US20170242788A1 - Regrouping data during relocation to facilitate write amplification reduction - Google Patents

Regrouping data during relocation to facilitate write amplification reduction Download PDF

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US20170242788A1
US20170242788A1 US15/047,901 US201615047901A US2017242788A1 US 20170242788 A1 US20170242788 A1 US 20170242788A1 US 201615047901 A US201615047901 A US 201615047901A US 2017242788 A1 US2017242788 A1 US 2017242788A1
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data
pages
stream
regrouping
metadata
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US10884914B2 (en
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Razik S. Ahmed
Charles J. Camp
Timothy J. Fisher
Aaron D. Fry
Nikolas Ioannou
Jason Ma
Matthew R. Orr
Roman A. Pletka
Lincoln T. Simmons
Sasa Tomic
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International Business Machines Corp
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Abstract

A technique for garbage collection in a storage system includes generating regrouping metadata for one or more pages of at least two logical erase blocks (LEB). The regrouping metadata indicates an associated stream for each of the pages. Multiple of the LEBs that include valid pages associated with a first stream are selected, based on the regrouping metadata, for regrouping. The valid pages associated with the first stream from the selected LEBs are regrouped into a new LEB.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present disclosure is generally directed to regrouping data and, more specifically, to regrouping data during relocation to facilitate write amplification reduction in a storage system.
  • NAND flash memory is an electrically programmable and erasable non-volatile memory technology that stores one or more bits of data per memory cell as a charge on the floating gate of a transistor or a similar charge trap structure. In a typical implementation, a NAND flash memory array is organized in blocks (also referred to as “erase blocks”) of physical memory, each of which includes multiple physical pages each in turn containing a multiplicity of memory cells. By virtue of the arrangement of the word and bit lines utilized to access memory cells, flash memory arrays can generally be programmed on a page basis, but are erased on a block basis.
  • As is known in the art, blocks of NAND flash memory must be erased prior to being programmed with new data. A block of NAND flash memory cells is erased by applying a high positive erase voltage pulse to the p-well bulk area of the selected block and by biasing to ground all of the word lines of the memory cells to be erased. Application of the erase pulse promotes tunneling of electrons off of the floating gates of the memory cells biased to ground to give them a net positive charge and thus transition the voltage thresholds of the memory cells toward the erased state. Each erase pulse is generally followed by an erase verify operation that reads the erase block to determine whether the erase operation was successful, for example, by verifying that less than a threshold number of memory cells in the erase block have been unsuccessfully erased. In general, erase pulses continue to be applied to the erase block until the erase verify operation succeeds or until a predetermined number of erase pulses have been used (i.e., the erase pulse budget is exhausted).
  • A NAND flash memory cell can be programmed by applying a positive high program voltage to the word line of the memory cell to be programmed and by applying an intermediate pass voltage to the memory cells in the same string in which programming is to be inhibited. Application of the program voltage causes tunneling of electrons onto the floating gate to change its state from an initial erased state to a programmed state having a net negative charge. Following programming, the programmed page is typically read in a read verify operation to ensure that the program operation was successful, for example, by verifying that less than a threshold number of memory cells in the programmed page contain bit errors. In general, program and read verify operations are applied to the page until the read verify operation succeeds or until a predetermined number of programming pulses have been used (i.e., the program pulse budget is exhausted).
  • In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management in which a garbage collector attempts to reclaim garbage (memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use by a program). With respect to a flash memory, garbage collection involves reading and re-writing data to the flash memory. Data is written to the flash memory in units called pages. However, as noted above, flash memory can only be erased in larger units called blocks (made up of multiple pages). If the data in some of the pages of the block are no longer needed (also called stale, invalid, or dirty pages), only the pages with good data in that block are read and re-written into another previously erased empty block.
  • Because a flash memory must be erased before the flash memory can be re-written, garbage collection results in re-writing user data and metadata more than once. That is, re-writing some data requires an already used portion of flash memory to be read, updated, and written to a new location, together with initially erasing the new location if the new location was previously used at some point in time. Due to the way flash memory works, much larger portions of flash memory must be erased and rewritten than is usually required by the amount of new data. This multiplying effect (known as write amplification) increases the number of writes required over the life of a flash memory and shortens the time the flash memory can reliably operate.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY
  • A technique for garbage collection in a storage system includes generating regrouping metadata for one or more pages in at least two logical erase blocks (LEBs). The regrouping metadata indicates an associated stream for each of the pages. Multiple of the LEBs that include valid pages associated with a first stream are selected, based on the regrouping metadata, for regrouping. The valid pages associated with the first stream from the selected LEBs are regrouped into a new LEB.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1A is a high level block diagram of a data processing environment in accordance with one embodiment;
  • FIG. 1B is a more detailed block diagram of an exemplary flash card of the data storage system of FIG. 1A;
  • FIGS. 2-5 illustrate an exemplary arrangement of physical memory within a NAND flash memory system in accordance with the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 6A depicts an exemplary implementation of a block stripe in accordance with the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 6B depicts an exemplary implementation of a page stripe in accordance with the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 7 illustrates an exemplary codeword stored in each data page in accordance with the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 8 depicts an exemplary codeword stored in each data protection page in accordance with the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 9 is a high level flow diagram of the flash management functions and data structures employed by a flash controller in accordance with one embodiment;
  • FIG. 10 depicts a more detailed view of an exemplary flash controller in accordance with one embodiment; and
  • FIG. 11 is a high level logical flowchart of an exemplary process that performs garbage collection for a data storage system in accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Due to characteristics of flash memory, flash controllers have been configured to perform garbage collection to reclaim previously used flash blocks. In general, garbage collection results in increased write amplification, as garbage collection usually involves re-writing still valid data from a mostly stale (dirty) flash block. As a general rule, on flash controllers that perfectly align logical page boundaries with physical codeword containers, the garbage collection process has only been concerned with choosing a candidate flash block stripe that produces the fewest logical page re-writes to reduce write amplification.
