Moreover, although this disclosure describes or illustrates respective embodiments herein as including particular components, elements, functions, operations, or steps, any of these embodiments may include any combination or permutation of any of the components, elements, functions, operations, or steps described or illustrated anywhere herein that a person having ordinary skill in the art would comprehend.
  • The term “or” as used herein is to be interpreted as an inclusive or meaning any one or any combination, unless expressly indicated otherwise or indicated otherwise by context. Therefore, herein, the expression “A or B” means “A, B, or both A and B.” As another example, herein, “A, B or C” means at least one of the following: A; B; C; A and B; A and C; B and C; A, B and C. An exception to this definition will occur if a combination of elements, devices, steps, or operations is in some way inherently mutually exclusive.
  • As used herein, words of approximation such as, without limitation, “approximately, “substantially,” or “about” refer to a condition that when so modified is understood to not necessarily be absolute or perfect but would be considered close enough to those of ordinary skill in the art to warrant designating the condition as being present. The extent to which the description may vary will depend on how great a change can be instituted and still have one of ordinary skill in the art recognize the modified feature as having the required characteristics or capabilities of the unmodified feature. In general, but subject to the preceding discussion, a numerical value herein that is modified by a word of approximation such as “approximately” may vary from the stated value by ±0.5%, ±1%, ±2%, ±3%, ±4%, ±5%, ±10%, ±12%, or ±15%.
  • As used herein, the terms “first,” “second,” “third,” etc. may be used as labels for nouns that they precede, and these terms may not necessarily imply a particular ordering (e.g., a particular spatial, temporal, or logical ordering). As an example, a system may be described as determining a “first result” and a “second result,” and the terms “first” and “second” may not necessarily imply that the first result is determined before the second result.
  • As used herein, the terms “based on” and “based at least in part on” may be used to describe or present one or more factors that affect a determination, and these terms may not exclude additional factors that may affect a determination. A determination may be based solely on those factors which are presented or may be based at least in part on those factors. The phrase “determine A based on B” indicates that B is a factor that affects the determination of A. In some instances, other factors may also contribute to the determination of A. In other instances, A may be determined based solely on B.

Claims (23)

What is claimed is:
1. A system comprising:
an acoustic source localization system configured to (i) detect an acoustic signal and (ii) determine a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the system;
a lidar system including:
a light source configured to emit pulses of light,
a scanner configured to scan a field of regard of the lidar system according to a scan pattern, and
a detector configured to detect light from some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard; and
a controller communicatively coupled to the acoustic source localization system and the lidar system, the controller configured to (i) receive, from the acoustic source localization system, an indication of the determined location, (ii) identify a region of interest within the field of regard of the lidar system, the region of interest including the determined location of the source of the acoustic signal, and (iii) cause the lidar system to obtain more data within the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller is further configured to (iv) determine, using indications received from the acoustic source localization system, a movement of the source of the acoustic signal across the field of regard, (v) follow the movement by continuously modifying the region of interest, so that the region of interest moves across the field of regard in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal, and (vi) cause the lidar system to obtain more data at different respective positions of the moving region of interest.
3. The system of claim 2, further comprising a second lidar system configured to scan a second field of regard, wherein the controller is further configured to (vii) determine that the source of the acoustic signal has moved at least partially within the second field of regard, (viii) transfer the region of interest to the second field of regard, and (ix) follow the movement of the source of the acoustic signal so that the region of interest moves across the second field of regard in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller provides a signal to the lidar system indicating a size of the region of interest and a duration of a time interval during which the lidar system is to obtain more data relative to other regions within the field of regard.
5. The system of claim 4, wherein the controller is further configured to process a pattern of the detected acoustic signal to determine a likely type of an object or event to which the acoustic signal corresponds, and select at least one of the size of the region of interest and the duration of the time interval based at least in part on the determined likely type of the object or event.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system increases a pulse rate at which the light source emits the pulses of light.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system decreases a scan rate when the scanner scans the region of interest.
8. The system of claim 1, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system modifies the scan pattern to increase pixel density within the region of interest.
