US20170266128A1 - Topical regional neuro-affective therapy in mammals with cannabinoids - Google Patents

Topical regional neuro-affective therapy in mammals with cannabinoids Download PDF

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US20170266128A1
US20170266128A1 US15612375 US201715612375A US2017266128A1 US 20170266128 A1 US20170266128 A1 US 20170266128A1 US 15612375 US15612375 US 15612375 US 201715612375 A US201715612375 A US 201715612375A US 2017266128 A1 US2017266128 A1 US 2017266128A1
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drug
cannabinoid
method
back
topical
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Ronald Aung-Din
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Afgin Pharma LLC
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Afgin Pharma LLC
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/045Hydroxy compounds, e.g. alcohols; Salts thereof, e.g. alcoholates
    • A61K31/05Phenols
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/335Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin
    • A61K31/35Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/352Heterocyclic compounds having oxygen as the only ring hetero atom, e.g. fungichromin having six-membered rings with one oxygen as the only ring hetero atom condensed with carbocyclic rings, e.g. cannabinols, methantheline
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K36/00Medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof, e.g. traditional herbal medicines
    • A61K36/18Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)
    • A61K36/185Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K45/00Medicinal preparations containing active ingredients not provided for in groups A61K31/00 - A61K41/00
    • A61K45/06Mixtures of active ingredients without chemical characterisation, e.g. antiphlogistics and cardiaca
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/0012Galenical forms characterised by the site of application
    • A61K9/0014Skin, i.e. galenical aspects of topical compositions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/0012Galenical forms characterised by the site of application
    • A61K9/0014Skin, i.e. galenical aspects of topical compositions
    • A61K9/0017Non-human animal skin, e.g. pour-on, spot-on
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/10Dispersions; Emulsions
    • A61K9/127Liposomes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/06Ointments; Bases therefor; Other semi-solid forms, e.g. creams, sticks, gels

Abstract

A method of treating a disease state or condition in mammals other than humans via topical brainstem afferent stimulation therapy via the administration of a cannabinoid drug(s) to the back of the neck region and/or spine to provide regional neuro-affective therapy is disclosed. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) are not psychoactive or substantially not psychoactive. In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) are incorporated into a pharmaceutically acceptable topical carrier, e.g., a cream or mousse. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) comprises cannabidiol.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention relates to topical regional neuro-affective therapy (“TRNA THERAPY”) with cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD) on mammals other than humans. This is accomplished via administration of effective amounts of these agents on the back of the neck region, and in certain embodiments also in proximity to the painful site or problem area.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • This application claims priority to U.S. Application No. 62/126,757, filed on Mar. 2, 2015 and U.S. Application No. 62/299,260, filed on Feb. 24, 2016; the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein.
  • The approximate 2½ pound human brain is comprised of the most complex material known to man. The neuron, the primary functional cell of the nervous system, operates on the basis of electrical impulses that result in the release of neurochemical substances (neurotransmitters) at specific receptors: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and many others. There are estimated to be 80-100 billion (10 times the world population) neurons in the average human brain. These neurons, in turn, make 200-300 billion coded connections with other neurons to accomplish the complex tasks of the human body.
  • The brainstem serves as the vital pathway for relay and processing of neural impulses flowing continuously between the brain and the rest of the body. It is about the size of the thumb and contains the most dense and complicated wiring systems in the human body. In addition to the axons and dendrites (wires) that carry nerve impulses, the brainstem also contains critical nuclei that function as electrical generators and relays. Some of the nuclei are related to cranial nerve function while others serve as generators and impulse centers for pain perception, the autonomic system “fight or flight” response, wakefulness and alertness, as well as cardio-respiratory and related autonomic functions. The brainstem in mammals other than humans, while somewhat different than humans, is also responsible for these tasks.
  • The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in regulating a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain and pleasure sensation, immune system, mood, and memory. Endocannabinoid receptors in the brain interact with cannabinoids from different sources, including (endocannabinoids (brain derived, e.g., from foods (Omega-3s and Omega-6s); phytocannabinoids (plant derived,e.g., from buds, tinctures, extracts, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), etc.); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)). Cannabinoids are a diverse class of chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors on cells and influence neurotransmitter release in brain. These receptor proteins include endocannabinoids produced naturally in humans and animals, phytocannabinoids in cannabis and some other plants, and chemically manufactured synthetic cannabinoids. Phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant, and comprises up to 40% extracts of plant resin. At least 85 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis exhibit varied effects.
  • There is no greater example of a “double-edged sword” in medical therapeutics than medical marijuana. While benefits for treating symptoms of diverse neurologic and psychiatric conditions have been known and practiced by ancient civilizations for thousands of years, marijuana's psychoactive effects have also led to abuse and labeling as a “gateway drug” for more addictive compounds. There is no class of therapeutic compounds with more controversy and stigma than cannabinoids, active components of the cannabis plant. However, while availability may still be of concern for humans, abuse is not a concern for other mammals.
  • The U.S. Government has indicated there is no medical benefit for marijuana and classified it Controlled Substance Category 1, as heroin. It is considered by federal law, illegal to possess or use cannabis and its associated products. However, increasing number of states have challenged this position and legalized cannabis within their territories with varying restrictions and conditions for use. Even then, within individual states, such as in Colorado, marijuana laws vary greatly from county to county.
  • Although defined under U.S. federal law as having no medical use, U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,507 is held by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, covering use of cannabinoids for treating a wide range of diseases. It is directed to a method of treating diseases caused by oxidative stress comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a cannabinoid (e.g., cannabidiol) that has substantially no binding to the NMDA receptor to a subject who has a disease caused by oxidative stress.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of treatment in mammals with topical afferent neural activation therapy via the regional administration of one or more cannabinoids useful for the treatment of such diseases or conditions that may be treated via such therapy.
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for the treatment of lameness and gait issues; elbow dysplasia; hip dysplasia; back and hind leg problems; arthritis; seizures; encephalopathy, including lethargy, focus/attentional problems, and cognitive issues: spasticity; epilepsy; cancer; weakness; pain; numbness; anxiety and other mood disorders; hypertension; tremors; peripheral neuropathy; bowel and bladder control issues; inactivity; poor appetite; tumors (e.g., pituitary tumors); Cushing's disease; aggressive behavior; pruritis; dermatitis; vomiting; lethargy; dystonia; personality change; as well as any other disease or condition in a mammal other than humans that may be treated with a cannabinoid.
  • The above objects and others are attained by virtue of the present invention, which is directed in part to a method of treating a disease state or condition in mammals via topical regional neuro-affective (TRNA) or regional neuro-affective (RNA) therapy via administration of a drug at the back of the neck region, optionally also at the spine region. The drug is one or more cannabinoids, administered at the back of the neck region in proximity to and under or on the area of skin above the brain stem to provide regional neuro-affective therapy to mammals, and optionally also at the spine region. In certain preferred embodiments, the mammals are not human.
  • In other embodiments of the invention, the method is directed in part to treating a disease state or condition in mammals other than humans via topical regional neuro-affective (TRNA) or regional neuro-affective (RNA) therapy via administration of a cannabinoid drug(s) at the spine region, to provide regional neuro-affective therapy to mammals, including humans but preferably other than humans. The administration may be along part or all of the spine, depending on the disease state or condition and/or the location of the injured area on the mammal.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is derived from an endocannabinoid, a phytocannabinoid, a synthetic cannabinoid, or mixtures of any of the foregoing. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid comprises cannabidiol.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug mixture concentrate includes from about 0 to about 3% tetrahydrocannabinol, from about 0 to about 1% tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, from about 20 to about 100% cannabidiol, from about 0 to about 1% cannabidiolic acid, and from about 0 to about 1% cannabinol, for a total active cannabinoid level of from about 20% to about 50%. The remaining cannabinoids included in the mixture may be substantially therapeutically inactive.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) are incorporated into a pharmaceutically acceptable topical formulation. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) in the topical pharmaceutical formulation are at a concentration from about 0.75% to about 5%, by weight. In certain embodiments, the unit dose of the cannabinoid drug(s) includes from about 1 mg to about 200 mg cannabinoid drug(s) and the cannabinoid drug(s) comprise at least 80% cannabidiol. In certain preferred embodiments, a unit dose of the topical pharmaceutical formulation comprises from about 3 mg to about 50 mg cannabidiol.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutically acceptable topical formulation comprises a topical aqueous-based carrier, with an optional penetration enhancer. In certain preferred embodiments, the topical aqueous-based carrier is a mousse, gel, or cream, and most preferably a mousse.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the method further comprises applying a sufficient amount of the topical pharmaceutical formulation to the back of the neck region (and optionally also at the spine region) of mammals other than humans such that the onset of a therapeutic effect occurs in less than about 30 minutes, or in less than 15 minutes. The topical pharmaceutical formulation may be administered (applied to the back of the neck region) on a once a day basis, a twice a day basis, or even three times per day. In other embodiments, particularly where the mammal has been administered multiple doses of the topical pharmaceutical formulation and has realized a therapeutic benefit from the cannabinoid drug therapy, it is possible to reduce the frequency of the dosing to less than once per day, e.g., once every two or three days, once a week, biweekly, or monthly. In certain instances, it is contemplated that the administration of the topical pharmaceutical formulation will no longer be necessary after an initial course of therapy, as the mammal would no longer be suffering from the underlying condition and may be in essence “cured”.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the mammal is a canine. In other preferred embodiments, the mammal is a feline. In other preferred embodiments, the mammal is a horse or other equine. In other embodiments, the mammal is a goat, sheep, lamb, pig, wolf, cattle, etc. In yet other embodiments, the mammal is a monkey or a hominoid ape.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the disease or condition to be treated in the mammal includes lameness and gait issues; elbow dysplasia; hip dysplasia; back and hind leg problems; arthritis; seizures; encephalopathy, including lethargy, focus/attentional problems, and cognitive issues: spasticity; epilepsy; cancer; weakness; pain; numbness; anxiety and other mood disorders; hypertension; tremors; peripheral neuropathy; bowel and bladder control issues; inactivity; poor appetite; tumors (e.g., pituitary tumors); Cushing's disease; aggressive behavior; lethargy; personality change; as well as any other disease or condition in a mammal other than humans that may be treated with a cannabinoid.
  • In certain embodiments, the method further comprises further comprises topically administering at the back of the neck region (and optionally also at the spine region) together with, sequentially, or simultaneously but in separate formulations, an additional drug(s) selected from the group consisting of: an anti-epileptic, an anxiolytic, a neuroleptic, an anti-psychotic, an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, an anti-Parkinson's disease/syndrome drug, a drug for the treatment of dystonia, a drug for the treatment of spastic conditions, a drug for the treatment of benign essential/familial tremor, a drug for the treatment of tremor related to MS, a drug for the treatment of chronic encepahalopathies, a drug for the treatment of congenital CNS degeneration conditions/cerebral palsy, a drug for the treatment of cerebellar degeneration syndromes, a drug for the treatment of neuropathic and/or neurogenic pain, a drug for appetite suppression, a drug for neurodegenerative conditions, a drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, a drug for the treatment of insomnia, a drug for the treatment of fatigue, a drug for the treatment of vertigo, nausea and/or dizziness, a drug for the treatment of writer's cramp and restless leg syndrome, other drugs which can beneficially be added to the treatment in order to provide an additive or synergistic effect with respect to treating the patient's disease state or condition; and a combination of any of the foregoing. In certain embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a dopamine agonist selected from the group consisting of apomorphine, pramipexole, ropinirole, bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide, rotigotine, entacapone, tocapone, seligiline, dopamine, and mixtures of any of the foregoing. In other embodiments, the disease state or condition is Parkinson's disease and/or related syndromes/diseases. In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is selected from the group consisting of the drug is a dopamine agonist, COMT inhibitors, MAO-B inhibitors, and mixtures of any of the foregoing. In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is an anti-epileptic drug selected from the group consisting of Valproic acid, Leviteracetem, Lamotrigene, Topiramate, Pregabalin, Gabapentin, Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenobarbital and other barbiturates, Tiagabine, Retigabine, Lacosamide, Perampanel, and mixtures of any of the foregoing; or the additional drug(s) is an anxiolytic, a neuroleptic and/or an antipsychotic; or the additional drug(s) is an analgesic and/or an anti-inflammatory; or the additional drug(s) is used in the treatment of neuropathic and/or neurogenic pain; or the additional drug(s) is for multiple sclerosis; or the additional drug(s) is for insomnia; or the additional drug(s) is for fatigue; or the additional drug(s) is for vertigo, nausea and/or dizziness; or the additional drug(s) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), a tetracyclic antidepressant, or an atypical antipsychotic.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the drug is formulated in a pharmaceutically acceptable (immediate release) topical carrier. In certain preferred embodiments, the topical carrier is aqueous based, and may be a cream or gel or mousse.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the method further comprises formulating the cannabinoid drug(s) in a pharmaceutically acceptable immediate release aqueous-based carrier. In other embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered in a topical pharmaceutical formulation comprising liposomes.
  • In certain preferred embodiments where the cannabinoid drug(s) are administered in a topical pharmaceutical formulation, the method further comprises applying a sufficient amount to the back of the neck region of the mammal such that the onset of clinical effect occurs in less than about 30 minutes, and in certain preferred embodiments in less than about 15 minutes.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount of the cannabinoid drug(s) is applied as a unit dose comprising from about 0.25 mg to about 500 mg.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is incorporated into a sustained release transdermal delivery system which is capable of delivering from about 0.25 mg to about 5000 mg of the cannabinoid drug(s) through the skin of a mammal other than humans over a 24 hour period, the transdermal delivery system being capable of delivering the cannabinoid drug(s) in such amounts for a time period from about 1 to about 7 days.
  • In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered via implantation or injection at the back of the neck region, or is administered via injection in an immediate release pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for injection. In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered via injection or implantation in a controlled release carrier to provide a prolonged effect of the cannabinoid drug(s). In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered to create a depot under the skin at the back of the neck region.
  • Certain embodiments of the invention are directed to a topical formulation, comprising a cannabinoid drug(s) in a pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous-based carrier, the cannabinoid drug(s) being incorporated into the carrier in at least one unit dose comprising from about 0.25 mg to about 80 mg cannabinoid drug(s). Preferably, when applied in a unit dose to the back of the neck of a mammal other than humans the topical formulation provides an onset of clinical effect occurs in less than about 30 minutes.
