US20170343621A1 - Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer - Google Patents

Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer Download PDF

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Publication number
US20170343621A1
US20170343621A1 US15/456,913 US201715456913A US2017343621A1 US 20170343621 A1 US20170343621 A1 US 20170343621A1 US 201715456913 A US201715456913 A US 201715456913A US 2017343621 A1 US2017343621 A1 US 2017343621A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
optical
magneto
defect center
optical defect
light
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Pending
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US15/456,913
Inventor
Joseph W. Hahn
Arul Manickam
Peter G. Kaup
Gregory Scott Bruce
Wilbur Lew
Nicholas M. LUZOD
Duc Huynh
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Lockheed Martin Corp
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Lockheed Martin Corp
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Priority to US201662343843P priority
Priority to US201662343750P priority
Priority to US201662343746P priority
Priority to US201662343758P priority
Priority to US201662343492P priority
Priority to US201662343602P priority
Priority to US201662343818P priority
Priority to US15/380,691 priority patent/US20170343618A1/en
Priority to US15/380,419 priority patent/US20170343617A1/en
Priority to US15/382,045 priority patent/US20170343619A1/en
Priority to US15/456,913 priority patent/US20170343621A1/en
Application filed by Lockheed Martin Corp filed Critical Lockheed Martin Corp
Priority claimed from EP17807148.6A external-priority patent/EP3465243A1/en
Priority claimed from PCT/US2017/035315 external-priority patent/WO2017210365A1/en
Priority claimed from US15/610,526 external-priority patent/US20170343695A1/en
Priority claimed from EP17807444.9A external-priority patent/EP3465244A1/en
Publication of US20170343621A1 publication Critical patent/US20170343621A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/02Measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux
    • G01R33/032Measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux using magneto-optic devices, e.g. Faraday, Cotton-Mouton effect
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/62Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light
    • G01N21/63Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light optically excited
    • G01N21/64Fluorescence; Phosphorescence
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/62Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light
    • G01N21/63Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light optically excited
    • G01N21/64Fluorescence; Phosphorescence
    • G01N21/6489Photoluminescence of semiconductors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/0023Electronic aspects, e.g. circuits for stimulation, evaluation, control; Treating the measured signals; calibration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/0047Housings or packaging of magnetic sensors ; Holders
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/12Measuring magnetic properties of articles or specimens of solids or fluids
    • G01R33/1284Spin resolved measurements; Influencing spins during measurements, e.g. in spintronics devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R33/00Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables
    • G01R33/20Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving magnetic resonance
    • G01R33/24Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving magnetic resonance for measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux
    • G01R33/26Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving magnetic resonance for measuring direction or magnitude of magnetic fields or magnetic flux using optical pumping
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/1717Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated with a modulation of one or more physical properties of the sample during the optical investigation, e.g. electro-reflectance
    • G01N2021/1727Magnetomodulation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/62Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light
    • G01N21/63Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light optically excited
    • G01N21/64Fluorescence; Phosphorescence
    • G01N21/645Specially adapted constructive features of fluorimeters
    • G01N21/6456Spatial resolved fluorescence measurements; Imaging
    • G01N2021/646Detecting fluorescent inhomogeneities at a position, e.g. for detecting defects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/87Investigating jewels
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2201/00Features of devices classified in G01N21/00
    • G01N2201/06Illumination; Optics
    • G01N2201/061Sources
    • G01N2201/06113Coherent sources; lasers

Abstract

A magneto-optical defect center magnetometer, such as a diamond nitrogen vacancy (DNV) magnetometer, can include an excitation source, a magneto-optical defect center element, a collection device, a top plate, a bottom plate, and a printed circuit board. The excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each mounted to the printed circuit board

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENT APPLICATIONS
  • This application is claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,843, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DIAMOND NITROGEN VACANCY MAGNETOMETERS,” the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. This application is related to and claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,492, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “LAYERED RF COIL FOR MAGNETOMETER”, attorney docket no. 111423-0119, U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 15/380,691, filed Dec. 15, 2016, entitled “LAYERED RF COIL FOR MAGNETOMETER,” attorney docket no. 111423-1411, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,746, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DNV DEVICE INCLUDING LIGHT PIPE WITH OPTICAL COATINGS”, attorney docket no. 111423-1138, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,750, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DNV DEVICE INCLUDING LIGHT PIPE”, attorney docket no. 111423-1139, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,758, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “OPTICAL FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR DIAMOND MATERIAL WITH NITROGEN VACANCY CENTERS”, attorney docket no. 111423-1140, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,818, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DIAMOND NITROGEN VACANCY MAGNETOMETER INTEGRATED STRUCTURE”, attorney docket no. 111423-1141, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,600, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “TWO-STAGE OPTICAL DNV EXCITATION”, attorney docket no. 111423-1142, U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 15/382,045, filed Dec. 16, 2016, entitled “TWO-STAGE OPTICAL DNV EXCITATION,” attorney docket no. 111423-1412, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,602, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “SELECTED VOLUME CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION MAGNETOMETER”, attorney docket no. 111423-1143, and U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 15/380,419, filed Dec. 15, 2016, entitled “SELECTED VOLUME CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION MAGNETOMETER,” attorney docket no. 111423-1413, the entire contents of each are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
  • FIELD
  • The present disclosure generally relates to magnetometers, and more particularly, to magneto-optical defect center magnetometers, such as diamond nitrogen vacancy (DNV) magnetometers.
  • BACKGROUND
  • A number of industrial applications, as well as scientific areas such as physics and chemistry can benefit from magnetic detection and imaging with a device that has extraordinary sensitivity, ability to capture signals that fluctuate very rapidly (bandwidth) all with a substantive package that is extraordinarily small in size, efficient in power and infinitesimal in volume.
  • Atomic-sized magneto-optical defect center elements, such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond lattices, have excellent sensitivity for magnetic field measurement and enable fabrication of small magnetic sensors that can readily replace existing-technology (e.g., Hall-effect) systems and devices. The DNV sensors are maintained in room temperature and atmospheric pressure and can be even used in liquid environments. A green optical source (e.g., a micro-LED) can optically excite NV centers of the DNV sensor and cause emission of fluorescence radiation (e.g., red light) under off-resonant optical excitation. A magnetic field generated, for example, by a microwave coil can probe degenerate triplet spin states (e.g., with ms=−1, 0, +1) of the NV centers to split proportional to an external magnetic field projected along the NV axis, resulting in two spin resonance frequencies. The distance between the two spin resonance frequencies is a measure of the strength of the external magnetic field. A photo detector can measure the fluorescence (red light) emitted by the optically excited NV centers.
  • SUMMARY
  • Methods and systems are described for, among other things, a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer.
  • Some embodiments relate to a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer that includes an excitation source, a magneto-optical defect center element, a collection device, a top plate, a bottom plate, and a printed circuit board. The excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each mounted to the printed circuit board.
  • In some implementations, the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an RF element mounted to the printed circuit board and RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, and the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device. In some implementations, the optical waveguide comprises a light pipe. In some implementations, the optical filter coating transmits greater than about 99% of light with a wavelength of about 650 nm to about 850 nm. In some implementations, the optical filter coating transmits less than 0.1% of light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm. In some implementations, the optical filter coating transmits greater than about 99% of light with a wavelength of about 650 nm to about 850 nm, and transmits less than 0.1% of light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm. In some implementations, the optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the collection device. In some implementations, a first optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the collection device and a second optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the diamond having nitrogen vacancies. In some implementations, the light pipe has an aperture with a size that is smaller than a size of the collection device. In some implementations, the light pipe has an aperture with a size greater than a size of a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent to the light pipe. In some implementations, the light pipe has an aperture with a size that is smaller than a size of the collection device and greater than a size of a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent the light pipe. In some implementations, the optical waveguide assembly further comprises an optical coupling material disposed between the light pipe and the magneto-optical defect center element, and the optical coupling material is configured to optically couple the light pipe to the magneto-optical defect center element. In some implementations, the optical waveguide assembly further comprises an optical coupling material disposed between the light pipe and the collection device, and the optical coupling material is configured to optically couple the light pipe to the collection device. In some implementations, an end surface of the light pipe adjacent to the magneto-optical defect center element extends in a plane parallel to a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent to the light pipe. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a second optical waveguide assembly and a second collection device, and the second optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the magneto-optical defect center element to the second collection device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical filter and the magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source. The collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength and the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device. In some implementations, the optical filter is further configured to transmit light corresponding to the first wavelength. In some implementations, light corresponding to the first wavelength comprises green and light corresponding to the second wavelength comprises red. In some implementations, the optical filter comprises an optical coating, and wherein the optical coating comprises one or more layers configured to at least one of transmit or reflect light. In some implementations, the optical filter is disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the collection device. In some implementations, the optical filter is configured to enclose the magneto-optical defect center element. In some implementations, the optical filter is disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the magneto-optical defect center element. In some implementations, the collection device comprises a receiving ends, and wherein the receiving ends are disposed proximate to the magneto-optical defect center element. In some implementations, the collection device forms a gap, and wherein a predetermined dimension corresponding to the optical filter is configured to extend beyond a predetermined dimension corresponding to the gap. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center element is disposed between the receiving ends. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a RF excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element. In some implementations, the optical filter comprises a dichroic filter. In some implementations, the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are positioned in a single plane. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a support element for the excitation source. In some implementations, the support element comprises one or more alignment pins for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises one or more alignment openings for the two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises one or more of a laser diode or a focusing lens. In some implementations, the support element comprises an asymmetrical alignment pin for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises an asymmetrical alignment opening for the two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises one or more of a laser diode or a focusing lens. In some implementations, the support element is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, plastic, or a composite. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a support element for the collection device. In some implementations, the support element comprises one or more alignment pins for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises one or more alignment openings for the two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the collection device comprises one or more of a light pipe or a photo diode. In some implementations, the support element comprises an asymmetrical alignment pin for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises an asymmetrical alignment opening for the two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the collection device comprises one or more of a light pipe or a photo diode. In some implementations, the support element is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, plastic, or a composite. In some implementations, the top plate is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, or a composite. In some implementations, the bottom plate is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, or a composite. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state. The reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the readout optical light source is a laser and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs. In some implementations, the readout optical light source is an LED and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs. In some implementations, the readout optical light source has a higher duty cycle than the reset optical light source. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element The second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, and the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the readout optical light source is a laser and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs. In some implementations, the readout optical light source is an LED and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs. In some implementations, the readout optical light source has a higher duty cycle than the reset optical light source. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape. In some implementations, the coils are arranged in layers one above another. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other. In some implementations, the coils each have a spiral shape. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
  • Another embodiment relates to a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer that includes a magneto-optical defect center element, an excitation source, a collection device, a top plate, a bottom plate, a printed circuit board, excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source, and collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device. The excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each mounted to the printed circuit board.
