US20170266078A1 - External chest compression and defibrillation systems, devices and methods of operation - Google Patents

External chest compression and defibrillation systems, devices and methods of operation Download PDF

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Publication number
US20170266078A1
US20170266078A1 US15/616,659 US201715616659A US2017266078A1 US 20170266078 A1 US20170266078 A1 US 20170266078A1 US 201715616659 A US201715616659 A US 201715616659A US 2017266078 A1 US2017266078 A1 US 2017266078A1
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Prior art keywords
device
ecc
chest compression
patient
devices
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Pending
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US15/616,659
Inventor
Cynthia Jayne
Ronald E. Stickney
Richard C. Nova
Stephen W. Radons
David R. Hampton
D. Craig Edwards
Joseph L. Sullivan
Steven E. Sjoquist
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Physio-Control Inc
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Physio-Control Inc
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Priority to US44758503P priority Critical
Priority to US10/652,392 priority patent/US20040162510A1/en
Priority to US12/372,523 priority patent/US10406066B2/en
Application filed by Physio-Control Inc filed Critical Physio-Control Inc
Priority to US15/616,659 priority patent/US20170266078A1/en
Publication of US20170266078A1 publication Critical patent/US20170266078A1/en
Assigned to MEDTRONIC PHYSIO-CONTROL CORP. reassignment MEDTRONIC PHYSIO-CONTROL CORP. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HAMPTON, DAVID R, STICKNEY, RONALD E, EDWARDS, D. CRAIG, JAYNE, CYNTHIA, NOVA, RICHARD C, RADONS, STEPHEN W., SJOQUIST, STEVEN E, SULLIVAN, JOSEPH L
Assigned to MEDTRONIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment MEDTRONIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEMS, INC. CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MEDTRONIC PHYSIO-CONTROL CORP.
Assigned to PHYSIO-CONTROL, INC. reassignment PHYSIO-CONTROL, INC. CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: MEDTRONIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEMS, INC.
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H31/00Artificial respiration or heart stimulation
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    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H31/00Artificial respiration or heart stimulation
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    • A61H31/00Artificial respiration or heart stimulation
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    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/38Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for producing shock effects
    • A61N1/39Heart defibrillators
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    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F7/00Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body
    • A61F7/02Compresses or poultices for effecting heating or cooling
    • A61F2007/0225Compresses or poultices for effecting heating or cooling connected to the body or a part thereof
    • A61F2007/0233Compresses or poultices for effecting heating or cooling connected to the body or a part thereof connected to or incorporated in clothing or garments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
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    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
    • A61H2201/02Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes heated or cooled
    • A61H2201/0214Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes heated or cooled cooled
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    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
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    • A61H2201/5012Control means thereof computer controlled connected to external computer devices or networks using the internet
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    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
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    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
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    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
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    • A61H2201/5097Control means thereof wireless
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H2230/00Measuring physical parameters of the user
    • A61H2230/04Heartbeat characteristics, e.g. E.G.C., blood pressure modulation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M16/00Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M16/00Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes
    • A61M16/0048Mouth-to-mouth respiration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M16/00Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes
    • A61M16/021Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes operated by electrical means
    • A61M16/022Control means therefor
    • A61M16/024Control means therefor including calculation means, e.g. using a processor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
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    • A61M2205/3546Range
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    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/35Communication
    • A61M2205/3576Communication with non implanted data transmission devices, e.g. using external transmitter or receiver
    • A61M2205/3584Communication with non implanted data transmission devices, e.g. using external transmitter or receiver using modem, internet or bluetooth

Abstract

Resuscitation devices for performing external chest compression (ECC) and defibrillation on a person and methods using the devices are disclosed. The disclosed devices can include chest compression members and a communication module that can communicate with a remote command center. The disclosed devices can also include an optional defibrillation module that may be integrated. The devices can be coupled to a backboard and can include physiological sensors, electrodes, wheels, controllers, human interface devices, cooling modules, ventilators, cameras, and voice output devices. Methods can include defibrillating, pacing, ventilating, cooling, and performing ECC in an integrated, coordinated, and/or synchronous manner using the full capabilities of the device. Some devices include controllers executing methods for automatically performing the coordinated activities utilizing the device capabilities.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation co-pending application of Ser. No. 12/372,523, filed Feb. 17, 2009, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/652,392, filed Aug. 29, 2003, which is now abandoned, and which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/447,585, titled INTEGRATED CPR & AED DEVICES AND METHODS OF OPERATION, filed Feb. 14, 2003, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The present application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/652,148, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,308,304, Issued on Dec. 11, 2007 titled COOPERATING DEFIBRILLATORS AND EXTERNAL CHEST COMPRESSION DEVICES, and to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/652,965, titled DEFIBRILLATORS LEARNING OF OTHER CONCURRENT THERAPY, which is abandoned, both filed on date even herewith.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • The present disclosure is related to the field of resuscitation devices.
  • All over the world, people experience cardiac and respiratory events. For example, both in and out of the hospital, there is a significant incidence of cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. For these situations, a variety of therapies may be appropriate. The patient may require artificial respiration, chest compressions, defibrillation, and/or pacing.
  • Many patents exist discussing devices related to these events and situations. For example, a chest compression device is taught in patent U.S. Pat. No. 6,234,984 B1. Some of these devices even aggregate such features, such as are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,349,015, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,424,806.
