US20180066590A1 - Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine - Google Patents

Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine Download PDF

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Publication number
US20180066590A1
US20180066590A1 US15/811,251 US201715811251A US2018066590A1 US 20180066590 A1 US20180066590 A1 US 20180066590A1 US 201715811251 A US201715811251 A US 201715811251A US 2018066590 A1 US2018066590 A1 US 2018066590A1
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Prior art keywords
fan
gear
gas turbine
low pressure
engine
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US15/811,251
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William G. Sheridan
Karl L. Hasel
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Raytheon Technologies Corp
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United Technologies Corp
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Priority to US201261706212P priority Critical
Priority to US13/758,075 priority patent/US8753065B2/en
Priority to PCT/US2013/061115 priority patent/WO2014120286A1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=51262895&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=US20180066590(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Priority to US15/337,171 priority patent/US9816443B2/en
Application filed by United Technologies Corp filed Critical United Technologies Corp
Priority to US15/811,251 priority patent/US20180066590A1/en
Publication of US20180066590A1 publication Critical patent/US20180066590A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/36Power transmission arrangements between the different shafts of the gas turbine plant, or between the gas-turbine plant and the power user
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D1/00Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines
    • F01D1/02Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines
    • F01D1/04Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines traversed by the working-fluid substantially axially
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D25/00Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01D25/16Arrangement of bearings; Supporting or mounting bearings in casings
    • F01D25/162Bearing supports
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D9/00Stators
    • F01D9/02Nozzles; Nozzle boxes; Stator blades; Guide conduits, e.g. individual nozzles
    • F01D9/04Nozzles; Nozzle boxes; Stator blades; Guide conduits, e.g. individual nozzles forming ring or sector
    • F01D9/041Nozzles; Nozzle boxes; Stator blades; Guide conduits, e.g. individual nozzles forming ring or sector using blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid having a turbine driving a compressor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C9/00Controlling gas-turbine plants; Controlling fuel supply in air- breathing jet-propulsion plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K3/00Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan
    • F02K3/02Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber
    • F02K3/04Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type
    • F02K3/06Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type with front fan
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K3/00Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan
    • F02K3/02Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber
    • F02K3/04Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type
    • F02K3/068Plants including a gas turbine driving a compressor or a ducted fan in which part of the working fluid by-passes the turbine and combustion chamber the plant including ducted fans, i.e. fans with high volume, low pressure outputs, for augmenting the jet thrust, e.g. of double-flow type being characterised by a short axial length relative to the diameter
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2220/00Application
    • F05D2220/30Application in turbines
    • F05D2220/36Application in turbines specially adapted for the fan of turbofan engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/10Stators
    • F05D2240/12Fluid guiding means, e.g. vanes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/20Rotors
    • F05D2240/24Rotors for turbines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/50Bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2260/00Function
    • F05D2260/40Transmission of power
    • F05D2260/403Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components
    • F05D2260/4031Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components as in toothed gearing
    • F05D2260/40311Transmission of power through the shape of the drive components as in toothed gearing of the epicyclical, planetary or differential type

Abstract

In one exemplary embodiment, a gas turbine engine includes a fan section having a fan with a low corrected fan tip speed less than 1400 ft/sec. A bypass ratio is greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0. A fan pressure ratio is less than 1.48. A speed reduction device includes a gear system with a gear ratio of at least 2.6 and less than or equal to 4.1. A low pressure turbine including three stages and a high pressure turbine including two stages. The low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level. At least one of a plurality of fan blades is constrained by a second stress level and has a fan tip speed boundary condition. The gear ratio is configured such that the at least one fan blade does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This disclosure is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/337,171 filed Oct. 28, 2016, which is a continuation of PCT/U.S.2013/061115 filed on Sep. 23, 2013, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/758,075 filed on Feb. 4, 2013, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,753,065 granted on Jun. 17, 2014, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/706,212 filed on Sep. 27, 2012.