  • In some implementations, the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and wherein the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an RF element mounted to the printed circuit board and RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, wherein the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical filter, and the magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source. The collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength, and the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device. In some implementations, the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state. The reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element. The second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, and the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
  • A further embodiment relates to a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer having a magneto-optical defect center element, an excitation source, a collection device, an RF element, a top plate, a bottom plate, a printed circuit board, excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source, collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device, and RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device. The excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, the collection device, and the RF element are each mounted to the printed circuit board and the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board.
  • In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, and the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes an optical filter. The magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source, the collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength, and the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device. In some implementations, the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state. The reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element. The second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, and the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer includes a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The details of one or more implementations are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, aspects, and advantages will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims, in which:
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an orientation of an NV center in a diamond lattice;
  • FIG. 2 illustrates an energy level diagram showing energy levels of spin states for the NV center;
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic diagram of a magneto-optical defect center sensor system;
  • FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating the fluorescence as a function of an applied RF frequency of an NV center along a given direction for a zero magnetic field, and also for a non-zero magnetic field having a component along the NV axis;
  • FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating the fluorescence as a function of an applied RF frequency for four different NV center orientations for a non-zero magnetic field;
  • FIG. 6 is an illustrative a perspective view depicting some embodiments of a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer;
  • FIG. 7 is an illustrative perspective view of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 6 with a top plate removed;
  • FIG. 8 is an illustrative top view depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 6 with the top plate removed;
  • FIG. 9 is an illustrative cross-sectional view taken along line A-A and depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 6 with the top plate removed;
  • FIG. 10 is an illustrative cross-sectional view taken along line B-B and depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 6 with the top plate attached;
  • FIG. 11 is an illustrative perspective cross-sectional view taken along line B-B and depicting the DNV magnetometer of FIG. 6 with the top plate attached;
  • FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram illustrating a magnetic field detection system according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a RF excitation source with a plurality of coils according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 14A is a side view of the coils and a RF feed connector of the RF excitation source of FIG. 13;
  • FIG. 14B is a top view of the coils and a RF feed connector of the RF excitation source of FIG. 12;
  • FIG. 15A is a graph illustrating the magnetic field generated by the RF excitation source at 2 GHz in the region of the NV diamond material for a five spiral shaped coil arrangement;
  • FIG. 15B is a graph illustrating the magnetic field generated by the RF excitation source at 3 GHz in the region of the NV diamond material for the five spiral shaped coil arrangement;
  • FIG. 15C is a graph illustrating the magnetic field generated by the RF excitation source at 4 GHz in the region of the NV diamond material for the five spiral shaped coil arrangement;
  • FIG. 16 is a table illustrating the electric field and magnetic field generated by the RF excitation source in a region of the NV diamond material at frequencies from 2.0 to 4.0 GHz for the five layer coil arrangement with spiral shaped coils;
  • FIG. 17 is a side-view illustrating details of the optical waveguide assembly of the magnetic field sensor system of FIG. 12 according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 18 is a depiction of a cross-section of a light pipe and an associated mount according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 19 is a top-down view of an optical waveguide assembly of a magnetic field sensor system according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 20 is a schematic diagram illustrating a dichroic optical filter and the behavior of light interacting therewith according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 21 is a schematic block diagram of some embodiments of an optical filtration system;
  • FIG. 22 is a schematic block diagram of some embodiments of an optical filtration system;
  • FIG. 23 is a diagram of an optical filter according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 24 is a diagram of an optical filter according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 25 is an illustrative perspective view depicting some embodiments of a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer;
  • FIG. 26 is an illustrative perspective view of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25 with a top plate removed;
  • FIG. 27 is an illustrative top view depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25 with the top plate removed;
  • FIG. 28 is an illustrative cross-sectional view taken along line A-A and depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25 with the top plate removed;
  • FIG. 29 is an illustrative cross-sectional view taken along line B-B and depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25 with the top plate attached;
  • FIG. 30 is an illustrative perspective cross-sectional view taken along line B-B and depicting the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25 with the top plate attached;
  • FIG. 31 is an illustrative top view depicting the top plate of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25; and
  • FIG. 32 is an illustrative perspective view of support elements for one or more components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of FIG. 25;
  • FIG. 33 is a schematic illustrating details of the optical light source of the magnetic field detection system of FIG. 12 according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 34 illustrates the illumination volume in NV diamond material for a readout optical light source and a reset optical light source of the optical light source of the magnetic field detection system of FIG. 12 according to an embodiment;
  • FIG. 35 illustrates a RF sequence according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 36 is a magnetometry curve in the case of a continuous optical excitation RF pulse sequence according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 37 is a magnetometry curve in the case of a continuous optical excitation RF pulse sequence where the waveform has been optimized for collection intervals according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 38 is magnetometry curve for the left most resonance frequency of FIG. 37 according to some embodiments;
  • FIG. 39 is a graph illustrating the dimmed luminescence intensity as a function of time for the region of maximum slope of FIG. 38;
  • FIG. 40 is a graph illustrating the normalized intensity of the luminescence as a function of time for diamond NV material for a continuous optical illumination of the diamond NV material in a RF sequence measurement; and
  • FIG. 41 is a graph of a zoomed in region of FIG. 40.
  • It will be recognized that some or all of the figures are schematic representations for purposes of illustration. The figures are provided for the purpose of illustrating one or more embodiments with the explicit understanding that they will not be used to limit the scope or the meaning of the claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • In some aspects, methods and systems are disclosed for a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer, such as a DNV magnetometer.
  • Magneto-optical defects, such as nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers), are defects in an element's, such as a diamond's, crystal structure, which can purposefully be manufactured, such as in synthetic diamonds as shown in FIG. 1. In general, when excited by green light and microwave radiation, the NV centers cause the diamond to generate red light. When an excited NV center diamond is exposed to an external magnetic field the frequency of the microwave radiation at which the diamond generates red light and the intensity of the light change. By measuring the changes, the NV centers can be used to accurately detect the magnetic field strength.
  • The NV center may exist in a neutral charge state or a negative charge state. Conventionally, the neutral charge state uses the nomenclature NV0, while the negative charge state uses the nomenclature NV, which is adopted in this description.
  • The NV center has a number of electrons, including three unpaired electrons, each one from the vacancy to a respective of the three carbon atoms adjacent to the vacancy, and a pair of electrons between the nitrogen and the vacancy. The NV center, which is in the negatively charged state, also includes an extra electron.
  • The NV center has rotational symmetry and, as shown in FIG. 2, has a ground state, which is a spin triplet with 3A2 symmetry with one spin state ms=0, and two further spin states ms=+1, and ms=−1. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the ms=±1 energy levels are offset from the ms=0 due to spin-spin interactions, and the ms=±1 energy levels are degenerate, i.e., they have the same energy. The ms=0 spin state energy level is split from the ms=±1 energy levels by an energy of approximately 2.87 GHz for a zero external magnetic field.
  • Introducing an external magnetic field with a component along the NV axis lifts the degeneracy of the ms=±1 energy levels, splitting the energy levels ms=±1 by an amount 2 gμBBz, where g is the g-factor, μB is the Bohr magneton, and Bz is the component of the external magnetic field along the NV axis. This relationship is correct to a first order and inclusion of higher order corrections is a straightforward matter and will not affect the computational and logic steps in the systems and methods described below.
  • The NV center electronic structure further includes an excited triplet state 3E with corresponding ms=0 and ms=±1 spin states. The optical transitions between the ground state 3A2 and the excited triplet 3E are predominantly spin conserving, meaning that the optical transitions are between initial and final states that have the same spin. For a direct transition between the excited triplet 3E and the ground state 3A2, a photon of red light is emitted with a photon energy corresponding to the energy difference between the energy levels of the transitions.
  • There is, however, an alternative non-radiative decay route from the triplet 3E to the ground state 3A2 via intermediate electron states, which are thought to be intermediate singlet states A, E with intermediate energy levels. Significantly, the transition rate from the ms=±1 spin states of the excited triplet 3E to the intermediate energy levels is significantly greater than the transition rate from the ms=0 spin state of the excited triplet 3E to the intermediate energy levels. The transition from the singlet states A, E to the ground state triplet 3A2 predominantly decays to the ms=0 spin state over the ms=±1 spins states. These features of the decay from the excited triplet 3E state via the intermediate singlet states A, E to the ground state triplet 3A2 allows that if optical excitation is provided to the system, the optical excitation will eventually pump the NV center into the ms=0 spin state of the ground state 3A2. In this way, the population of the ms=0 spin state of the ground state 3A2 may be “reset” to a maximum polarization determined by the decay rates from the triplet 3E to the intermediate singlet states.
  • Another feature of the decay is that the fluorescence intensity due to optically stimulating the excited triplet 3E state is less for the ms=±1 states than for the ms=0 spin state. This is so because the decay via the intermediate states does not result in a photon emitted in the fluorescence band, and because of the greater probability that the ms=±1 states of the excited triplet 3E state will decay via the non-radiative decay path. The lower fluorescence intensity for the ms=±1 states than for the ms=0 spin state allows the fluorescence intensity to be used to determine the spin state. As the population of the ms=±1 states increases relative to the ms=0 spin, the overall fluorescence intensity will be reduced.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating a NV center magnetic sensor system 300 that uses fluorescence intensity to distinguish the ms=±1 states, and to measure the magnetic field based on the energy difference between the ms=+1 state and the ms=−1 state, as manifested by the RF frequencies corresponding to each state. The system 300 includes an optical excitation source 310, which directs optical excitation to an NV diamond material 320 with NV centers. The system further includes an RF excitation source 330, which provides RF radiation to the NV diamond material 320. Light from the NV diamond may be directed through an optical filter 350 to an optical detector 340.
  • The RF excitation source 330 may be a microwave coil, for example. The RF excitation source 330, when emitting RF radiation with a photon energy resonant with the transition energy between ground ms=0 spin state and the ms=+1 spin state, excites a transition between those spin states. For such a resonance, the spin state cycles between ground ms=0 spin state and the ms=+1 spin state, reducing the population in the ms=0 spin state and reducing the overall fluorescence at resonances. Similarly, resonance and a subsequent decrease in fluorescence intensity occurs between the ms=0 spin state and the ms=−1 spin state of the ground state when the photon energy of the RF radiation emitted by the RF excitation source is the difference in energies of the ms=0 spin state and the ms=−1 spin state.
  • The optical excitation source 310 may be a laser or a light emitting diode, for example, which emits light in the green (light having a wavelength such that the color is green), for example. The optical excitation source 310 induces fluorescence in the red, which corresponds to an electronic transition from the excited state to the ground state. Light from the NV diamond material 320 is directed through the optical filter 350 to filter out light in the excitation band (in the green, for example), and to pass light in the red fluorescence band, which in turn is detected by the detector 340. The optical excitation light source 310, in addition to exciting fluorescence in the diamond material 320, also serves to reset the population of the ms=0 spin state of the ground state 3A2 to a maximum polarization, or other desired polarization.