  • In general, performance characteristics of NAND flash-based Solid State Disks (SSDs) are fundamentally different from traditional hard disk drives (HDDs). For SSDs, data is typically organized in 4, 8, or 16 kilobyte (kB) page sizes. Page read operations for SSDs are typically one order of magnitude faster than write operations, and latency neither depends on a current location nor a previous location of an operation. However, memory locations in NAND flash-based SSDs must be erased prior to being written. The size of a minimal physical unit that can be erased (i.e., a flash block) is typically 256 or 512 pages. A block-erase operation takes approximately one order of magnitude more time than a page program operation. Due to these intrinsic properties, NAND flash-based SSDs typically write data out-of-place, which requires maintaining a mapping (translation) layer from logical-to-physical addresses usually referred to as a logical-to-physical table (LPT).
  • As flash chips, blocks, or pages may experience errors or completely fail (due to limited endurance or other reasons), redundancy has been implemented within flash pages (e.g., in the form of error correcting codes (ECCs), such as Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes) and across flash chips (e.g., employing RAID-5 or RAID-6 like approaches). While the addition of ECC in pages is relatively straightforward, the organization of flash blocks into RAID-like stripes is more complex as individual blocks have to be retired over time which requires reorganization of the stripes or shrinking the capacity of the stripes. As the organization of stripes in conjunction with the LPT define the placement of data, SSDs have utilized a so-called log-structured array (LSA) architecture that combines the above redundancy approaches.
  • Garbage collection in the context of flash SSD controllers refers to the process of identifying blocks suitable for erasing, relocating valid data from the blocks to be erased, and erasing the blocks to prepare the blocks for future writes. While garbage collection is necessary due to the physical characteristics of the NAND flash-based storage, garbage collection causes write amplification. A physical block is a minimum unit that can be erased on NAND flash to prepare the physical block for writing user data. However, for many different reasons, a typical garbage collection unit may include multiple physical blocks of flash memory. For example, multiple flash blocks may be grouped together in a RAID stripe. As noted above, RAID schemes generally improve reliability and reduce the probability of data loss. As RAID parity is computed against all data in a RAID stripe, individual blocks in a RAID stripe cannot be erased individually. That is, in various embodiments a complete RAID stripe is garbage collected and erased as a single unit.
  • It is common for blocks from different dies and/or flash channels to be grouped together, such that all blocks from a same group can be read or written in parallel to increase overall bandwidth. It is also possible to compose RAID stripes using blocks from different flash channels that can be accessed in parallel. Due to block grouping schemes, a minimum garbage collection unit is often significantly larger than a single erase block. As used herein, a Logical Erase Block (LEB) refers to a garbage collection unit that may include one or more erase blocks and is typically used as a synonym for a RAID stripe or a block stripe. As a general rule, a size of an LEB directly affects garbage collection induced write amplification. That is, the larger the LEB the more likely that unrelated data is stored in an LEB that will require relocation when the LEB is selected for garbage collection. Larger LEBs typically have higher write amplification due to the larger amount of data that is required to be relocated.
  • At least one conventional flash-based storage system has attempted to optimize initial host data placement such that LEBs only contain data from a single stream. However, such conventional flash-based storage systems are difficult to realize in practice as a flash controller cannot predict the amount of the data that will be associated with a single stream. In a typical implementation, flash controllers group multiple streams of host data and then segregate the data based on some other heuristic, e.g., data heat (i.e., estimated or measured write update frequency). After writing data to NAND flash media, conventional flash controllers have not maintained stream origin information and, as such, have been incapable of generating LEBs with data only from a single stream.
  • The present disclosure is generally directed to a flash-based storage system in which data is regrouped during relocation in order to reduce write amplification of NAND flash devices. In various embodiments, write amplification may be reduced by maintaining regrouping metadata on a stream origin for associated data. In general, maintaining regrouping metadata on a stream origin for associated data facilitates data regrouping according to an associated stream at a later point in time, e.g., during garbage collection. In one or more embodiments, data regrouping is performed as a background process after data has been initially written to flash memory. According to the present disclosure, LEBs are regrouped to contain data from a same stream and, as such, future writes from the same stream have an increased likelihood of overwriting a larger percentage of a given LEB.
  • In general, reducing write amplification improves sustained write performance and reduces media wear in NAND flash devices. To reduce write amplification it is desirable to place data of a same stream into a same LEB to ensure that future writes from the same stream invalidate as much of the data within the LEB as possible. Invaliding as much data within an LEB as possible results in less valid data having to be relocated from the LEB during garbage collection, which results in lower write amplification. As previously mentioned, placing data of each stream in a different LEB may not be initially possible as each stream may have different and unpredictable throughput, which makes it extremely difficult to maximize performance. However, as previously noted, data may be regrouped after initial placement in an LEB during data relocation as part of the garbage collection process.
  • Data regrouping may be based on several factors, e.g., data heat, a stream indicator supplied by a host, a host address, a thread identifier (ID), a logical unit number (LUN) ID, etc. Regrouping metadata may be stored together with each written page, either in flash media or Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). Alternatively, regrouping metadata may be stored at a larger granularity, e.g., per multiple pages or only for a subset of pages. For example, regrouping metadata may be stored only for colder pages (that are more likely to be relocated) and/or for less compressible pages (that are more expensive to relocate). The regrouping metadata may also be transformed into a reduced form that requires less storage space (e.g., using a computationally cheap hash function on data regrouping information).
  • In various embodiments, the garbage collection process accesses regrouping metadata to facilitate selection of LEBs for relocation with data that is predominantly associated with a certain stream. In one or more embodiments, a garbage collector then enforces the placement of data associated with a single stream to a single LEB during data regrouping. The garbage collection process may also operate on multiple LEBs in parallel to select valid data from a particular stream for relocation. After the relocation, since the newly written LEB only includes data from a single stream, incoming writes from the same stream are more likely to invalidate an entire LEB (thereby significantly reducing write amplification). In an alternative embodiment, regrouping metadata may also be utilized to actively separate initial host writes into different LEBs.