  • BACKGROUND
  • This disclosure relates to a gas turbine engine, and more particularly to a method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine.
  • A gas turbine engine may include a fan section, a compressor section, a combustor section, and a turbine section. Air entering the compressor section is compressed and delivered into the combustor section where it is mixed with fuel and ignited to generate a high-speed exhaust gas flow. The high-speed exhaust gas flow expands through the turbine section to drive the compressor and the fan section. Among other variations, the compressor section can include low and high pressure compressors, and the turbine section can include low and high pressure turbines.
  • Typically, a high pressure turbine drives a high pressure compressor through an outer shaft to form a high spool, and a low pressure turbine drives a low pressure compressor through an inner shaft to form a low spool. The fan section may also be driven by the inner shaft. A direct drive gas turbine engine may include a fan section driven by the low spool such that a low pressure compressor, low pressure turbine, and fan section rotate at a common speed in a common direction.
  • A speed reduction device, which may be a fan drive gear system or other mechanism, may be utilized to drive the fan section such that the fan section may rotate at a speed different than the turbine section. This allows for an overall increase in propulsive efficiency of the engine. In such engine architectures, a shaft driven by one of the turbine sections provides an input to the speed reduction device that drives the fan section at a reduced speed such that both the turbine section and the fan section can rotate at closer to optimal speeds.
  • Although gas turbine engines utilizing speed change mechanisms are generally known to be capable of improved propulsive efficiency relative to conventional engines, gas turbine engine manufacturers continue to seek further improvements to engine performance including improvements to thermal, transfer and propulsive efficiencies.
  • SUMMARY
  • In one exemplary embodiment, a gas turbine engine includes an engine centerline longitudinal axis. A fan section includes a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. The fan has a low corrected fan tip speed less than 1400 ft/sec. The low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)] 0.5. Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine. A bypass ratio is greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0. A fan pressure ratio is less than 1.48. The fan pressure ratio is measured across a fan blade alone. A speed reduction device includes a gear system with a gear ratio of at least 2.6 and less than or equal to 4.1. A low pressure turbine is in communication with a first shaft. A high pressure turbine is in communication with a second shaft. The first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. The first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device. The low pressure turbine includes at least three stages. The low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level. At least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan is constrained by a second stress level and has a fan tip speed boundary condition. The gear ratio is configured such that in operation the at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level. At least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level. The high pressure turbine includes two stages.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the bypass ratio is greater than 13 and less than 20.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low pressure turbine includes at least four stages and no more than eight stages.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear and a sun gear. The gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low pressure turbine is a four-stage low pressure turbine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the fan pressure ratio is less than 1.38.
  • In another exemplary embodiment, a gas turbine engine includes an engine centerline longitudinal axis. A fan section includes a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. A bypass ratio is greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0. A fan pressure ratio less than 1.52. The fan pressure ratio is measured across a fan blade alone. A speed reduction device includes a gear system. A low pressure turbine is in communication with a first shaft. A high pressure turbine is in communication with a second shaft. The first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. The first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device. The low pressure turbine includes at last three stages. The low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level. At least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan is constrained by a second stress level and has a fan tip speed boundary condition. The star gear ratio is configured such that in operation at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level and at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level. The high pressure turbine includes two stages.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low pressure turbine is a five-stage low pressure turbine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, a low pressure compressor including three stages. The low pressure turbine is configured to drive the low pressure compressor.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low pressure turbine includes at least three stages and no more than four stages.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low pressure turbine is a four-stage low pressure turbine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, a low corrected fan tip speed does not exceed 1400 ft/sec. The low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5. Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, a low pressure compressor includes three stages. The low pressure turbine is configured to drive the low pressure compressor.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, a high pressure compressor includes eight stages. The high pressure turbine is configured to drive the high pressure compressor.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, a sun gear, and a star gear ratio. The star gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the star gear system further comprises five intermediate gears.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, a mid-turbine frame is arranged between the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine. The mid-turbine frame supports at least one of the plurality of bearing systems and includes one or more airfoils.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the low corrected fan tip speed is less than 1150 ft/sec.