  • Many of the prior art devices, however, merely aggregate such features, without making them work together. Therefore there exists a need for devices that can combine, coordinate and integrate various aspects of these diagnostics and therapies to better diagnose and treat the patient. That is because many of these conditions are related, and a patient might need one of these therapies alternating with another.
  • SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • The present disclosure provides devices, software, and methods as described below. Some embodiments of the disclosure provide a device that can monitor a patient and administer diverse therapies as they arise.
  • Some example external chest compression (ECC) devices have a backboard that supports a patient on it, one or more chest compression members, and a communication module. The one or more chest compression members can be operably coupled to the backboard, in some examples, and can also be positioned to extend across an anterior portion of a chest of the patient. The communication module is electrically coupled to the chest compression member(s) and is configured to wirelessly send and receive data relating to the operation of the ECC device. The data can be transmitted between the ECC device and a remote assistance center.
  • Another example ECC device has two rigid chest compression arms and a communication module. The two rigid chest compression arms are positioned to extend across an anterior portion of a chest of the patient. The communication module is electrically coupled to the two rigid chest compression members and is configured to wirelessly send and receive data relating to the operation of the ECC device. The data can be transmitted between the ECC device arid a remote command center.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an integrated external chest compression (ECC) and defibrillation device;
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the integrated device of FIG. 1, having a person disposed on the device;
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a person disposed on another integrated device, having a shorter backboard relative to the device of FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 4 is a transverse, cross-sectional view of an integrated device in which the chest compression member includes a belt and a piston;
  • FIG. 5 is a transverse, cross-sectional view of an integrated device in which the chest compression member includes a retractable belt;
  • FIG. 6 is a transverse, cross-sectional view of an integrated device in which the chest compression member includes rigid members pivotally coupled to the backboard;
  • FIG. 7 is a transverse, cross-sectional view of an integrated device having a powered actuator coupled to a force multiplier for delivering chest compression;
  • FIG. 8 is a fragmentary, bottom view of a belt bearing a defibrillator electrode;
  • FIG. 9 is a fragmentary, bottom view of a belt bearing two defibrillator electrodes;
  • FIG. 10 is a fragmentary, bottom view of a belt bearing multiple ECG leads;
  • FIG. 11 is a fragmentary, bottom view of a belt bearing multiple sensors and associated leads;
  • FIG. 12 is a fragmentary, transverse cross-sectional view of a belt or vest bearing a spring biased defibrillator electrode, ECG lead, or sensor;
  • FIG. 13 is a fragmentary, transverse cross-sectional view of a belt or vest bearing an electrode, lead, or sensor having an electrolyte gel;
  • FIG. 14 is a schematic view of the integrated device of FIG. 1 further including a camera and transmitter communicating with a remote assistance center;
  • FIG. 15 is a schematic view of the integrated device of FIG. 1, further including a cooling module in the form of a cooling garment disposed on the person;
  • FIG. 16 is a highly diagrammatic, cross-sectional view of the person and cooling garment of FIG. 15;
  • FIG. 17 is a block diagram of the controller or computer containing executable logic or software contained within an integrated device;
  • FIG. 18 is a flow chart illustrating a method for integrating external chest compression and defibrillation therapies;
  • FIG. 19 is a time diagram showing coordinated periodic chest compressions and defibrillation and/or pacing pulses;
  • FIG. 20 is a flow chart segment illustrating an optional pacing portion of the flow chart of FIG. 18; and
  • FIG. 21 is a view of a display screen from an operation of the disclosure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an integrated external chest compression (ECC) and defibrillation device 30. Integrated device 30 includes a backboard or back frame 32, chest compression members 40, a ventilator 42, a human interface device 54, and a defibrillating and/or pacing module 46.
  • Backboard 32 is shown as solid and having an upper surface 34. Backboard 32 need not be solid. Backboard 32 is preferably made as lightweight as possible, allowing the integrated modules to be included without adding unneeded weight. In some embodiments, wheels 36 and a handle 38 are coupled to backboard 32. This permits the device to be used as a gurney, making it easier to transport the patient.
  • The chest compression portion may be implemented in a number of ways, as described below. Two chest compression members 40 are shown, in the form of two arms. Chest compression members 40 are coupled to backboard 32. Even though only two arms are shown, the chest compression members may be implemented as a belt, and/or as a vest, either a full or partial vest. The belt or vest is intended to generally wrap around the chest of the patient, for squeezing it, or squeezing it against backboard 32. In this way, ECC or CPR can be administered to the patient. The belt or vest may incorporate other functionalities, as further described below. In addition, it may be removable and/or reusable.
  • Integrated device 30 includes a defibrillating and/or pacing module 46, hereinafter referred to generally as a defibrillating module or defibrillator. Defibrillator 46 can be electrically coupled to a posterior electrode 48 embedded in backboard 32. Backboard 32 may be formed of an electrically insulating material to electrically isolate posterior electrode 48. Electrode 48 can be disposed to contact the patient's back, on the left side. Defibrillator 46 can also be coupled to a defibrillator or pacing electrode 50, disposed on chest compression member 40. In some embodiments, at least one defibrillator electrode is disposed on the under-side of the belt, chest compression member, or vest to contact the patient's chest near the heart.
  • Integrated device 30 further includes a ventilator or ventilating module 42. Ventilator 42 can include ventilator tubing 44. Ventilator 42 can also be coupled to backboard 32 and can be used for ventilating the patient. Ventilator 42 is shown schematically, as ventilators are well known to those skilled in the art.