  • With reference to the figures and with particular reference to FIG. 1A, there is illustrated a high level block diagram of an exemplary data processing environment 100 including a data storage system 120 that is configured to perform garbage collection according to the present disclosure and having a non-volatile memory array as described further herein. As shown, data processing environment 100 includes one or more hosts, such as a processor system 102 having one or more processors 104 that process instructions and data. Processor system 102 may additionally include local storage 106 (e.g., DRAM or disks) that may store program code, operands and/or execution results of the processing performed by processor(s) 104. In various embodiments, processor system 102 can be, for example, a mobile computing device (such as a smartphone or tablet), a laptop or desktop personal computer system, a server computer system (such as one of the POWER® series available from International Business Machines Corporation), or a mainframe computer system. Processor system 102 can also be an embedded processor system using various processors such as ARM®, POWER, Intel X86, or any other processor combined with memory caches, memory controllers, local storage, I/O bus hubs, etc.
  • Each processor system 102 further includes an input/output (I/O) adapter 108 that is coupled directly (i.e., without any intervening device) or indirectly (i.e., through at least one intermediate device) to a data storage system 120 via an I/O channel 110. In various embodiments, an I/O channel 110 may employ any one or a combination of known or future developed communication protocols, including, for example, Fibre Channel (FC), FC over Ethernet (FCoE), Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI), InfiniBand, Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), etc. I/O operations (IOPs) communicated via I/O channel 110 include read IOPs by which a processor system 102 requests data from data storage system 120 and write IOPs by which a processor system 102 requests storage of data in data storage system 120.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, data storage system 120 includes multiple interface nodes 122 through which data storage system 120 receives and responds to IOPs via I/O channels 110. Each interface node 122 is coupled to each of multiple Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) controllers 124 in order to facilitate fault tolerance and load balancing. Each of RAID controllers 124 is in turn coupled (e.g., by a PCIe bus) to each of multiple flash cards 126 including, in this example, NAND flash storage media. In other embodiments, other lossy storage media can be employed.
  • FIG. 1B depicts a more detailed block diagram of a flash card 126 of data storage system 120 of FIG. 1A. Flash card 126 includes a gateway 130 that serves as an interface between flash card 126 and RAID controllers 124. Gateway 130 is coupled to a general-purpose processor (GPP) 132, which can be configured (e.g., by program code) to perform various management functions, such as pre-processing of IOPs received by gateway 130 and/or to schedule servicing of the IOPs by flash card 126, or to perform general operations (OP) such as the maintenance operations. GPP 132 is coupled to a GPP memory 134 (e.g., DRAM or Magneto-resistive Random Access Memory (MRAM)) that can conveniently buffer data created, referenced and/or modified by GPP 132 in the course of its processing.
  • Gateway 130 is further coupled to multiple flash controllers 140, each of which controls a respective NAND flash memory system 150. Flash controllers 140 can be implemented, for example, by an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)) having an associated flash controller memory 142 (e.g., DRAM). In embodiments in which flash controllers 140 are implemented with an FPGA, GPP 132 may program and configure flash controllers 140 during start-up of data storage system 120. After startup, in general operation flash controllers 140 receive read and write IOPs from gateway 130 that request to read data stored in NAND flash memory system 150 and/or to store data in NAND flash memory system 150. Flash controllers 140 service these IOPs, for example, by accessing NAND flash memory systems 150 to read or write the requested data from or into NAND flash memory systems 150 or by accessing one or more read and/or write caches (not illustrated in FIG. 1B) associated with NAND flash memory systems 150.
  • Flash controllers 140 implement a Flash Translation Layer (FTL) that provides logical-to-physical address translation to enable access to specific memory locations within NAND flash memory systems 150. In general, an TOP received by flash controller 140 from a host device, such as a processor system 102, contains the logical block address (LBA) at which the data is to be accessed (read or written) and, if a write IOP, the write data to be written to data storage system 120. The IOP may also specify the amount (or size) of the data to be accessed. Other information may also be communicated depending on the protocol and features supported by data storage system 120. As is known to those skilled in the art, NAND flash memory, such as that employed in NAND flash memory systems 150, is constrained by its construction such that the smallest granule of data that can be accessed by a read or write IOP is fixed at the size of a single flash memory page, for example, 16 kilobytes (kB). The LBA provided by the host device corresponds to a logical page within a logical address space, the logical page typically having a size of four (4) kilobytes. This logical page can be further compressed by flash controller 140 such that the physical data being written for a logical page can be significantly smaller than 4 kilobytes. As such, more than one logical page may be stored in a physical flash page. The FTL translates this LBA into a physical address assigned to a corresponding physical location in a NAND flash memory system 150.
  • Flash controllers 140 may perform address translation and/or store mappings between logical and physical addresses in a logical-to-physical translation data structure, such as a logical-to-physical translation (LPT) table, which may conveniently be stored in flash controller memory 142. An LPT table may also be configured to store compressed sizes of data pages stored in NAND flash memory system 150.
  • NAND flash memory systems 150 may take many forms in various embodiments. Referring now to FIGS. 2-5, there is depicted one exemplary arrangement of physical memory within a NAND flash memory system 150 in accordance with one exemplary embodiment.
  • As shown in FIG. 2, NAND flash memory system 150 may be formed from thirty-two (32) individually addressable NAND flash memory storage devices. In the illustrated example, each of the flash memory storage devices M0 a-M15 b takes the form of a board-mounted flash memory module capable of storing two or more bits per cell. Thus, flash memory modules may be implemented with Multi-Level Cell (MLC), Three Level Cell (TLC), or Quad Level Cell (QLC) memory. The thirty-two NAND flash memory modules are arranged in sixteen groups of two, (M0 a, M0 b) through (M15 a, M15 b). For purposes of the physical addressing scheme, each group of two modules forms a “lane,” also sometimes referred to as a “channel,” such that NAND flash memory system 150 includes sixteen channels or lanes (Lane0-Lane15).