  • In another exemplary embodiment, a gas turbine engine includes an engine centerline longitudinal axis. A fan section includes a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. A low corrected fan tip speed is less than 1150 ft/sec. The low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5. Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine. A bypass ratio is greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0. A speed reduction device comprises a gear system with a gear reduction ratio. A first turbine is in communication with a first shaft and a second turbine is in communication with a second shaft. The first shaft and second shaft are concentric and are mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. The first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device. The first turbine includes at least three stages and no more than four stages. The first turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level. At least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan is constrained by a second stress level and has a fan tip speed boundary condition. The gear reduction ratio is configured such that in operation at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level. At least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the second turbine is a two-stage second turbine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the first turbine is a three-stage first turbine.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear and a sun gear. The gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear and the gear reduction ratio is less than or equal to 4.1.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear reduction ratio is at least 2.6.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear and a sun gear. The gear reduction ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the first turbine is a four-stage first turbine.
  • In another exemplary embodiment, a gas turbine engine includes an engine centerline longitudinal axis. A fan section includes a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. There is a low corrected fan tip speed 1400 ft/sec. The low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5. Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine. A bypass ratio is greater than 11 and less than 22. A speed reduction device comprising a gear system with a gear reduction ratio. A low pressure turbine is in communication with a first shaft. A high pressure turbine is in communication with a second shaft. The first shaft and second shaft are concentric and are mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis. The first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device. The low pressure turbine includes at least three stages and no more than 8 stages. The low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level. At least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan is constrained by a second stress level and has a fan tip speed boundary condition. The gear reduction ratio is configured such that in operation the fan blade does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level and at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the high pressure turbine includes two stages.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear reduction ratio is at least 2.6 and less than or equal to 4.1.
  • In a further embodiment of any of the above, the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear and a sun gear. The gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic, cross-sectional view of an example gas turbine engine.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a schematic view of one configuration of a low speed spool that can be incorporated into a gas turbine engine.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a fan drive gear system that can be incorporated into a gas turbine engine.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a gas turbine engine 20. The exemplary gas turbine engine 20 is a two-spool turbofan engine that generally incorporates a fan section 22, a compressor section 24, a combustor section 26 and a turbine section 28. Alternative engines might include an augmentor section (not shown) among other systems or features. The fan section 22 drives air along a bypass flow path B, while the compressor section 24 drives air along a core flow path C for compression and communication into the combustor section 26. The hot combustion gases generated in the combustor section 26 are expanded through the turbine section 28. Although depicted as a two-spool turbofan gas turbine engine in the disclosed non-limiting embodiment, it should be understood that the concepts described herein are not limited to two-spool turbofan engines and these teachings could extend to other types of engines, including but not limited to, three-spool engine architectures.
  • The exemplary gas turbine engine 20 generally includes a low speed spool 30 and a high speed spool 32 mounted for rotation about an engine centerline longitudinal axis A. The low speed spool 30 and the high speed spool 32 may be mounted relative to an engine static structure 33 via several bearing systems 31. It should be understood that other bearing systems 31 may alternatively or additionally be provided, and the location of bearing systems 31 may be varied as appropriate to the application.
  • The low speed spool 30 generally includes an inner shaft 34 that interconnects a fan 36, a low pressure compressor 38 and a low pressure turbine 39. The inner shaft 34 can be connected to the fan 36 through a speed change mechanism, which in exemplary gas turbine engine 20 is illustrated as a geared architecture 45, such as a fan drive gear system 50 (see FIGS. 2 and 3). The speed change mechanism drives the fan 36 at a lower speed than the low speed spool 30. The high speed spool 32 includes an outer shaft 35 that interconnects a high pressure compressor 37 and a high pressure turbine 40. In this embodiment, the inner shaft 34 and the outer shaft 35 are supported at various axial locations by bearing systems 31 positioned within the engine static structure 33.