  • Human interface device 54 can be implemented in a number of ways. Human interface device 54 can include an input portion 56 and an output portion 58. Input portion 56 can include a keyboard and output portion 58 can include a visual display or computer screen and/or a voice output module for interacting with a human assistant. A battery 52 can be carried within backboard 32 for supplying power for operating human interface device 54, defibrillator 46, ventilator 42, and chest compression members 40, in the various embodiments of the disclosure. A controller or computer can also be included within human interface device 54 or elsewhere within integrated device 30 for integrating and coordinating the operation of external chest compression, defibrillating, pacing, and ventilating, depending on the embodiment of the disclosure present.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates integrated device 30 having a person or patient 100 disposed on backboard 32. Patient 100 has a chest 102 disposed under chest compression members 40 and a mouth 104 for receiving ventilator tubing 44.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates another integrated device 120 for integrating external chest compression and defibrillation and/or pacing. Integrated device 120 may be seen to include chest compression members 40, human interface device 54, battery 52, and defibrillator module 46, as previously described with respect to FIG. 1. Integrated device 120 includes a short backboard or back frame 126. Shorter backboard 126 can decrease the weight and increase the portability of the integrated device.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates an integrated device 150, in which the chest compression is effected by a compressor or expandable member held in place by a belt or vest 153, depending on what is provided in the particular embodiment. The chest compressor includes a mechanism for pushing downwards on the chest. In the integrated device illustrated, the compressor is implemented as a base 151 and a piston 152. Piston 152 is illustrated in a first, retracted position 154 and a second, extended position 156. Belt or vest 153 can be coupled to a back frame 158, as previously discussed.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an integrated device 170. The integrated device 170 includes a belt or vest 172, having a buckle, hook and loop fastener (e.g. Velcro™) or zipper 174 for fastening around the chest of the patient. Belt or vest 172 can itself be contracted to effect chest compression. The contraction can take place in many ways. In one way, the belt or vest can be retracted into a back frame 176. In another way, belt or vest 172 can be constricted about the patient. Belt or vest 172 may be seen having a first, expanded position 173 and a second, constricted position 178. In yet another way, chest compression is effected by electrically stimulating the chest muscles.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates still another integrated device 200 having a patient 206 disposed on a backboard 210. In device 200, chest compression is provided by rigid chest compression members or arms 202 having support prongs 208 that push down on the chest of patient 206. Arms 202 can be pivotally coupled to backboard 210. In the embodiment illustrated, arms 202 are operated by gears 204 that are integrated with backboard 210. In some embodiments, arms 202 are driven by a powered chest compression actuator.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates another integrated device 220 including backboard 210 carrying patient 206, as previously described. Integrated device 220 includes a force multiplier 224 using a lever arrangement, so that a pressing member can exert a downward pressure on the patient chest. Integrated device 220 includes a gear box or a powered actuator 230 coupled through a shaft or rod 228, which may be hollow in some embodiments. Shaft 228 can have first force transmission member 236 slidably received within shaft 228 and pivotally coupled to a second force transmission member 232 and a third force transmission member 234.
  • Force transmission members 232 and 234 can be further coupled to a chest compression pad 235 for pressing against the chest of patient 206. Force multiplier device 224 can be held in place by a belt or vest 222. In some embodiments, the lever arrangement may operate by having a rod conduct a long rotation, such as in a corkscrew arrangement.
  • Other embodiments of the chest compression portion include belts crossing the chest from over the shoulder down to the chest, forming an “X” across the patient's chest. This is better than the conventional way of having belts horizontally across the patient's chest, in that it permits placement of sensors such as leads in different places. Alternately, an “X”-belt configuration may be combined with the conventional configuration. In yet other embodiments, the chest compression portion includes devices performing active compression-decompression, devices that combine chest compressions with abdominal compressions, devices where the belt is operated electronically without gears, and devices that use electricity to do chest compressions by electrically inducing chest muscles to contract. Various embodiments may use combinations of these chest compression techniques.
  • Compressing and releasing may be performed according to any type of time profile. One such profile is seen in FIG. 19. Other profiles may be sine-wave, triangular shaped, or other shapes. In an advantageous embodiment of the disclosure, a sine-wave may be used with a frequency outside the ECG range. This permits analyzing the ECG while simultaneously performing chest compressions. This permits the device to detect more quickly a rhythm that requires a defibrillation shock, and to reduce the delay of its delivery from the end of the chest compressions.
  • Referring again to FIGS. 1, 2, and 3, the disclosure defibrillation-pacing portion can be either formed integrally with the backboard or is removable from it. In any event, the defibrillation-pacing portion can operate when integrally connected with the back frame or backboard.
  • The defibrillation-pacing portion is capable of performing defibrillation, and optionally, also pacing. Pacing may be implemented by a separate module than defibrillating, but it is highly advantageous to have the same module perform both functions. The defibrillation/pacing portion may operate as a defibrillator of any chosen automation level. That includes operation that is fully automated to fully manual, and every option in between.