  • In a preferred embodiment, each of the individual lanes has a respective associated bus coupling it to the associated flash controller 140. Thus, by directing its communications to one of the specific communication buses, flash controller 140 can direct its communications to one of the lanes of memory modules. Because each communication bus for a given lane is independent of the communication buses for the other lanes, a flash controller 140 can issue commands and send or receive data across the various communication buses at the same time, enabling the flash controller 140 to access the flash memory modules corresponding to the individual lanes at, or very nearly at, the same time.
  • With reference now to FIG. 3, there is illustrated an exemplary embodiment of a flash memory module 300 that can be utilized to implement any of flash memory modules M0 a-M15 b of FIG. 2. As shown in FIG. 3, the physical storage locations provided by flash memory module 300 are further subdivided into physical locations that can be addressed and/or identified through Chip Enables (CEs). In the example of FIG. 3, the physical memory of each flash memory chip 300 is divided into four Chip Enables (CE0, CE1, CE2 and CE3), each having a respective CE line that is asserted by flash controller 140 to enable access to or from the physical memory locations within the corresponding CE. Each CE is in turn subdivided into multiple dice (e.g., Die0 and Die1) each having two planes (e.g., Plane0 and Plane1). Each plane represents a collection of blocks (described below) that, because of the physical layout of the flash memory chips, are physically associated with one another and that utilize common circuitry (e.g., I/O buffers) for the performance of various operations, such as read and write operations.
  • As further shown in FIGS. 4-5, an exemplary plane 400, which can be utilized to implement any of the planes within flash memory module 300 of FIG. 3, includes, for example, 1024 or 2048 blocks of physical memory. Note that manufacturers often add some additional blocks as some blocks might fail early. In general, a block is a collection of physical pages that are associated with one another, typically in a physical manner. This association is such that a block is defined to be the smallest granularity of physical storage locations that can be erased within NAND flash memory system 150. In the embodiment of FIG. 5, each block 500 includes, for example, 256 or 512 physical pages, where a physical page is defined to be the smallest individually addressable data unit for read and write access. In the exemplary system, each physical page of data has a common capacity (e.g., 16 kB) for data storage plus additional storage for metadata described in more detail below. Thus, data is written into or read from NAND flash memory system 150 on a page-by-page basis, but erased on a block-by-block basis.
  • Because NAND flash memory system 150 is implemented in a memory technology supporting multiple bits per cell, it is common for multiple physical pages of each block 500 to be implemented in the same set of memory cells. For example, assuming 512 physical pages per block 500 as shown in FIG. 5 and two bits per memory cell (i.e., NAND flash memory 150 is implemented in MLC memory), Page0 through Page255 (the lower pages) can be implemented utilizing the first bit of a given set of memory cells and Page256 through Page511 (the upper pages) can be implemented utilizing the second bit of the given set of memory cells. The actual order of lower and upper pages may be interleaved and depends on the manufacturer. In many cases, the endurance of pages within a block 500 vary widely, and in some cases, this variation is particularly pronounced between lower pages (which may generally have a lower endurance) and upper pages (which may generally have a greater endurance).
  • As further shown in FIG. 5, each block 500 preferably includes page status information (PSI) 502, which indicates the status of each physical page in that block 500 as retired (i.e., no longer used to store user data) or non-retired (i.e., active or still usable to store user data). In various implementations, PSI 502 can be collected into a single data structure (e.g., a vector or table) within block 500, distributed within block 500 (e.g., as one or more bits of metadata appended to each physical page) and/or maintained elsewhere in data storage system 120. As one example, in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 9 and discussed further below, the page status information of all blocks 500 in a NAND flash memory system 150 is collected in a system-level data structure, for example, a page status table (PST) 946 stored in GPP memory 134 or a flash controller memory 142.
  • Because the FTL implemented by data storage system 120 isolates the logical address space made available to host devices from the physical memory within NAND flash memory system 150, the size of NAND flash memory system 150 need not be equal to the size of the logical address space presented to host devices. In most embodiments it is beneficial to present a logical address space that is less than the total available physical memory (i.e., to over-provision NAND flash memory system 150). Over-provisioning in this manner ensures that physical memory resources are available when the logical address space is fully utilized, even given the presence of a certain amount of invalid data as described above. In addition to invalid data that has not yet been reclaimed the over-provisioned space can be used to ensure there is enough logical space, even given the presence of memory failures and the memory overhead entailed by the use of data protection schemes, such as Error Correcting Code (ECC), Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and parity.