  • A combustor 42 is arranged in exemplary gas turbine 20 between the high pressure compressor 37 and the high pressure turbine 40. A mid-turbine frame 44 may be arranged generally between the high pressure turbine 40 and the low pressure turbine 39. The mid-turbine frame 44 can support one or more bearing systems 31 of the turbine section 28. The mid-turbine frame 44 may include one or more airfoils 46 that extend within the core flow path C. It will be appreciated that each of the positions of the fan section 22, compressor section 24, combustor section 26, turbine section 28, and fan drive gear system 50 may be varied. For example, gear system 50 may be located aft of combustor section 26 or even aft of turbine section 28, and fan section 22 may be positioned forward or aft of the location of gear system 50.
  • The inner shaft 34 and the outer shaft 35 are concentric and rotate via the bearing systems 31 about the engine centerline longitudinal axis A, which is co-linear with their longitudinal axes. The core airflow is compressed by the low pressure compressor 38 and the high pressure compressor 37, is mixed with fuel and burned in the combustor 42, and is then expanded over the high pressure turbine 40 and the low pressure turbine 39. The high pressure turbine 40 and the low pressure turbine 39 rotationally drive the respective high speed spool 32 and the low speed spool 30 in response to the expansion.
  • In a non-limiting embodiment, the gas turbine engine 20 is a high-bypass geared aircraft engine. In a further example, the gas turbine engine 20 bypass ratio is greater than about six (6:1). The geared architecture 45 can include an epicyclic gear train, such as a planetary gear system, a star gear system, or other gear system. The geared architecture 45 enables operation of the low speed spool 30 at higher speeds, which can enable an increase in the operational efficiency of the low pressure compressor 38 and low pressure turbine 39, and render increased pressure in a fewer number of stages.
  • The pressure ratio of the low pressure turbine 39 can be pressure measured prior to the inlet of the low pressure turbine 39 as related to the pressure at the outlet of the low pressure turbine 39 and prior to an exhaust nozzle of the gas turbine engine 20. In one non-limiting embodiment, the bypass ratio of the gas turbine engine 20 is greater than about ten (10:1), the fan diameter is significantly larger than that of the low pressure compressor 38, and the low pressure turbine 39 has a pressure ratio that is greater than about five (5:1). In another non-limiting embodiment, the bypass ratio is greater than 11 and less than 22, or greater than 13 and less than 20. It should be understood, however, that the above parameters are only exemplary of a geared architecture engine or other engine using a speed change mechanism, and that the present disclosure is applicable to other gas turbine engines, including direct drive turbofans. In one non-limiting embodiment, the low pressure turbine 39 includes at least one stage and no more than eight stages, or at least three stages and no more than six stages. In another non-limiting embodiment, the low pressure turbine 39 includes at least three stages and no more than four stages.
  • In this embodiment of the exemplary gas turbine engine 20, a significant amount of thrust is provided by the bypass flow path B due to the high bypass ratio. The fan section 22 of the gas turbine engine 20 is designed for a particular flight condition—typically cruise at about 0.8 Mach and about 35,000 feet. This flight condition, with the gas turbine engine 20 at its best fuel consumption, is also known as bucket cruise Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC). TSFC is an industry standard parameter of fuel consumption per unit of thrust.