  • For continuous wave excitation, the optical excitation source 310 continuously pumps the NV centers, and the RF excitation source 330 sweeps across a frequency range that includes the zero splitting (when the ms=±1 spin states have the same energy) photon energy of approximately 2.87 GHz. The fluorescence for an RF sweep corresponding to a diamond material 320 with NV centers aligned along a single direction is shown in FIG. 4 for different magnetic field components Bz along the NV axis, where the energy splitting between the ms=−1 spin state and the ms=+1 spin state increases with Bz. Thus, the component Bz may be determined. Optical excitation schemes other than continuous wave excitation are contemplated, such as excitation schemes involving pulsed optical excitation, and pulsed RF excitation. Examples of pulsed excitation schemes include Ramsey pulse sequence (described in more detail below), and spin echo pulse sequence.
  • In general, the diamond material 320 will have NV centers aligned along directions of four different orientation classes. FIG. 5 illustrates fluorescence as a function of RF frequency for the case where the diamond material 320 has NV centers aligned along directions of four different orientation classes. In this case, the component Bz along each of the different orientations may be determined. These results, along with the known orientation of crystallographic planes of a diamond lattice, allow not only the magnitude of the external magnetic field to be determined, but also the direction of the magnetic field.
  • While FIG. 3 illustrates an NV center magnetic sensor system 300 with NV diamond material 320 with a plurality of NV centers, in general, the magnetic sensor system may instead employ a different magneto-optical defect center material, with a plurality of magneto-optical defect centers. The electronic spin state energies of the magneto-optical defect centers shift with magnetic field, and the optical response, such as fluorescence, for the different spin states is not the same for all of the different spin states. In this way, the magnetic field may be determined based on optical excitation, and possibly RF excitation, in a corresponding way to that described above with NV diamond material.
  • Referring generally to FIG. 6, a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be provided that includes a top plate 610 and a bottom plate 620. The bottom plate 620 may include a printed circuit board (PCB) 622 that is configured to mount the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 thereto. The top plate 610 and bottom plate 620 may be formed of a material with a high stiffness and a low mass, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, a composite material, etc. The high stiffness of the top plate 610 and bottom plate 620 is such that any vibration modes occur outside of the range of frequencies that may negatively affect the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 sensor performance. The top plate 610, bottom plate 620, and PCB 622 include alignment holes into which pins for one or more components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be inserted to align the one or more components and, when the top plate and bottom plate 620 are pressed together, the pins lock the components in place to maintain alignment of the one or more components after assembly of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600.
  • As shown in FIG. 7, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 has several components mounted between top plate 610, the bottom plate 620, and the PCB 622. The components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 include a green laser diode 710, laser diode circuitry 712, a magneto-optical defect center element, such as diamond having nitrogen vacancies (DNV), RF amplifier circuitry 714, an RF element 716, one or more photo diodes 718, and photo diode circuitry 720. In operation, the green laser diode 710 emits green wavelength light toward the magneto-optical defect center element based on a control signal from the laser diode circuitry 712. The RF amplifier circuitry 714 receives an RF input signal via an RF connector 722. In some implementations, the RF signal is generated by a separate controller, such as an external RF wave form generator circuit. In other implementations, the RF waveform generator may be included with the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. The RF amplifier circuitry 714 uses the RF input signal to control the RF element 716. The RF element 716 may include a microwave coil or coils. The RF element 716 emits RF radiation to control the spin of the magneto-optical defect centers of the magneto-optical defect center element to be aligned along a single direction, such as prior to a measurement by the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. The magneto-optical defect center element, when excited by the green laser light, emits red wavelength based on external magnet fields and the emitted red light is detected by the one or more photo diodes 718. The detected red light by the photo diodes 718 may be processed by the photo diode circuitry 720 and/or may be outputted to an external circuit for processing. Based on the detected red light, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 can detect the directionality and intensity (e.g., vector) of the external magnetic field. Such a vector magnetometer may be used to detect other objects that generate magnetic fields. Power for the components and/or circuits of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 and data transmission to and/or from the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be provided via a digital signal and power connector 724.
  • In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may include several other components to be mounted via the top plate 610, bottom plate 620, and PCB 622. Such components may include one or more focusing lenses 726, a flash laser 728 and/or flash laser focusing lenses, flash bulb driver circuitry 730, a mirror and/or filtering element 732, and/or one or more light pipes 734. The focusing lenses 726 may focus the emitted green wavelength light from the green laser diode 710 towards the magneto-optical defect center element. The flash laser 728 and/or flash laser focusing lenses may provide additional excitation green wavelength light to the magneto-optical defect center element, and the flash bulb driver circuitry 730 may control the operation of the flash laser 728. The mirror and/or filtering element 732 may be an element that is reflective for red wavelength light, but permits green wavelength light to pass through. In some implementations, the mirror and/or filtering element 732 may be applied to the magneto-optical defect center element, such as a coating, to reflect red wavelength light towards the photo diodes 718. In other implementations, the mirror and/or filtering element 732 may be a separate component that substantially surrounds or encases the magneto-optical defect center element. The one or more light pipes 734 transports red wavelength light emitted from the magneto-optical defect center element to the one or more photo diodes 718 such that the one or more photo diodes 718 may be positioned remote from the magneto-optical defect center element. Additional description may include the applications incorporated by reference.
  • As shown in FIG. 7, the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 are mounted to a single PCB 622 such that a compact magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 is constructed. In some current magneto-optical defect center magnetometry systems, separate components are assembled on to large stainless steel plates in laboratories for individual experimentation. Such configurations are large, cumbersome, and heavy, which limits the useful applications. Indeed, for certain configurations of magneto-optical defect center magnetometry systems with resolutions of approximately 300 picoteslas, the size of the system may be a meter or more in one or more directions. In contrast to such magneto-optical defect center magnetometry systems, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 of FIGS. 6-11 may have a weight of less than 0.5 kilograms, a power range of 1-5 watts, and a size of approximately 7.62 centimeters in the x-direction by 10.16 centimeters in the y-direction by 1.905 centimeters in the z-direction. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may have a resolution of approximately 300 picoteslas, a bandwidth of 1 MHz, and a measurement range of 1000 microteslas. Such a compact magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 expands the range of potential applications for vector magneto-optical defect center magnetometry by providing a small weight, size and power magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. Such applications may include magneto-optical defect center vector magnetometry in aircraft, submersibles, vehicles, satellites, etc.
  • In the implementation shown in FIG. 7, the excitation source components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600, such as the green laser diode 710 and one or more focusing lenses 726 are aligned along a first axis 650 and are mounted to the PCB 622. The collection components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600, such as the one or more photo diodes 718, mirror and/or filtering element 732, and/or one or more light pipes 734 are aligned along a second axis 660 and are mounted to the PCB 622. The second axis 660 is in the same plane as the first axis 650 and perpendicular to the first axis 650 such that the z-dimension of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be reduced to a minimum that is based on the z-dimensions of the components. Furthermore, by providing the excitation source components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 along the first axis 650 perpendicular to the collection components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 along the second axis 660, interference (e.g., magnetic, electrical, etc.) between the components may be reduced.
  • As shown in FIG. 7, the corresponding circuitry (e.g., the laser diode circuitry 712, RF amplifier circuitry 714, photo diode circuitry 720, etc.) for each component of the excitation and collection components are also mounted to the single PCB 622. Thus, electrical contact etchings on the PCB 622 can be used electrically couples the corresponding circuitry to each corresponding component, thereby eliminating any unnecessary connections and/or wiring between components. Furthermore, the corresponding circuitry is positioned on the PCB 622 near each corresponding component in open portions of the PCB 622 where the optical components of the excitation source components and/or collection components are not located. Such positioning reduces the x- and y-dimensional size of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer while also reducing the length of any electrical contact etchings to electrically couple the corresponding circuitry to a corresponding component.
  • Referring generally to FIGS. 6-11, the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 also include a planar arrangement to reduce a z-direction size of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. The reduced z-direction size may be useful for positioning the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 in a vehicle or other device to control for any vibratory influences and/or space constraints. Moreover, in some implementations, the size and/or weight of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be important. For instance, in aircraft, size and weight may be tightly controlled, so a small z-directional size may permit the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer to be positioned on a bulkhead and/or within a cockpit with minimal space impact. Moreover, the high stiffness and low mass of the top plate 610 and bottom plate 620 limit the weight of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600.
  • The planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may also be useful. The planar arrangement allows for the excitation source, such as the green laser diode 710, and the collection device, such as the one or more photo diodes 718, to be positioned anywhere in the plane, thereby permitting varying configurations for the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 to accommodate space constraints. Further still, the planar configuration also permits multiple excitation sources and/or collection devices to be utilized by the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. As shown in FIGS. 6-11, a primary green laser diode 710 and a flash laser 728 can be used as excitation sources, while two light pipes 734 and photo diodes 718 are utilized for collection devices. Of course additional excitation sources and/or collection devices may be used as well. The planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 is also beneficial for the mounting of optical components, such as the laser diodes, focusing lenses, light pipes, etc. on the PCB 622 because the planar arrangement limits any z-direction variability such that alignment using the pins and alignment openings positions the optical components in a known position relative to the other components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600. Further still, the planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 provides a controlled reference plane for determining the vector of the detected external magnetic field. Still further, the planar arrangement permits usage of the mirror and/or filtering element 732 that can be configured to confine any and/or substantially all of the emitted red light from the magneto-optical defect center element to within a small z-direction area to be directed toward the one or more photo diodes 718. That is, the mirror and/or filtering element 732 can be configured to direct any emitted red wavelength light from the magneto-optical defect center element to within the plane defined by the planar arrangement.
  • By providing a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 with the excitation source components and collection device components mounted to a single PCB 622, a small form factor magneto-optical defect center vector magnetometer may be provided for a range of applications.