  • In some embodiments, data is written to NAND flash memory system 150 one physical page at a time. In other embodiments in which more robust error recovery is desired, data is written to groups of associated physical pages of NAND flash memory system 150 referred to herein as “page stripes.” In a disclosed embodiment, all pages of a page stripe are associated with different lanes to achieve high write bandwidth. Because in many implementations the smallest erase unit is a block, page stripes can be grouped into a block stripe as is shown in FIG. 6A, where each block in the block stripe is associated with a different lane. When a block stripe is built, any free block of a lane can be chosen, but preferably all blocks within the same block stripe have the same or similar health grade. Note that the block selection can be further restricted to be from the same plane, die, and/or chip enable. The lengths of the block stripes can and preferably do vary, but in one embodiment in which NAND flash memory system 150 includes 16 lanes, each block stripe includes between two and sixteen blocks, with each block coming from a different lane. Further details regarding the construction of block stripes of varying lengths can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 8,176,284; 8,176,360; 8,443,136; and 8,631,273, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
  • Once a block from each lane has been selected and a block stripe is formed, page stripes are preferably formed from physical pages with the same page number from all blocks in the block stripe. While the lengths of the various page stripes stored into NAND flash memory system 150 can and preferably do vary, in one embodiment each page stripe includes one to fifteen data pages of write data (typically provided by a host device) and one additional page (a “data protection page”) used to store data protection information for the write data. For example, FIG. 6B illustrates an exemplary page stripe 610 including N data pages (i.e., Dpage00 through DpageN−1) and one data protection page (i.e., PpageN). The data protection page can be placed on any lane of the page stripe containing a non-retired page, but typically is on the same lane for all page stripes of the same block stripe to minimize metadata information. The addition of a data protection page as illustrated requires that garbage collection be performed for all page stripes of the same block stripe at the same time. After garbage collection of the block stripe completes, the block stripe can be dissolved, and each block can be placed into the relevant ready-to-use (RTU) queue as explained below.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates an exemplary format of a codeword stored in each data page within page stripe 610 of FIG. 6B. Typically, a positive integer number of codewords, for example, 2 or 3, are stored in each data page, but an alternative embodiment may also store a single codeword in a data page. In this example, each codeword 700 includes a data field 702, as well as additional fields for metadata describing the data page. Depending on the size of the codeword, the data field 702 holds data for one or more logical pages. In another embodiment it may also hold fractions of data of logical data pages. In the illustrated example, metadata fields include an LBA field 704 containing the LBAs stored in codeword 700, a CRC field 706 containing the CRC value computed for the combination of data field 702 and LBA field 704, and an ECC field 708 containing an ECC value calculated, in the illustrated example, from a combination of contents of data field 702, LBA field 704 and CRC field 706. In case data field 702 holds fractions of logical data pages, the LBA field 704 further holds information on which fractions of logical data pages are stored in the data field 702.
  • FIG. 8 depicts an exemplary format of a codeword in the data protection page of page stripe 610 of FIG. 6. In one embodiment, each data protection page stores a positive integer number of codewords, but an alternative embodiment a data protection page may store a single codeword. In the depicted example, data protection codeword 800 includes a data XOR field 802 that contains the bit-by-bit Exclusive OR (XOR) of the contents of the data fields 702 of the codewords 700 in page stripe 610. Data protection codeword 800 further includes an LBA XOR field 804 that contains the bit-by-bit XOR of the LBA fields 704 of the codewords 700 in page stripe 610. Data protection codeword 800 finally includes a CRC field 806 and ECC field 808 for respectively storing a CRC value and an ECC value for data protection codeword 800. Such a protection scheme is commonly referred to as RAID 5, since the parity field will not always be located on one particular flash plane. However, it should be appreciated that alternate data protection schemes such as Reed-Solomon can alternatively or additionally be used.
  • The formats for data pages and data protection pages described above protect data stored in a page stripe using multiple different data protection mechanisms. First, the use of the ECC bits in each codeword of a data page allows the correction of some number of bit errors within the codeword in a flash page. Depending on the ECC method used it may be possible to correct hundreds of bits or even thousands of bits within a NAND flash page. After ECC checking and correction is performed, the corrected CRC field is used to validate the corrected data. Used together, these two mechanisms allow for the correction of relatively benign errors and the detection of more serious errors using only local intra-page information. Should an uncorrectable error occur in a data page, for example, due to failure of the physical page utilized to store the data page, the contents of the data field and LBA field of the failing data page may be reconstructed from the other data pages and the data protection page for the page stripe.
  • While the physical memory locations in which the data pages and data protection page of a page stripe will vary within NAND flash memory system 150, in one embodiment the data pages and data protection page that comprise a given page stripe are preferably stored in physical memory locations selected to optimize the overall operation of the data storage system 120. For example, in some embodiments, the data pages and data protection page comprising a page stripe are stored such that different physical lanes are employed to store each of the data pages and data protection page. Such embodiments support efficient access to a page stripe because flash controller 140 can access all of the pages of data that comprise the page stripe simultaneously or nearly simultaneously. It should be noted that the assignment of pages to lanes need not be sequential (i.e., data pages can be stored in any lane in any order), and unless a page stripe is a full length page stripe (e.g., containing fifteen data pages and one data protection page), the lanes utilized to store the page stripe need not be adjacent.
  • Having described the general physical structure and operation of one exemplary embodiment of a data storage system 120, certain operational aspects of data storage system 120 are now described with reference to FIG. 9, which is a high level flow diagram of the flash management functions and data structures employed by GPP 132 and/or flash controllers 140 in accordance with one embodiment.
  • As noted above, data storage system 120 does not generally allow external devices to directly address and/or access the physical memory locations within NAND flash memory systems 150. Instead, data storage system 120 is generally configured to present a single contiguous logical address space to the external devices, thus allowing host devices to read and write data to and from LBAs within the logical address space while permitting flash controllers 140 and GPP 132 to control where the data that is associated with the various LBAs actually resides in the physical memory locations comprising NAND flash memory systems 150. In this manner, performance and longevity of NAND flash memory systems 150 can be intelligently managed and optimized. In the illustrated embodiment, each flash controller 140 manages the logical-to-physical translation using a logical-to-physical translation data structure, such as logical-to-physical translation (LPT) table 900, which can be stored in the associated flash controller memory 142.
  • Flash management code running on the GPP 132 tracks erased blocks of NAND flash memory system 150 that are ready to be used in ready-to-use (RTU) queues 906, which may be stored, for example, in GPP memory 134. In the depicted embodiment, management code running on the GPP 132 preferably maintains one or more RTU queues 906 per channel, and an identifier of each erased block that is to be reused is enqueued in one of the RTU queues 906 corresponding to its channel. For example, in one embodiment, RTU queues 906 include, for each channel, a respective RTU queue 906 for each of a plurality of block health grades. In various implementations, between 2 and 8 RTU queues 906 per lane (and a corresponding number of block health grades) have been found to be sufficient.