  • Fan Pressure Ratio is the pressure ratio across a blade of the fan section 22 without the use of a Fan Exit Guide Vane system. The low Fan Pressure Ratio according to one non-limiting embodiment of the example gas turbine engine 20 is less than 1.45. In another non-limiting embodiment of the example gas turbine engine 20, the Fan Pressure Ratio is less than 1.38 and greater than 1.25. In another non-limiting embodiment, the fan pressure ratio is less than 1.48. In another non-limiting embodiment, the fan pressure ratio is less than 1.52. In another non-limiting embodiment, the fan pressure ratio is less than 1.7. Low Corrected Fan Tip Speed is the actual fan tip speed divided by an industry standard temperature correction of [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5, where T represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine. The Low Corrected Fan Tip Speed according to one non-limiting embodiment of the example gas turbine engine 20 is less than about 1150 fps (351 m/s). The Low Corrected Fan Tip Speed according to another non-limiting embodiment of the example gas turbine engine 20 is less than about 1400 fps (427 m/s). The Low Corrected Fan Tip Speed according to another non-limiting embodiment of the example gas turbine engine 20 is greater than about 1000 fps (305 m/s).
  • FIG. 2 schematically illustrates the low speed spool 30 of the gas turbine engine 20. The low speed spool 30 includes the fan 36, the low pressure compressor 38, and the low pressure turbine 39. The inner shaft 34 interconnects the fan 36, the low pressure compressor 38, and the low pressure turbine 39. The inner shaft 34 is connected to the fan 36 through the fan drive gear system 50. In this embodiment, the fan drive gear system 50 provides for counter-rotation of the low pressure turbine 39 and the fan 36. For example, the fan 36 rotates in a first direction D1, whereas the low pressure turbine 39 rotates in a second direction D2 that is opposite of the first direction D1.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates one example embodiment of the fan drive gear system 50 incorporated into the gas turbine engine 20 to provide for counter-rotation of the fan 36 and the low pressure turbine 39. In this embodiment, the fan drive gear system 50 includes a star gear system with a sun gear 52, a ring gear 54 disposed about the sun gear 52, and a plurality of star gears 56 having journal bearings 57 positioned between the sun gear 52 and the ring gear 54. A fixed carrier 58 carries and is attached to each of the star gears 56. In this embodiment, the fixed carrier 58 does not rotate and is connected to a grounded structure 55 of the gas turbine engine 20.
  • The sun gear 52 receives an input from the low pressure turbine 39 (see FIG. 2) and rotates in the first direction D1 thereby turning the plurality of star gears 56 in a second direction D2 that is opposite of the first direction D1. Movement of the plurality of star gears 56 is transmitted to the ring gear 54 which rotates in the second direction D2 opposite from the first direction D1 of the sun gear 52. The ring gear 54 is connected to the fan 36 for rotating the fan 36 (see FIG. 2) in the second direction D2.
  • A star system gear ratio of the fan drive gear system 50 is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear 54 and dividing that diameter by a diameter of the sun gear 52. In one embodiment, the star system gear ratio of the geared architecture 45 is between 1.5 and 4.1. In another embodiment, the system gear ratio of the fan drive gear system 50 is between 2.6 and 4.1. When the star system gear ratio is below 1.5, the sun gear 52 is relatively much larger than the star gears 56. This size differential reduces the load the star gears 56 are capable of carrying because of the reduction in size of the star gear journal bearings 57. When the star system gear ratio is above 4.1, the sun gear 52 may be much smaller than the star gears 56. This size differential increases the size of the star gear 56 journal bearings 57 but reduces the load the sun gear 52 is capable of carrying because of its reduced size and number of teeth. Alternatively, roller bearings could be used in place of journal bearings 57.
  • Improving performance of the gas turbine engine 20 begins by determining fan tip speed boundary conditions for at least one fan blade of the fan 36 to define the speed of the tip of the fan blade. The maximum fan diameter is determined based on the projected fuel burn derived from balancing engine efficiency, mass of air through the bypass flow path B, and engine weight increase due to the size of the fan blades.
  • Boundary conditions are then determined for the rotor of each stage of the low pressure turbine 39 to define the speed of the rotor tip and to define the size of the rotor and the number of stages in the low pressure turbine 39 based on the efficiency of low pressure turbine 39 and the low pressure compressor 38.