  • The invention is also directed to a topical formulation, comprising a cannabinoid drug in a formulation suitable for administration at the back of the neck region in proximity to and under or on the area of skin above the brain stem of a mammal other than a human to provide regional neuro-affective therapy to the patient. The topical formulation may be prepared as an immediate, controlled or sustained release formulation.
  • The drug formulations useful in the present invention may be in a form selected from a topical formulation (e.g, a mousse, cream, ointment or gel); a transdermal device; or an implantable or injectable formulation.
  • The invention is further directed to the use of a cannabinoid drug in the preparation of a medicament for providing regional neuro-affective therapy to a mammal other than a human, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered at the back of the neck region and spine. Alternatively, the regional neuro-affective therapy can be described as administration of the cannabinoid drug(s) in proximity to and at or on the back of the neck region, e.g., on the area of skin above the brain stem or in an area running from around the pole to around or beyond the withers (for four-legged mammals), to provide regional neuro-affective therapy to the mammalian patient.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is also administered to the mammal at or in proximity to an injured area on the mammal. For example, if the four-legged mammal has an injury to its leg, the cannabinoid drug(s) may also be administered to the leg or hip area. If the four-legged mammal has an injury to its hip, the cannabinoid drug(s) may also be administered directly to the hip region.
  • In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is applied to the posterior cervical region of the mammal in order to initiate the brainstem afferent stimulation therapy. Most preferably, the topical formulation or topical therapeutic system is applied to the back of the neck region, preferably near to or on the area of skin above the brain stem and/or along (part or all of) the spine.
  • In other embodiments, the cannabinoid drug is administered via implantation or injection at the back of the neck region and/or along the spine. In such embodiments, the therapy is accomplished via the availability of the drug(s) at the free nerve endings under the epidermis. In such embodiments, the drug may be incorporated into an implantation device or may be incorporated into a carrier such as a gel or matrix that will provide a prolonged release/effect of the cannabinoid drug(s) at the site. The carrier may be a hydrophilic or hydrophobic material, a colloidal material, and may be in a state ranging from a viscous liquid to a solid polymeric insert.
  • Certain embodiments of the invention are directed to a method of treatment, comprising delivering a cannabinoid drug(s) through regional neuro-affective therapy by application as a cream/gel or a sustained release patch applied at the back of the neck region and/or along the spine, or via administration under the skin at the back of the neck region via an implantable or injectable drug formulation or device.
  • In certain embodiments, the method further provides for a therapeutically effective treatment through topical regional neuro-affective (TRNA) therapy by application of a drug(s) as a cream/gel or a sustained release patch applied at the back of the neck region without the side-effects and the other draw-backs of the current injection method.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered at the back of the neck region in an immediate release topical formulation in a dose comprising from about 0.25 mg to about 500 mg of the cannabinoid drug(s), and in certain embodiments more preferably from about 1 to about 100 mg of the cannabinoid drug(s). In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) are in a more potent form (e.g., crystallized CBD from a herbal source), and the dose is from about 10 mg to about 50 mg. In certain other embodiments, the (e.g., immediate release) topical formulation includes from about 1 mg to about 30 mg CBD when the CBD is provided as purified crystallized CBD from a herbal source.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the method of treatment further comprises administering the cannabinoid drug(s) to other areas of the spine and/or peripheral nerves in addition to administration on or at the back of the neck region, in order to provide an additive or synergistic effect and further modulate afferent neural input to the brain to affect efferent outflow for relief of symptoms.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the method of treatment further comprises topically administering at the back of the neck together with, sequentially, or simultaneously but in separate formulations, one or more additional active agents (“drugs”) which may be chosen from the following: an anti-epileptic, an anxiolytic, a neuroleptic, an anti-psychotic, an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, an anti-Parkinson's disease/syndrome drug, a drug for the treatment of dystonia, a drug for the treatment of spastic conditions, a drug for the treatment of benign essential/familial tremor, a drug for the treatment of tremor related to MS, a drug for the treatment of chronic encepahalopathies, a drug for the treatment of congenital CNS degeneration conditions/cerebral palsy, a drug for the treatment of cerebellar degeneration syndromes, a drug for the treatment of neuropathic and/or neurogenic pain, a drug for appetite suppression, a drug for neurodegenerative conditions, a drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, a drug for the treatment of insomnia, a drug for the treatment of fatigue, a drug for the treatment of vertigo, nausea and/or dizziness, a drug for the treatment of writer's cramp and restless leg syndrome, and other drugs which can beneficially be added to the treatment in order to provide an additive or synergistic effect with respect to treating the patient's disease state or condition.
  • For purposes of the present invention, the term “back of the neck region” is intended to encompass the area or region extending from (behind) one ear to the other ear of the mammal (other than a human patient) and from the back of the head (i.e., above the neck) to below the neck at the torso of the mammal.
  • With respect to four-legged mammals, the back of the neck region refers to the area extending from the poll to the withers and beyond, e.g., along the spine. The poll is a name of the part of an animal's head, alternatively referencing a point immediately behind or right between the ears. The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of a four-legged mammal.
  • For purposes of the present invention, a “topical formulation” includes, for example, ointments, creams, lotions, pastes, gels, etc., which releases one or more drugs (e.g., cannabinoid drug(s)s) at a predetermined rate over a defined period of time to a defined site of application.
  • For purposes of the present invention, an “injectable” formulation includes, for example, an injectable solution, suspension, gel or the like and may be in immediate release form or may provide a controlled or sustained release of the drug at the site of administration.
  • For purposes of the present invention, the term “immediate release” means that the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered at the site of application (e.g., the back of the neck) and is available for immediate absorption at the site of application. In other words, the term “immediate release” is meant to convey in terms of a topical formulation the fact that there is nothing in the formulation (e.g., a sustained release carrier) that would delay or slow the availability of the drug at the site of application (in contrast to, e.g., a transdermal device or patch).
  • For purposes of the present invention, an “implantable” formulation includes, for example, a solid, semisolid or liquid drug formulation which can be administered at the back of the neck region either via injection and/or via surgical implantation. The solid may comprise microspheres, microcapsules, pellets, discs, and the like. The implantable formulations of the invention may provide a controlled or sustained release of the drug at the site of administration.
  • For purposes of the present invention, a “transdermal therapeutic system” is defined as a drug-containing device (including e.g., patch, disc, etc.) which releases one or more drugs at a predetermined rate over a defined period of time to a defined site of application.
  • For purposes of the present invention, “transdermal” delivery is the delivery by passage of a drug through the skin and into the bloodstream (“traditional” transdermal delivery) and is termed “transdermal systemic drug delivery (TSD therapy).
  • For purposes of the present invention, the term “topical neuro-affective therapy” is synonomous with the more accurately termed topical regional neuro-affective therapy (or “TRNA therapy”). This term describes important aspects of this delivery method: topical, regional (near brainstem and cervical spinal cord), and affecting the free nerve endings of the afferent nervous system, thereby not requiring the presence of drug in the blood, as with systemic therapies which includes the transdermal patch wherein the skin is used to have drug enter into the bloodstream through a continuous application patch. In such situations, an ionotophoretic electric current generator may be required to cause drug entry into blood against a concentration gradient.
  • For purposes of the present invention “therapeutically effective” or “effective” amount is meant to be a nontoxic but sufficient amount of a cannabinoid compound(s) to provide the desired therapeutic effect.
  • For purposes of the present invention, an “effective” amount of a permeation enhancer as used herein, for example, means an amount that will provide the desired increase in skin permeability and, correspondingly, the desired depth of penetration, rate of administration, and amount of drug to be delivered.
  • For purposes of the present invention, the term “delivers” when used with respect to the topical formulation or transdermal therapeutic system means that the formulation or system provides a mean relative release rate or flux of the drug out of the formulation or system and through the skin of the patient.
  • “Penetration enhancement” or “permeation enhancement” for purposes of the present invention relates to an increase in the permeability of skin to a pharmacologically active agent, i.e., so as to increase the rate at which the drug permeates through the skin and enters the bloodstream. The enhanced permeation effected through the use of such enhancers can be observed by measuring the rate of diffusion of drug through animal (mammal) skin using a diffusion cell apparatus.
  • For purposes of the present invention, the drug may be in the form of the base, or may be provided as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt (inorganic or organic) or complex. It may be in an optically pure form or a mixture of stereoisomers.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The therapeutically active agents used in the formulations and methods of the invention comprise cannabinoid drug(s). Cannabinoids are a diverse class of chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors on cells and influence neurotransmitter release in brain. These receptor proteins include endocannabinoids produced naturally in humans and animals, phytocannabinoids in cannabis and some other plants, and chemically manufactured synthetic cannabinoids. Endo, phyto and/or synthetic cannabinoids cause neurotransmitter release which results in nerve transmission. Phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is primary psychoactive compound of cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant, up to 40% extracts of plant resin. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many active cannabinoids in cannabis. The cannabinoid may be derived from endocannabinoids (derived, e.g., from foods (Omega-3s and Omega-6s); phytocannabinoids (plant derived,e.g., from buds, tinctures, extracts, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), etc.); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)). At least 85 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis exhibit varied effects. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s), or are not psychoactive or are substantially not psychoactive (meaning that if included in the formulation, they are not in sufficient amount that a unit dose of the formulation would cause the patient to have a psychoactive effect). In certain preferred embodiments, as will be explained further below, the cannabinoid drug is actually a mixture of two or more cannabinoids (e.g., CBD and THC together in a CBD:THC ratio that provides a therapeutic effect while substantially not psychoactive or not psychoactive at all).
  • The endocannabinoid system (“ECS”) consists of a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. These entail neuromodulatory lipids and their associated receptors. As the body's “endogenous,” cannabinoid system, ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including neurological functions dealing with pain, mood, memory; and, movement, and sensation. The body's immune function and cell homeostasis is also maintained by ECS. It mediates the psychoactive effects of the cannabis (marijuana) plant. Cannabinoids are a diverse class of compounds that include many of the unique compounds found in marijuana.
  • Cannabinoids produce physiological and behavioral effects through interaction with specific membrane-bound receptors. Two primary endocannabinoid receptors have been identified in humans: CB1 and CB2. There is mounting evidence that more endocannabinoid receptors exist. CB1 receptors are found predominantly in brain (specifically in basal ganglia and limbic system, including hippocampus) and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues. These are acted on by the endocannabinoid binding molecule Anandamide. Of G protein-coupled type receptors (GPCR) in human brain, cannabinoid receptors are the most plentiful. CB1 receptors responsible for euphoric and anti-convulsive effects of cannabis. CB2 receptors found only in peripheral nervous system appear responsible for anti-inflammatory effect such as pain relief. One other main endocannabinoid is 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), active at both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Its mimetic phytocannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), while that of Anandamide is THC, responsible for psycho-active effects. 2-AG and CBD are involved in regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management.
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study.
  • Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered the “medical component” of cannabis and hemp. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of medical applications. It acts as 5-HT1A receptor agonist which may explain its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. Cannabidiol modulates opioid receptors involved with pain perception. CBD is not psychoactive and relieves convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. It has also been found to play a role in preventing short-term memory loss from THC. Antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol represent potential treatment of schizophrenia. Oral CBD formulation received orphan drug status in US as treatment for Dravet syndrome, an intractable seizure disorder also known as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI). Nabiximols, trade name Sativex, is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC approved 2005 in Canada for multiple sclerosis associated pain. CBD has a greater affinity for CB2 than CB1 receptor.
  • CBD acts as serotonin (5-HT1A) receptor agonist which may explain its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. CBD modulates opioid receptors involved with pain perception. CBD is not psychoactive and relieves convulsion (seizures), inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. It has been found to play a role in preventing short-term memory loss from THC. Antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol represents potential treatment of schizophrenia. CBD has a greater affinity for CB2 than CB1 receptors.
  • Strains of cannabis containing higher CBD concentrations did not produce short-term memory impairment compared to those with similar concentrations of THC, but lower CBD concentrations. Attenuation of memory effects attributed to CBD's function as CB1 antagonist. Transdermal CBD has been shown to be neuroprotective in animals. Antioxidant properties of cannabidiol have been shown to play a role in its neuroprotective and anti-ischemic effects. Animal experiments indicate CBD may help in treating Parkinson's disease.
  • It is known to those skilled in the art that studies have suggested that many cannabinoid compounds work together to produce a synergy of effects. This is known as the ‘entourage effect.” Thus, in certain preferred embodiments, the formulations of the invention contain more than one cannabinoid compound, which provide an “entourage effect.”
  • CBD has anti-psychotic effects which may counteract psychotomimetic effects of THC, euphoric and hallucinogenic component of cannabis. Reports show CBD safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. A double blind trial comparing purified cannabidiol to atypical antipsychotic amisulpride in acute paranoid schizophrenia showed both treatments were associated with significant decrease in psychotic symptoms after 2 weeks; but cannabidiol was associated with significantly fewer side effects. Studies show cannabidiol affects limbic system, decreasing symptoms of social anxiety and isolation. Cannabidiol has demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid is not psychoactive, or only mildly psychoactive. Cannabidiol (CBD) is not psychoactive, and therefore in certain preferred embodiments, the active cannabinoid drug comprises cannabidiol, or consists essentially of cannabidiol, or consists of cannabidiol. In other preferred embodiments, cannabidiol comprises from about 5% to about 99.9% of the total amount of cannabinoid drug(s) included in the formulations and treatments of the present invention. In other preferred embodiments, cannabidiol comprises about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90% or more, or greater than about 95% of the total amount of cannabinoid drug(s) included in the formulations and treatments of the present invention. In certain embodiments, the CBD is derived from crystalline powder, such that the powder is about 95% pure CBD or greater. In other preferred embodiments, cannabidiol comprises at least about 20% of the total amount of cannabinoid drug(s) included in the formulations and treatments of the present invention. In other embodiments, the cannabinoid drug comprises cannabinol (which is only mildly psychoactive). In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) contained in the formulations of the invention is hemp CBD. In other embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is cannabis-based and comprises a THC-CBD (and optionally other cannabinoid combinations derived from cannabis). As CBD and THC have different mechanisms of action, they may act synergistically, e.g., to control seizures. In such embodiments, the therapeutic effect may be via the “entourage effect”.