  • Moreover, the disclosure may also advantageously provide devices or modules that perform monitoring, and further provide interpretation of the monitored signals. The monitoring results may advantageously be displayed on the human interface device previously described or on an I/O module as described below. In other embodiments, there is a separate monitoring module. Monitoring may be of any of the monitoring parameters or physiological attributes common on defibrillator/monitors or bedside monitors today, for example, NIBP, SpO2, CO2, 12 lead ECG, etc. The devices that perform the monitoring are preferably integrated with the back frame, and preferably are removable for servicing.
  • The disclosure also can include an input/output (I/O) or human interface module as previously described. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, human interface device 54 includes a display screen and keyboard, as previously discussed, but that is not limiting. The disclosure can also have input devices such as keys, switches, knobs, levers, a microphone for voice recording, and preferably also voice recognition, and output devices such as one or more screens, a speaker, printer, or other output device. All of these are preferably aggregated at the I/O module, but that is not necessary for practicing the disclosure. They may be located elsewhere in the devices, or received remotely, for example, wirelessly, or transmitted wirelessly to a remote output device.
  • The disclosure also optionally includes a ventilation portion. A ventilation portion or ventilating module 42 was previously described with respect to FIG. 1. The ventilation portion may be implemented either automatically, or be intended for use by a human operator. If by a human, the device may be made giving prompts for instructing the rescuer. The prompts may be timed. The rescuer may be either performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or opening a bag valve mask device where the user manually squeezes the bag. If the ventilator is to be automatic, a tube can be inserted into the patient's mouth, and a pump can be used. Alternatively, a mask may be placed on the face of the patient. The oxygen can be delivered this way to the patient. Other devices, such as valves that block the airway during chest decompression, for example, the CPR-x valve, can be included in the ventilation portion of the device of the disclosure. To the extent it is automatic, a pump of the ventilation portion may be advantageously integrated with the back frame.
  • The disclosure preferably also includes an electrical power source for powering the various portions. The power source may be a battery, such as battery 52 discussed with respect to FIG. 1. The battery may be either a rechargeable battery for maximum portability, or a replaceable battery. The battery is preferably integrated with the back frame, either permanently, or in such a way that it can be removed and replaced. Some devices of the disclosure have the benefits of being able to share a common power source, CPU or controller, and I/O module for the interface with the rescuer.
  • FIGS. 8 and 9 illustrate how defibrillator electrodes or other electrodes might be attached to an underside of the vest or belt of the chest compression portion of the devices of FIG. 1, 2, or 3. For example, the electrodes can be part of a belt or vest of FIG. 4 or 5. The electrodes can also be integrated with an arm or a prong of a chest compression member, for example, prong 208 of FIG. 6 or chest contact pad 235 or FIG. 7.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a belt or vest having a first portion 300 coupled through a buckle or zipper 304 to a second portion 302. A first electrode 306 may be affixed to the underside of the belt or vest and coupled to a wire or lead 308. In FIG. 8, one of the electrodes is situated on the underside of the belt or vest, while the other electrode may be expected to be in the backboard. At least one wire can connect the electrode to the remainder of the defibrillation/pacing portion. This is a preferred embodiment, since it would minimize CPR artifact in the ECG signal. The electrode preferably avoids the center of the chest. That is where the buckle or zipper is shown (as wider than the open portion that supports the electrode).
  • FIG. 9 illustrates the belt or vest of FIG. 8, having belt or vest first portion 300, buckle or zipper 304, and second portion 302. First electrode 306 and wire 308 are as previously described with respect to FIG. 8. In FIG. 9, a second electrode 310 is coupled to a second wire or lead 312. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 9, no electrode is needed in the backboard or back frame for traditional defibrillation. At least one wire can connect each electrode to the defibrillation/pacing portion.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates the underside of another belt or vest having a first portion 320 coupled through a buckle or zipper 324 to a second portion 322. Belt or vest first portion 320 may be seen carrying a first electrode 326 and a second electrode 327, coupled to wires 332. Belt or vest second portion 322 may be seen carrying third electrode 328, fourth electrode 329, and fifth electrode 330, all coupled to wires 332. Wires 332, while having similar reference numbers, are, of course, preferably electrically distinct. The ECG leads of FIG. 10 are also preferably integrated with the underside of the vest or belt of the chest compression portion of the devices of FIG. 1, 2, or 3. The ECG leads may be placed so as to not interfere with any defibrillation electrodes, for example, those of FIGS. 8 and 9.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates yet another belt or vest having a first portion 340 coupled through a buckle or zipper 344 to a second portion 342. The underside of belt or vest first portion 340 may be seen carrying a first sensor 346 coupled to a wire or other signal transmission medium 349. The underside of belt or vest second portion 342 may be seen carrying a second sensor 347, and a third sensor 348, coupled to wires 349. The sensors are preferably also integrated with the underside of the vest or belt of the chest compression portion of the devices of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. These sensors can include pulse detection sensors, such as those made from piezoelectric materials, temperature sensors, CO2 sensors, and other sensors for measuring physiological attributes or signals, well known to those skilled in the art.
  • The features integrated with the belt or vest are preferably arranged so that they do not interfere with each other. The electrode may be fully integrated, or detachable for servicing. Alternately and equivalently, some electrodes, ECG leads, or sensors may be hosted in the backboard.