  • Constraints regarding stress levels in the rotor and the fan blade are utilized to determine if the rotary speed of the fan 36 and the low pressure turbine 39 will meet a desired number of operating life cycles. If the stress levels in the rotor or the fan blade are too high, the gear ratio of the fan drive gear system 50 can be lowered and the number of stages of the low pressure turbine 39 or annular area of the low pressure turbine 39 can be increased.
  • Although the different non-limiting embodiments are illustrated as having specific components, the embodiments of this disclosure are not limited to those particular combinations. It is possible to use some of the components or features from any of the non-limiting embodiments in combination with features or components from any of the other non-limiting embodiments.
  • It should be understood that like reference numerals identify corresponding or similar elements throughout the several drawings. It should also be understood that although a particular component arrangement is disclosed and illustrated in these exemplary embodiments, other arrangements could also benefit from the teachings of this disclosure.
  • The foregoing description shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in any limiting sense. A worker of ordinary skill in the art would understand that certain modifications could come within the scope of this disclosure. For these reasons, the following claim should be studied to determine the true scope and content of this disclosure.

Claims (29)

What is claimed is:
1. A gas turbine engine comprising:
an engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a fan section including a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis, wherein the fan has a low corrected fan tip speed less than 1400 ft/sec, wherein the low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5, where Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine;
a bypass ratio greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0;
a fan pressure ratio less than 1.48, wherein the fan pressure ratio is measured across a fan blade alone;
a speed reduction device comprising a gear system with a gear ratio of at least 2.6 and less than or equal to 4.1;
a low pressure turbine in communication with a first shaft;
a high pressure turbine in communication with a second shaft;
wherein the first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis, and the first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device;
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least three stages;
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level, at least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan constrained by a second stress level and having a fan tip speed boundary condition, and the gear ratio is configured such that in operation the at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level, and the at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level; and
wherein the high pressure turbine includes two stages.
2. The gas turbine engine of claim 1, wherein the bypass ratio is greater than 13 and less than 20.
3. The gas turbine engine of claim 2, wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least four stages and no more than eight stages.
4. The gas turbine engine of claim 3, wherein the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, and a sun gear, wherein the gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
5. The gas turbine engine of claim 4, wherein the low pressure turbine is a four-stage low pressure turbine.
6. The gas turbine engine of claim 4, wherein the fan pressure ratio is less than 1.38.
7. A gas turbine engine comprising:
an engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a fan section including a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a bypass ratio greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0;
a fan pressure ratio less than 1.52, wherein the fan pressure ratio is measured across a fan blade alone;
a speed reduction device comprising a gear system;
a low pressure turbine in communication with a first shaft; and
a high pressure turbine in communication with a second shaft;
wherein the first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis, and the first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device;
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at last three stages;
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level, at least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan constrained by a second stress level and having a fan tip speed boundary condition, and the star gear ratio is configured such that in operation the at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level, and the at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level; and
wherein the high pressure turbine includes two stages.
8. The gas turbine engine of claim 7, wherein the low pressure turbine is a five-stage low pressure turbine.
9. The gas turbine engine of claim 7, further comprising a low pressure compressor including three stages, wherein the low pressure turbine is configured to drive the low pressure compressor.
10. The gas turbine engine of claim 7, wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least three stages and no more than four stages.
11. The gas turbine engine of claim 10, wherein the low pressure turbine is a four-stage low pressure turbine.
12. The gas turbine engine of claim 11, further comprising a low corrected fan tip speed that does not exceed 1400 ft/sec, wherein the low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5, where Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine.
13. The gas turbine engine of claim 12, further comprising a low pressure compressor including three stages, wherein the low pressure turbine is configured to drive the low pressure compressor.
14. The gas turbine engine of claim 13, further comprising a high pressure compressor including eight stages, wherein the high pressure turbine is configured to drive the high pressure compressor.