  • In other embodiments, the drug is a cannabinoid such as an endocannabinoids (derived, e.g., from foods (Omega-3s and Omega-6s); a phytocannabinoid (plant derived,e.g., from buds, tinctures, extracts, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), etc.); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)), mixtures thereof, and the like. Further representative cannabinoids useful in the present invention include cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichchromene (CBC), cannabicyclol (CBL), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromevarin (CBCV), cannabigerovarin (CBGV), delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol), cannabigerol monomethyl ether (CBGM), nabilone, rimonabant (SR141716, a selective cannabinoid (CB1) receptor inverse agonist), JWH-018, JWH-073, CP-55940, dimethylheptylpyran, HU-331, SR 144528 (a selective CB2 receptor agonist), levonantradol, AM-2201, beta-caryophyllene, lipophilic alkamides (alylamides) which have affinity for the CB2 receptor, and chemical derivatives of any of the foregoing. In certain embodiments, a synthetic cannabinoid is used. Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, including the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, qualene17p, and arylsulfonamides, as well as eicosanoids related to the endocannabinoids. Cannabigerol (“CBG”) is non-psychotomimetic but still impacts the overall effects and affects of cannabis. CBG acts as a alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, CB1 receptor antagonist, and also binds to the CB2 receptor. CBC is non-psychoactive, and exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Evidence suggests that CBC may play a role in anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects, may have antidepressant effects, may promote neurogenesis, and may contribute to the overall analgesic effects of cannabis. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Dronabinol; commercially available in the U.S. under the tradename Marinol) is used as an appetite stimulant, anti-emetic, and analgesic. Nabilone (Cesamet, Canemes), a synthetic cannabinoid and an analog of Marinol; Rimonabant (SR141716), a selective CB1 receptor inverse agonist once used as an anti-obesity drug under the tradename Acomplia, and was also used for smoking cessation.
  • In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is industrial hemp or a non-psychoactive hemp product.
  • In yet further embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) comprises a natural cannabinoid compound, a synthetic cannabinoid compound, a semi-synthetic cannabinoid compound, or mixtures thereof. Illustrative of such compounds are cannabinoids or cannabinoid analogues selected from the group consisting of cannabinol, cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol, hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, levonantradol, delta 11-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, dronabinol, amandamide, nabilone, a natural or synthetic analogue thereof, a natural or synthetic molecule with a basic cannabinoid structure, and mixtures of any of the foregoing.
  • In certain embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) included in the treatment and/or formulations of the present invention comprise a ligand that binds to the CB1 or the CB2 receptor.
  • Cannabis terpenoids (e.g., limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol) share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all 18quale and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human 18qualene when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·Ml-1. They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Thus, in certain embodiments, the formulations and treatments of the present invention include an active drug component which comprises both a phytocannabinoid(s) and a terpenoid(s). Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions may produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).
  • Administration at the Back of the Neck Region
  • The cannabinoid drug formulations of the present invention are preferably applied at the back of the neck region of the mammal other than a human patient. In its broadest sense, the term “back of the neck region” is intended to encompass the area or region extending from (behind) one ear to the other ear of the mammal and from the back of the head (i.e., above the neck) to the withers or beyond (four-legged mammals), and below shoulder level (monkeys, huminoid apes, etc.). The majority of mammals have seven cervical vertebrae, including humans, bats, giraffes and whales. The exceptions are the manatee and the two-toed sloth, which have just six, and the three-toed sloth with nine cervical vertebrae. Thus, the anatomy of mammals are not very dissimilar to humans in this respect. The administration of the cannabinoid drug(s) may be located more directly at the back of the neck in the area in mammals above the cervical nerve roots, C1-C4 (and optionally including C5) such that administration of the cannabinoid drug(s) are in the area at or above the skin where the afferent components of trigeminal nerve system, cervical sympathetic nerves, and vagus nerve are located. It is to be understood that application at the back of the neck region is not an exact art, and application of part or all of the dose in proximity to the back of the neck region (e.g., behind the ears or on the skin higher (on the back of the head) or lower (below the shoulders or withers) and/or along the spine than directly above the C1-C4 cervical nerve roots will still provide a therapeutically effective dose in accordance with the invention; however, such locations are not optimal and may cause a lessening of the therapeutic effect or a delay in onset of therapeutic effect. All such treatments are considered to fall within the definition of “back of the neck region” for purposes of the present invention.
  • The administration of a cannabinoid drug(s) at the back of the neck for mammals is a novel way to deliver cannabinoids. This is believed to be accomplished by activation of cutaneous afferent pathways through neuro-chemical receptors existing on free nerve-endings. The hypothesis of this therapeutic modality is based on presence of numerous (hundreds of thousands to millions) of free nerve-endings below the skin surface (stratum corneum) at upper posterior cervical region, the back of the neck or “nuchal” region. There exist at this location, direct connections through cervical nerve roots, C1-C4, and occasionally, C5, to afferent components of trigeminal nerve system, cervical sympathetic nerves, and vagus nerve providing significant input to CNS. At no other location on the human body is such a magnitude of afferent neural input accessible through skin nerve-endings than here. Modulated CNS efferent neural outflow in response to afferent activation manifests as improvement in clinical symptoms of MS and other conditions of brain and spinal cord impairment. By using direct nerve pathways, by-passing blood flow and avoiding restrictions of “blood-brain-barrier,” onset of therapeutic time is greatly reduced and systemic side effects are avoided.
  • The inventor has observed rapid therapeutic onset of action, generally, less than 10 to 15 minutes administration of cannabinoid drug(s) at the back of the neck, with maximal benefit noted well within 30 minutes. In certain embodiments, a prolonged therapeutic effect has been noted, e.g., about 4 to about 12 hours or more, depending on condition and severity of the condition being treated.
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) communicates with central nervous system (CNS, consisting of brain, brainstem, and spinal cord) through dorsal root ganglia which reside just outside the spine and act as neural relay areas between PNS and CNS. Mammalian skin has free nerve endings just below the skin surface (stratum corneum), which are the peripheral end components of spinal dorsal root ganglia. As skin and CNS are both derived from the same embryological tissue, neuro-ectoderm, receptors to neurotransmitters and other substances used in neural communication are similarly represented on both free nerve endings and CNS. This makes sense as the skin needs to communicate directly with CNS with respect to external stimuli. In fact, these receptors are on the cell surface of skin free nerve endings, making them readily accessible to compounded drug applications to the skin for neural effect, “topical neuro-affective therapy.” The binding of the topically administered cannabinoid drug(s) to these receptors results in electrical action potential generation and propagation to CNS, causing therapeutic effects to occur. As such, these same drug compounds do not need to enter the bloodstream to reach their sites of activity, as it is with systemic delivery. Systemic side effects and drug activity at sites other than intended are therefore not present. Further, by working through established neural pathways than through the blood stream, the therapeutic effects are rapid, generally with 15-30 minutes or less. Many of the current drugs used systemically for peripheral conditions such as pain are thought to work by their effect on dorsal root ganglia, modulating neural impulses to brain. With topical neuro-affective therapy the effects on dorsal root ganglia are direct and immediate as free nerve endings are peripheral extensions of the ganglia.
  • An important aspect of the benefits of “TRNA” or “RNA” therapy in CNS drug delivery for brainstem related disorders lies in the anatomy of the region. The free nerve endings with receptors for the neuro-chemicals dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and others are located just below the surface of the skin, easily assessable to drugs compounded in an appropriate dermal penetration enhancing medium and topically applied to the skin.
  • To understand the concept of “peripheral neural afferent stimulation therapy” as it applies to the brainstem and how topical drug delivery to the back of the neck works requires a review of the neuro-anatomy and the neuro-physiology of the region. As indicated above, this area of the nervous system is very complicated, compact and highly inter-active and inter-related.
  • The Trigeminal Nerve System is a component of the brainstem which coordinates pain input from the face, head, and the back of the neck. As such, it intimately influences the production of other symptoms associated with syndromes attributed to dysfunction within the trigeminal complex. These include the photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, anxiety, allodynia, and other focal sensory symptoms which may accompany a migraine attack. Similarly, episodes of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloreux) frequently involve significant affective (emotional) and visceral components. Because of proximity and connections to other structures in the brainstem, abnormalities of temperature regulation, thirst, alertness, and mood are common. Some of these symptoms may be as equally disabling as the head and face pain.
  • In addition to receiving pain and sensory (afferent) input from the face, nasal and para-nasal sinuses, the teeth, scalp, the dura of the anterior and middle cranial fossa, the trigeminal system receives similar input from the soft tissues of the posterior cervical region. The free nerve endings in the back of the neck are just below the surface of the skin, easily accessible to topically delivered drugs formulated in an appropriate dermal penetration enhancing compounding medium. The free nerve endings, via the small un-myelinated and myelinated “C-fibers” (pain fibers) carry pain impulses through afferent sensory nerves back to the Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis (TNC). TNC is the pain processing center extending from the pons through the entire extent of the brainstem to the upper cervical spinal cord. After synapsing at the thalamus, pain impulses from TNC travel to the somatosensory cortex, where pain is perceived.
  • As providing important afferent input to the brain, the trigeminal system also receives afferent input from the rest of the body. Afferent input is defined as any neural impulses coming back to the brain from the body. As such it provides information to the brain for processing and interpretation: pain, sensation, autonomic functions. Efferent output, on the other hand, consists of impulses originating in the central nervous system (brain, brainstem, and spinal cord) flowing to the body for function: movement, response, action.
  • In humans, the vagus nerve includes both efferent and afferent fibers and is attached to the lower brainstem (medulla oblongata) via 8-10 radicles. Other mammals also have a vagus nerve which is somewhat similar. The afferent fibers arise in the jugular and the nodose vagus ganglia. The somatic afferent fibers terminate in the nucleus of the trigemino-spinal tract (TNC). Both the jugular and the nodose ganglia are connected with the superior cervical sympathetic gangion through inter-communicating rami. The superior cervical sympathetic ganglion is located between the internal carotid artery and the jugular vein on the ventral aspects of the transverse processes of the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th cervical vertebrae. It is the largest of the sympathetic trunk ganglia.
  • In humans, sympathetic roots arising from the ganglion join the 1st and the 2nd cervical nerves; frequently the 3rd, and occasionally, the 4th. In addition to nerve fibers which extend rostrally from the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion, the sympathetic innervation of the head includes fibers which join the plexi on the common carotid and the vertebrtal arteries. The one on the vertebral artery is continuous with the plexus on the basilar artery. Rami derived from the internal carotid plexus join the trigeminal nerve and the cavernous plexus in addition to the other structures such as the abducens and deep petrosal nerves. From the cavernous plexus, located in the middle cranial fossa, sympathetic fibers join the oculomotor, trochlear, and the ophthalmic nerves. Fibers from the plexus also accompany blood vessels into the hypophysis. The spheno-palatine gangion, located in the pterygo-palatine fossa, receives sypmpathetic fibers from the face with rami distributed to the mucous membranes of the nares, mouth, the pharynx, and some orbital structures.
  • From the above, it is clear that cervical nerve function is intimately related to vagal afferents and afferents from the face, head, and the dura of cranial fossae associated with migraine and other head and face pain syndromes.
  • It has been long reported that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in the neck down-regulates abnormal discharges from epileptic foci and treats seizures. VNS is now approved as adjunct to medical therapy in certain forms of intractable epilepsy. It is also of benefit in severe depression resistant to traditional drug therapy. Studies with VNS in migraine, anxiety, and fibromyalgia have been underway and have shown preliminary promise in benefit. The mechanism of action appears to be the down-regulation of hyper-excitable, dysfunctional neuronal systems by increased inhibitory input to brainstem and associated connections through stimulation of the afferent system. Afferent stimulation, by feed-back through TNC, causes reduction in efferent output from the brainstem, resulting in resolution of clinical symptoms through down-regulation of hyper-active neuronal structures.
  • In the same way the electrical stimulation of VNS accomplishes its effect on the brainstem, topical drug therapy to the posterior cervical region, in close proximity to the brainstem and its afferent inputs, is theorized to provide effect for the conditions mentioned above.
  • It is hypothesized that benefits of the present method of topical drug delivery of central nervous system (CNS) active drugs lies in the fact that drug concentration gradients and blood flow factors are un-involved in the therapeutic process. In contrast, the proposed delivery operates through direct nerve connections between skin peripheral nerves at the back of the neck, region and brainstem structures. Active drug compounded in an appropriate “dermal penetration enhancing” medium topically applied to the skin at the back of neck has effect on the free nerve endings of peripheral nerves located immediately below the skin surface. Receptors to dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and other neuro-transmitters/neuro-chemicals involved with neural transmission are located on these free nerve endings. Therefore, topically applied drug has near immediate therapeutic effect as direct neural impulses are involved—the concept of brainstem afferent stimulation through topical regional neuro-affective (TRNA) therapy. All prior art and methods of drug delivery to the CNS have involved blood flow and therapeutic drug blood level requirements. The inventive method does not require such, which are the source of undesirable systemic and CNS side-effects. The present drug delivery process operates on the principle of an electrical capacitor whereas the prior relied on those fluid dynamics and reservoir principles.
  • The factors which determine the success of TRNA therapy include: the drug being considered, the compounding substance (surfactant/dermal penetration enhancer), the disease process, and the location of application. The free nerve endings in the skin at the back of the neck area are important components of the cervical nerves with rich connections to the trigeminal, vagal, and sympathetic systems communicating with brainstem structures and other components of the central nervous system. These are the areas pain and other symptoms related to neuro-chemical release are processed and perceived.