  • In some implementations, the RF element 716 may be constructed in accordance with the teachings of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,492, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “LAYERED RF COIL FOR MAGNETOMETER”, attorney docket no. 111423-0119, and U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 15/380,691, filed Dec. 15, 2016, entitled “LAYERED RF COIL FOR MAGNETOMETER,” the entire contents of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In some implementations, the one or more light pipes 734 may be constructed in accordance with the teachings of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,746, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DNV DEVICE INCLUDING LIGHT PIPE WITH OPTICAL COATINGS”, attorney docket no. 111423-1138, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,750, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DNV DEVICE INCLUDING LIGHT PIPE”, attorney docket no. 111423-1139, the entire contents of each are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In some implementations, the mirror and/or filtering element 732 may be constructed in accordance with the teachings of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,758, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “OPTICAL FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR DIAMOND MATERIAL WITH NITROGEN VACANCY CENTERS”, attorney docket no. 111423-1140, the entire contents of each are incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 600 may be constructed in accordance with the teachings of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,818, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “DIAMOND NITROGEN VACANCY MAGNETOMETER INTEGRATED STRUCTURE”, attorney docket no. 111423-1141, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,600, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “TWO-STAGE OPTICAL DNV EXCITATION”, attorney docket no. 111423-1142, U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 15/382,045, filed Dec. 16, 2016, entitled “TWO-STAGE OPTICAL DNV EXCITATION,” U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/343,602, filed May 31, 2016, entitled “SELECTED VOLUME CONTINUOUS ILLUMINATION MAGNETOMETER”, attorney docket no. 111423-1143, the entire contents of each are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
  • FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of a system 1200 for a magnetic field detection system according to some embodiments.
  • The system 1200 includes an optical light source 1210, which directs optical light to an NV diamond material 1220 with NV centers, or another magneto-optical defect center material with magneto-optical defect centers. An RF excitation source 1230 provides RF radiation to the NV diamond material 1220. The system 1200 may include a magnetic field generator 1270 which generates a magnetic field, which may be detected at the NV diamond material 1220, or the magnetic field generator 1270 may be external to the system 1200. The magnetic field generator 1270 may provide a biasing magnetic field.
  • The system 1200 further includes a controller 1280 arranged to receive a light detection signal from the optical detector 1240 and to control the optical light source 1210, the RF excitation source 1230, and the magnetic field generator 1270. The controller may be a single controller, or multiple controllers. For a controller including multiple controllers, each of the controllers may perform different functions, such as controlling different components of the system 1200. The magnetic field generator 1270 may be controlled by the controller 1280 via an amplifier 1260, for example.
  • The RF excitation source 1230 may include a microwave coil or coils, for example. The RF excitation source 1230 may be controlled to emit RF radiation with a photon energy resonant with the transition energy between the ground ms=0 spin state and the ms=±1 spin states as discussed above with respect to FIG. 3, or to emit RF radiation at other nonresonant photon energies.
  • The controller 1280 is arranged to receive a light detection signal from the optical detector 1240 and to control the optical light source 1210, the RF excitation source 1230, and the magnetic field generator 1270. The controller 1280 may include a processor 1282 and a memory 1284, in order to control the operation of the optical light source 1210, the RF excitation source 1230, and the magnetic field generator 1270. The memory 1284, which may include a nontransitory computer readable medium, may store instructions to allow the operation of the optical light source 1210, the RF excitation source 1230, and the magnetic field generator 1270 to be controlled. That is, the controller 1280 may be programmed to provide control.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates the RF excitation source 1230 with an arrangement of coils 1710 and an NV diamond material 1220. The RF excitation source 1230 includes a plurality of coils 1710 a, 1710 b, 1710 c, 1710 d and 1710 e which may be arranged around the NV diamond material 620, where the coils 1710 are in a layered arrangement one above the other. While the number of coils shown in FIG. 13 is five, the number may be more or less than five. The coils 1710 may be formed in a substrate 1720. The coils 1710 may be connected to an RF feed connector 1730 to allow power to be provided to the coils. The coils 1710 may be connected in parallel to the RF feed connector 1730.
  • While FIG. 13 illustrates the coils 1710 to be arranged around the NV diamond material 1220, the NV diamond material 1220 may have other arrangements relative to the coils 1710. For example, the NV diamond material 1220 may be arranged above or below the coils 1710. The NV diamond material 1220 may be arranged normal to the coils 1710, or at some other angle relative to the coils 1710.
  • The substrate 1720 may be a printed circuit board (PCB), for example, and the coils 1710 may be layered in the PCB and separated from each other by dielectric material. The coils 1710 may be formed of a conducting material such as a metal, such as copper, for example.
  • FIG. 14A is a side view of the coils 1710 and the RF connector 1730. The coils 1710 are spaced from each other in the layered arrangement, and may be spaced by a uniform spacing. The coils may have any shape, such as square or spiral. Preferably, the coils may have a spiral shape, as shown in FIG. 13 and in FIG. 14B, which is a top view of the coils 1710 and the RF connector 1730. In FIG. 14B, only the top coil 1710 a can be seen, because the coils 1710 b, 1710 c, 1710 d and 1710 e are below the top coil 1710 b.
  • The uniform spacing of the coils 1710 and uniform spacing between the spiral shape coils allow the RF excitation source 1230 to provide a uniform RF field in the NV diamond material 1220 over the frequency range needed for magnetic measurement of the NV diamond material 1220, which may enclosed by the coils 1710. This arrangement provides both uniformity in phase and gain of the RF signal throughout the needed frequency range, and throughout the different regions of the NV diamond material 1220. Further, the layered coils may be operated in a pulsed manner and in this arrangement in order to avoid unnecessary overlap interference. The interference is reduced in pulsed operation of the coils 1710.
  • FIGS. 15A, 15B and 15C illustrate the magnetic field H generated by the RF excitation source 1230 in a plane parallel to the plane of the coils 1710 in the region of the NV diamond material 1220 at frequencies of 2 GHz, 3 GHz and 4 GHz, respectively. The arrangement is for a five layer coil with spiral shaped coils. FIG. 16 is a table illustrating the electric field E and magnetic field H generated by the RF excitation source 1230 in the region of the NV diamond material 1220 at frequencies from 2.0 to 4.0 GHz for the five layer coil arrangement with spiral shaped coils. Thus, FIGS. 15A, 15B and 15C illustrate the uniformity of the magnetic field, and FIG. 16 illustrates the uniformity of the electric field E and magnetic field H in the NV diamond material 1220 over the needed frequency range, and throughout the different regions of the NV diamond material 1220.
  • FIG. 17 is a schematic illustrating details of an optical waveguide assembly 1800 that transmits light from the NV diamond material 1220 to the optical detector 1240 in some embodiments. The optical waveguide assembly 1800 may include an optical waveguide 1810 and an optical filter 1850 to filter out light in the excitation band (in the green, for example), and to pass light in the red fluorescence band, which in turn is detected by the optical detector 1240.
  • The optical waveguide 710 may be any appropriate optical waveguide. In some embodiments, the optical waveguide is a light pipe. The light pipe may have any appropriate geometry. In some embodiments, the light pipe may have a circular cross-section, square cross-section, rectangular cross-section, hexagonal cross-section, or octagonal cross-section. A hexagonal cross-section may be preferred, as a light pipe with a hexagonal cross-section exhibits less light loss than a light pipe with a square cross-section and is capable of being mounted with less contact area than a light pipe with a circular cross-section.
  • The light pipe 1810 may be formed from any appropriate material. In some embodiments, the light pipe may be formed from a borosilicate glass material. The light pipe may be formed of a material capable of transmitting light in the wavelength range of about 350 nm to about 2,200 nm. In some embodiments, the light pipe may be a commercially available light pipe.
  • The optical filter 1850 may be any appropriate optical filter capable of transmitting red light and reflecting other light, such as green light. In some embodiments, the optical filter 1850 may be a coating applied to an end surface of the light pipe 1810. The coating may be any appropriate anti-reflection coating for red light. In some embodiments, the anti-reflective coating may exhibit greater than 99% transmittance for light in the wavelength range of about 650 nm to about 850 nm. Preferably, the anti-reflective coating may exhibit greater than 99.9% transmittance for light in the wavelength range of about 650 nm to about 850 nm. The optical filter 1850 may be disposed on an end surface of the light pipe 1810 adjacent to the optical detector 1240.
  • In some embodiments, the optical filter 1850 may also be highly reflective for light other than red light, such as green light. Such an optical filter may be a dichroic coating or multiple coatings with the desired cumulative optical properties. The optical filter may exhibit less than about 0.1% transmittance for light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm. Preferably, the optical filter may exhibit less than about 0.01% transmittance for light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm. FIG. 20 is a schematic illustrating the behavior of an optical filter 1900 with respect to green light 1910 and red light 1920 according to some embodiments. The optical filter 1900 can be anti-reflective for the red light 1920, resulting in at least some of the red light 1912 transmitted through the optical filter 1900. The optical filter 1900 can be highly reflective for the green light 1910, resulting in green light 1922 being reflected by the optical filter 1900 and at least most of the green light 1922 not transmitted therethrough.
  • The optical filter 1850 may be a coating formed by any appropriate method. In some embodiments, the optical filter 1850 may be formed by an ion beam sputtering (IBS) process. The coating may be a single-layer coating or a multi-layer coating. The coating may include any appropriate material, such as magnesium fluoride, silica, hafnia, or tantalum pentoxide. The material for the coating may be selected based on the light pipe material and the material which the coating will be in contact with, such as an optical coupling material, to produce the desired optical properties. The coating may have a hardness that approximately matches the hardness of the light pipe. The coating may have a high density, and exhibit good stability with respect to humidity and temperature.
  • The optical waveguide assembly 1800 may optionally include a second optical filter 1852. The second optical filter 1852 may be a coating disposed on an end surface of the light pipe 1810 adjacent to the diamond material 1220. The second optical filter 1852 may be any of the coatings described above with respect to the optical filter 650. The inclusion of a second optical filter 1852 may improve the performance of the optical waveguide assembly by about 10%, in comparison to an optical waveguide assembly with a single optical filter.
  • As shown in FIG. 17, the optical waveguide assembly 1800 may include an optical coupling material 1834 disposed between the light pipe 1810 or second optical filter 1852 and the diamond material 1220. An optical coupling material 1832 may also be disposed between the light pipe 1810 or optical filter 1850 and the optical detector 1240. The optical coupling material may be any appropriate optical coupling material, such as a gel or epoxy. In some embodiments, the optical coupling material may be selected to have optical properties, such as an index of refraction, that improves the light transmission between the coupled components. The coupling material may be in the form of a layer formed between the components to be coupled. In some embodiments, the coupling material layer may have a thickness of about 1 microns to about 5 microns. The coupling material may serve to eliminate air gaps between the components to be coupled, increasing the light transmission efficiency. As shown in FIG. 17, the coupling materials 1832 and 1834 may also account for size mismatches between the components to be coupled. The coupling material may be selected such that an efficiency of the optical waveguide assembly is increased by about 10%. The coupling material may produce a light transmission between the components to be coupled that is functionally equivalent to direct contact between the components to be coupled. In some embodiments, an epoxy coupling material may also serve to mount the diamond material to the optical waveguide assembly, such that other supports for the diamond material are not required. In some embodiments, a coupling material may not be necessary where direct contact between the optical filter or light pipe and the optical detector is achieved. Similarly, a coupling material may not be necessary where direct contact between the light pipe or second optical filter and the diamond material is achieved.