  • A build block stripes function 920 performed by flash management code running on the GPP 132 constructs new block stripes for storing data and associated parity information from the erased blocks enqueued in RTU queues 906. As noted above with reference to FIG. 6A, block stripes are preferably formed of blocks of the same or similar health (i.e., expected remaining useful life) residing in different channels, meaning that build block stripes function 920 can conveniently construct a block stripe by drawing each block of the new block stripe from corresponding RTU queues 906 of different channels. The new block stripe is then queued to flash controller 140 for data placement.
  • In response to a write IOP received from a host, such as a processor system 102, a data placement function 910 of flash controller 140 determines by reference to LPT table 900 whether the target LBA(s) indicated in the write request is/are currently mapped to physical memory page(s) in NAND flash memory system 150 and, if so, changes the status of each data page currently associated with a target LBA to indicate that it is no longer valid. In addition, data placement function 910 allocates a page stripe if necessary to store the write data of the write IOP and any non-updated data (i.e., in case the write request is smaller than a logical page, there is still valid data which needs to be handled in a read-modify-write manner) from an existing page stripe, if any, targeted by the write IOP, and/or stores the write data of the write IOP and any non-updated (i.e., still valid) data from an existing page stripe, if any, targeted by the write IOP to an already allocated page stripe which has free space left. The page stripe may be allocated from either a block stripe already allocated to hold data or from a new block stripe built by build block stripes function 920. In a preferred embodiment, the page stripe allocation can be based on the health of the blocks available for allocation and the “heat” (i.e., estimated or measured write access frequency) of the LBA of the write data. Data placement function 910 then writes the write data, associated metadata (e.g., CRC and ECC values) for each codeword in each page of the page stripe, and parity information for the page stripe in the allocated page stripe. The addition of associated metadata and parity information can be done as soon as enough host data has been placed into the page stripe. Flash controller 140 also updates LPT table 900 to associate the physical page(s) utilized to store the write data with the LBA(s) indicated by the host device. Thereafter, flash controller 140 can access the data to service host read IOPs by reference to LPT table 900 as further illustrated in FIG. 9.
  • Once all pages in a block stripe have been written, flash controller 140 places the block stripe into one of occupied block queues 902, which flash management code running on the GPP 132 utilizes to facilitate garbage collection. As noted above, through the write process, pages are invalidated, and therefore portions of the NAND flash memory system 150 become unused. The associated flash controller 140 (and/or GPP 132) eventually needs to reclaim this space through garbage collection performed by a garbage collector 912. Garbage collector 912 selects particular block stripes for garbage collection based on a number of factors including, for example, the health of the blocks within the block stripes and how much of the data within the erase blocks is invalid. In various embodiments, garbage collector 912 attempts to regroup data associated with a given stream in a same LEB to reduce garbage collection related write amplification. In the illustrated example, garbage collection is performed on entire block stripes, and flash management code running on GPP 132 logs the block stripes ready to be recycled in a relocation queue 904, which can conveniently be implemented in the associated flash controller memory 142 or GPP memory 134. It should be appreciated that garbage collection, according to the present disclosure, may be performed on garbage collection units other than block stripes.
  • The flash management functions performed by GPP 132 or flash controller 140 additionally include a relocation function 914 that relocates the still valid data held in block stripes enqueued in relocation queue 904. To relocate such data, relocation function 914 issues relocation write requests to data placement function 910 to request that the data of the old block stripe be written to a new block stripe in NAND flash memory system 150. In addition, relocation function 914 updates LPT table 900 to remove the current association between the logical and physical addresses of the data. Once all still valid data has been moved from the old block stripe, the old block stripe is passed to dissolve block stripes function 916, which decomposes the old block stripe into its constituent blocks, thus disassociating the blocks. Flash controller 140 then erases each of the blocks formerly forming the dissolved block stripe and increments an associated program/erase (P/E) cycle count for the block in P/E cycle counts 944. Based on the health metrics of each erased block, each erased block is either retired (i.e., no longer used to store user data) by a block retirement function 918 among the flash management functions executed on GPP 132, or alternatively, prepared for reuse by placing the block's identifier on the appropriate ready-to-use (RTU) queue 906 in the associated GPP memory 134.
  • As further shown in FIG. 9, flash management functions executed on GPP 132 include a background health checker 930. Background health checker 930, which operates independently of the demand read and write IOPs of hosts such as processor systems 102, continuously determines one or more block health metrics 942 for blocks belonging to block stripes recorded in occupied block queues 902. Based on the one or more of the block health metrics 942, background health checker 930 may place block stripes on relocation queue 904 for handling by relocation function 914.
  • Referring now to FIG. 10, there is depicted a more detailed view of a flash controller 140 in accordance with one embodiment. In this embodiment, flash controller 140 is configured (e.g., in hardware, firmware, software or some combination thereof) to support retirement of memory in flash memory modules M0 a, M0 b, M1 a, M1 b, M1 a, and M15 b of a NAND flash memory system 150, for example, on a page-by-page basis rather than on a block-by-block basis. Flash controller 140 may be further configured to retire a physical page of memory while still keeping active other physical page(s) sharing a common set of multiple-bit memory cells with the retired physical page.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, flash controller 140 includes a compressor 1000 that selectively applies one or more data compression algorithms to data written to the associated NAND flash memory system 150, a decompressor 1002 that decompresses compressed data read from NAND flash memory system 150, and a data scrambler 1004. Flash controller 140 utilizes data scrambler 1004 to apply a predetermined data scrambling (i.e., randomization) pattern to data written to NAND flash memory 150 in order to improve endurance and mitigate cell-to-cell interference.