  • The skin at the upper part of the back of the neck, at the hairline in humans, is innervated by (supplied by nerves) the cervical nerve roots C 1-3 that are also part of the Trigeminal Nerve system of the brainstem. These cervical nerves (the wires) have their cell bodies (their generators) within the Nucleus Caudalis (Spinal Nucleus) of the Trigeminal Nerve in the cervical spinal cord and the brainstem. Accordingly, they have direct neural connections with brainstem processing areas. At the same time, the peripheral nerve receptor sites for these nerves, the free nerve endings, reside under the skin surface at the back of the neck. The nerves in the soft tissues of the back of the neck, representing the C1, C2, and C3 segments of the cervical spinal cord are unique in that they have intimate connections with pathways directly affecting brainstem and autonomic system function. There are direct connections with the Trigeminal Nerve system of the brainstem which provides for pain and other sensory input and interpretation from the head, face, sinus cavities, the dural covering of the brain, and the back of the neck. There are also connections with the vagus nerve and the sympathetic nervous system through the sympathetic ganglia. It is through these connections, which are nowhere else in the body as inter-related or at such close proximity to the surface of the human skin, that the potential for the delivery of CNS acting drugs through the skin at the back of the neck region is realized. Finally, skin is embryologically derived from neuro-ectoderm which is also responsible for the formation of the brain and other aspects of the CNS. Thus, the nerves in the human skin have a particularly direct relationship with these structures. This provides for the efficacy noted with TRN/back of the neck therapy. At the same time, systemic and other CNS side-effects are reduced or avoided. Thus, drugs topically applied to the skin in this region have ready access to brainstem and other CNS structures without the requirement of drug in the bloodstream reaching target sites.
  • In addition to the upper cervical nerves having direct relation to the Trigeminal Nerve System, they also contribute to the Cervical Sympathetic Ganglia and the Vagal Nerve Systems through direct connections. These latter two systems provide some of the most significant afferent feed-back to the brainstem and other portions of the CNS from the rest of the body. This allows for additional brainstem afferent stimulation potential through TRNA therapy at the back of the neck. Although skin at other areas of the face and head have eventual neural feed-back to the brainstem, the intimate connections to afferent feed-back systems are lacking.
  • TRNA therapy at the back of the neck region delivery differs from traditional therapy (whether oral, injection, nasal spray, inhalation, or rectal) in that it has no reliance on the systemic or cerebral blood flow. Nor does it require therapeutic blood levels of drug. These latter factors are responsible for systemic and CNS side-effects as drug is delivered to areas not intended to be affected in the therapeutic process. Transdermal systemic delivery by patch, although similarly applied to the skin as in TRNA therapy, differs significantly in its reliance on a drug concentration gradient for absorption into the systemic capillary and venous blood. TRNA therapy is unaffected by dermal vessels or systemic blood flow. It relies solely on the function of the free nerve endings of cutaneous nerves and their connections at the point of application of compounded drug.
  • “Traditional” transdermal drug delivery by patch and TRNA are both “transdermal” in that in both, drug penetrates the skin (epidermis) for eventual clinical effect. The difference lies in the fact that in “traditional” transdermal patch therapy, drug enters the systemic circulation through a concentration gradient and establishes a therapeutic drug blood level. Although measuring a blood level gives assurance drug is being taken or delivered systemically, allowing for checking compliance, it is also the source of undesirable side-effects and drug interactions. Of necessity, with systemic transdermal patch therapy, drug applied to the skin surface must be absorbed through the small vessels in the dermis for eventual presence in the systemic venous blood for measurement of drug level. With TRNA therapy, the cannabinoid drug(s) need only be available at the free nerve endings under the epidermis. No concentration gradients or systemic blood levels are necessary. Drug delivery is unaffected by cardiac output or cerebral blood flow factors. Of significance, persons afflicted with Parkinson's disease are typically elderly with concomitant cardiac and cerebral vascular disease.
  • Thus, in certain embodiments, the methods and formulations of the invention deliver an amount of drug (e.g., cannabinoid drug(s)) in the TRNA therapy that would provide sub-therapeutic plasma levels if administered orally, but which is therapeutically effective when administered via TRNA therapy at the back of the neck region.
  • It is hypothesized by the inventor that a principal reason TRNA therapy is rapid in the onset of clinical effect (e.g., less than about 10-15 minutes) for is that it operates through an “electro-chemical” process. Active drug compounded in an appropriate dermal penetration enhancing medium acts at free nerve endings, changing the neurochemistry of receptors at the neural synapse: apomorphine (dopamine and norepinephrine agonist), increasing dopamine and norepinephrine levels and improving neural transmission. After a point of receptor stimulation, neural (electrical) impulses are generated back to neuronal cell bodies residing in the spinal cord and brainstem: “afferent feed-back”. The nervous system functions through neurons generating electrical impulses and the release of neurochemicals/neuro-transmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine, being the major ones) at neural receptor sites called “synaptic clefts”. Accordingly, the process in TRNA therapy may be considered analogous to an electrical capacitor discharging to perform a function, such as turning on a light switch. Viewed from this perspective, the rapid onset of clinical effect observed in TRNA therapy makes sense.
  • Alternatively, transdermal systemic patch delivery operates on the principles of chemical gradients and fluid dynamics. These processes have variability and inherent idiosyncrasies, fluctuating heart function as a pump for blood flow being one. Thus, despite the advantage of measurable drug levels, a more circuitous route with slower clinical effect is observed. This makes systemic transdermal patch delivery inappropriate for acute therapy.
  • Therapeutic Applications
  • Potential clinical applications of cannabinoids in mammals include but are not limited to the treatment of lameness and gait issues; elbow dysplasia; hip dysplasia; back and hind leg problems; arthritis; seizures; encephalopathy, including lethargy, focus/attentional problems, and cognitive issues: spasticity; epilepsy; cancer; weakness; pain; numbness; anxiety and other mood disorders; hypertension; tremors; peripheral neuropathy; bowel and bladder control issues; inactivity; poor appetite; tumors (e.g., pituitary tumors); Cushing's disease; aggressive behavior; pruritis; dermatitis; vomiting; lethargy; dystonia; personality change; as well as any other disease or condition in a mammal other than humans that may be treated with a cannabinoid.
  • A representative cannabinoid drug mixture concentrate may include with respect to total active cannabinoids, for example, from about 0 to about 3% tetrahydrocannabinol, from about 0 to about 1% tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, from about 20 to about 50% cannabidiol, from about 0 to about 1% cannabidiolic acid, and from about 0 to about 1% cannabinol, for a total active cannabinoid level of from about 20% to about 50%. A particular cannabinoid concentrate useful in the formulations of the present invention may include, e.g., about 0.84% tetrahydrocannabinol, about 0.23% tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, about 26.41% cannabidiol, about 0% cannabidiolic acid, and about 0.09% cannabinol, for a total active cannabinoid level of about 27.58%, as detected using full spectrum cannabinoid profiling and analysis utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC/UV), and is commercially available from CannaVest. Such a cannabinoid drug mixture may provide the afore-mentioned entourage effect.
  • Combination Therapy
  • In certain preferred embodiments of the invention, the cannabinoid(s) is administered together with (e.g., in the same formulation), or simultaneously (but separately) or sequentially with an additional active agent(s) (“drug(s)”) suitable for treating the patient's disease state or condition. Classes of drugs which would be suitable as an additional active agent(s) include, but are not limited to:
      • 1. Anti-Epileptic drugs: Examples include Valproic acid (Depacon®/Depakot®e), Leviteracetem (Keppra®), Lamotrigene (Lamictal®), Topiramate (Topamax®), Pregabalin (Lyrica®), Gabapentin (Neurontin®), Carbamazepine (Tegretol®), Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal®), Phenobarbital and other barbiturates, Tiagabine (Gabatril®), Retigabine™ (Valeant Pharmaceuticals), Lacosamide® (Schwarz Biosciences), and Perampanel® (Eisai) are in development as anti-epileptics and neuromodulators for other associated neurological, pain, and psychiatric conditions.
      • 2. Anxiolytic drugs: Benzodiazepines: Examples include lorazepam (Ativan®), diazepam (Valium®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), chlordiazepoxide (Librium®), and alprazolam (Xanax®).
      • 3. Neuroleptics/Anti-Psychotic drugs: Examples include chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), haloperidol (Haldol®), risperidone (Risperdal®), olanzapine (Zyprexa®) and quetiapine (Seroquel®).
      • 4. Analgesics/Anti-Inflammatory drugs: Examples include prednisone, solumedrol, and other steroids, naproxen, aspirin, acetaminophen, voltaren, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, other NSAID's.
      • 5. Parkinson's Disease/Similar or Related Syndrome drugs: Examples include dopamine agonists such as apomorphine.
      • 6. Dystonia (cervical and otherwise), which sometimes occur in conjunction with spasmodic torticollis and spastic conditions: Examples of drugs include dopamine agonists such as apomorphine.
      • 7. Benign essential/familial tremor, tremor related to MS, chronic encepahalopathies such as from stroke or head injuries, congenital CNS degeneration conditions/cerebral palsy, cerebellar degeneration syndromes, and spasicity conditions from the above: Examples of drugs include dopamine agonists such as apomorphine.
      • 8. Neuropathic/Neurogenic pain drugs: Examples include carbamazepine, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, phenytoin, desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, protriptyline, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyzine.
      • 9. Smoking Cessation drugs: Examples include drugs such as varenicline.
      • 10. Appetite Suppressant drugs: Examples include drugs such as Sibutramine.
      • 11. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Examples include drugs such as Aricept/donepezil, Exelon/rivastigmine, Reminyl/Razadyne/galantamine, and Namenda/memantine and their naturally occurring counterparts, as well as NMDA antagonists.
      • 12. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Examples include drugs such as 4-aminopyridine.
      • 13. Insomnia: Examples include drugs such as zolpidem.
      • 14. Fatigue: Examples include drugs such as pemoline and Modafinil.
      • 15. Vertigo, Nausea and/or Dizziness: Examples include drugs such as meclizine, dimenhydrinate, prochlorperazine, scopolamine and diphenhydramine.
      • 16. Writer's cramp and restless leg syndrome: Examples include dopamine agonists such as apomorphine.
  • In certain embodiments, the additional drug(s) includes a dopamine agonist such as apomorphine (Apokyn®, APO-go®), pramipexole (Mirapexin®), ropinirole (Requip®), bromocriptine (Parlodel®), cabergoline (Cabaser®, Dostinex®), pergolide (Permax®, Celance®) rotigotine (Neupro®), mixtures of any of the foregoing, or other dopamine agonists known to those skilled in the art. One skilled in the art will appreciate that dopamine agonists other than apomorphine may be used in the formulations and methods of the present invention, and all such agents are meant to be encompassed by the term “dopamine agonists.” For example, such drugs include, but are not limited to, carbidopa (Sinemet®), dopamine agonists (Requip®, Rotigotine®, Mirapex®), COMT inhibitors (Entacapone®, Tocapone), rasagiline (Azilect®) (MAO inhibitors) and MAO-B inhibitors (Selegiline (Eldepryl®).
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) includes an opioid such as morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, nicomorphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, fentanyl, alphamethylfentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, remifentanil, carfentanyl, ohmefentanyl, thebaine, oripavine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), phenylpiperidines such as pethidine (meperidine) and ketobemidone, allylprodine, prodine, propoxyphene, dextropropoxyphene, dextromoramide, bezitramide, piritramide, methadone, dipipanone, levomethadyl Acetate (LAAM), loperamide, diphenoxylate, dezocine, pentazocine, phenazocine, buprenorphine, dihydroetorphine, etorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, levorphanol, levomethorphan, lefetamine, meptazinol, tilidine, tramadol, tapentadol, mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is tarpentadol (a centrally acting oral analgesic having two mechanisms of action combining mu-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition).
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, such as Atomoxetine (Strattera®), Mazindol (Mazanor®, Sanorex®), Nisoxetine (LY-94939), Reboxetine (Edronax®, Vestra®), Viloxazine (Vivalan®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a benzodiazepine, such as lorazepam (Ativan®), diazepam (Valium®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), chlordiazepoxide (Librium®), alprazolam (Xanax®), temazepam (Restoril®), mixtures thereof, and the like. In other embodiments, the drug is a neuroleptic or psychotropic such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), haloperidol (Haldol®), risperidone (Risperdal®), olanzapine (Zyprexa®) and quetiapine (Seroque®).
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is an agent that treats depression and/or anxiety, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft®), venlafaxine (Effexor®), citalopram (Celexa®), parocetine (Paxil), mixtures thereof, and the like (such as trazodone (Desyrel)), and/or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), such as Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq®), Duloxetine (Cymbalta®), Milnacipran (Ixel®, Savella®), Venlafaxine (Effexor®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), such as Amineptine (Survector®), an aminoketone antidepressant such as Bupropion (Wellbutrin®, Zyban®), Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin), Methylphenidate (Ritalin®, Concerta®), Nomifensine (Merital®), a phenylpiperazine antidepressant such as nefazodone (Serzone®), a piperazino-azepine antidepressant such as mirtazapine (Remeron®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) may be an NMDA receptor antagonist. Phencyclidine, ketamine, and dextromethorphan, are used as recreational drugs. At subanesthetic doses, however, these drugs have mild stimulant effects, and these agents have shown promise for the treatment of conditions that involve excitotoxicity, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's.
  • Additionally, the additional drug(s) may be an agent that treats neuropathic/neurogenic pain (pain that arises from nerve dysfunction and not as a result of injury, e.g., trigeminal neuralgia), such as carbamazepine, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, phenytoin, desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, protriptyline, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyzine.
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) treats insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien®).
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) treats fatigue. Such drugs include central nervous system stimulants such as pemoline (Cylert®) and Modafinil (Provigil®).
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) treats vertigo, nausea and/or dizziness, such as meclizine (Antivert®), dimenhydrinate (32qualene32), prochlorperazine (32qualene32®), scopolamine (Transderm®) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl®).