  • FIGS. 12 and 13 illustrate how defibrillator electrodes, ECG leads, or sensors may be integrated with an underside of the vest, belt, or other chest compression members, for example those in FIG. 1, 2 or 3.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates a belt or vest 350 carrying an electrode, lead, or sensor 352. Electrode, lead, or sensor 352 can be coupled to a wire 356 and biased downward from the belt or vest with a spring 354, so as to be pressed against the chest of the patient. For use with a pulse sensor, some quieting time for the spring is preferably allowed, so as to not provide interference with the signal.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates a belt or vest 360 carrying an electrode, lead, or sensor 362 on the underside of the vest or belt. A gel or electrolyte 364 may be seen on the underside of the electrode, lead, or sensor 362. For implementing an electrode, a gel may be administered, or an electrolyte may be diffused. The gel or electrolyte may be provided in a capsule that bursts at an appropriate time to release it. The time may be prior to defibrillation electrotherapy. Bursting may be caused by the mere pressure against the chest, or by an appropriate electrical signal. One advantage that can be provided by some embodiments is that there is no need to disrobe the patient—the fluid may seep through the clothes to establish electrical conduction.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates some other optional features of the disclosure. Integrated device 30, patient 100, and backboard 32 are shown, as previously described. A camera 382 may be seen disposed on a post secured to backboard 32. Camera 382 can be coupled to a communication module 380 that can act as a transmitter or transceiver. Communication module 380 can communicate with a remote assistance center 396 coupled through a network 394 and a remote antenna 392. A data/voice/video communications link 390 is shown as existing between communication module 380 and remote assistance center antenna 392.
  • Communication link 390 can be bi-directional in some embodiments. In a preferred embodiment, communications module 380 includes the functionality of a portable telephone, and network 394 is a network that can support voice and/or data communications. Camera 382 is preferably a digital camera, and may be either a video camera or a still camera. The camera may be advantageously attached to a post in the backboard. This permits recording of the scene and the patient. The recording may be used for record keeping, event analysis, and other purposes. Alternately, the recording may be used for live transmission to the remote assistance center 396, where more, trained medical personnel can in turn provide feedback.
  • The user of the disclosure can establish communication link 390 with remote assistance center 396. Then the information can be transmitted and can include images, if a camera is provided. The patient's vital signs, encoded by the disclosure for communication, along with the rescuer's comments, observations, and even questions may be also transmitted to the remote assistance center.
  • In some embodiments, the disclosure is operable from remote assistance center 396. An operator at the remove assistance center can transmit a command code through communication link 392 integrated device 30, and integrated device 30 operated accordingly. Such operation may actually include defibrillation.
  • Moreover, the monitored data, included also recorded data such as events, wave forms, physiological signals or attributes, and data indicative of the device operation itself, may be also transmitted to a system for collecting or storing patient information, and to a computer-aided dispatch system for assistance. Furthermore, it may also be sent to a billing system for determining patient billing.
  • FIGS. 15 and 16 illustrate additional optional cooling figures of the disclosure. Cooling can be provided for performing IMHT (Induction of Mild Hypo Thermia), which may slow down adverse effects of the events being experienced by the patient.
  • Integrated device 30 and patient 100 are as previously described. FIG. 15 illustrates generally a cooling module aspect of the present disclosure. In the example illustrated, the cooling module includes a liquid gas storage container or tank 402 coupled to a valve 404 coupled in turn to a tube 406 coupled to a cooling garment 408. Liquid gas storage container 402 can be included within the cooling module and is preferably carried under the backboard. This is most advantageous in the event the backboard is implemented with wheels.
  • The liquid in container 402 can be one that preferably turns into gas upon being released into the atmosphere. A cooling garment, similar to cooling garment 408, can be provided for each part of the body that is of interest to cool. The cooling garment can be shaped to be suitable for placing over the bodily part that is to be cooled. Cooling garment 408 illustrated in FIG. 15 is designed for placement on the patient's head. Cooling may also be accomplished by evaporative cooling, for example, using a suitable fluid delivery system and an absorber for alcohol, such as cotton.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates a section of cooling garment 408. Garment 408 has an inner shell 409 for contacting patient 100. Garment 408 also has an outer garment or shell 411 that defines an inner space 405 between outer shell 411 and inner shell 409. Spacers may be used to maintain inner space 405 in an open configuration. Alternately, small tubes may be used. Garment 408 can receive liquid gas from storage container 402 via tube 406 in communication with inner space 405. The cooling gas or liquid can also be received into the series of small tubes, previously described. The gas can then be released into the atmosphere from various places in the garment. As it is being released, the gas can expand, cool, and thus draw heat away from the patient. Sensors, for example for temperature, may also be included.
  • Referring again to FIG. 15, the gas can be directed from storage container 402 to liquid controller or valve 404, and from there to garment 408 via tube 406. Liquid controller 404 can in turn be controlled by an IMHT controller, for controlling the rate of cooling of the patient. The expanded cooled gas may be mixed with air to control the final cooling gas/air temperature. The IMHT controller may be implemented in combination with the liquid controller, and optionally further communicates with the processor or controller of the device of the disclosure.
  • The present disclosure may be implemented by one or more devices that include logic circuitry. The device performs functions and/or methods as are described in this document. The logic circuitry may include a processor that may be programmable for a general purpose, or dedicated, such as microcontroller, a microprocessor, a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), etc. For example, the device may be a digital computer like device, such as a general-purpose computer selectively activated or reconfigured by a computer program stored in the computer. Alternately, the device may be implemented as an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), etc. These features can be integrated with the disclosure, or coupled with it.