  • FIG. 18 shows a light pipe 1810 with a hexagonal cross-section and the interaction with a mount 1820 securing the light pipe 1810 within the device in some embodiments. The light pipe 1810 may be mounted such that only the vertices 1812 of the light pipe 1810 contact the mount 1820. Such an arrangement allows the light pipe to be securely and rigidly supported by the mount 1820, while also reducing the contact area between the mount 1820 and the surface of the light pipe 1810. Contact between the light pipe and the mount may result in a reduction in the efficiency of the optical waveguide assembly 1800. As shown in FIG. 18, a mount 1820 with a circular support opening may be successfully employed to support a light pipe 1810 with a hexagonal cross-section.
  • FIG. 19 shows a top down schematic of an arrangement of optical waveguide assemblies according to some embodiments. The optical filters and optical coupling materials are not shown in FIG. 19 for the sake of clarity. As shown in FIG. 19, more than one optical waveguide assembly may be included in the magnetic sensor system, such as two or more optical waveguide assemblies. The inclusion of more than one optical waveguide assemblies allows more than one optical detector 1240 to be included in the magnetic sensor device, increasing the amount of light collected and measured by the optical detectors 1240. The inclusion of additional optical detectors 1240 also increases the amount of noise in the system, which may negatively impact the sensitivity or accuracy of the system. The use of two optical waveguide assemblies may provide a compromise between increased light collection and increased noise. Each optical waveguide assembly in the magnetic sensor system may be associated with a different optical detector, but the same diamond material.
  • The light pipe 1810 may be mounted to the magnetic sensor system by at least one mount 1820. In some embodiments, two mounts 1820 may support each light pipe 1810 in the magnetic sensor system. The light pipe may be mounted to the device rigidly, such that the alignment of the light pipe 1810, the optical detector 1240, and the diamond material 1220 is maintained during operation of the system. The mounting of the light pipe to the magnetic sensor system may be sufficiently rigid to prevent a mechanical response of the light pipe in the region that would affect the measurement of light by the optical detector.
  • The light pipe can be selected to have an appropriate aperture size. The aperture of the light pipe can be selected to be matched to or smaller than the optical detector. This size relationship allows the optical detector to capture the highest possible percentage of the light emitted by the light pipe. The aperture of the light pipe can be also selected to be larger than the surface of the diamond material to which it is coupled. This size relationship allows the light pipe to capture the highest possible percentage of light emitted by the diamond material. In some embodiments, the light pipe may have an aperture of about 4 mm. In some other embodiments, the light pipe may have an aperture of about 2 mm. In some embodiments, the light pipe may have an aperture of 4 mm, and the diamond material may have a coupled surface with a height of 0.6 mm and a length of 2 mm, or less. The light pipe may have any appropriate length, such as about 25 mm.
  • As shown in FIG. 19, the light pipe can be positioned such that the end surface of the light pipe adjacent the diamond material is parallel, or substantially parallel, to the associated surface of the diamond material. This arrangement allows the light pipe to capture an increased amount of the light emitted by the diamond material. The alignment of the surfaces of the light pipe and the diamond material ensures that a maximum amount of the light emitted by the diamond material will intersect the end surface of the light pipe, thereby being captured by the light pipe.
  • With reference to FIG. 21, some embodiments of an optical filtration system 2100 is illustrated. In these embodiments, the optical filtration system 2100 includes an optical excitation source 2110, a vacancy material 2105 with vacancy centers, a RF excitation source 2120, optical guide 2130, and a optical filter 2150.
  • The optical filter 2150 is configured to provide at least a second portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength W2 to a plurality of optical collectors 2130 as described herein.
  • The optical excitation source 2110 may be a laser or a light emitting diode. The optical excitation source may be configured to generate light corresponding to a first wavelength W1. For example, the optical excitation source 2110 may emit light corresponding to green.
  • The vacancy material 2105 may be configured to receive optical excitation based, at least in part, on the generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength W1. In some further embodiments, the NV diamond material 2105 may be configured to receive radio frequency (RF) excitation provided via the RF excitation source as described herein above.
  • In turn, the vacancy material 2105 may be configured to generate light corresponding to a second wavelength W2 (e.g., a wavelength corresponding to red) responsive to the RF excitation and the optical excitation received. In this regard, the optical excitation source 2110 induces fluorescence by the vacancy material 2105 corresponding to the second wavelength W2. The inducement of fluorescence causes an electronic transition from the excited state to the ground state. The optical excitation source 2110, in addition to exciting fluorescence in the NV diamond material 2105, also serves to reset the population of the ms=0 spin state of the ground state 3A2 to a maximum polarization, or other desired polarization.
  • The optical filtration system 2100 includes a plurality of optical collectors 2130 configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength W2. The optical collectors may take the form of light pipes, light tubes, lenses, optical fibers, optical waveguides, etc. For example, as the vacancy material 2105 generates light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 (e.g., red light), a first portion of the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 may enter or is otherwise received by the optical collectors 2130. The light corresponding to the wavelength W2 may be received by the receiving ends 2132 of each respective optical collector 2130. In some embodiments, the receiving ends 2132 may be disposed proximate to (e.g., adjacent to or otherwise near) the vacancy material 2105. Although a plurality of optical collectors 2130 is depicted, in some embodiments, one optical collector 2130 (as depicted in FIG. 22) may be configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength W2.
  • As illustrated in FIG. 21, the NV diamond material 2105 is disposed between the receiving ends 2132 such that the optical collectors 2130 are configured to form a gap G. A second portion of the light corresponding to the wavelength W2 may be directed beyond the gap G and/or the optical collectors 2130. For example, the light directed beyond the gap G may not enter or otherwise be received by the optical collectors 2130. The gap G may include an adhesive material such as a gel or an epoxy. Although a gap G is depicted, the gap G may be filled or otherwise inexistent such that the NV diamond material 2105 may generate light without the gap G as described herein.
  • The optical filtration system 2100 further includes the optical filter 2150. The optical filter 2150 is configured to provide at least a second portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 to the plurality of optical collectors 2130. As used herein, the term “optical filter” may be used to refer to a filter configured to transmit (e.g. pass) light corresponding to one or more predetermined wavelengths (e.g., a first wavelength corresponding to green) while reflecting light corresponding to other predetermined wavelengths (e.g., a second wavelength corresponding to red). In some embodiments, the optical filter 2150 may take the form of a dichroic filter, interference filter, thin-film filter, dichroic mirror, dichroic reflector, or a combination thereof. The optical filter 2150 (e.g., a dichroic filter) may be configured to reflect light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 (e.g., light in the red fluorescence band) from the vacancy material 2105 which, in turn, is received by the optical collectors 2130. For example, the optical filter 2150 may reflect the light directed beyond the gap G to the optical collectors 2130 that would otherwise not enter or be received by the optical collectors 2130.
  • Alternatively or additionally, light corresponding to the first wavelength W1 from the vacancy material 2105 may be directed through the optical filter 2150 to filter out the light corresponding to the first wavelength W1 (e.g., in the green fluorescence band). Although a single optical filter 2150 is depicted, in some embodiments, a plurality of optical filters 2150 (as depicted in FIG. 22) may be configured to provide at least a second portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength W2 to one or more optical collectors 2130.
  • In some embodiments, the optical filter 2150 includes an optical coating (e.g., an anti-reflection coating, high reflective coating, filter coating, beamsplitter coating, etc.) configured to facilitate transmission of light corresponding to the first wavelength W1 (e.g., light corresponding to green) through the optical filter 2150. The optical coating may include at least one of a soft coating (e.g., one or more layers of thin film) or a hard coating. The optical coating may be made of a material such as zinc sulfide, cryolyte, silver, and/or any other like suitable material, or a combination thereof.
  • The optical coating (e.g., the anti-reflective coating) is further configured to facilitate the provision of the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 to the optical collectors 2130. For example, the optical coating facilitates the reflection of the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 from the vacancy material 2105 to the optical collectors 2130.
  • As illustrated in FIG. 23, the optical coating may include a substrate S and one or more layers Ln configured to at least one of transmit or reflect light according to at least one refractive index which describes how light propagates through the optical filter 2150. In this regard, the phase shift between the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 reflected, for example, at the first and second points P1, P2 of the layer Ln is 180°. In turn, the reflections R1, R2 (e.g., the reflected rays) are cancelled responsive to interference such as, but not limited to, destructive interference. Advantageously, the optical coating increases transmission, efficiency by which the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 is received by the optical collectors 2130 and resists environmental damage to the optical filter 2150.
  • With reference back to FIG. 21, the optical filter 2150 may be disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the vacancy material 2105 to receive and, in turn, provide the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 (e.g., light in the red fluorescence band) to the optical collectors 2130. As illustrated, the optical filter 2150 is disposed behind the NV diamond material 2105 such that the optical filter 2150 reflects light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 from the vacancy material 2105. In some embodiments, the optical filter 2150 may be configured to enclose or otherwise surround the vacancy material 2105. The enclosing of the vacancy material 2105 increases the reflection of light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 from the vacancy material 2105 to the optical collectors 2130.
  • In some embodiments, the optical filter 2150 is disposed proximate to the plurality of optical collectors 2130. The optical filter 2150 may be disposed within a predetermined distance to the optical collectors 2130. For example, the optical filter 2150 may be disposed next to the optical collectors 2130 as depicted. The optical filter 2150 may be disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the plurality of optical collectors 2130. As depicted, the optical filter 2150 is disposed behind the plurality of optical collectors 2130. Advantageously, disposing the optical filter 2150 behind the plurality of optical collectors 2130 facilitates the removal of light corresponding to the first wavelength W1 (e.g., light corresponding to green) by the optical filter 2150 which reduces noise and/or other errors introduced by W1.
  • In further embodiments, a predetermined dimension (e.g., length, width, height, etc.) corresponding to the optical filter 2150 may be configured to extend beyond a predetermined dimension (e.g., length, width, height, etc.) corresponding to the gap G and/or the optical collectors 2130. For example, the width of the optical filter 2150 may be configured to be greater than the width of the gap G to compensate for over tolerances in manufacturing such that the optical filter 2150 covers the gap G. As the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 makes contact C with or otherwise hits the optical filter 2150, the light W2 is reflected (as illustrated in FIG. 24) from the optical filter 2150 to the optical collectors 2130. The light ray W2 R is reflected at an angle of incidence α and an angle of reflection β as depicted across the normal N. The angle of incidence may equal the angle of reflection. Each respective angle may measure between 0 degrees and 180 degrees based on one or more refractive indices corresponding to the optical filter 2150. Alternatively or additionally, the height of the optical filter 2150 may be configured to be greater than the height of the optical collectors 2130 to compensate for over tolerances in manufacturing such that the optical filter 2150 receives light (e.g., light corresponding to the second wavelength W2) directed beyond the optical collectors 2130. In turn, the optical filter 2150 reflects or otherwise provides the light corresponding to the second wavelength W2 to the optical collectors 2130.