  • In yet other embodiments, the drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), such as Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq®), Duloxetine (Cymbalta®), Milnacipran (Ixel®, Savella®), Venlafaxine (Effexor®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), such as Amitriptyline (Elavil®), Butriptyline (Evadene®, Evadyn®e), Clomipramine (Anafranil®), Desipramine (Norpramin®, Pertofrane), Dosulepin (Prothiade), Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan), Imipramine (Tofranil®), Lofepramine (Feprapax®, Gamanil®, Lomont®), Nortriptyline (Aventyl®, Nortrilen®, Pamelor®), Protriptyline (Vivacti®1), Trimipramine (Surmontil®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is a tetracyclic antidepressant, such as Amoxapine (Asendin®), Maprotiline (Ludiomil®), Mianserin (Tolvon®), mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is an atypical antipsychotic, such as Ziprasidone (Geodon®, Zeldox®), Nefazodone (Serzone®), and the like.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is an anti-convulsant or anti-epileptic drug such as arylsulfonimide analogues such as Acetazolimide (Diamox)®, tricyclic iminostilbene derivatives such as carbamazepine (Tegreto®), benzodiazepines such as clonazepam (Klonopin®), clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxene®), lorazepam (Ativan®) and diazepam (Valium®), carboxylic acid derivatives such as valproic acid (Depakene®) and divalproex sodium (Depakote®), succinimide derivatives such as ethosuximide (Zarontin®), carbamate esters of 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol such as felbamate (Felbatol®), hydantoins such as phenytoin (Dilantin®), phenytoin sodium (Dilantin®) and fosphenytoin sodium (Cerebyx®), structural analogues of GABA such as gabapentin (Neurontin®) and pregabalin (Lyrica®), phenyltriazines such as lamotrigine (Lamictal®), pyrrolidine derivatives such as levitiracetam (Keppra®), tricyclic iminostilbene derivatives such as 33qualene33pine (Trileptal), barbiturates such as Phenobarbital, desoxybarbiturates such as primidone (Mysoline®), nipecotic acid derivatives such as tiagabine hydrochloride (Gabitril®), sulfamated monosaccharides such as topiramate (Topamax®), oxazolidinedione derivatives such as trimethadione (Tridione®), and methanesulfonamides such as zonisamide (Zonigran®). Additional drugs such as Retigabine® (Valeant Pharmaceuticals), Lacosamide® (Schwarz Biosciences), and Perampanel® (Eisai) are in development as anti-epileptics and neuromodulators for other associated neurological, pain, and psychiatric conditions, and thus are further examples of potentially useful drugs in the present invention.
  • In yet other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is an analgesic/anti-inflammatory agent such as acetaminophen; prednisone, solumedrol, and other steroids; naproxen, aspirin, voltaren, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, nabumetone, and other NSAID's. The NSAID may be COX-1, COX-2 or mixed COX-1/COX-2 inhibitors. Examples of COX-2 inhibitors include oxicam, meloxicam, and the more selective celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, parecoxib and etoricoxib. Further examples of corticosteroids include methylprednisolone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, and adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin.
  • Additionally, the additional drug(s) may be an agent that treats neuropathic/neurogenic pain (pain that arises from nerve dysfunction and not as a result of injury, e.g., trigeminal neuralgia), such as carbamazepine, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, phenytoin, desipramine, amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, protriptyline, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyzine, mixtures thereof, and the like.
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; also known as Fampridine®) or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof. This drug has been shown to have the ability to improve the communication between damaged nerves, which may result in increased neurological function in the treatment of conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). An example of another such drug is 3,4 diaminopyridine.
  • In other embodiments, the additional drug(s) is useful for the treatment of Dementia/Alzheimer's disease, such as Aricept®/donepezil, Exelon®/rivastigmine, Reminyl®/Razadyne®/galantamine, and Namenda®/memantine, their naturally occurring counterparts, and mixtures thereof.
  • Formulations
  • All currently approved therapies for the conditions described above reach the central nervous system through the systemic circulation. Cerebral blood flow to brainstem structures is through the posterior circulation, via the vertebral and basilar arteries and their branches. In view of the undesirable side-effects associated with this form of drug delivery to the brain, it makes sense that targeted regional delivery to the brainstem is sought. Topical delivery of currently used drugs compounded in an appropriate “dermal penetration enhancer” and applied in cream/gel form or as a sustained-release patch at the posterior cervical region (back of the neck) at the hairline is such a method. Lipoderm® is an example of an effective commercially available compounding medium. However, one skilled in the art will recognize that topical carriers meeting the specific chemical requirements of an individual drug can be formulated for maximum efficiency in topical delivery.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is formulated in a vehicle that allows for the drug to be immediately absorbable and available for the free nerve endings of the trigeminal nervous system which reside under the skin surface in the form of a mousse, cream, gel or ointment. On the other hand, it is contemplated in certain embodiments of the invention that the topical or implantable cannabinoid drug(s) formulation can be administered in the form that provides a prolonged release at the back of the neck region, for example, in the form of a transdermal patch. In further embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s) is applied (i) in a topical form that provides a therapeutically effective dose of the cannabinoid drug(s) immediately absorbable at the site (e.g., back of the neck region and/or along the spine), and (ii) a further therapeutically effective dose(s) in a prolonged or sustained release formulation (e.g., a transdermal patch or contained in liposomes) that releases the cannabinoid drug(s) over time such that the cannabinoid drug(s) is absorbed in therapeutically effective amounts over a span of multiple dosage time intervals (e.g., 1-7 days).
  • In certain embodiments, the topical cannabinoid formulation of the present invention is administered at the back of the neck region and/or spine on the mammal and a therapeutic effect is preferably provided within about 45 minutes, preferably within about 30 minutes, or 25 minutes, or 20 minutes, or 15 minutes, or 10 minutes after the administration. In certain preferred embodiments, a therapeutic effect is noticed within about 10 to about 15 minutes after the administration (e.g., application of the topical formulation to the back of the neck region).
  • In certain embodiments, the topical cannabinoid formulation is administered on an “as needed” basis. In other embodiments, the topical cannabinoid formulation is administered on a once a day basis, or on a twice a day basis, or on a three times a day basis, or on a four times a day basis. In other embodiments, particularly where the mammal has been administered multiple doses of the topical pharmaceutical formulation and has realized a therapeutic benefit from the cannabinoid drug therapy, it is possible to reduce the frequency of the dosing to less than once per day, e.g., once every two or three days, once a week, biweekly, or monthly. In certain instances, it is contemplated that the administration of the topical pharmaceutical formulation will no longer be necessary after an initial course of therapy, as the mammal would no longer be suffering from the underlying condition and may be in essence “cured” or no longer in need of chronic treatment.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, a unit dose of the topical cannabinoid drug(s) formulation provides a cannabinoid (e.g., CBD) unit dose from about 0.1 mg to about 500 mg, or from about 0.25 mg to about 80 mg, or from about 1 mg to about 100 mg. In certain embodiments, the unit dose of cannabinoid (e.g., CBD) is from about 3 mg to about 50 mg or from about 7.5 mg to about 30 mg. This may be administered in a topical mousse cream, ointment, gel or the like.
  • A unit dose of the topical formulation(s) of cannabinoid drug(s) used in accordance with the present invention preferably includes at least 80% cannabidiol, in certain preferred embodiments at least 90% cannabidiol, and in certain further preferred embodiments at least 95% cannabidiol. In certain preferred embodiments, the amount of psychoactive cannabinoid drug(s) present in the topical formulations of the present invention is less than 20%, more preferably less than 10% or less than 5% of the total active cannabinoids in the topical formulation.
  • For example, the topical formulation may be administered as a unit dose in an amount from about 0.5 g to about 1 g at a cannabinoid (e.g., CBD) concentration from about 0.1% to about 5% (or more).
  • It has been found that with respect to mammals other than humans, and dogs in particular, a topical mousse formulation containing the cannabinoid drug(s) is particularly beneficial because of the ease of application and greater likelihood of the application remaining at the site while the cannabinoid drug(s) is being absorbed.
  • The formulations of the present invention are prepared such that the drug(s) may be delivered acutely as single dose applications as mousse/cream/gel/ointment or as a sustained release topical patch, depending on the condition treated and associated symptom complex in the individual patient. The critical point, again, is in the location of the application: at the back of neck at the hair-line for access to posterior cervical afferents with free nerve endings under the surface of the skin. Through feedback connections with vagal and trigeminal afferent systems, this results in ultimate effect on brainstem structures.
  • By virtue of the method of treatment described herein, the disease state/condition to be treated may be treated much faster and more effectively than such prior art modes of administration.
  • In certain embodiments of the present invention, the method of treating a human patient comprises applying a topical formulation which comprises a drug suitable for topical administration, which is useful for the treatment of a disease state or condition treatable via the topical brainstem afferent stimulation (de-afferentation) drug therapy described herein.
  • The methods of the present invention may also, if desired, involve pre-treatment of the skin with an enhancer to increase the permeability of the skin to the applied drug. The methods of the present invention may include pre-treatment or “prepping” of the skin area with a substance that opens up the skin pores. Additionally, the methods of the present invention may include, if desired, pre-treatment or “prepping” of the skin with an alcohol swab or the like to rid the area of dirt, make-up, oil, and the like, prior to application of the drug.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulation of the present invention comprises a drug in an amount which is therapeutically effective when administered topically at the at the back of neck at the hair-line for access to posterior cervical afferents with free nerve endings under the surface of the skin, but which provides a plasma concentration which is subtherapeutic if orally administered.
  • The topical formulations of the present invention (e.g., mousse, ointment, gel, cream, or the like), must be suitable for topical administration of a drug, i.e., must contain pharmaceutically acceptable excipients compatible with application to the skin tissue, and may optionally contain a sufficient amount of an enhancer composition as described hereinafter.
  • In certain embodiments, in addition to the drug (e.g., cannabinoid drug(s)), the topical formulations and/or transdermal therapeutic systems of the present invention may include at least one adjuvant such as a penetration enhancer, anti-oxidant, stabilizer, carrier, or vehicle. Additionally or alternatively, the present invention may include the application of electric current (iontophoresis) for enhancing permeation of the cannabinoid drug(s).
  • Suitable penetration enhancers useful in the formulations of the present invention include but are not limited to isostearic acid, octanoic acid, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, ethyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, methyl laurate, diisopropyl adipate, glyceryl monolaurate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethylene glycol ether, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, alkylaryl ethers of polyethylene oxide, polyethylene oxide monomethyl ethers, polyethylene oxide dimethyl ethers, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethyl acetate, acetoacetic ester, N-alkylpyrrolidone, and terpenes.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulations comprising a drug in an ointment, gel, cream or the like, will typically contain on the order of about 0.001 to about 80% by weight, preferably 0.01 wt. % to 50 wt. % drug (i.e., cannabinoid drug(s) plus optional additional drugs as described herein), and about 0 wt. % to about 50.0 wt. %, preferably from about 1 wt. % to about 30 wt. % of a permeation enhancer composition, with the remainder of the composition comprising a carrier or vehicle. In certain preferred embodiments, the drug is included in a cream or gel or ointment in a concentration of, e.g., 1 mg drug/ml of carrier (e.g., Lipoderm). However, it is to be understood that one skilled in the art can increase the amount of carrier or change the carrier and maintain or improve efficacy of the topical formulation for TRNA therapy. In certain preferred embodiments, the drug is applied as a unit dose at the back of the neck region in immediate release form (e.g., cream, ointment or gel) for acute treatment with a cannabinoid drug as would be beneficial to a human patient. In such instances, it is preferred that the concentration of cannabinoid drug(s) included in the unit dose is from about 1 mg to about 100 mg, based on cannabidiol, or an therapeutically equivalent amount of another cannabinoid drug(s) as described herein. In certain preferred embodiments, a unit dose of cannabinoid (e.g., CBD) is from about 5 mg to about 50 mg or from about 7.5 mg to about 30 mg. This may be administered in a topical cream, ointment, gel or the like. For example, the topical formulation may be administered as a unit dose in an amount from about 0.5 g to about 1 g at a cannabinoid (e.g., CBD) concentration from about 0.1% to about 5% (or more). When the CBD is provided as purified crystallized CBD (e.g., about 95% pure) from a herbal source, the amount of CBD (cannabinoid drugs in total) may be reduced.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulations comprising a cannabinoid drug(s) with or without additional drugs (collectively referred to herein as “drug(s)”) in an ointment, gel, cream or the like, will typically contain on the order of about 0.001 to about 80% by weight, preferably 0.01 wt. % to 50 wt. % drug(s) or from about 0.5% to about 5% drug(s); and about 0 wt. % to about 50.0 wt. %, preferably from about 1 wt. % to about 30 wt. % of a permeation enhancer composition, with the remainder of the composition comprising a carrier or vehicle. In certain preferred embodiments, the drug comprises CBD and is included in a cream or gel or ointment in a concentration of, e.g., 1 mg drug/ml of carrier (e.g., Lipoderm). However, it is to be understood that one skilled in the art can increase the amount of carrier or change the carrier and maintain or improve efficacy of the topical formulation for TRNA therapy.
  • Suitable (optional) permeation enhancers may also be included in the formulations. Such enhancers include, but are not limited to, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), decylmethylsulfoxide (C10 MSO), polyethylene glycol monolaurate (PEGML), propylene glycol (PG), PGML, glycerol monolaurate (GML), lecithin, the 1-substituted azacycloheptan-2-ones, particularly 1-n-dodecylcyclazacycloheptan-2-one (available under the trademark Azone® from Whitby Research Incorporated, Richmond, Va.), alcohols, and the like. The permeation enhancer may also be a vegetable oil as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,229,130 to Sharma. Such oils include, for example, safflower oil, cotton seed oil and corn oil.
  • Additional optional enhancers for use in conjunction with the present invention are lipophilic compounds having the formula [RCOO]n R′, wherein n is 1 or 2 and R is C1-C16 alkyl optionally substituted with 1 or 2 hydroxyl groups, and R′ is hydrogen or C1-C16 alkyl optionally substituted with 1 or 2 hydroxyl groups. Within this group, a first subset of compounds are represented by the formula [CH3 (CH 2)m COO]n R′ in which m is an integer in the range of 8 to 16, n is 1 or 2, and R′ is a lower alkyl (C1-C3) residue that is either unsubstituted or substituted with one or two hydroxyl groups. Preferred enhancers within this group include an ester which is a lower alkyl (C1-C3) laurate (i.e., m is 10 and n is 1) such as “PGML”. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the commercially available material sold as “PGML” is typically although not necessarily a mixture of propylene glycol monolaurate itself, propylene glycol dilaurate, and either propylene glycol, methyl laurate, or both. Thus, the terms “PGML” or “propylene glycol monolaurate” as used herein are intended to encompass both the pure compound as well as the mixture that is typically obtained commercially. Also within this group is a second subset of compounds, namely, esters of fatty alcohols represented by the formula CH3 (CH2)m-O—CO—CHR1R2, in which R1 and R2 are independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, or lower alkyl (C1-C3), and m is as above. Particularly preferred enhancers within this group are lauryl lactate and myristyl lactate. In addition, a third subset of compounds within this group are analogous fatty acids, i.e., acids having the structural formula CH3 (CH2)m COOH where m is as above. A particularly preferred acid is lauric acid.