9. A method for scanning a field of regard of a lidar system, the method comprising:
emitting light pulses by a light source in the lidar system;
scanning, by a scanner in the lidar system, the field of regard of the lidar system in accordance with a certain scan pattern, including directing the light pulses toward different points within the field of regard;
receiving an acoustic signal;
determining a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the lidar system;
identifying a region of interest within the field of regard based at least in part on the determined location of the source of the sound;
modifying at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data within the identified region of interest, relative to other regions within the field of regard; and
detecting light from at least some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard.
10. The method of claim 8, further comprising:
determining a movement of the source of the acoustic signal across the field of regard;
following the movement by continuously modifying the region of interest, so that the region of interest moves across the field of regard in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal, and
modifying the at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data at different respective positions of the moving region of interest.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising:
determining that the source of the acoustic signal has moved at least partially within a second field of regard of a second lidar system;
transferring the region of interest to the second field of regard; and
following the movement of the source of the acoustic signal so that the region of interest moves across the second field of regard in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal.
12. The method of claim 9, wherein identifying the region of interest within the field of regard includes determining a size of the region and a duration of a time interval during which the lidar system is to obtain more data relative to other regions within the field of regard.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein determining the size of the region and the duration of a time interval includes determining a likely type of an object or event to which the acoustic signal corresponds, and select at least one of the size of the region of interest and the duration of the time interval based at least in part on the determined likely type of the object or event.
14. The method of claim 9, wherein modifying the at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data within the identified region of interest includes increasing a pulse rate at which the light source emits the pulses of light.
15. The method of claim 9, wherein modifying the at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data within the identified region of interest includes decreasing a scan rate when the scanner scans the region of interest.
16. The method of claim 9, wherein modifying the at least one operational parameter of the lidar system to obtain more data within the identified region of interest includes modifying the scan pattern to increase pixel density within the region of interest.
17. An autonomous vehicle comprising:
one or more components configured to maneuver the autonomous vehicle;
an acoustic source localization system configured to (i) detect an acoustic signal and (ii) determine a location of a source of the acoustic signal relative to the autonomous vehicle;
a lidar system including:
a light source configured to emit pulses of light,
a scanner configured to scan a field of regard of the lidar system according to a scan pattern, and
a detector configured to detect light from some of the light pulses scattered by one or more remote targets to generate respective pixels in a point cloud representing objects within the field of regard; and
a controller communicatively coupled to the one or more components configured to maneuver the autonomous vehicle, the acoustic source localization system, and the lidar system, the controller configured to (i) receive, from the acoustic source localization system, an indication of the determined location, (ii) identify a region of interest within the field of regard of the lidar system, the region of interest including the determined location of the source of the acoustic signal, (iii) cause the lidar system to obtain more data within the region of interest relative to other regions within the field of regard, and (iv) maneuver the autonomous vehicle based at least in part on the point cloud generated by the lidar system.
18. The autonomous vehicle of claim 17, wherein the controller is further configured to (iv) determine, using indications received from the acoustic source localization system, a movement of the source of the acoustic signal across the field of regard, (v) follow the movement by continuously modifying the region of interest, so that the region of interest moves across the field of regard in accordance with the movement of the source of the acoustic signal, and (vi) cause the lidar system to obtain more data at different respective positions of the moving region of interest.
19. The autonomous vehicle of claim 17, wherein the controller provides a signal to the lidar system indicating a size of the region of interest and a duration of a time interval during which the lidar system is to obtain more data relative to other regions within the field of regard.
20. The autonomous vehicle of claim 19, wherein the controller is further configured to process a pattern of the detected acoustic signal to determine a likely type of an object or event to which the acoustic signal corresponds, and select at least one of the size of the region of interest and the duration of the time interval based at least in part on the determined likely type of the object or event.
21. The autonomous vehicle of claim 17, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system increases a pulse rate at which the light source emits the pulses of light.
22. The autonomous vehicle of claim 17, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system decreases a scan rate when the scanner scans the region of interest.
23. The autonomous vehicle of claim 17, wherein to obtain more data within the region of interest, the lidar system modifies the scan pattern to increase pixel density within the region of interest.
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