US2017336A - Concrete slab - Google Patents

Concrete slab Download PDF

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Publication number
US2017336A
US2017336A US682907A US68290733A US2017336A US 2017336 A US2017336 A US 2017336A US 682907 A US682907 A US 682907A US 68290733 A US68290733 A US 68290733A US 2017336 A US2017336 A US 2017336A
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Prior art keywords
slab
slabs
ties
rails
concrete
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US682907A
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Earl C Alexander
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MASSEY CONCRETE PRODUCTS Corp
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MASSEY CONCRETE PRODUCTS CORP
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C9/00Special pavings; Pavings for special parts of roads or airfields
    • E01C9/04Pavings for railroad level-crossings

Description

@et 5, i935. E, c, ALEXANDER 2,017,336

CONCRETE SLAB 5&9

|l" W'Q l UU' y U Ll l :wlmi @a @et l5, 1935. E. c. ALEXANDER CONCRETE SLAB I 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 3l, 1953 ggjzz 55426 6.5 6766 wee, AS-

9ct. l5', i935 E. c. ALEXANDER CONCRETE SLAB Filed July 3l, 1953 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 llxl..

2g-gq@ i/ Cf a/@ml Y @TZ Zezdfgdef wylffewfm.

Patented Oct. 15, 1935 UNITED STATES CONCRETE SLAB Earl C. Alexander, Glen Ellyn, Ill., assignor to Massey Concrete Products Corporation, Chicago, `Ill., a corporation of Virginia Application .July 31, 1933, Serial No. 682,907

6 Claims.

The present invention relates 4toconcrete slabs, and is particularly concerned with concrete slabs of the type adapted for use .in constructing a roadway over railway grade crossings, and for 5 other purposes.

The present concrete slab Yand railway crossing is an improvement -over the structures disclosed in my prior Patent No. 1,832,803, issued November 17, 1931, on Crossing slabs, but the present l structures have certain features in common with the crossing slabs covered by that patent, which is exemplary of the prior art.

In the concrete railway crossings .of this type of the prior art the crossing slabs have vbeen of suicient depth or thickness to correspond to the depth of the rail, and when the slabs rest directly upon the ties the upper lsurface of the slabs is substantially flush with the top of the rails. When the ties and rails are originally installed they are, of course, properly located so far as it is possible and the slab finds .bearing surface upon a plurality of the ties across which the slab extends.

As time passes, however, the various ties settle unequally, and a tie which may be supported by relatively soft terrain will settle more than one which happens to be located upon a more solid base.

One of the troubles encountered by installations of the prior art is that the slabs may rock upon one of the higher ties, due to their lack of support at the lower ties which have settled. Every time a vehicle passes over one end of such a rocking slab, the slab is forcibly rocked back 35 and forth, or it may be subjected to unusual strains when both `wheels of the vehicle encounter the slab, the higher supporting tie being located in between the wheels in the 'middle of the slab. As a result of the uneven settling Vof the road bed, and ties, and the resultant rocking of the slabs, the 'slabs may be vcracked or broken, and in some cases the rocking slab might project upward to catch something dragging from the train, and possibly cause a wreck or injury to the train.

The crossing slabs of the prior art are also more ditcult to remove for track maintenance or other work, as it is necessary to start at one side of the railway crossing and take up all of the slabs until the defective slab is reached in the installations of the prior art which employ dowels or pins for maintaining the slabs at the same level with respect to each other, and such slabs of the prior art are also provided with lifting` devices which cannot be used for the removal.

of a single slab from the middle `or central part of a crossing.

One of .the objects of the invention is the provision of an improved railway crossing assembly in which the concrete crossing vslabs are so lol cated and secured that there is no possibility of loosening or rocking -of the slab due to unequal settling of the ties.

Another object of the invention is the pro-vision of an improved concrete slab which is reversible y so that when one side of the slab wears excessively it may be turned over to use the vother side.

Another object'of the inventionis the provision of an improved concrete slab for railway crossings or the like, which is provided with an improved form of securing and/or lifting devices, by means of which the .slabs are firmly secured in place in such manner that they are unaffected by the unequal settling of certain ties, and also so that any single slab may be released and lifted out of its place-.for replacement, reversal, track maintenance, or any other purpose without disturbing the rest vof the crossing.