  • Moreover, the disclosure additionally provides methods, which are described below. The methods and algorithms presented herein are not necessarily inherently associated with any particular computer or other apparatus. Rather, various general-purpose machines may be used with programs in accordance with the teachings herein, or it may prove more convenient to construct more specialized apparatus to perform the required method steps. The required structure for a variety of these machines will become apparent from this description.
  • In all cases there should be borne in mind the distinction between the method of the disclosure itself and the method of operating a computing machine. The present disclosure relates both to methods in general, and also to steps for operating a computer and for processing electrical or other physical signals to generate other desired physical signals.
  • The disclosure additionally provides programs, and methods of operation of the programs. A program is generally defined as a group of steps leading to a desired result, due to their nature and their sequence. A program made according to an embodiment of the disclosure is most advantageously implemented as a program for a computing machine, such as a general-purpose computer, a special purpose computer, a microprocessor, etc.
  • The disclosure also provides storage media that, individually or in combination with others, have stored thereon instructions of a program made according to the disclosure. A storage medium according to the disclosure is a computer-readable medium, such as a memory, and is read by the computing machine mentioned above.
  • The steps or instructions of a program made according to an embodiment of the disclosure requires physical manipulations of physical quantities. Usually, though not necessarily, these quantities may be transferred, combined, compared, and otherwise manipulated or processed according to the instructions, and they may also be stored in a computer-readable medium. These quantities include, for example electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic signals, and also states of matter that can be queried by such signals. It is convenient at times, principally for reasons of common usage, to refer to these quantities as bits, data bits, samples, values, symbols, characters, images, terms, numbers, or the like. It should be borne in mind, however, that all of these and similar terms are associated with the appropriate physical quantities, and that these terms are merely convenient labels applied to these physical quantities, individually or in groups.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates a general computer, processor, or controller 440 having a data storage device or computer readable medium 446 interfaced with computer 440 to transfer data via link 448, or the data may define a program. Computer 440 of FIG. 17 may be implemented by a CPU, and preferably interfaces with the IO module or human interface device previously described. Computer or controller 440 includes a memory 442 containing executable logic or program 444.
  • This detailed description portion is presented largely in terms of flowcharts, display images, algorithms, and symbolic representations of operations of data bits within at least one computer readable medium, such as a memory. An economy is achieved in the present document in that a single set of flowcharts is used to describe both methods of the disclosure, and programs according to the disclosure. Indeed, such descriptions and representations are the type of convenient labels used by those skilled in programming and/or the data processing arts to effectively convey the substance of their work to others skilled in the art. A person skilled in the art of programming may use these descriptions to readily generate specific instructions for implementing a program according to the present disclosure.
  • Often, for the sake of convenience only, it is preferred to implement and describe a program as various interconnected distinct software modules or features, individually and collectively also known as software and softwares. This is not necessary, however, and there may be cases where modules are equivalently aggregated into a single program with unclear boundaries. In any event, the software modules or features of the present disclosure may be implemented by themselves, or in combination with others. Even though it is said that the program may be stored in a computer-readable medium, it should be clear to a person skilled in the art that it need not be a single memory, or even a single machine. Various portions, modules or features of it may reside in separate memories, or even separate machines. The separate machines may be connected directly, or through a network, such as a local access network (LAN), or a global network, such as the Internet.
  • It will be appreciated that some of these methods may include software steps which may be performed by different modules of an overall parts of a software architecture. For example, data forwarding in a router may be performed in a data plane, which consults a local routing table. Collection of performance data may also be performed in a data plane. The performance data may be processed in a control plane, which accordingly may update the local routing table, in addition to neighboring ones. A person skilled in the art will discern which step is best performed in which plane.
  • In the present case, methods of the disclosure are implemented by machine operations. In other words, embodiments of programs of the disclosure are made such that they perform methods of the disclosure that are described in this document. These may be optionally performed in conjunction with one or more human operators performing some, but not all of them. As per the above, the users need not be collocated with each other, but each only with a machine that houses a portion of the program. Alternately, some of these machines may operate automatically, without users and/or independently from each other.
  • Methods of the disclosure are now described. Referring now to FIG. 18, a flowchart 2000 is used to illustrate a method according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The method of flowchart 2000 may also be practiced by the devices of the disclosure described in this document. Above and beyond the method described herein, the responder (who is also a user) may be instructed on how to apply a device, and or interactively give feedback, and/or to perform steps of the method, etc.
  • According to a box 2010, signals are received about the patient, and optionally are also monitored. Optionally, they are also recorded, displayed, transmitted, etc.
  • The signals are received from the patient (such as ECG), from special sensors (such as oximetry, impedance, force, pulse detection sensors, etc.). Signals may also be received from other components or devices (size of belt or vest around patient's chest, GPS signals, control signals from a device of a responder attending to the patient, etc.). Signals may further be received from the responder interactively, e.g. by asking questions and receiving answers.
  • The signals are then analyzed and treated as inputs, as is also shown in the rest of flowchart 2000. Analysis may be implemented also by taking advantage of the combined functionalities and features. For example, knowledge of the time profile of the chest compression is used to remove the chest compression artifact from the ECG.
  • The process of box 2010 preferably takes place continuously, even if execution moves also to other boxes of flowchart 2000. Monitoring is for the conditions that are applicable for the below, including, for example, for the effectiveness of chest compressions. There can be different stages of monitoring, such as main monitoring, at exact box 2010, and secondary monitoring concurrent with other stages, e.g. at the same time as any one of boxes 2030, 2040, 2080 below.