  • As further illustrated in FIG. 10, flash controller 140 includes a write cache 1010. Write cache 1010 includes storage for one or more cache lines 1012 for buffering write data in anticipation of writing the data to NAND flash memory system 150. In the illustrated embodiment, each cache line 1012 includes multiple (e.g., 16) segments 1014 a-1014 p, each providing storage for a respective page stripe of up to sixteen data pages (a maximum of fifteen data pages and one data protection page). As shown, for ease of implementation, it is preferred if flash controller 140 writes each page buffered in a given segment 1014 of cache line 1012 to the corresponding die index, plane index, and physical page index in each of sixteen flash memory modules. Thus, for example, flash controller 140 writes the data pages from segment 1014 a to a first physical page (e.g., Page23) in each of flash memory modules M0 a-M15 a, writes the data pages from segment 1014 b to a second physical page in each of flash memory modules M0 a-M15 a, and writes the data pages from segment 1014 p to a sixteenth physical page in each of flash memory modules M0 a-M15 a.
  • According to the present disclosure, write amplification is reduced by maintaining regrouping metadata that includes a stream origin for associated data. Maintaining stream origin for associated data facilitates regrouping data according to stream origin at a later point in time (e.g., during garbage collection). With LEBs that have been regrouped to only include data from a same stream, future writes from the same stream have an increased likelihood of overwriting a larger percentage of the LEB. The advantage of the disclosed techniques over conventional approaches is that during the garbage collection process additional knowledge on the amount of data in each stream is available, which allows better decisions to be made with respect to placement of data into LEBs.
  • With reference to FIG. 11, an exemplary process 1100 is illustrated that generates regrouping data that is used during garbage collection for a data storage system in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. Process 1100 may, for example, be performed by flash controller 140, GPP 132 of FIG. 1B, or data placement 910, garbage collector 912, or relocation engine 914 of FIG. 9. Depending on the architecture and implementation of an implemented flash card, process 1100 may further be executed in its entirety by one of these components or executed on multiple components potentially in parallel which will be well understood by one skilled in the art.
  • In one or more embodiments, process 1100 starts in block 1101 upon the execution of a general operation (OP), which may also be an TOP. Next, in block 1102, process 1100 determines whether the OP corresponds to an OP that may require executing garbage collector 912. For instance, an OP that may require execution of garbage collector 912 can be an incoming host write TOP, a relocation write TOP, an idle defragmentation OP, or any other OP that indicates the necessity for garbage collection. In response to the OP not indicating that garbage collector 912 should be initiated in block 1102 control transfers to block 1114, where process 1100 terminates. In response to the OP indicating that garbage collector 912 should be initiated in block 1102, control transfers to decision block 1104.
  • In block 1104 process 1100 determines whether specific regrouping thresholds have been met in order that regrouping metadata should be generated for data associated with the write TOP. For example, regrouping metadata may only be generated for data pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value and/or for data pages whose data heat is below a threshold value. In various embodiments, regrouping metadata for data associated with a write TOP is generated that indicates an associated stream for the data. The associated stream may be indicated by one or more of a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID. In response to the regrouping threshold not being met in block 1104, control transfers to block 1114. In response to the regrouping threshold being met in block 1104 control transfers to block 1106, where process 1100 generates regrouping metadata for the data associated with the write TOP. The generated regrouping metadata may be stored together with the data written in the physical page of a block stripe 600, stored in a separate physical page holding metadata information either in the same block stripe 600, maintained in GPP memory 134, or flash controller memory 142.
  • Next, in decision block 1108, process 1100 determines whether garbage collection is indicated (e.g., whether available storage has fallen below a threshold level). In response to garbage collection not being indicated in block 1108, control transfers to block 1114. In response to garbage collection being indicated in block 1108, control transfers to block 1110, where garbage collector 902 selects LEBs on which to perform garbage collection. In various embodiments, garbage collector 902 selects LEBs for garbage collection based on the regrouping metadata. More specifically, in one or more embodiments garbage collector 902 selects multiple LEBs for regrouping that predominantly include valid pages associated with a same stream, among other selection factors. Next, in block 1112, garbage collector 902 regroups the valid pages associated with the same stream into a same LEB. Following block 1112, control transfers to block 1114.
  • The present invention may be a system, a method, and/or a computer program product. The computer program product may include a computer readable storage medium (or media) having computer readable program instructions thereon for causing a processor to carry out aspects of the present invention.
  • The computer readable storage medium can be a tangible device that can retain and store instructions for use by an instruction execution device. The computer readable storage medium may be, for example, but is not limited to, an electronic storage device, a magnetic storage device, an optical storage device, an electromagnetic storage device, a semiconductor storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. A non-exhaustive list of more specific examples of the computer readable storage medium includes the following: a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), a static random access memory (SRAM), a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), a digital versatile disk (DVD), a memory stick, a floppy disk, a mechanically encoded device such as punch-cards or raised structures in a groove having instructions recorded thereon, and any suitable combination of the foregoing. A computer readable storage medium, as used herein, is not to be construed as being transitory signals per se, such as radio waves or other freely propagating electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves propagating through a waveguide or other transmission media (e.g., light pulses passing through a fiber-optic cable), or electrical signals transmitted through a wire.
  • Computer readable program instructions described herein can be downloaded to respective computing/processing devices from a computer readable storage medium or to an external computer or external storage device via a network, for example, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network and/or a wireless network. The network may comprise copper transmission cables, optical transmission fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers. A network adapter card or network interface in each computing/processing device receives computer readable program instructions from the network and forwards the computer readable program instructions for storage in a computer readable storage medium within the respective computing/processing device.
  • Computer readable program instructions for carrying out operations of the present invention may be assembler instructions, instruction-set-architecture (ISA) instructions, machine instructions, machine dependent instructions, microcode, firmware instructions, state-setting data, or either source code or object code written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as Smalltalk, C++ or the like, and conventional procedural programming languages, such as the “C” programming language or similar programming languages. The computer readable program instructions may execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer may be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider). In some embodiments, electronic circuitry including, for example, programmable logic circuitry, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), or programmable logic arrays (PLA) may execute the computer readable program instructions by utilizing state information of the computer readable program instructions to personalize the electronic circuitry, in order to perform aspects of the present invention.