Another object of the Vinvention is the provision of an improved for-m lof the metal armor for the edges `of the slab and animproved mode of assembling and installing the concrete slabs with the ties and rails at a grade crossing.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the Vfollowing description and 'from the accompanying drawings, in which similar characters of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.

Referring to the drawings, `of which there are three sheets:

Fig. 1 is a top plan View of a railway crossing constructed according to the present inventionl and utilizing the improved form of slabs;

Fig. '2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the plane of the line 2, 2 of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows, showing 'the mode of support and securement for the concrete slabs;

Fig. 3 is another Avertical sectional view taken transversely of the rails on the plane of the line 3, 3 of Fig. l, looking in the direction of the arrows, showing the mode of assembly of the concrete slabs with the ties and rails and the spacing members;

Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary detailed view of the .concrete slabs, rails, spacers and securing 50 devices taken on the plane of the line 4, 4 of Fig.

1, looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 5 is a modication taken on the plane of the line 5, 5 of Fig. 1, showing another type of Securing device, which is also employed in Fig. 1; 55

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken through a supporting tie and adjacent ends of slabs, showing another modified form of securing device which may also be employed in Fig. 1;

Fig. 'l is a detailed plan view of an improved concrete slab constructed according to the present invention; Y

Fig. 8 is a side elevational view of the concrete slab;

Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view through the slab on the plane of the line 9, 9 of Fig. 7, looking in the direction of the arrows, showing' the reinforcement and arrangement. of the metal armor; f

Fig. 10 is a top plan View of the blank or channelled member from which the metal armor is constructed; and l Fig. 11 is a top plan view of one of the corners of the armor, showing the mode of securing the overlying flangesof the 'armor together by'welding. Y

Referring to Fig. '1, a railway' grade crossing installation constructed according to the present inventionpreferably'hasA its slabs running longitudinally of the rails. The slabs may be constructed of various appropriate sizes, and `the present installation is merely exemplaryof the preferred sizes which are readily adaptable to the of the slab will depend upon the weight and height of the rail, the heavier rails being higher. For example, with a pound rail, six and onehalf inches high, a slab four inches thick may be employed, or approximately so. Railway ties are conventionally eight feet lsix inches long, seven inches deep, and nine inches wide,` and the ties are usually laid on eighteen inch centers.'

It should be understood that-theV present slabs may be madeof various sizes and may span different numbers of ties, if desired, or may be adapted to ties laid upon diierent centers or ties of different size. With a tie of conventional size andk conventional installation mentioned, the slab may, for example, be four and one-half feet in length, in which case the slab would extend' over three of vthe spaces between ties and-over twointermediate ties, the slab being supported at itsends upon two ties. l Y

,InV other cases the slab might `be made six feet in length, extending over three intermediate ties and four of the eighteen inch spaces between the ties.

I prefer to cover the space inbetween the rails with pairs of slabs extending longitudinally, in which case the slabs II may be approximately twenty-five and one-*eighth inches Vin width, while the slabs I2, I3, extending longitudinally of the rails and outsidethe rails, may be sixteen and three-quarters inches in width. Y

Referring to Figs. 'l to 11, these are views showing the various features of construction of an improved type of armored slab, but I desire it to be `understood that the slabs disclosed in my prior patent mentioned may also be employed in thesame way.v The concrete slab I 4 of Fig. 7 is provided with an exterior channeled frame I5 of steel, having a'vertically extending web I6 and a pair of overlying flanges Il and I8. Y

' In orderto form the metal armor a channelled member of appropriate length is taken, as shown in Fig.` 10, Vand is provided with mitered ends I9, 2)A and with intermediate mitered portions ZI, 22, 23 cut out of the flanges Il, I8 at an angle of forty-five degrees'to the length of the chanstandard sizes of ties and rails. The thickness nel, the cut-out portions 2l, 23 being located at the points of the corners of the frame. The channel I may then be bent at the points 24, 25, 26, bringing the adjacent edges 21 and 28 of the flanges Il, I8 of any cut-out portion together, as shown in Fig. 11. The partsl of the flanges Il, I8 may then be welded together at 2l, 28 on the top and at the bottom of the frame and at the ends I9 and 2E! of the channel the flanges I'I and I3 respectively may be welded `together and the ends of the web I6 may be welded together.