15. The gas turbine engine of claim 12, wherein the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, a sun gear, and a star gear ratio, and the star gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
16. The gas turbine engine of claim 15, the star gear system further comprising five intermediate gears.
17. The gas turbine engine of claim 16, further comprising a mid-turbine frame arranged between the high pressure turbine and the low pressure turbine, wherein the mid-turbine frame supports at least one of the plurality of bearing systems and includes one or more airfoils.
18. The gas turbine engine of claim 15, wherein the low corrected fan tip speed is less than 1150 ft/sec.
19. A gas turbine engine comprising:
an engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a fan section including a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a low corrected fan tip speed less than 1150 ft/sec, wherein the low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5, where Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine;
a bypass ratio of greater than 11.0 and less than 22.0;
a speed reduction device comprising a gear system with a gear reduction ratio;
a first turbine in communication with a first shaft; and
a second turbine in communication with a second shaft;
wherein the first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis, and the first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device;
wherein the first turbine includes at least three stages and no more than four stages; and
wherein the first turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level, at least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan constrained by a second stress level and having a fan tip speed boundary condition, and the gear reduction ratio is configured such that in operation the at least one of the plurality of fan blades does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level, and the at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level.
20. The gas turbine engine of claim 19, wherein the second turbine is a two-stage second turbine.
21. The gas turbine engine of claim 20, wherein the first turbine is a three-stage first turbine.
22. The gas turbine engine of claim 20, wherein the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, and a sun gear, wherein the gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear and the gear reduction ratio is less than or equal to 4.1.
23. The gas turbine engine of claim 22, wherein the gear reduction ratio is at least 2.6.
24. The gas turbine engine of claim 23, wherein the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, and a sun gear, wherein the gear reduction ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
25. The gas turbine engine of claim 23, wherein the first turbine is a four-stage first turbine.
26. A gas turbine engine comprising:
an engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a fan section including a fan with a plurality of fan blades and rotatable about the engine centerline longitudinal axis;
a low corrected fan tip speed 1400 ft/sec, wherein the low corrected fan tip speed is an actual fan tip speed at an ambient temperature divided by [(Tram° R)/(518.7° R)]0.5, where Tram represents the ambient temperature in degrees Rankine;
a bypass ratio greater than 11 and less than 22;
a speed reduction device comprising a gear system with a gear reduction ratio;
a low pressure turbine in communication with a first shaft;
a high pressure turbine in communication with a second shaft;
wherein the first shaft and second shaft are concentric and mounted via at least one of a plurality of bearing systems for rotation about the engine centerline longitudinal axis, and the first shaft is in communication with the fan through the speed reduction device;
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least three stages and no more than 8 stages; and
wherein the low pressure turbine includes at least one rotor constrained by a first stress level, at least one of the plurality of fan blades of the fan constrained by a second stress level and having a fan tip speed boundary condition, and the gear reduction ratio is configured such that in operation the fan blade does not exceed the fan tip speed boundary condition or the second stress level, and the at least one rotor does not exceed the first stress level.
27. The gas turbine engine of claim 26, wherein the high pressure turbine includes two stages.
28. The gas turbine engine of claim 26, wherein the gear reduction ratio is at least 2.6 and less than or equal to 4.1.
29. The gas turbine engine of claim 28, wherein the gear system is a star gear system with a ring gear, and a sun gear, wherein the gear ratio is determined by measuring a diameter of the ring gear and dividing that diameter by the diameter of the sun gear.
US15/811,251 2012-09-27 2017-11-13 Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine Pending US20180066590A1 (en)

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US13/758,075 US8753065B2 (en) 2012-09-27 2013-02-04 Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine
PCT/US2013/061115 WO2014120286A1 (en) 2013-02-04 2013-09-23 Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine
US15/337,171 US9816443B2 (en) 2012-09-27 2016-10-28 Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine
US15/811,251 US20180066590A1 (en) 2012-09-27 2017-11-13 Method for setting a gear ratio of a fan drive gear system of a gas turbine engine

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EP3546727A1 (en) 2019-10-02
WO2014120286A8 (en) 2017-09-14
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