  • Aspects of the present invention are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer readable program instructions.
  • These computer readable program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. These computer readable program instructions may also be stored in a computer readable storage medium that can direct a computer, a programmable data processing apparatus, and/or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the computer readable storage medium having instructions stored therein comprises an article of manufacture including instructions which implement aspects of the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The computer readable program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other device to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other device to produce a computer implemented process, such that the instructions which execute on the computer, other programmable apparatus, or other device implement the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
  • The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods, and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or portion of instructions, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). In some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts or carry out combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.
  • While the present invention has been particularly shown as described with reference to one or more preferred embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, although aspects have been described with respect to a data storage system including a flash controller that directs certain functions, it should be understood that present invention may alternatively be implemented as a program product including a storage device storing program code that can be processed by a processor to perform such functions or cause such functions to be performed. As employed herein, a “storage device” is specifically defined to include only statutory articles of manufacture and to exclude transmission media per se, transitory propagating signals per se, and forms of energy per se.
  • In addition, although embodiments have been described that include use of a NAND flash memory, it should be appreciated that embodiments of the present invention can also be used with other types of non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) including, for example, phase-change memory (PCM) and combinations thereof.
  • The figures described above and the written description of specific structures and functions below are not presented to limit the scope of what Applicants have invented or the scope of the appended claims. Rather, the figures and written description are provided to teach any person skilled in the art to make and use the inventions for which patent protection is sought. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that not all features of a commercial embodiment of the inventions are described or shown for the sake of clarity and understanding. Persons of skill in this art will also appreciate that the development of an actual commercial embodiment incorporating aspects of the present inventions will require numerous implementation-specific decisions to achieve the developer's ultimate goal for the commercial embodiment. Such implementation-specific decisions may include, and likely are not limited to, compliance with system-related, business-related, government-related and other constraints, which may vary by specific implementation, location and from time to time. While a developer's efforts might be complex and time-consuming in an absolute sense, such efforts would be, nevertheless, a routine undertaking for those of skill in this art having benefit of this disclosure. It must be understood that the inventions disclosed and taught herein are susceptible to numerous and various modifications and alternative forms. Lastly, the use of a singular term, such as, but not limited to, “a” is not intended as limiting of the number of items.

Claims (23)

1. A method of garbage collection in a storage system, comprising:
generating, by a controller, regrouping metadata for one or more pages in at least two logical erase blocks (LEBs), wherein the regrouping metadata indicates an associated stream for each of the pages;
selecting by the controller, based on the regrouping metadata, a first LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with a first stream and a second LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with the first stream for regrouping; and
regrouping, by the controller, the valid pages associated with the first stream from the selected first and second LEBs into a new LEB.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose data heat is below a threshold value.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the new LEB only includes data from the first stream.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the regrouping metadata is stored with each of the pages.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the regrouping metadata is hashed.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the regrouping metadata is used to separate host writes into different LEBs during initial host writes.
9. A data storage system, comprising:
flash controller memory; and
a flash controller coupled to the flash controller memory, wherein the flash controller is configured to:
generate regrouping metadata for one or more pages in at least two logical erase blocks (LEBs), wherein the regrouping metadata indicates an associated stream for the pages;
select, based on the regrouping metadata, a first LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with a first stream and a second LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with the first stream for regrouping; and
regroup the valid pages associated with the first stream from the selected first and second LEBs into a new LEB.
10. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID.
11. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value.
12. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose data heat is below a threshold value.
13. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the new LEB only includes data from the first stream.
14. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the regrouping metadata is stored with each of the pages.
15. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the regrouping metadata is hashed.
16. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein the regrouping metadata is used to separate host writes into different LEBs during initial host writes.
17. A program product, the program product comprising a computer readable storage medium having program instructions embodied therewith, the program instructions executable by a data storage system, to cause the data storage system to:
generate regrouping metadata for one or more pages in at least two logical erase blocks (LEBs), wherein the regrouping metadata indicates an associated stream for each of the pages;
select, based on the regrouping metadata, a first LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with a first stream and a second LEB that includes one or more valid pages associated with the first stream for regrouping; and
regroup the valid pages associated with the first stream from the selected first and second LEBs into a new LEB.
18. The program product of claim 17, wherein the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID.
19. The program product of claim 17, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value.
20. The program product of claim 17, wherein the regrouping metadata is only generated for ones of the pages whose data heat is below a threshold value.
21. The method of claim 1, wherein:
the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID;
the regrouping metadata is only generated for pages belong to at least one of a first set of pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value and a second set of pages whose data heat is below a threshold value;
the new LEB only includes data from the first stream;
the regrouping metadata is stored with each of the pages;
the regrouping metadata is hashed; and
the regrouping metadata is used to separate host writes into different LEBs during initial host writes.
22. The data storage system of claim 9, wherein:
the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID;
the regrouping metadata is only generated for pages belong to at least one of a first set of pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value and a second set of pages whose data heat is below a threshold value;
the new LEB only includes data from the first stream;
the regrouping metadata is stored with each of the pages;
the regrouping metadata is hashed; and
the regrouping metadata is used to separate host writes into different LEBs during initial host writes.
23. The program product of claim 17, wherein:
the associated stream is indicated by at least one of a set including a data heat, a stream identifier (ID) supplied by a host, a host address, a thread ID, and a logical unit number (LUN) ID;
the regrouping metadata is only generated for pages belong to at least one of a first set of pages whose compressibility is below a threshold value and a second set of pages whose data heat is below a threshold value;
the new LEB only includes data from the first stream;
the regrouping metadata is stored with each of the pages;
the regrouping metadata is hashed; and
the regrouping metadata is used to separate host writes into different LEBs during initial host writes.
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