  • Referring generally to FIG. 25, a magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may be provided that includes a top plate 2510 and a bottom plate 2520. The bottom plate 2520 may include a printed circuit board (PCB) 2522 that is configured to mount the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 thereto. The top plate 2510 and bottom plate 2520 may be formed of a material with a high stiffness and a low mass, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, a composite material, etc. The high stiffness of the top plate 2510 and bottom plate 2520 is such that any vibration modes occur outside of the range of frequencies that may negatively affect the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 sensor performance. The top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522 includes alignment holes into which pins for one or more components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may be inserted to align the one or more components and, when the top plate and bottom plate 2520 are pressed together, the pins lock the components in place to maintain alignment of the one or more components after assembly of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500.
  • As shown in FIG. 26, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 has several components mounted between top plate 2510, the bottom plate 2520, and the PCB 2522. The components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 include a green laser diode 2610, laser diode circuitry 2612, a magneto-optical defect center element, such as a diamond having nitrogen vacancies (DNV), RF amplifier circuitry 2614, an RF element 2616, one or more photo diodes 2618, and photo diode circuitry 2620. In operation, the green laser diode 2610 emits green wavelength light toward the magneto-optical defect center element based on a control signal from the laser diode circuitry 2612. The RF amplifier circuitry 2614 receives an RF input signal via an RF connector 2622. In some implementations, the RF signal is generated by a separate controller, such as an external RF wave form generator circuit. In other implementations, the RF waveform generator may be included with the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. The RF amplifier circuitry 2614 uses the RF input signal to control the RF element 2616. The RF element 2616 may include a microwave coil or coils. The RF element 2616 emits RF radiation to control the spin of the centers of the magneto-optical defect center element to be aligned along a single direction, such as prior to a measurement by the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. The magneto-optical defect center element, when excited by the green laser light, emits red wavelength based on external magnet fields and the emitted red light is detected by the one or more photo diodes 2618. The detected red light by the photo diodes 2618 may be processed by the photo diode circuitry 220 and/or may be outputted to an external circuit for processing. Based on the detected red light, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 can detect the directionality and intensity (e.g., vector) of the external magnetic field. Such a vector magnetometer may be used to detect other objects that generate or distort magnetic fields. Power for the components and/or circuits of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 and data transmission to and/or from the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may be provided via a digital signal and power connector 2624.
  • In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may include several other components to be mounted via the top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522. Such components may include one or more focusing lenses 2626, a flash laser 2628 and/or flash laser focusing lenses, excitation driver circuitry 2630, a mirror and/or filtering element 2632, and/or one or more light pipes 2634. The focusing lenses 2626 may focus the emitted green wavelength light from the green laser diode 2610 towards the magneto-optical defect center element. The flash laser 2628 and/or flash laser focusing lenses may provide additional excitation green wavelength light to the magneto-optical defect center element, and the excitation driver circuitry 2630 may control the operation of the flash laser 2628. The mirror and/or filtering element 2632 may be an element that is reflective for red wavelength light, but permits green wavelength light to pass through. In some implementations, the mirror and/or filtering element 2632 may be applied to the magneto-optical defect center element, such as a coating, to reflect red wavelength light towards the photo diodes 2618. In other implementations, the mirror and/or filtering element 2632 may be a separate component that substantially surrounds or encases the magneto-optical defect center element. The one or more light pipes 2634 transports red wavelength light emitted from the magneto-optical defect center element to the one or more photo diodes 2618 such that the one or more photo diodes 2618 may be positioned remote from the magneto-optical defect center element. Additional description may include the applications incorporated by reference.
  • As can be seen in FIG. 26, the elements of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 need to be aligned such that the emitted green light from the green laser diode 2610 is directed towards the magneto-optical defect center element and the emitted red wavelength light from the magneto-optical defect center element is directed toward the one or more photo diodes 2618 to be detected. Thus, the various elements must be mounted to the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 in a manner that aligns and holds the elements in position both during assembly and operation. In some implementations, the elements to be aligned include the green laser diode 2610, any focusing lenses 2626, any flash laser 2628, the RF element 2616, any mirror and/or filtering element 2632, any support elements for any light pipes 2634, and the one or more photo diodes 2618. In some implementations, a two-point orientation system may be implemented to align and secure the elements to be mounted for the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. That is, the components to be aligned and mounted, or a support or mounting element for each component, includes two points to be aligned relative to the top plate 2510 and two points to be aligned relative to the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522. When the two points are aligned and secured relative to the top plate 2510, then the component and/or support or mounting element is rotationally and translationally fixed relative to the top plate 2510. Similarly, when the two points are aligned and secured relative to the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522, then the component and/or support or mounting element is rotationally and translationally fixed relative to the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522. When the component and/or support or mounting element is positioned between the top plate 2510 and the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522, then the component and/or support or mounting element is secured such that the component and/or support or mounting element has a fixed orientation and position for the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. In some implementations, the two-point orientation system can include two separate components, such as two top pins and two bottom pins. In other implementations, the two-point orientation system may include two surfaces of a single component, such as two different surfaces of a single top pin and single bottom pin. In still other implementations, additional alignment and/or securing points may be used, such as three pins and/or surfaces, four pins and/or surfaces, etc.
  • In the implementations shown, the top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522 are manufactured and/or machined to include one or more alignment openings, such as alignment openings of the top plate 2510 shown in FIG. 31. In some implementations, the alignment openings may be circular, triangular, square, ovular, ellipsoidal, pentagonal, hexagonal, star shaped, etc. Two or more alignment openings may be provided for the two-point orientation system for each component, such as two circular alignment openings. In other implementations, the alignment openings may be asymmetric openings such that a corresponding pin can only be inserted in a particular orientation. For instance, the alignment openings may be semicircular, etc. The asymmetrical alignment openings may provide two surfaces for the two-point orientation system to align and secure each component and/or a support or mounting element for each component.
  • Each support or mounting element, such as the supports or mounting elements shown in FIG. 32, for each of the components to be aligned for the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may include one or more corresponding pins, such as pin 2692 shown in FIG. 26. In some implementations, the one or more corresponding pins may have an asymmetrical cross-sectional geometry to provide two surfaces for the two-point orientation system to align the components relative to the top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522. In some implementations, each support or mounting element for each component of the DNV magnetometer 2500 may include two top pins and two bottom pins to align each component relative to the top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522. The two top pins and two bottom pins may further limit misalignment. In some implementations, the support or mounting elements may be formed of a plastic, aluminum, titanium, stainless steel, carbon fiber, a composite material, etc. In some implementations, the pins of the support or mounting elements may be configured to be press-fit pins such that the pins compress and form an interference fit with the corresponding alignment openings of the top plate 2510, bottom plate 2520, and PCB 2522. In some implementations, the components may be affixed, such as by an adhesive, mechanical attachment, etc., to a corresponding support or mounting element. For instance, as shown in FIG. 32, support or mounting elements for a laser diode and/or focusing lens, photo diode, and light pipe are shown.
  • When the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 is assembled, a bottom pin for each component is inserted through an alignment opening of the PCB 2522 and bottom plate 2520 to initially mount the component. The top plate 2510 may then be aligned with the top pins for each component and the top plate 2510 and bottom plate 2520 are pressed together to secure and maintain alignment of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. In some implementations, the pins may be soldered to the top plate 2510 and/or bottom plate 2520 to fix the components in position. In some implementations, standoffs 2530 are provided to mechanically couple the top plate 2510 to the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522. The standoffs 2530 may be formed with the bottom plate 2520 and extend through the PCB 2522 and/or may be separate components attached to the bottom plate 2520 and PCB 2522. In the implementation shown, the standoffs 2530 include threading for a screw, bolt, or other attachment component to be inserted through an opening of the top plate 2510 and secured to the standoff 2530. In other implementations, the standoffs 2530 may be welded or otherwise secured to the top plate 2510.
  • By providing alignment pins for the various components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500, the components can be secured in a preset position during assembly and operation of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. Moreover, by providing a high stiffness and low mass material for the top plate 2510 and bottom plate 2520, any low frequency vibrations can be transmitted through the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 without affecting the higher frequency operations of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500.
  • Referring generally to FIGS. 25-32, the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 also include a planar arrangement to reduce a z-direction size of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. The reduced z-direction size may be useful for positioning the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 in a vehicle or other device to control for any vibratory influences and/or space constraints. Moreover, in some implementations, the size and/or weight of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may be important. For instance, magneto-optical defect center aircraft, size and weight may be tightly controlled, so a small z-directional size may permit the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer to be positioned on a bulkhead and/or within a cockpit with minimal space impact. Moreover, the high stiffness and low mass of the top plate 2510 and bottom plate 2520 limit the weight of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500.
  • The planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may also be useful. The planar arrangement allows for the excitation source, such as the green laser diode 2610, and the collection device, such as the one or more photo diodes 2618, to be positioned anywhere in the plane, thereby permitting varying configurations for the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 to accommodate space constraints. Further still, the planar configuration also permits multiple excitation sources and/or collection devices to be utilized by the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. As shown in FIGS. 25-31, a primary green laser diode 2610 and a flash laser 2628 can be used as excitation sources, while two light pipes 2634 and photo diodes 2618 are utilized for collection devices. Of course additional excitation sources and/or collection devices may be used as well. The planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 is also beneficial for the mounting of optical components, such as the laser diodes, focusing lenses, light pipes, etc. on the PCB 2522 because the planar arrangement limits any z-direction variability such that alignment using the pins and alignment openings positions the optical components in a known position relative to the other components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500. Further still, the planar arrangement of the components of the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 provides a controlled reference plane for determining the vector of the detected external magnetic field. Still further, the planar arrangement permits usage of the mirror and/or filtering element 2632 that can be configured to confine any and/or substantially all of the emitted red light from the magneto-optical defect center element to within a small z-direction area to be directed toward the one or more photo diodes 2618. That is, the mirror and/or filtering element 2632 can be configured to direct any emitted red wavelength light from the magneto-optical defect center element to within the plane defined by the planar arrangement.
  • In some implementations, the magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may have a weight of less than 0.5 kilograms, a range of power of 1-5 watts, and a size of approximately 7.62 centimeters in the x-direction by 10.16 centimeters in the y-direction by 1.905 centimeters in the z-direction. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer 2500 may have a resolution of approximately 300 picoteslas, a bandwidth of 1 MHz, and a measurement range of 1000 microteslas.
  • FIG. 33 is a schematic illustrating details of the optical light source 1210. The optical light source 1210 may include a readout optical light source 3310 and reset optical light source 3320. The readout optical light source 3310 may be a laser or a light emitting diode, for example, which emits light in the green, for example. The readout optical light source 3310 induces fluorescence in the red from the NV diamond material 1220, where the fluorescence corresponds to an electronic transition of the NV electron pair from the excited state to the ground state. Referring back to FIG. 12, light from the NV diamond material 1220 is directed through the optical filter 1250 to filter out light in the excitation band (in the green, for example), and to pass light in the red fluorescence band, which in turn is detected by the optical detector 1240. Thus, the readout optical light source 3310 induces fluorescence which is then detected by the optical detector 1240, i.e., the fluorescence induced by the readout optical light source 3310 is read out.