  • Other optional enhancer compositions are wherein a lipophilic compound as just described, particularly PGML is combined with a hydrophilic compound, such as a C2-C6 alkanediol. One preferred hydrophilic enhancer within this group is 1,3-butanediol. Such enhancer compositions are described in detail in PCT Publication No. WO 95/05137, published Feb. 23, 1995, herein incorporated by reference. Another hydrophilic enhancer that may be included in these compositions is an ether selected from the group consisting of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (Transcutol) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Such enhancer compositions are described in detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,053,227 and 5,059,426 to Chiang et al., the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference.
  • Other optional enhancer compositions may include mixture or combinations of any of the aforementioned enhancers, and the like.
  • One preferred topical formulation comprises the cannabinoid drug(s) in oil, together with a suitable amount of a penetration enhancer, dimethyl sulfoxide and a base. For example, such a formulation may include the CBD oil, and about 3 ml dimethyl sulfoxide in 30 g of base. The CBD can be incorporated at a concentration of, e.g., from about 0.5% to about 5% of the topical formulation in a preferred embodiment, and most preferably from about 1.5% to about 3% in a certain embodiment. The dose of such a formulation would be, e.g., from about 0.5 g to about 1 g applied topically on the back of the neck of the human patient.
  • U.S. Patent Publication No. 20080112895, hereby incorporated by reference, describes a room temperature stable aqueous cannabinoid formulation comprising an effective amount of a cannabinoid in a semi-aqueous solution buffered to a pH of about 5-1, the solution comprising water and an effective amount of an organic cosolvent to maintain the physical stability of the formulation, which may be incorporated into a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
  • In certain embodiments the topical formulation may include at least one water-insoluble, pharmacologically approved, alkyl cellulose or hydroxyalkyl cellulose, and the like. Alkyl cellulose or hydroxyalkyl cellulose polymers for use in this invention include ethyl cellulose, propyl cellulose, butyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxybutyl cellulose, and ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose, alone or in combination. In addition, a plasticizer or a cross linking agent may be used to modify the polymer's characteristics. For example, esters such as dibutyl or diethyl phthalate, amides such as diethyldiphenyl urea, vegetable oils, fatty acids and alcohols such as acid oleic and myristyl may be used in combination with the cellulose derivative.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulation may further include hydrocarbons such as liquid paraffin, qualene, solid paraffin, microcrystalline wax, etc.; higher aliphatic alcohols such as cetyl alcohol, hexadecyl, alcohol, stearyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, etc.; esters of higher fatty acids with higher alcohols such as beeswax, etc.; esters of higher fatty acids with lower alcohols such as isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, etc.; vegetable oils, modified vegetable oils, hydrous lanolin and its derivative, squalene, 41qualene; higher fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, etc. and the like.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulation may further include emulsifiers and dispersing agents which include, for example, anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants. Nonionic surfactants are preferred because of their low levels of irritation to skin. Typical of nonionic surfactants are fatty acid monoglycerides such as glyceryl monostearate, etc.; sorbitan fatty acid esters such as sorbitan monolaurate, etc.; sucrose fatty acid esters; polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters such as polyoxyethylene stearate, etc.; and polyoxyethylene higher alcohol ethers such as polyoxyethylene cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene oleyl ether, etc.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the topical TRNA formulation is aqueous-based.
  • In certain embodiments of the present invention, the topical formulation may include a gelling agent such as methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl-cellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, carbomer, and the like. Examples of pharmaceutical compositions which rely upon an aqueous gel composition as a vehicle for the application of a drug are U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,883,660; 4,767,619; 4,511,563; 4,861,760; and 5,318,780, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference.
  • The topical formulation may further include one or more preservatives, stabilizers, or anti-oxidants.
  • Examples of preservatives that may be used in a formulation according to the present invention include, but are not limited to, bacteriostatic compounds and other preservatives suitable for topical administration including various alcohols, sorbic acid and salts and derivatives thereof, ethylenediamine, monothioglycerol, and thimerosal.
  • Examples of stabilizers that may be present in a formulation according to the present invention include pH buffers suitable for topical administration, complexing agents, chelating agents and the like.
  • Examples of anti-oxidants that may be used in a formulation according to the present invention include ascorbic acid and its derivatives, e.g., ascorbyl palmitate, as well as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and others.
  • Other adjuvants that may be included in the drug formulation include carriers, tackifiers, pigments, dyes, and other additives that do not adversely affect the mechanical or adhesive properties of the formulation.
  • “Carriers” or “vehicles” as used herein refer to carrier materials suitable for transdermal drug administration, and include any such materials known in the art, e.g., any liquid, gel, emulsion, solvent, liquid diluent, solubilizer, or the like, which is nontoxic and which does not interact with other components of the composition in a deleterious manner. The term “carrier” or “vehicle” as used herein may also refer to stabilizers, crystallization inhibitors, dispersing agents or other types of additives useful for facilitating transdermal drug delivery. It will be appreciated that compounds classified as “vehicles” or “carriers” may sometimes act as permeation enhancers, and vice versa, and, accordingly, these two classes of chemical compounds or compositions may sometimes overlap.
  • Carrier materials suitable for use in the instant compositions include those well-known for use in the cosmetic and medical arts as bases for ointments, lotions, salves, aerosols, suppositories and the like. Suitable carriers include, for example, water, liquid alcohols, liquid glycols, liquid polyalkylene glycols, liquid esters, liquid amides, liquid protein hydrolysates, liquid alkylated protein hydrolysates, liquid lanolin and lanolin derivatives, and like materials commonly employed in cosmetic and medicinal compositions. Other suitable carriers herein include for example alcohols, including both monohydric and polyhydric alcohols, e.g., ethanol, isopropanol, glycerol, sorbitol, 2-methoxyethanol, diethyleneglycol, ethylene glycol, hexyleneglycol, mannitol, and propylene glycol; ethers such as diethyl or dipropyl ether; polyethylene glycols and methoxypolyoxyethylenes (carbowaxes having molecular weight ranging from 200 to 20,000); polyoxyethylene glycerols, polyoxyethylene sorbitols, stearoyl diacetin, and the like. In certain preferred embodiments, the carrier is an aqueous based cannabidiol cream is produced using Lipoderm® as the carrier. Lipoderm®/LIP is a whitish cream with no smell, commercially marketed compounding agent (from PCCA, Pharmaceutical Compounding Centers of America) having the following ingredients: Ethoxydiglycol, Water (Aqua), Glycerin, C12-15Alkyl Benzoate, Glyceryl Stearate, Dimethicone, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetearyl Glucoside, Polyacrylamide, Cetyl Alcohol, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Xanthan Gum, Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis), Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate), Prunus Amygadalus Amara (Bitter Almond) Kernel Oil, Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract, Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil, Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A Palmitate), Ascorbyl Palmitate (Vitamin C Palmitate), Pro-Lipo Multi-emulsion Liposomic System, Tetrasodium EDTA, Phenoxyethanol, and Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate.
  • In certain embodiments of the invention, part or all of the dose of cannabinoid drug(s) may be encapsulated within liposomes. For example, U.S. Patent Publication No. 2015/0302148, hereby incorporated by reference, describes fast-acting liposomal and micelle formulations of cannabinoids which are prepared by (a) dissolving one or more cannabinoids or cannabinoid analogues in ethanol to obtain an ethanol cannabinoid solution; (b) adding a phospholipid to the ethanol cannabinoid solution to obtain an ethanol-phospholipid cannabinoid solution; (c) injecting the ethanol-phospholipid cannabinoid solution into distilled water to obtain a liposomal cannabinoid suspension; and (d) removing the ethanol from the liposomal cannabinoid suspension, thereby producing a stable liposomal suspension of one or more cannabinoids or cannabinoid analogue. In certain embodiments, the method further comprises the step of adding sodium alginate to the liposomal suspension of one or more cannabinoids or cannabinoid analogues to obtain an alginate liposomal cannabinoid suspension that has a final alginate concentration of 2% w/v, followed by the addition of calcium chloride to the alginate liposomal cannabinoid suspension to obtain a calcium alginate-encapsulated liposomal cannabinoid suspension. This suspension is then cold-pressed and air-dried to remove the water so as to obtain a dry cannabinoid powder. The dry cannabinoid powder can be re-suspended in citrate buffer to obtain an aqueous cannabinoid solution. The amount of cannabinoid or cannabinoid analogue in the aqueous cannabinoid solution is greater than 40%.
  • In certain preferred embodiments of the present invention where it is desired that the drug is administered chronically, the formulations of the present invention may be formulated as a transdermal delivery system (also referred to herein as a transdermal therapeutic system) such as a transdermal patch, a transdermal plaster, a transdermal disc, iontophoretic transdermal device, or the like. Such formulations are recognized by those skilled in the art as providing a release of drug and absorption into the skin of the patient in a sustained manner over an extended period of time (e.g., 1-7 days). In such embodiments of the present invention, the transdermal delivery system comprises, e.g., a cannabinoid drug(s) contained in a reservoir or a matrix, and an adhesive which allows the transdermal patch to adhere to the skin, allowing the passage of the active agent from the transdermal patch through the skin of the patient. In preferred embodiments, the transdermal patch is applied topically at the back of the neck so as to achieve topical regional neuro-affective therapy (“TRNA THERAPY”) as described herein. In embodiments in which the drug is contained in a transdermal patch, it is contemplated that the drug will be absorbed more slowly and the transdermal patch will provide a sustained release and prolonged therapeutic effect, as compared, e.g., to a cream or ointment intended to provide an immediate release of the drug and rapid onset of the TRNA therapy. In such embodiments, the dose of cannabinoid drug(s) may be that which is sufficient to provide a therapeutically effective dose to the back of the neck (e.g., non-systemic dose) over the course of e.g., from about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 days. In certain embodiments, the dose of cannabinoid drug(s) contained in the transdermal delivery system is from about 0.5 mg to about 1000 mg. In certain preferred embodiments, the dose of the cannabinoid drug is from about 1 mg to about 100 mg. In certain preferred embodiments in which the cannabinoid drug is cannabidiol, the dosage is from about 8 mg to about 80 mg, and in certain preferred embodiments, about 40 mg. As there are only a finite number of receptors on the skin, once these receptors are bound, the rest of the active drug is contained in the (e.g., topical) preparation is superfluous. Therefore, there is no possibility of “over-dosing,” only of extra drug of potentially irritating the skin surface. Accordingly, in preferred embodiments, the methods and formulations of the present invention provide reduced side effects as compared to a systemic administration of the same drug.
  • In certain embodiments, the transdermal delivery devices, as well as other transdermal delivery systems in accordance with the invention can be made in the form of an article such as a tape, a patch, a sheet, a dressing or any other form known to those skilled in the art. Generally the device will be in the form of a patch of a size suitable to deliver a unit dose of serotonin agonist through the skin. The drug may be introduced into a transdermal therapeutic system in different forms (solid, in solution, in dispersion); it may also be microencapsulated.
  • In certain embodiments the present invention provides a transdermal therapeutic system comprising a cannabinoid drug(s) in an amount that would provide sub-therapeutic plasma levels if administered orally, but is therapeutically effective when administered via transdermal delivery at the back of the neck.
  • A transdermal delivery system for use in accordance with the present invention can also be constructed with an enhancer composition and other ingredients described hereinabove with respect to the topical formulation. Preferably, the transdermal delivery system is formulated for the prolonged delivery of the cannabinoid drug(s). The targeted skin flux for delivery of the cannabinoid drug(s) can be achieved by adjusting vehicle composition and vehicle loading, as well as by adjusting the surface area through which the compositions are administered to skin.
  • In certain preferred embodiments, the transdermal delivery system (e.g., patch) is formulated to deliver from about 1 mg to about 800 mg of the cannabinoid drug(s) per each 24 hours through the skin of the patient, based on cannabidiol (CBD), or a therapeutically equivalent amount of a suitable alternative cannabinoid(s) as described herein. In embodiments in which the transdermal delivery system is intended to be applied to the skin at the back of the neck for multiple days, the transdermal delivery system (e.g., patch) is formulated to provide a flux rate over the useful life of the system such that a similar amount (e.g., mean dose) is delivered on a daily basis until the system is removed and replaced with a fresh system.
  • The transdermal delivery system used in the present invention may be prepared, for example, in accordance with U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,069,909; 4,806,341; 5,026,556; 4,588,580; 5,016,652; 3,598,122; 4,144,317; 4,201,211; 4,262,003; and 4,379,454; all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • Additionally, the transdermal delivery system used in the present invention may be in accordance with U.S. Pat. No. 6,689,379, hereby incorporated by reference, which system is a matrix or reservoir system which comprises at least one pharmaceutical active agent and a pressure-sensitive adhesive comprising a polyacrylate polymer, wherein said polyacrylate polymer has a polyacrylate backbone containing monomer units selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid and ester derivatives of acrylic or methacrylic acid, and said monomer units comprise at least 50% (w/w) relative to a mean polymer mass of said polyacrylate polymer, a total amount of monomers selected from the group consisting of non-esterified acrylic acid and non-esterified methacrylic acid is 0.5 to 10.0% (w/w) relative to the mean polymer mass of said polyacrylate polymer, and the carboxyl groups of said non-esterified acrylic and methacrylic acid monomers are present stoichiometrically at 5 to 100% in the form of alkali salts or alkaline-earth salts, said salts being reaction products of a neutralization reaction of an alcoholic solution of an alkaline hydroxide or an alkaline-earth hydroxide with said acrylate polymer(s), or of a neutralization reaction of an alkali alcoholate or an alkaline-earth alcoholate with said acrylate polymer(s).
  • In certain embodiments, the dosage form can be a transdermal patch comprising a laminated composite for administering the drug (e.g., cannabinoid drug(s)) to an individual transdermally comprising: (a) a polymer backing layer that is substantially impermeable to the cannabinoid drug(s); and (b) a reservoir layer comprising a water-base acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive, 1 to 12% by weight serotonin agonist and 2 to 25% by weight of a permeation enhancer comprising propylene glycol monolaurate in combination with capric acid or oleic acid, wherein the skin contact area of the composite is 10 to 100 cm2.