It is thus possible to provide a frame of the type shown in Fig. '7, having substantially continuous flanges Il above and continuous overlying flanges I8 below these flanges or side webs Vvof ther channel being directed inwardly around the frame.

When the slabs disclosed in my prior patent or disclosed herein are made thinner than the height of therails, a stronger mixture of concrete is preferably employed, and the reinforcement may also be made stronger So as to enable the slab to support any weight which it might encounter. Thus the slab may be provided with reinforcing 29, 30, consisting of networks of longitudinally and transversely extending equally 'spaced rods or bars, the rods or bars preferablybeing of such shape that they form an anchorage in the concrete, being secured together at their intersections. These rods or bars may be secured to the armor and frame I5 or they may be unsecured, being merely laid in the concrete as shown in Figs. 8 and 9.

rIhe concrete is poured into theslab and finished on each side flush with the upper or outer .surfaces of the flanges Il and I8 so that the flanges I'laand I8 set in flush with the outer surfaces 3l, 32 of the slab. Both sides or surfaces 3I, 32 of the slab may be finished together soV thatV the slab is reversible,land either side may be used. Y Y

vIt has been customary in the prior art to provide the slabs with apertures or bores extending into the edge of the slabs for the purpose of receiving dowels or metal pins which extend into the adjacent bores of two adjacent slabs and hold the slabs in substantially the same plane. These bores are also used for lifting devices, but this makes it necessary to remove certain slabs in order to gain access to the Vedges of the slab which is to' be lifted.

The slabs constructed according to the present invention are preferably provided with metal spools 33 suitably located to receive securing bolts, spikes,v or other devices. The spools 33 are preferably of the same length as the thickness of the slab, and they are provided with an intermediate cylindrical portion 34 having a longitudinally extending bore 35 of suilicient size to receive the bolt or other securing device. At each-end of the cylindricalportion 34 the spool 33 is provided with a substantially cylindrical enlargement 36 having a counterbore 3l of sufficient size to receiveV the nut or-head of the bolt and to permit a socket wrench to be inserted about the head or nut when the bolt is in place. The enlargements 36 at each end of the spool 33 also. serve to anchor the spool in the slab as the concrete of the slab is held about the cylindrical portion 34 and engages shoulders 38, 39 of each of the enlargements 36.

Two of these metal spools are preferably utilized in each slab, the spools or armored bores being located approximately midway between the atteste edges of the `slab at 'each Aend and suii'ciently spaced from the end to clear 'the -metal frame "l5, 1f desired, however, the spool's may be located at the four 'corners of the slab or a three point mode of securement may be utilized.

Referring to Fig. l, `it will be' observed that when the outside slabs and centersl'abs are vmade of the dimensions specified it is only necessary to utilize four rows `of slabs extending long-l-tudi` nally of the rails to construct a single track crossa ing. The slabs It to i3 are of suitable length so that they span the ities 40, 4-'l in Figi. T2-5 fand may be supported only at their `ends on the ties 42, 43. In order to support the slab I4 above the ties 40, 4l, the ties 42, 43 are provided with spacing -su'p'- porting members '44, 45.

The spacing supporting members 44, 45 ecnsist of pieces of lumber which are preferably vof the same width as the ties, -in this case about nine inches and of sufficient thickness to support the slab if! fiush with the tops of the rails 45, '46. Such a spacer would be approximately two and one-half inches thick in the case of a one hun'- dred and thirty pound rail which is six and one= half inches high, provided a slab four inches thick were employed. 'The slab being six feet or four and one-half feet in length, either one of which figures is a multiple of eighteen inches, the center spacing of the ties, each slab would come to approximately the middle of the supporting tie, leaving suflic'ient space for the support of the end of the adjacent slab.r Both the slabs which are supported on lthe tie 42, for example, may be secured in place, and the spacer may be secured in place by means of lag screws el, 48 which pass through the spools `33 and through the spacing vmember 44, and have their threaded ends firmly lembedded fin the tie 42. The heads of the lag screws 4l, 48 are, of course, below the upper surface of the slab or crossing, since the counterbore 3l of each spool 33 is of sufficient size to receive entirely the head or nut of the bolt.

in some installations the outside slabs may be arranged with their edges immediately tadjacent the rails but it is preferable to vuse a longitudinally extending spacing member 49 `bf suitable shape to provide a flat upper surface 5D spanning the space between the slab and the top of the rail te, a suitable flat bottom surface 5| resting upon the supporting member 44, and a suitable fiat outer surface E2 engaging the channelled frame of the outer slab.