  • The reset optical light source 3320 of the optical light source 1210 serves to reset the population of the ms=0 spin state of the ground state 3A2 to a maximum polarization, or other desired polarization. In general, it may be desired in a reset stage to reset the spin population to the desired spin state relatively quickly to reduce the reset time, and thus to increase sensor bandwidth. In this case the reset optical light source 3320 provides light of a relatively high power. Further, the reset optical light source 3320 may have a lower duty cycle than readout optical light source 3310, thus providing reduced heating of the system.
  • On the other hand, a relatively lower power may be desired for the readout optical light source 3310 to provide a higher accuracy readout. The relatively lower power readout optical light source 3310 beneficially allows for easier control of the spectral purity, a slower readout time with lower noise, reduced laser heating, and may be light weight and compact. Thus, the reset optical light source 3320 may provide light of a higher power than that of the readout optical light source 3310. The readout optical light source 3310 does provide some amount of a reset function. However, a lower powered light source takes longer to provide a reset and thus is tolerable.
  • Thus, the higher powered reset optical light source 3320 provides advantages such as decreasing the time required for reset. Moreover, the higher powered reset optical light source 3320 clears the previous polarization of the spin states of the NV centers. This may be important particularly in the case where the previous polarization is at another frequency pertaining to a different NV center crystallographic orientation. This is applicable to both pulse excitation schemes such as RF pulse sequence or spin-echo pulse sequence, as well as for continuous wave excitation where the RF field is scanned during the continuous wave excitation. For example, for continuous wave excitation where the RF field is scanned, the reset optical light source 3320 may reduce the time required to jump between Lorentzians, and clears out prior residual RF information, for, for example, vector magnetometry or thermally compensated scalar magnetometry. This reduction of time allows for better vector estimation and/or increased sampling bandwidth. Thus the benefits of a higher power reset optical light source of lower duty cycle, wider beamwidth, and stronger power apply to either pulsed or continuous wave applications.
  • This combination of two optical light sources, one with a relatively high power to provide reset of the spin polarization and another to induce fluorescence for the readout provides a system with shorter reset times, while at the same time providing a high accuracy readout. The ratio of the power of the reset optical light source 3320 to the readout optical light source 3310 may be 10 to 1 or 20 to 1, or greater, for example.
  • Further the two optical light source magnetometer systems described herein improve the efficiency of the magnetometer by allowing for sensitive optical collection to be performed over a longer period using a low light density, low noise, light source while maintaining reasonable repolarization and reset times with a higher power light source when measurements are not critical. These two optical light source magnetometer systems allow for optimization of sensitivity via full excitation power versus collection integration time trade space, and further improves SWaP-C (size, weight, power and cost) design space by tailoring excitation source performance to specific needs.
  • The readout optical light source 3310 may be a laser or an LED, for example, while the reset optical light source 3320 may a laser, or an LED. Exemplary arrangements are as follows. The readout optical light source 3310 may be a lower powered laser, and the reset optical light source 3320 may be a higher powered laser with a lower duty cycle. The readout optical light source 3310 may be a lower powered laser, and the reset optical light source 3320 may be a bank of LED flash-bulbs. The readout optical light source 3310 may be an LED, and the reset optical light source 3320 may be a bank of LED flash-bulbs.
  • Reset and Read Out Illumination Volumes
  • Referring to FIG. 33, the optical light source 1210 may include a focusing lens 3322 to focus light from the reset optical light source 3320 onto the NV diamond material 1220. Similarly, the optical light source 1210 may include focusing optics 3312 to focus light from the readout optical light source 3310 onto the NV diamond material 1220. For example, the focusing optics 3312 may include lenses 3314, 3316, and 3318.
  • FIG. 34 illustrates the illumination volume 3410 of the light beam from the readout optical light source 3310 and the illumination volume 3420 of the light beam from the reset optical light source 3320 in the diamond material 1220. The illumination volume 3410 is shown between solid lines in FIG. 34, while the illumination volume 3420 is shown between the dashed lines. The focusing optics 3312 reduces the size of the illumination volume 3410 of the diamond material 1220 which is illuminated with the excitation beam from the readout optical light source 3310. In general, the illumination volume depends on the spot size of the focused light beam in the diamond material 1220. By reducing the illumination volume 3410 in the diamond material 1220, a higher light density for a given readout optical light source 3310 power is achieved, and further magnetic bias field inhomogeneities and RF field variations over the optically excited region of the diamond material can be reduced.
  • On the other hand, the illumination volume 3420 of the diamond material 1220 which is illuminated by the reset optical light source 3320 does not need to be as small as that for the readout optical light source 3310. The illumination volume 3420 of the diamond material 1220 which is illuminated by the reset optical light source 3320 should encompass the illumination volume 3410 of the diamond material 1220 which is illuminated by the readout optical light source 3310. In this way the reset optical light source 3320 will act to reset the NV spin states in the region of the diamond material 1220 which will be illuminated with the readout optical light source 3310.
  • Continuous Wave/RF Pulse Sequence Example
  • The present system may be used for continuous optical excitation, or pulsed excitation, such as modified Ramsey pulse sequence, modified Hahn-Echo, or modified spin echo pulse sequence. This section describes an exemplary continuous wave/pulse (cw-pulse) sequence. According to certain embodiments, the controller 1280 controls the operation of the optical light source 1210, the RF excitation source 1230, and the magnetic field generator 1270 to perform Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR). The component of the magnetic field Bz along the NV axis of NV centers aligned along directions of the four different orientation classes of the NV centers may be determined by ODMR, for example, by using an ODMR pulse sequence according to a pulse sequence. The pulse sequence is a pulsed RF scheme that measures the free precession of the magnetic moment in the NV diamond material 1220 and is a technique that quantum mechanically prepares and samples the electron spin state.
  • FIG. 35 is a timing diagram illustrating the continuous wave/pulse sequence. As shown in FIG. 35, a cw-pulse sequence includes optical excitation pulses and RF excitation pulses over a five-step period. In a first step, during a period 0, a first optical reset pulse 3510 from the reset optical light source 3320 is applied to the system to optically pump electrons into the ground state (i.e., ms=0 spin state). This is followed by a first RF excitation pulse 3520 (in the form of, for example, a microwave (MW) π/2 pulse), provided by the RF excitation source 1230, during a period 1. The first RF excitation pulse 3520 sets the system into superposition of the ms=0 and ms=+1 spin states (or, alternatively, the ms=0 and ms=−1 spin states, depending on the choice of resonance location). During a period 2, the system is allowed to freely precess (and accumulate phase) over a time period referred to as tau (τ). Next, a second RF excitation pulse 3540 (in the form of, for example, a MW π/2 pulse) is applied during a period 3 to project the system back to the ms=0 and ms=+1 basis. During period 4 which corresponds to readout, optical light 3530 is provided by the readout optical light source 3310, to optically sample the system and a measurement basis is obtained by detecting the fluorescence intensity of the system. The optical light 3530 may be provided as an optical pulse, or as discussed further below, in a continuous manner throughout periods 0 through 4. Finally, the first optical reset pulse 3510 from the reset optical light source 3320 is applied again to begin another cycle of the cw-pulse sequence.
  • When the first optical reset pulse 3510 is applied again to reset to the ground state at the beginning of another sequence, the readout stage is ended. The cw-pulse sequence shown in FIG. 35 may be performed multiple times, wherein each of the MW pulses applied to the system during a given cw-pulse sequence includes a different frequency over a frequency range that includes RF frequencies corresponds to different NV center orientations. The magnetic field may be then be determined based on the readout values of the fluorescence change correlated to unknown magnetic fields.
  • Low Power Continuous Optical Excitation for RF Pulse Sequence
  • Referring back to FIG. 35, the optical light 3530 is provided by the readout optical light source 3310 in a continuous optical excitation manner. This provides a number of advantages over systems which turn on and off the light source providing light for optical readout during a RF sequence. Such systems which turn on and off the light source are susceptible to jitter noise interfering with the RF excitation source, and address this issue by increasing the laser light path length using optics so as to not be close to the RF excitation source, or by including a digital current source for the laser, for example.
  • By operating the readout optical light source 3310 in a continuous optical excitation manner, the system provides a number of advantages. The system does not need extra components such as an acousto-optic modulator (AOM), or a digital current source. Further, optics, such as mirrors and lenses, are not needed to increase the path length of the laser light path. Thus, the system may be less expensive. Still further, there is no need to synchronize turning on and off the light from readout optical light source 3310 with the RF excitation source, since the readout optical light source 3310 remains continuously on during the RF pulse sequence.
  • For the continuous optical excitation for RF pulse sequence, the readout optical light source 3310 is continuously on during the sequence, and thus continuously performs some amount of reset to the ground state throughout the sequence. Since the readout optical light source 3310 provides a relatively low power beam, however, the reset is tolerable.
  • FIG. 36 illustrates a magnetometry curve in the case of using a continuous optical excitation RF pulse sequence. FIG. 36 shows the dimmed luminescence intensity at readout as a function of RF frequency applied during the RF pulse sequences. As can be seen, there are 8 spin state transition envelopes, each having a respective resonance frequency, for the case where the diamond material has NV centers aligned along directions of four different orientation classes. This is similar to the 8 spin state transitions shown in FIG. 5 for continuous wave optical excitation where the RF frequency is scanned. The magnetic field component along each of the four different orientation classes can be determined in a similar manner to that in FIG. 5. FIG. 37 illustrates a magnetometry curve similar to that of FIG. 36, where the RF waveform, including τ, has been optimized for each ˜12.5 MHz collection interval.
  • FIG. 38 illustrates a magnetometry curve for the left most resonance frequency of FIG. 37. In monitoring the magnetic field, the dimmed luminescence intensity, i.e., the amount the fluorescence intensity diminishes from the case where the spin states have been set to the ground state, of the region having the maximum slope may be monitored. If the dimmed luminescence intensity does not change with time, the magnetic field component does not change. A change in time of the dimmed luminescence intensity indicates that the magnetic field is changing in time, and the magnetic field may be determined as a function of time. For example, FIG. 39 illustrates the dimmed luminescence intensity as a function of time for the region of the maximum slope of FIG. 38.
  • FIG. 40 illustrates the normalized intensity of the luminescence as a function of time for diamond NV material for a continuous optical illumination of the diamond NV material during a time which includes application of RF excitation according to a RF pulse sequence. Initially, the NV centers have all been reset to the ground state and the normalized intensity has a maximum value. At a time t1, RF excitation according to a RF sequence is applied and the normalized polarization drops to a minimum value. The normalized intensity continues to increase after t1 as the ground state population continues to increase. FIG. 41 illustrates a zoomed in region of FIG. 40 including time t1. The intensity may be read out for a time starting after t1 and integrated. The time at which the read out stops and high power reset begins may be set based on the application.