  • The dosage form can be a transdermal patch comprising (a) a polar solvent material selected from the group consisting of C3-C4 diols, C3-C6 triols, and mixtures thereof; and (b) a polar lipid material selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohol esters, fatty acid esters, and mixtures thereof; wherein said polar solvent material and said polar lipid material are present in a weight ratio of solvent material:lipid material of from about 60:40 to about 99:1.
  • In certain embodiments, the dosage form also comprises a transdermal plaster comprising: (1) a film layer which comprises a polyester film of 0.5 to 4.9 microns thickness, 8 to 85 g/mm strength, respectively in the two directions intersecting substantially at right angles, 30 to 150% elongation, in the two directions intersecting substantially at right angles and an elongation ratio of A to B of 1.0 to 5.0, wherein A and B represent data in two directions intersecting at right angles, and A is greater than B, and wherein said polyester film comprises 0.01 to 1.0% by weight, based on the total weight of said polyester film, of solid fine particles in which (a) the average particle size is 0.001 to 3.0 microns, and (b) the average particle size is substantially not more than 1.5 times the thickness of said polyester film; and (2) an adhesive layer (a) which is composed of an adhesive containing said serotonin agonist and further wherein said adhesive layer (a) is laminated on said film layer over the surface in a 2 to 60 microns thickness.
  • In certain embodiments, the dosage form can be a transdermal disc comprising: (a) a backing layer which is substantially impervious to the cannabinoid drug(s); and (b) a polymer matrix disc layer which is adhered to said backing layer and which has microdispersed therein said serotonin agonist, said polymer being bioacceptable and permitting said serotonin agonist to be transmitted for transdermal absorption, the cannabinoid drug(s) being stable in said polymer matrix.
  • In certain embodiments, the topical formulation or transdermal therapeutic system may further comprise another active ingredient in combination with the first drug (e.g., as previously described herein).
  • The present invention is contemplated to encompass all transdermal formulations, e.g., the technologies described above, with the inclusion of the cannabinoid drug(s), such that the administration of a drug useful for treatment of disease state or condition in humans via topical brainstem afferent stimulation (de-afferentation) therapy via topical administration. Therefore, modifications of the invention via, e.g., the choice and/or amount of drug are considered to be obvious variations of this disclosure and within the scope of the appended claims.
  • The present invention also contemplates the administration of the cannabinoid drug (s) directly below the skin to affect direct brainstem afferent stimulation to the free nerve endings under the epidermis. Such administration may be effected as an injection (e.g., subcutaneous injection) or implantation of the drug in immediate release or sustained release form. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that providing the drug in sustained release form and administering it in a suitable form below the skin may provide benefits, including less frequent administration (e.g., in chronic therapy).
  • In certain embodiments of the invention, the cannabinoid drug(s) can be formulated for controlled or sustained delivery at the back of the neck via incorporation into a biocompatible and implantable polymer which can be in the form of microparticles or an implantable insert, or a liquid that forms a gel or colloid or a semi-solid after injection (thereby encapsulating the drug and allowing it to be released in a prolonged and controlled manner at the desired site). For chronic conditions (e.g., Parkinson's) or desired prolonged effect, it is contemplated that a drug depot or reservoir may be created under the skin at the back of the neck, which then provides a sustained release of the drug in proximity to the desired nerve endings and which may be replenished or replaced at the end of the dosing interval. It is contemplated that such administrations of the drug may provide a prolonged therapeutic effect for at least about 3 days, preferably at least about 7 days, or longer. Such formulations may be administered in certain embodiments as, for example, a subcutaneous depot.
  • Implants are placed subcutaneously by making an incision in the skin and forcing the implants between the skin and the muscle. At the end of their use, if not dissolved, these implants are surgically removed. U.S. Pat. No. 4,244,949, hereby incorporated by reference, describes an implant which has an outer matrix of an inert plastic such as polytetrafluoroethylene resin. Examples of this type of implantable therapeutic system are Progestasert IUD and Ocusert system. It is contemplated that such systems can be appropriately modified by one skilled in the art for use in conjunction with the present invention. A commercially available product, Norplant®, which is an implant having a core containing levonorgestrel as the active substance, and where the core it surrounded by a membrane of a silicone elastomer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Another preparation of this kind is Jadelle®, in which the core is a poly(dimethylsiloxane) based matrix with levonorgestrel dispersed therein. The membrane is an elastomer made from PDMS and silica filler, which, besides giving necessary strength properties to the membrane, also retards the permeation of the active agent through the membrane. U.S. Pat. No. 3,854,480, hereby incorporated by reference, describes a drug delivery device, e.g. an implant, for releasing a drug at a controlled rate for a prolonged period of time. The device has a core of a matrix in which the drug is dispersed. The core is surrounded by a membrane that is insoluble in body fluids. The core matrix as well as the membrane are permeable to the drug by diffusion. The materials of the core and the membrane are chosen so that the drug diffuses through the membrane at a lesser rate than through the core matrix. Thus, the membrane controls the release rate of the drug. As a suitable polymer for the core matrix is mentioned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and as suitable polymers for the membrane are mentioned polyethylene and a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA). It is contemplated that the above systems may be adapted by one skilled in the art to deliver the cannabinoid drug(s) in accordance with the present invention.
  • One device which may be adapted by one skilled in the art for use in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,968,542 (Tipton), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes a high viscosity liquid controlled delivery system as a medical or surgical device is provided that includes: (i) a non-polymeric, non-water soluble liquid carrier material (HVLCM) of viscosity of at least 5,000 Cp at 37° C. that does not crystallize neat under ambient or physiological conditions; and, optionally, (ii) a substance to be delivered.
  • The pharmaceutical compositions suitable for injectable use in accordance with this invention include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders or lyopholysates for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. The dosage forms must be sterile and it must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage. The carrier for injectable formulations is typically water but can also include ethanol, a polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol and liquid polyethylene glycol), mixtures thereof, and vegetable oil.
  • Injectable formulations used in the present invention can also be formulated as injectable prolonged release formulations in which the active compound is combined with one or more natural or synthetic biodegradable or biodispersible polymers such as carbohydrates, including starches, gums and etherified or esterified cellulosic derivatives, polyethers, polyesters, polyvinyl alcohols, gelatins, or alginates. Such dosage formulations can be prepared for example in the form of microsphere suspensions, gels, or shaped polymer matrix implants that are well-known in the art for their function as “depot-type” drug delivery systems that provide prolonged release of the biologically active components. Such compositions can be prepared using art-recognized formulation techniques and designed for any of a wide variety of drug release profiles.
  • One example of a useful formulation which may be used in the methods of the present invention for providing a prolonged duration of action is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,332,503 (Wikstrom, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference. Therein, apomorphine derivatives and the physiologically acceptable salts thereof as well as formulations thereof are described which provide a prolonged duration of action. The apomorphine pro-drugs can be suspended (as a neat oil or as crystals, or dissolved in a suitable and pharmaceutically acceptable solvent (e.g. water, ethanol, DMSO, i-PrOH or benzylbenzoate)) in a pharmaceutically acceptable depot oil (e.g. viscoleo, sesame oil or olive oil) and injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly with a syringe or a “pen injector”. Alternatively, these drugs may, in a suitable composition and with a suitable vehicle (penetration enhancer), be applied to a patch for transdermal administration. The composition could include also a local anesthetic (e.g. lidocaine) to avoid injection pain, in particular at intramuscular injections. In one embodiment, the composition is in the form of a patch or an ointment for transdermal administration. The patch or ointment preferably also comprises stabilizers, solubilizers and permeation activators to facilitate the passage of the active principle through the skin. In another preferred embodiment, the composition is in the form of a depot preparation for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration comprising the cannabinoid drug(s) dissolved or suspended in an oil. In certain embodiments, in addition to the apomorphine derivative, the formulation further contains a local anesthetic. The formulations described in the '503 patent can be modified as understood by one skilled in the art to contain other active drugs as described herein for use at the back of the neck region.
  • An injectable depot formulation is a dosage form, which is generally intended to have a therapeutic activity for 2 to 4 weeks after administration (e.g. in sesame oil). In order to maintain effective drug plasma levels the dosage form should release the drug at a more or less constant rate during the desired dosing interval. The difference between such prior art depots and depots used in the present invention is that the in accordance with the present invention, the drug is not needed to be absorbed into the systemic circulation.
  • A suitable form of depot preparation is the subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of an oil solution and/or oil suspension of a lipophilic drug. This gives a slow transport over the oil-biofluid interface and a slow dissolution in the biophase. Thus, when the drug is dissolved in a polar solvent (e.g. oils), which is non-miscible with the aqueous biological fluids, the drug has to be transported over the oil/water interface. When the oil/water partition coefficient is high, the transport will be slow. For very lipophilic drugs, the release from the oil phase may last for up to several weeks. The use of depot preparations such as those described herein may be used to deliver the drugs described herein at the back of the neck region.
  • The maximum volume of an oil solution/suspension to be injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously is 2-4 Ml. This is feasible for the preparations of the cannabinoid drug formulations of the present invention. For example, the cannabinoid drug(s) may be dissolved or dispersed in 1 Ml of an oil (sesame oil, Viscoleo or another approved oil) and the mixture gently heated (max 50° C.) shaken in a test tube shaker and ultrasonicated for a short time (minutes) until the mixture becomes a homogeneous solution or suspension. If necessary, the cannabinoid drug(s) may first be dissolved in 50-300 μl DMSO, water, t-BuOH, PEG, benzylbenzoate, or another suitable and approved solvent or mixtures thereof, before adding the oil to a total volume of 1 Ml.
  • Another example of a polymeric drug delivery system which may be adapted for use in the present invention by one skilled in the art is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,601,835 (Sabel, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes a polymeric drug delivery system for delivery of any substance to the central nervous system. The delivery system is preferably implanted in the central nervous system for delivery of the drug directly to the central nervous system. These implantable devices can be used, for example, to achieve continuous delivery of dopamine, which cannot pass the blood brain barrier, directly into the brain for an extended time period. The implantable devices display controlled, “zero-order” release kinetics, a life time of a minimum of several weeks or months even when the devices contain water soluble, low molecular weight compounds, biocompatibility, and relative non-invasiveness. The polymeric devices are said to be applicable in the treatment of a variety of central nervous system disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's disease, epilepsy, trauma, stroke, depression and other types of neurological and psychiatric illnesses, and one skilled in the art can adapt that drug delivery system for delivering the drugs contemplated herein at the back of the neck region.
  • Yet another example of a system that may be adapted for use in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,601,835 (Sabel, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, wherein an active compound is encapsulated within a polymer to form a polymeric device, the device formed of a biocompatible polymer that is plastically deformable selected from the group consisting of ethylene vinyl acetate, polyurethanes, polystyrenes, polyamide, polyacrylamide, and combinations thereof having a non-porous polymer coating thereon with one or more openings, with limited water sorptivity and slight permeability to the passage of small, aqueous-soluble molecules, wherein said compound is linearly released (e.g., zero order release) from said polymeric device over a sustained period of time of at least 65 days at a predetermined level and rate when implanted in a patient at a specific site within the central nervous system where the compound is released directly into the central nervous system and the device remains essentially intact throughout the release period. The delivery device is a two-phase system that is manufactured using standard techniques such as blending, mixing or the equivalent thereof, following selection of the biologically active material to be delivered and an appropriate polymer for formation of the matrix. The general method of solvent casting as disclosed by Siegel and Langer, “Controlled release of polypeptides and other macromolecules”, Pharmaceutical Research 1, 2-10 (1984), is modified so that drug is dispersed within the devices to create channels and pores to the surface for release of the drug at the desired rate. Where appropriate, a coating impermeable to the drug is placed over a portion of the drug containing polymer matrix to further regulate the rate of release. One skilled in the art can adapt that drug delivery system for delivering the drugs contemplated herein at the back of the neck region.
  • Yet another formulation which may used to deliver the drug as set forth in the present invention at the back of the neck region is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,314,636 (Caseres et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes injectable implants comprising glycolic acid and bio-compatible/bio-absorbable polymeric particles containing a polymer of lactic acid. The particles are small enough to be injected through a needle but large enough to avoid engulfment by macrophages. The injectables of this invention may be in a pre-activated solid form or an activated form (e.g., injectable suspension or emulsion).
  • It is further contemplated that the system described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,586,006 (Roser, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, can be adapted by one skilled in the art for use in the present invention for delivery of drugs at the back of the neck region. Therein are described delivery systems suitable for delivery of bioactive materials to subcutaneous and intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous tissue, the delivery system being sized and shaped for penetrating the epidermis. The delivery systems comprise a vitreous vehicle loaded with the guest substance and capable of releasing the guest substance in situ at various controlled rates. Subdermal implantable therapeutic systems have also been formulated for slow release of certain pharmaceutical agents for extended periods of time such as months or years. A well-known example is Norplant® for delivery of steroid hormones.
  • In membrane permeation-type controlled drug delivery, the drug is encapsulated within a compartment that is enclosed by a rate-limiting polymeric membrane. The drug reservoir may contain either drug particles or a dispersion (or solution) of solid drug in a liquid or a matrix type dispersing medium. The polymeric membrane may be fabricated from a homogeneous or a heterogeneous nonporous polymeric material or a microporous or semipermeable membrane. The encapsulation of the drug reservoir inside the polymeric membrane may be accomplished by molding, encapsulation, microencapsulation, or other techniques. The implants release drugs by dissolution of the drug in the inner core and slow diffusion across the outer matrix. The drug release from this type of implantable therapeutic system should be relatively constant and is largely dependent on the dissolution rate of the drug in the polymeric membrane or the diffusion rate across or a microporous or semipermeable membrane. The inner core may substantially dissolve over time; however, in devices currently in use, the outer matrix does not dissolve.
  • Other implantable therapeutic systems involve matrix diffusion-type controlled drug delivery. The drug reservoir is formed by the homogeneous dispersion of drug particles throughout a lipophilic or hydrophilic polymer matrix. The dispersion of drug particles in the polymer matrix may be accomplished by blending the drug with a viscous liquid polymer or a semisolid polymer at room temperature, followed by cross-linking of the polymer, or by mixing the drug particles with a melted polymer at an elevated temperature. It can also be fabricated by dissolving the drug particles and/or the polymer in an organic solvent followed by mixing and evaporation of the solvent in a mold at an elevated temperature or under vacuum. The rate of drug release from this type of delivery device is not constant. Examples of this type of implantable therapeutic system are the contraceptive vaginal ring and Compudose implant. PCT/GB 90/00497 describes slow release glassy systems for formation of implantable devices. The described implants are bioabsorbable and need not be surgically removed. One skilled in the art can adapt these drug delivery systems for delivering the drugs contemplated herein at the back of the neck region.