  • In addition, monitoring may be also for detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), via the ECG or other monitoring parameters, and indicating this to the caregiver. If AMI is detected, then monitoring may also be for cardiac arrest (which commonly occurs following an AMI).
  • In addition to monitoring, preferably there is also recording. The accumulated record may include records of events, data monitored, and functionalities of the disclosure that are operating, and time profiles of their operation.
  • A number of decision trees may then be implemented, in determining what action to take next. The best embodiments known to the inventors are described, but that is only by way of example, and not of limitation. Further, the flowchart may be integrated with other steps, such as administering medications (e.g. cardiac drugs), etc. But simplistically, the ECG input is analyzed for a shockable rhythm, and then either defibrillation takes place, or pulse or other signs of circulation are checked, following the same protocol as today's AEDs. Further, a user would be prompted to start the CHEST COMPRESSION PORTION device and ventilations if there was no pulse (or no signs of circulation.) A more rigorous way is described below.
  • According to a next box 2020, it is determined whether Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) of the patient's heart is occurring. If so, then according to a next box 2030, the patient is defibrillated. This is accomplished by administering electrotherapy, such as a defibrillation shock. If a child (“pediatric”) patient is sensed, then the defibrillation energy level may be adapted automatically (e.g. be set to 501). Such sensing may be from responder inputs, the belt or vest size when tightened around the patient, etc.
  • In some embodiments of the disclosure, at box 2030, instead of delivering a defibrillation shock, the CPR portion is used to deliver a precordial thump to deliver the patient. In particular, when the device detects a shockable rhythm, rather than delivering an electrical defibrillation pulse, the device first deliver a precordial thump to the patient, via the chest compression device, to attempt defibrillation. This is a great advantage of the disclosure, in that it can revert from one form of therapy to another.
  • In yet other embodiments, based on the patient's downtime (which could be entered into the device by the caregiver), or by analysis of parameter that indicates probability of shock success (such as ECG), it may first be decided whether to deliver electrotherapy, or to first perform CPR, and/or to first deliver medications prior to defibrillating. That action could either be started automatically by the system, or could be started with manual action from the user.
  • Execution may then return to box 2010, where inputs are received and analyzed. In a preferred optional embodiment, however, according to a next box 2040, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is either performed automatically, or instructed for the responder to perform, after defibrillating. Instruction may be by voice commands, and/or may include sounds for the responder to synchronize their action. In addition, depending on the monitored inputs, the repetition rate of the CPR is adjusted. Further, if CPR is performed automatically, the force and its time profile are also adjusted. Execution returns to box 2010.
  • According to important alternate embodiments of the disclosure, boxes 2030 and 2040 take place together. In other words, defibrillation takes place while CPR is being performed automatically.
  • Referring briefly to FIG. 19, a time profile of the chest compressions is shown. More particularly, the changing circumference of the patient chest is plotted, as squeezed and released. In addition, the main level of the patient impedance is plotted in dashed lines, following in pattern the time profile of the chest circumference. (Other impedance variations may be superimposed on the main level of impedance). The profile of chest squeezing may be known directly, or indirectly from a monitored parameter such as the main level of impedance.
  • Advantageously, defibrillation (the large lightning bolts in FIG. 19) may take place any time in the CPR cycle. The exact timing is chosen in synchronization to pursue various optimizations. For example, if it is desired to exploit the smallest possible impedance, defibrillation happens according to bolt (A). On the other hand, if it is desired to exploit the moment that the heart is filled with the most blood (and thus draw the most current through the heart), then defibrillation happens according to bolt (B).
  • CPR may continue after defibrillation, or even be halted after it. An advantage of the disclosure is that the waiting time from CPR to defibrillation is minimized. Pacing takes place as described later in this document.
  • Returning to FIG. 18, if, at box 2020 it is determined that the patient is not undergoing VF, then according to an optional next box 2050, it is inquired whether a pulse is detected. If not, then according to an optional next box 2060, it is inquired whether the condition of Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) is detected. If so, then execution reverts to box 2030, and the patient is defibrillated. But if no VT is detected at box 2060, then execution reverts to box 2040 for performing CPR.
  • If a pulse is detected at box 2050, then, according to an optional next box 2070, it is inquired whether respiration is detected. If so, then execution returns to box 2010. Respiration may be detected automatically by respiration sensors, such as a CO2 (carbon dioxide) sensor, chest movement sensor, or an impedance sensor.
  • If at box 2070 there is no respiration detected, then according to an optional next box 2080, ventilation is performed automatically by a ventilator, or rescue breathing is instructed for the responder to perform. Execution returns to box 2010.
  • Since box 2010 is preferably executed continuously, the method also includes discontinuing one type of therapy, and optionally also starting another consistently with the above. Also, if one of the signs changes, execution may return to box 2010 and start over. For example, pulse may be lost while ventilating. Or the onset of respiration may detected, in which case other activities (such as ventilation) stop.
  • Referring now to optional box 2090, optional pacing according to the disclosure is also described. In the embodiment of FIG. 18, the condition for enabling pacing is examined in two circumstances, namely in transitioning from box 2050 to 2070, and also in transitioning from box 2060 to 2040.