  • The foregoing description is provided to enable a person skilled in the art to practice the various configurations described herein. While the subject technology has been particularly described with reference to the various figures and configurations, it should be understood that these are for illustration purposes only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the subject technology.
  • While the above discussion primarily refers to circuits and/or circuitry, the circuits may include a microprocessor or multi-core processors that execute software, one or more implementations are performed by one or more integrated circuits, such as application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) or field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In one or more implementations, such integrated circuits execute instructions that are stored on the circuit itself.
  • The description of the subject technology is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the various embodiments described herein. While the subject technology has been particularly described with reference to the various figures and embodiments, it should be understood that these are for illustration purposes only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the subject technology.
  • There may be many other ways to implement the subject technology. Various functions and elements described herein may be partitioned differently from those shown without departing from the scope of the subject technology. Various modifications to these embodiments may be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and generic principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments. Thus, many changes and modifications may be made to the subject technology, by one having ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the scope of the subject technology.
  • A reference to an element in the singular is not intended to mean “one and only one” unless specifically stated, but rather “one or more.” The term “some” refers to one or more. Underlined and/or italicized headings and subheadings are used for convenience only, do not limit the subject technology, and are not referred to in connection with the interpretation of the description of the subject technology. All structural and functional equivalents to the elements of the various embodiments described throughout this disclosure that are known or later come to be known to those of ordinary skill in the art are expressly incorporated herein by reference and intended to be encompassed by the subject technology. Moreover, nothing disclosed herein is intended to be dedicated to the public regardless of whether such disclosure is explicitly recited in the above description.

Claims (80)

What is claimed is:
1. A magneto-optical defect center magnetometer comprising:
a magneto-optical defect center element;
an excitation source;
a collection device;
a top plate;
a bottom plate; and
a printed circuit board;
wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each mounted to the printed circuit board.
2. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, wherein the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and wherein the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board.
3. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1 further comprising excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source.
4. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1 further comprising collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device.
5. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1 further comprising an RF element mounted to the printed circuit board and RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device.
6. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1 further comprising an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, wherein the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device.
7. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical waveguide comprises a light pipe.
8. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical filter coating transmits greater than about 99% of light with a wavelength of about 650 nm to about 850 nm.
9. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical filter coating transmits less than 0.1% of light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm.
10. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical filter coating transmits greater than about 99% of light with a wavelength of about 650 nm to about 850 nm, and transmits less than 0.1% of light with a wavelength of less than about 600 nm.
11. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the collection device.
12. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein a first optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the collection device, and a second optical filter coating is disposed on an end surface of the optical waveguide adjacent the diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
13. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the light pipe has an aperture with a size that is smaller than a size of the collection device.
14. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the light pipe has an aperture with a size greater than a size of a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent to the light pipe.
15. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the light pipe has an aperture with a size that is smaller than a size of the collection device and greater than a size of a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent the light pipe.
16. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical waveguide assembly further comprises an optical coupling material disposed between the light pipe and the magneto-optical defect center element, and the optical coupling material is configured to optically couple the light pipe to the magneto-optical defect center element.
17. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein the optical waveguide assembly further comprises an optical coupling material disposed between the light pipe and the collection device, and the optical coupling material is configured to optically couple the light pipe to the collection device.
18. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, wherein an end surface of the light pipe adjacent to the magneto-optical defect center element extends in a plane parallel to a surface of the magneto-optical defect center element adjacent to the light pipe.
19. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 6, further comprising a second optical waveguide assembly and a second collection device, wherein the second optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the magneto-optical defect center element to the second collection device.
20. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, further comprising an optical filter, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source, wherein the collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength, and wherein the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device.
21. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter is further configured to transmit light corresponding to the first wavelength.
22. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein light corresponding to the first wavelength comprises green and light corresponding to the second wavelength comprises red.
23. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter comprises an optical coating, and wherein the optical coating comprises one or more layers configured to at least one of transmit or reflect light.
24. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter is disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the collection device.
25. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter is configured to enclose the magneto-optical defect center element.
26. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter is disposed at least one of above, beneath, behind, or in front of the magneto-optical defect center element.
27. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the collection device comprises a receiving ends, and wherein the receiving ends are disposed proximate to the magneto-optical defect center element.
28. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 27, wherein the collection device forms a gap, and wherein a predetermined dimension corresponding to the optical filter is configured to extend beyond a predetermined dimension corresponding to the gap.
29. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 27, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element is disposed between the receiving ends.
30. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, further comprising a RF excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element.
31. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 20, wherein the optical filter comprises a dichroic filter.
32. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system.
33. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 32, wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are positioned in a single plane.
34. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 32 further comprising a support element for the excitation source.
35. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 34, wherein the support element comprises one or more alignment pins for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises one or more alignment openings for the two-point orientation system.
36. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 35, wherein the excitation source comprises one or more of a laser diode or a focusing lens.
37. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 34, wherein the support element comprises an asymmetrical alignment pin for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises an asymmetrical alignment opening for the two-point orientation system.
38. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 37, wherein the excitation source comprises one or more of a laser diode or a focusing lens.
39. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 34, wherein the support element is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, plastic, or a composite.
40. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 32 further comprising a support element for the collection device.
41. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 40, wherein the support element comprises one or more alignment pins for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises one or more alignment openings for the two-point orientation system.
42. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 41, wherein the collection device comprises one or more of a light pipe or a photo diode.
43. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 40, wherein the support element comprises an asymmetrical alignment pin for the two-point orientation system and wherein the top plate comprises an asymmetrical alignment opening for the two-point orientation system.
44. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 43, wherein the collection device comprises one or more of a light pipe or a photo diode.
45. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 40, wherein the support element is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, plastic, or a composite.
46. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 32, wherein the top plate is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, or a composite.
47. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 32, wherein the bottom plate is formed of stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, carbon fiber, or a composite.
48. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
49. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 48, wherein the readout optical light source is a laser and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs.
50. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 48, wherein the readout optical light source is an LED and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs.
51. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 48, wherein the readout optical light source has a higher duty cycle than the reset optical light source.
52. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element, wherein the second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
53. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 52, wherein the readout optical light source is a laser and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs.
54. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 52, wherein the readout optical light source is an LED and the reset optical light source is a bank of LED flash-bulbs.
55. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 52, wherein the readout optical light source has a higher duty cycle than the reset optical light source.
56. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape.
57. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 56, wherein the coils are arranged in layers one above another.
58. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other.
59. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 58, wherein the coils each have a spiral shape.
60. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 1, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
61. A magneto-optical defect center magnetometer comprising:
a magneto-optical defect center element;
an excitation source;
a collection device;
a top plate;
a bottom plate;
a printed circuit board;
excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source; and
collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device;
wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each mounted to the printed circuit board.
62. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, wherein the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and wherein the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board.
63. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61 further comprising an RF element mounted to the printed circuit board and RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device.
64. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61 further comprising an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, wherein the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device.
65. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, further comprising an optical filter, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source, wherein the collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength, and wherein the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device.
65. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system.
66. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
67. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element, wherein the second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
68. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape.
69. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other.
70. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 61, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
71. A magneto-optical defect center magnetometer comprising:
a magneto-optical defect center element;
an excitation source;
a collection device;
an RF element;
a top plate;
a bottom plate;
a printed circuit board;
excitation source circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the excitation source;
collection device circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the collection device; and
RF amplifier circuitry mounted to the printed circuit board proximate to the RF device;
wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, the collection device, and the RF element are each mounted to the printed circuit board and wherein the excitation source is positioned along a first axis relative to the printed circuit board and wherein the collection device is positioned along a second axis relative to the printed circuit board.
72. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71 further comprising an optical waveguide assembly that includes an optical waveguide and at least one optical filter coating, wherein the optical waveguide assembly is configured to transmit light emitted from the diamond having nitrogen vacancies to the collection device.
73. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, further comprising an optical filter, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element receives optical excitation based, at least in part, on generation of light corresponding to a first wavelength from the excitation source, wherein the collection device is configured to receive at least a first portion of light corresponding to a second wavelength, and wherein the optical filter is configured to provide at least a portion of light corresponding to the second wavelength to the collection device.
74. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, wherein the excitation source, the magneto-optical defect center element, and the collection device are each aligned and positioned relative to the top plate, bottom plate, and printed circuit board by a corresponding two-point orientation system.
75. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to provide optical excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element to transition relevant magneto-optical defect electrons to excited spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to provide optical light to the magneto-optical defect center element to reset spin states in the magneto-optical defect center element to a ground state, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
76. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, wherein the excitation source comprises an optical light source including a readout optical light source configured to illuminate light in a first illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element and a reset optical light source configured to illuminate light in a second illumination volume of the magneto-optical defect center element, wherein the second illumination volume is larger than and encompassing the first illumination volume, wherein the reset optical light source provides a higher power light than the readout optical light source.
77. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils each having a spiral shape.
78. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, further comprising a radio frequency (RF) excitation source configured to provide RF excitation to the magneto-optical defect center element, the RF excitation source including an RF feed connector and a plurality of coils, each connected to the RF feed connector, and adjacent the magneto-optical defect center element, the coils arranged in layers one above another and to have a uniform spacing between each other.
79. The magneto-optical defect center magnetometer of claim 71, wherein the magneto-optical defect center element is a diamond having nitrogen vacancies.
US15/456,913 2016-05-31 2017-03-13 Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer Pending US20170343621A1 (en)

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US201662343843P true 2016-05-31 2016-05-31
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US201662343492P true 2016-05-31 2016-05-31
US201662343600P true 2016-05-31 2016-05-31
US201662343602P true 2016-05-31 2016-05-31
US201662343818P true 2016-05-31 2016-05-31
US15/380,691 US20170343618A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2016-12-15 Layered rf coil for magnetometer
US15/380,419 US20170343617A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2016-12-15 Selected volume continuous illumination magnetometer
US15/382,045 US20170343619A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2016-12-16 Two-stage optical dnv excitation
US15/456,913 US20170343621A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-03-13 Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer

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EP17807148.6A EP3465243A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-03-14 Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer
PCT/US2017/022279 WO2017209826A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-03-14 Magneto-optical defect center magnetometer
PCT/US2017/035315 WO2017210365A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-05-31 Magneto-optical detecting apparatus and methods
US15/610,526 US20170343695A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-05-31 Magneto-Optical Detecting Apparatus and Methods
EP17807444.9A EP3465244A1 (en) 2016-05-31 2017-05-31 Magneto-optical detecting apparatus and methods
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