,The inner surface 53 of the spacer 49 may be shaped complementarily to the outside of the rail. The inner slabs are also preferably spaced from the rail by a relatively narrow grooved spacer 54 having flat surfaces upon both sides and adapted to engage the rail slab and supporting member 44, having a groove 55 at the top for receiving the iiange of the car wheel.

The spacing members 49 and 54 may also be spiked to the supporting members 44 and ties 40 to 43. The spacing members 44 are preferably cut out at 5b and provided with a beveled portion el in which recesses 58 may be cut for receiving the heads of the spikes so that the spacing members 44 may lie fiatly on the ties Without interference from the supporting anges or base of the rail or interference from the spikes 5S. At each end of the crossing the slabs may be further protected by a substantially trapezoidal strip of lumber til, having plane sides 6I, 62 and 63 at right angles to each other, and having an upper bcvelled surface 64 which provides an endwise appi'ach fr'oh the railway to 'the crossing.

Referring to Fig. 3, where `the grade crossing is :installed in a concrete road, vthe adjacent sections 65, S `of the concreteroad are also preferably nished with a channelle'd metal member having a web '61 and flange `68 which extends over the concrete et and protects the corner thereof.

Referring to Fig. 5, this is another modication, in which the metal spools 33 are suitably spaced from the end of the -slab so as to be 1ocated with the bore 35 adjacent the vertical sides of the Ities. In such case fa -modied form of securing fdevice may be utilized, which comprises a --bolt 69 having an upper threaded portion 'lll for receiving a nut H which is received in the counterbore or socket '31.

"The bolt "S9 should be of suitable length so that the Iend ofthe bolt does not project above the slab and the bolt B9 is provided with a laterally turned end i2 `having an upwardly turned point 153 for engaging in the bottom of the tie 'l5 and preventing rotation of the bolt after the bolt has once engaged the tie. In such case the slabs may be removed by loosening the nut 'il and turning the bolt 69 so that itsv end F2 rotates out from under the tie 'I-5.

Referring to Fig. '6, this is a modified form of securing device in which the spools are again suitably located to receive bolts at each side of the tie. The bolts 16, 11 pass through the horizontal flange T8 of an angle iron 19 which engages the bottom of the tie. ,The angle iron 19 is `dra'wn into engagement with the tie 80 by the two bolts T6, 11, which in turn pass through the spools 33 of two adjacent slabs.

AIn this case also the bolts should be of such length that they do not project above the slabs. The slabs may be removed by wholly removing the nuts '8i of the bolts le, 11. It Will thus be observed that I have invented a new concrete slab railway crossing in which the slab may be supported only at its 'ends out of engagement with the intervening ties. It is practically impossible for such a slab to rock Aon the ties which support it, since it is supported 'only at vits ends. ln case the supporting ties settle unduly, the only veifect would be a'sligfht settling of the ends of the slabs, but it is unlikely that even such settling could occur with respect to the 'slabs because the spacing members 44 engage the tops of the base iianges of the rails and prevent the supporting members 44 from settling away from the rails. Thus the slabs should always be supported with their tops substantially flush with the tops of the rails.

The spools, armor and other feaures of the slab being the saine at both sides or ends, each of the,

slabs is reversible and when excessive wear appears on one side the slab may be turned over and used again for a long period of time. The metal armor protects all parts of the edge of the slab and provides a substantially integral covering for the edge and over-hanging the upper surfaces of the slab prevents any cracking or wear of the slab at these points. The slabs firmly secured in place according to the present installation, there is less likelihood of theft of an individual slab than when the slabs are merely laid in place and the location of the securing spools extending to the upper surfaces of the slab enables them also to be used for lifting devices through the insertion of a bolt or hook or bent rod adapted to bind in the bore of the spool. Any separate slab may be removed without disturbing any of sire to avail myself of all changes within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim is new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:

l1. A railway crossing assembly comprising a plurality of ties and rails and a plurality of longitudinally extending concrete slabs, said slabs being of suliicient width to fill the space between the rails and cover the ties outside of the rails, each of said slabs extending longitudinally of the rails over a plurality of ties, said slabs being supported solely at their ends, and means passing through said slabs and secured to said ties for preventing relative movement between said slabs and ties. Y