  • Referring now to FIG. 20, box 2090 is described in more detail. In both cases, it is inquired whether severe bradycardia is detected. In addition, if no pulse has been detected, it is inquired whether ventricular asystole has been detected. If not, then execution continues as before (from box 2050 to 2070, and from box 2060 to 2040). If yes, then according to a box 2095, pacing is performed.
  • Returning to FIG. 19, pacing (shown as a small lightning bolt) may also be coordinated with the administration of CPR. Pacing is preferably synchronized with the compression cycle. There is some evidence that chest compressions may cause a QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), if the heart is able to support it. Accordingly, pacing during the compression cycle provides the additional impetus to the ventricles. Also, pacing should be avoided a few 100 msec after a QRS complex, during the ventricular vulnerability period.
  • At any one time during the method of FIG. 18, inputs are received (for monitoring) from the available sensors, and from the user through the I/O module. Outputs are communicated to the user through the. I/O module.
  • Referring now to FIG. 21, a sample screen snapshot is shown. The screen is advantageously used for communicating to the user the monitored data (such as vital signs), outputs, comments, actions, etc. In the example of FIG. 21, there is a countdown for imminent defibrillation (at the 3 sec point).
  • A person skilled in the art will be able to practice the present disclosure in view of the description present in this document, which is to be taken as a whole. Numerous details have been set forth in order to provide a more thorough understanding of the disclosure. In other instances, well-known features have not been described in detail in order not to obscure unnecessarily the disclosure.
  • While the disclosure has been disclosed in its preferred form, the specific embodiments as disclosed and illustrated herein are not to be considered in a limiting sense. Indeed, it should be readily apparent to those skilled in the art in view of the present description that the disclosure may be modified in numerous ways. The inventors regard the subject matter of the disclosure to include all combinations and sub-combinations of the various elements, features, functions and/or properties disclosed herein.

Claims (25)

What is claimed is:
1. An external chest compression (ECC) device, comprising:
a backboard structured to support a patient thereon;
at least one chest compression member operably coupled to the backboard and positioned to extend across an anterior portion of a chest of the patient; and
a communication module electrically coupled to the at least one chest compression member and configured to wirelessly send and receive data relating to operation of the ECC device, the data transmitted between the ECC device and a remote assistance center.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the transmitted data is a command code.
3. The device of claim 2, wherein the command code includes an instruction to operate the ECC device in a selected mode of operation.
4. The device of claim 2, wherein the command code includes an instruction to configure one or more parameters of the ECC device.
5. The device of claim 4, wherein the instruction to configure the one or more parameters of the ECC device includes an instruction to adjust the one or more parameters of the ECC from a default set of parameters for the ECC device.
6. The device of claim 1, wherein the backboard is integrated into a gurney.
7. The device of claim 1, wherein the chest compression member is integrated into the ECC device.
8. The device of claim 7, wherein the chest compression member is removable from the ECC device.
9. The device of claim 1, wherein the data is transmitted in a live transmission between the ECC device and the remote assistance center.
10. The device of claim 9, wherein the live transmission includes communication from one or both of a rescuer operating the ECC device or a rescuer at the remote assistance center.
11. The device of claim 1, further comprising a camera that is electrically coupled to the ECC device and is configured to capture one or both of still pictures or video recordings of one or more of the operation of the ECC device, the rescue scene, the patient, and the rescuer.
12. The device of claim 11, wherein the camera is further configured to wirelessly transmit the captured still pictures, the video recordings, or both to the remote assistance center.
13. The device of claim 12, wherein the transmission of the still pictures, the video recordings, or both to the remote assistance center occurs in a live transmission.
14. An external chest compression (ECC) device, comprising:
two rigid chest compression arms that are each operably coupled to the backboard and positioned to extend across an anterior portion of a chest of the patient; and
a communication module electrically coupled to two rigid chest compression members and configured to wirelessly send and receive data relating to operation of the ECC device, the data transmitted between the ECC device and a remote assistance center.
15. The device of claim 14, wherein the transmitted data is a command code.
16. The device of claim 15, wherein the command code includes an instruction to operate the ECC device in a selected mode of operation.
17. The device of claim 15, wherein the command code includes an instruction to configure one or more parameters of the ECC device.
18. The device of claim 17, wherein the instruction to configure the one or more parameters of the ECC device includes an instruction to adjust the one or more parameters of the ECC from a default set of parameters for the ECC device.
19. The device of claim 14, wherein the chest compression member is integrated into the ECC device.
20. The device of claim 19, wherein the chest compression member is removable from the ECC device.
21. The device of claim 14, wherein the data is transmitted in a live transmission between the ECC device and the remote assistance center.
22. The device of claim 21, wherein the live transmission includes communication from one or both of a rescuer operating the ECC device or a rescuer at the remote assistance center.
23. The device of claim 14, further comprising a camera that is electrically coupled to the ECC device and is configured to capture one or both of still pictures or video recordings of one or more of the operation of the ECC device, the rescue scene, the patient, and the rescuer.
24. The device of claim 23, wherein the camera is further configured to wirelessly transmit the captured still pictures, the video recordings, or both to the remote assistance center.
25. The device of claim 24, wherein the transmission of the still pictures, the video recordings, or both to the remote assistance center occurs in a live transmission.
US15/616,659 2003-02-14 2017-06-07 External chest compression and defibrillation systems, devices and methods of operation Pending US20170266078A1 (en)

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