  • In microreservoir dissolution-controlled drug delivery, the drug reservoir, which is a suspension of drug particles in an aqueous solution of a water-miscible polymer, forms a homogeneous dispersion of a multitude of discrete, unleachable, microscopic drug reservoirs in a polymer matrix. The microdispersion may be generated by using a high-energy-dispersing technique. Release of the drug from this type of drug delivery device follows either an interfacial partition or a matrix diffusion-controlled process. An example of this type of drug delivery device is the Syncro-Mate-C Implant.
  • Yet another formulation which may be adapted by one skilled in the art for use in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,576,263 (Truong, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes a preformed object for delivering an active agent for a subject, the preformed object including cross-linked protein, and methods of making and using.
  • Yet another formulation which may be adapted by one skilled in the art for use in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,287,588 (Shih, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes a composition and method for releasing a bio-active agent or a drug within a biological environment in a controlled manner. The composition is a dual phase polymeric agent-delivery composition comprising a continuous biocompatible gel phase, a discontinuous particulate phase comprising defined microparticles and an agent to be delivered. A microparticle containing a bio-active agent is releasably entrained within a biocompatible polymeric gel matrix. The bio-active agent release may be contained in the microparticle phase alone or in both the microparticles and the gel matrix. The release of the agent is prolonged over a period of time, and the delivery may be modulated and/or controlled. In addition, a second agent may be loaded in some of the microparticles and/or the gel matrix.
  • Yet another formulation which may be adapted by one skilled in the art for use in the present invention is described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,364,568 (Angel, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, which describes a transdermal transport device includes a reservoir for holding a formulation of an active principle, and a needle with a bore extending along the length of the needle from a first end of the needle to a second end of the needle. The second end is substantially aligned to a plane parallel to a body surface of a biological body when the device is placed on the body surface. The device also includes an actuator which pumps the formulation through the bore of the needle between a target area of the body and the reservoir.
  • In yet other embodiments of the invention, the cannabinoid drug(s) is infused into the patient at the back of the neck using technology known to be useful for infusing other drugs, such as an insulin pump. One such system, U.S. Pat. No. 7,354,420 (Steil, et al.), hereby incorporated by reference, describes a closed loop infusion system controls the rate that fluid is infused into the body of a user. The closed loop infusion system includes a sensor system, a controller, and a delivery system. The sensor system includes a sensor for monitoring a condition of the user. The sensor produces a sensor signal, which is representative of the condition of the user. The sensor signal is used to generate a controller input. The controller uses the controller input to generate commands to operate the delivery system. The delivery system infuses a liquid into the user at a rate dictated by the commands from the controller. Preferably, the sensor system monitors the glucose concentration in the body of the user, and the liquid infused by the delivery system into the body of the user includes insulin.
  • The present invention is contemplated to encompass all implantable or injectable formulations, e.g., the technologies described above, with the inclusion of a drug(s) (e.g., cannabinoid drug(s)(s)), such that the administration of a drug useful for treatment of disease state or condition in humans via topical brainstem afferent stimulation (de-afferentation) therapy. Therefore, modifications of the invention via, e.g., the choice and/or amount of drug are considered to be obvious variations of this disclosure and within the scope of the appended claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present invention will now be more fully described with reference to the accompanying examples. It should be understood, however, that the following description is illustrative only and should not be taken in any way as a restriction on the generality of the invention specified above.
  • Example 1 Topical Formulation
  • An aqueous based cannabidiol cream is produced using Lipoderm® as the carrier. Lipoderm®/LIP is a commercially marketed compounding agent (from PCCA, Pharmaceutical Compounding Centers of America) having the following ingredients: Ethoxydiglycol, Water (Aqua), Glycerin, C12-15Alkyl Benzoate, Glyceryl Stearate, Dimethicone, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetearyl Glucoside, Polyacrylamide, Cetyl Alcohol, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Xanthan Gum, Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis), Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate), Prunus Amygadalus Amara (Bitter Almond) Kernel Oil, Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract, Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Germ Oil, Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A Palmitate), Ascorbyl Palmitate (Vitamin C Palmitate), Pro-Lipo Multi-emulsion Liposomic System, Tetrasodium EDTA, Phenoxyethanol, and Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate. The concentration is 4 mg of CBD in 1 ml of Lipoderm. Lipoderm is a whitish cream with no smell. The cannabinoid drug(s) are incorporated into the Lipoderm cream in the form of a CBD oil product as described herein.
  • Example 2
  • A 60 g topical formulation of CBD is prepared by incorporating 2.2 g CBD (CBD-RSHO-Clear 43.5%), 20 g Pluronic 20%, 40 g Carbomer hydroalcoholic gel and 1 ml ethyl alcohol to obtain a CBD topical formulation having a 1.6% concentration of CBD.
  • Example 3—Oil-Based CBD
  • A 30 g topical formulation of CBD is prepared by incorporating CBD oil, Dimethyl sulfoxide 3 ml and enough base for total quantity of 30 grams. The CBD is incorporated in a concentration sufficient to yield an end product having a CBD concentration of 0.75%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 3%. The topical formulation is in the form of a cream. The oil-based CBD includes CBD oil commercially available from CannaVest. A unit dose of the topical CBD cream is from about 0.5 to about 1 g, with respect to formulations having a CBD concentration from 1.5%-3%. After initial application, the topical CBD formulation can be applied to the back of the neck of the human patient once a day, twice a day, three times a day, or four times a day depending on the condition to be treated and its severity.
  • Example 4—CBD Crystalline Powder
  • A 60 g topical formulation of CBD is prepared utilizing CBD crystalline powder (95%+ pure CBD). The CBD is incorporated into the topical formulation of Example 2 having a CBD concentration between 0.75% to about 10% CBD.
  • Example 5
  • In Example 5, a total of 7 dogs suffering from a variety of diseases/conditions were treated with a 30 mg topical cannabidiol (CBD) formulation administered on the back of the neck and spine on each of these dogs. Table 1 reports the subject demographics and condition/disease state of each dog, as well as the subject response to treatment. Three of the dogs suffered from chronic back and hind leg problems of several months duration with weakness of legs, bowel & bladder control issues. Two of the dogs suffered from acute back problems with pain, inactivity & poor appetite. One dog suffered from a pituitary tumor, Cushing's, lethargy, inactivity and poor appetite. One dog suffered from a head injury and chronic encephalopathy, which manifested as a personality change, agitation, aggressive behavior.
  • 1. “RUBY”: After several doses of topical CBD to the back
    14 y/o dachshund-retriever mix of neck, became alert, active, started to eat and
    with pituitary brain tumor and drink. Subsequently, able to take medication for
    Cushing's with days of lethargy, Cushing's and now doing well after a year. CBD
    inactivity, poor appetite. no longer required.
    2. “COCOA”: 2 weeks after injury, on Dec. 17, 2015,
    5 y/o miniature dachshund, had received first treatment of topical CBD to back
    back injury Nov. 28, 2015, crying of neck and lower back. Showed improvement
    with every move and acted as if within few minutes: more alert, active, and
    paralyzed. Had problems looking up walking around wagging tail. Was able to lift
    and unable to sleep. Taken to vet as head and kiss owner for first time. Continued
    emergency and told was slipped with 2×/day CBD for additional 5 days and
    disc; given Tramadol and told to normalized. Owner states now even more
    be crated to prevent further injury. energetic than before.
    Continued in pain with poor
    appetite and constipation.
    3. “RASCAL”: Observations by vet and owners:
    7 y/o pug with several months 10-15 minutes after topical CBD to back of
    progressive episodic weakness of neck and lower back, walking improved and left
    hips and legs, with left leg kicking leg no longer kicking out, showed better control
    out and causing balance problems of hips. 2 days later, was lifting leg to urinate,
    and waddling gait. Squats like a which it had not done in some time. 5 days after
    female to urinate and with bowel initial treatment, began to show some
    urgency. No longer jumps up. recurrence of prior problems and started on
    daily CBD therapy.
    4. “ROBIN”: After treatment with CBD to back of neck and
    7 y/o male litter mate of “Rascal” lower back, was standing with toes spread out
    but with worse symptoms: entire normally, walked without hind legs giving way.
    hind section giving out Now also lifting his leg to urinate. Chronic
    intermittently and using front legs daily CBD therapy started 5 days later after
    to get up. Leaks urine with several day period of continued benefit after
    occasional bowel incontinence and one treatment.
    squats. Stands with toes curled
    under pads.
    5. “DORA”: Several minutes after application of topical
    12 y/o female pug with 2 years of CBD to neck and back, became more active and
    lower back problems with hip and was walking with improved control of hips and
    hind legs weakness and bowel legs. Will be using 3×/day.
    control problems. Over past 6
    months, worsening symptoms with
    giveaway of legs, altered gait.
    Several courses of steroids with
    minimal temporary benefit.
    6. “SISSY”: Several minutes after application of topical
    6 y/o female chihuahua at age 1 CBD to neck, dog mellowed, uninterested in
    had head injury and developed other dogs coming near her, and quietly rested;
    personality change with agitation, which lasted several hours.
    aggressive behavior, jealous of
    other dogs coming near whoever is
    holding her.
    7. “RILEY”: Sometime after topical CBD to the lower back,
    11 y/o male German Shepard mix began moving around, ate and drank; became
    with acute onset pain, immobility, more active. Within 12 hours, was back to
    and lethargy. normal and did not require additional doses.
  • CONCLUSION
  • The examples provided above are not meant to be exclusive. Many other variations of the present invention would be obvious to those skilled in the art, and are contemplated to be within the scope of the appended claims.
  • The hypotheses of the inventor provided throughout the specification are for possible explanation purposes only, and are not meant to be limiting in any way.

Claims (25)

  1. 1. A method of treating a disease state or condition in a mammal other than a human with a cannabinoid drug(s) comprising administering a cannabinoid drug(s) in a therapeutically effective amount to treat the disease state or condition topically on the area of skin on one or more skin regions in an area extending from (behind) one ear to the other ear of the mammal and from the back of the head to below the neck to provide regional neuro-affective therapy.
  2. 2. (canceled)
  3. 3. (canceled)
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered in a topical pharmaceutical formulation in a unit dose containing a therapeutically effective amount of the cannabinoid drug(s) which penetrates the skin to act at free nerve endings under the skin.
  5. 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) is administered in a topical mousse formulation.
  6. 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the mammal is a canine.
  7. 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) comprise a mixture of pharmaceutically acceptable cannabinoids, such that the mixture provides substantially no psychoactive effect or no psychoactive effect.
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) comprises at least about 80% cannabidiol.
  9. 9. (canceled)
  10. 10. The method of claim 5, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) in the pharmaceutical formulation comprises at least about 80% cannabidiol.
  11. 11. (canceled)
  12. 12. (canceled)
  13. 13. (canceled)
  14. 14. The method of claim 10, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier comprises ethoxydiglycol, water (aqua), glycerin, C12-15alkyl benzoate, glyceryl stearate, dimethicone, cetearyl alcohol, cetearyl glucoside, polyacrylamide, cetyl alcohol, magnesium aluminum silicate, xanthan gum, aloe vera (aloe barbadensis), tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E acetate), prunus amygadalus amara (bitter almond) kernel oil, vitis vinifera (grape) seed extract, triticum vulgare (wheat) germ oil, retinyl palmitate (vitamin A palmitate), ascorbyl palmitate (vitamin C palmitate), pro-lipo multi-emulsion liposomic system, tetrasodium EDTA, phenoxyethanol, and sodium hydroxymethylglycinate.
  15. 15. The method of claim 8, wherein cannabidiol is CBD-oil.
  16. 16. The method of claim 8 wherein cannabidiol is a purified crystalline CBD.
  17. 17. The method of claim 4, wherein the topical pharmaceutical formulation comprises liposomes.
  18. 18. The method of claim 4, wherein the unit dose comprises from about 3 mg to about 100 mg cannabidiol.
  19. 19. The method of claim 1, further comprising formulating the cannabinoid drug(s) in a pharmaceutically acceptable topical aqueous-based carrier, and applying a sufficient amount to the back of the neck region of the mammal such that the onset of a therapeutic effect occurs in less than about 30 minutes.
  20. 20. The method of claim 7, wherein the cannabinoid drug mixture concentrate includes from about 0 to about 3% tetrahydrocannabinol, from about 0 to about 1% tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, from about 20 to about 50% cannabidiol, from about 0 to about 1% cannabidiolic acid, and from about 0 to about 1% cannabinol, for a total active cannabinoid level from about 20% to about 50%.
  21. 21. The method of claim 20, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) in the topical pharmaceutical formulation are at a concentration from about 0.75% to about 5%, by weight.
  22. 22. The method of claim 4, wherein the unit dose of the cannabinoid drug(s) includes from about 1 mg to about 200 mg cannabinoid drug(s) and the cannabinoid drug(s) comprise at least 80% cannabidiol.
  23. 23. The method of claim 1, wherein the disease state or condition is selected from the group consisting of lameness and gait issues; elbow dysplasia; hip dysplasia; back and hind leg problems; arthritis; seizures; encephalopathy lethargy; focus/attentional problems; cognitive issues: spasticity; epilepsy; cancer; weakness; pain; numbness; anxiety and other mood disorders; hypertension; tremors; peripheral neuropathy; bowel and bladder control issues; inactivity; poor appetite; tumors; Cushing's disease; aggressive behavior; pruritis; dermatitis; vomiting; lethargy; dystonia; and personality change.
  24. 24. The method of claim 4, wherein the cannabinoid drug(s) is further administered onto an area of skin along the spine of the mammal.
  25. 25. The method of claim 1, wherein the disease state or condition is selected from the group consisting of lameness and gait issues; elbow dysplasia; hip dysplasia; back and hind leg problems; lethargy; cancer; weakness; pain; numbness; anxiety and other mood disorders; bowel and bladder control issues; inactivity; poor appetite; lethargy; dystonia; and personality change.
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