2. A railway crossing assemblyv comprising a plurality of ties and rails anda plurality of longitudinally extending concrete slabs, said slabs being of suiiicient width to ll the space between the rails and cover the ties outside of the rails, each of said slabs extending longitudinallyv of the rails over aplurality of ties, said slabs being supported solely at their ends, and means passing through said slabsrand secured in said ties for preventing relative movement between said slabs and ties, said means comprising metallic spools embedded in the concrete of said slabs, and threaded members secured in said spools and having offset ends engaging below predetermined ties.

3. A railway crossing assembly comprising a plurality of ties and rails and a plurality of longitudinally extending concrete slabs, said slabs being of suiiicient width to ll the space between the rails and cover the ties outside of the rails, each of said slabs extending longitudinally of the rails over a plurality of ties,said slabs being supported solely at their ends, and means passing through said slabs and secured in said ties for preventing relative movement between said slabs and ties, said means comprising metallic spools embedded in the concrete of said slabs and pairs of bolts passing through the spools of adjacent slabs and having their lower ends secured to metal members located below the supporting ties.

4. In a railway crossing installation, the combination of a plurality of ties with a pair of rails supported by said ties, a concrete crossing slab of suiiicient length to span the space between a plurality of ties, the length of said slab being adapted so that the slab terminates substantially midway between the sides of predetermined ties, spacing members carried by the ties located beneath the ends of said slab, and means carried by said slab, securing said spacing means and said slab to the ties located under the ends of said slab whereby the slab is supported solely at its ends and is spaced from intermediate ties underneath the slab.

5. In a railway crossing installation, the combination of a plurality of transversely extending ties with a pair of rails supported by said ties, a concrete crossing slab of suicient length to span the space between a plurality of'ties, said slab comprising a metal frame having over-hanging inwardly extending anges and a lling of concrete between said iianges, the length of said slab being such that the slab terminates substantially midway between the sides of predetermined ties, spacing members carried by said predetermined ties and located beneath the ends of said slab and above said ties, and securing means passing through said slab and through said spacing means and extending into said predetermined ties whereby the slab is supported wholly at its ends and is spaced from the intermediate ties beneath the slab so asrto prevent rocking of the slab on said intermediate ties.

6. A railway crossing assembly comprising a plurality of ties and rails and a plurality of longitudinally extending concrete slabs, said slabs being of sufcient width to ll the space between the rails and cover the ties outside of the rails, each of said slabs extending longitudinally of the rails over a plurality of ties, said slabs being supported solely at their ends, and means passing through said slabs and secured to said ties for preventing relative movement between said slabs and ties, said means comprising threaded members having laterally projecting portions for engaging a tie whereby the slabs may be clamped to the ties.

EARL C. ALEXANDER.

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2652981A (en) * 1951-02-23 1953-09-22 Robert F Lanier Railway crossing
US4267969A (en) * 1979-08-24 1981-05-19 Railroad Concrete Crosstie Corporation Railroad grade crossing construction
US4457468A (en) * 1979-08-24 1984-07-03 Railroad Concrete Crosstie Corporation Railroad grade crossing construction
US5465903A (en) * 1992-02-03 1995-11-14 Riedel Omni Rubber Products, Inc. Mounting plate for fixing elastomeric grade crossing panels to ties

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2652981A (en) * 1951-02-23 1953-09-22 Robert F Lanier Railway crossing
US4267969A (en) * 1979-08-24 1981-05-19 Railroad Concrete Crosstie Corporation Railroad grade crossing construction
US4457468A (en) * 1979-08-24 1984-07-03 Railroad Concrete Crosstie Corporation Railroad grade crossing construction
US5465903A (en) * 1992-02-03 1995-11-14 Riedel Omni Rubber Products, Inc. Mounting plate for fixing elastomeric grade crossing panels to ties

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