US20170232198A1 - Pecvd coated pharmaceutical package, coating process and apparatus - Google Patents

Pecvd coated pharmaceutical package, coating process and apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US20170232198A1
US20170232198A1 US15/585,430 US201715585430A US2017232198A1 US 20170232198 A1 US20170232198 A1 US 20170232198A1 US 201715585430 A US201715585430 A US 201715585430A US 2017232198 A1 US2017232198 A1 US 2017232198A1
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Prior art keywords
injection
vessel
layer
surface
coating
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Abandoned
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US15/585,430
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Joseph A. Jones
Christopher Weikart
Steven J. Martin
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SiO2 Medical Products Inc
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SiO2 Medical Products Inc
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Priority to US201361771644P priority Critical
Priority to US14/194,221 priority patent/US9662450B2/en
Application filed by SiO2 Medical Products Inc filed Critical SiO2 Medical Products Inc
Priority to US15/585,430 priority patent/US20170232198A1/en
Assigned to THE TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM OF ALABAMA reassignment THE TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM OF ALABAMA SECURITY AGREEMENT AMENDMENT Assignors: SIO2 MEDICAL PRODUCTS, INC.
Publication of US20170232198A1 publication Critical patent/US20170232198A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/178Syringes
    • A61M5/31Details
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/02Inorganic materials
    • A61L31/026Ceramic or ceramic-like structures, e.g. glasses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/04Macromolecular materials
    • A61L31/048Macromolecular materials obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/08Materials for coatings
    • A61L31/082Inorganic materials
    • A61L31/088Other specific inorganic materials not covered by A61L31/084 or A61L31/086
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/08Materials for coatings
    • A61L31/10Macromolecular materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/14Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L31/00Materials for other surgical articles, e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices
    • A61L31/14Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L31/16Biologically active materials, e.g. therapeutic substances
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/178Syringes
    • A61M5/31Details
    • A61M5/3129Syringe barrels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/178Syringes
    • A61M5/31Details
    • A61M5/315Pistons; Piston-rods; Guiding, blocking or restricting the movement of the rod or piston; Appliances on the rod for facilitating dosing ; Dosing mechanisms
    • A61M5/31511Piston or piston-rod constructions, e.g. connection of piston with piston-rod
    • A61M5/31513Piston constructions to improve sealing or sliding
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/22Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the deposition of inorganic material, other than metallic material
    • C23C16/30Deposition of compounds, mixtures or solid solutions, e.g. borides, carbides, nitrides
    • C23C16/40Oxides
    • C23C16/401Oxides containing silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/44Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating
    • C23C16/50Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the method of coating using electric discharges
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2400/00Materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • A61L2400/10Materials for lubricating medical devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2420/00Materials or methods for coatings medical devices
    • A61L2420/02Methods for coating medical devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2420/00Materials or methods for coatings medical devices
    • A61L2420/08Coatings comprising two or more layers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/178Syringes
    • A61M5/31Details
    • A61M2005/3103Leak prevention means for distal end of syringes, i.e. syringe end for mounting a needle
    • A61M2005/3104Caps for syringes without needle
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M5/00Devices for bringing media into the body in a subcutaneous, intra-vascular or intramuscular way; Accessories therefor, e.g. filling or cleaning devices, arm-rests
    • A61M5/178Syringes
    • A61M5/31Details
    • A61M5/3129Syringe barrels
    • A61M2005/3131Syringe barrels specially adapted for improving sealing or sliding
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/02General characteristics of the apparatus characterised by a particular materials
    • A61M2205/0238General characteristics of the apparatus characterised by a particular materials the material being a coating or protective layer

Abstract

An article is described including an article surface, a primer coating of SiOx, SiOxCy or SiNxCy applied to the article surface, and optionally a deposit of lubricant applied to the primer coating or layer. The primer coating of SiOx, SiOxCy or SiNxCy is applied by PECVD of an organosiloxane precursor. A deposit of lubricant is applied to the primer coating or layer. The primer coating improves the adhesion or wetting of the lubricant on the surface to be lubricated, as well as the recovery of the liquid contained in the vessel. Examples of such an article are a prefilled syringe having a barrel with a lubricated interior portion and a plunger tip that slides along it. Another example of such an article is a vial having a lubricated opening to receive a septum. Another aspect of the invention is a method of making such an article.

Description

  • This is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/194,221, filed Feb. 28, 2014, which claims the priority of U.S. Provisional Appl. 61/771,644, filed Mar. 1, 2013, all of which are incorporated by reference here to provide continuity of disclosure.
  • U.S. Provisional Ser. No. 61/177,984 filed May 13, 2009; 61/222,727, filed Jul. 2, 2009; 61/213,904, filed Jul. 24, 2009; 61/234,505, filed Aug. 17, 2009; 61/261,321, filed Nov. 14, 2009; 61/263,289, filed Nov. 20, 2009; 61/285,813, filed Dec. 11, 2009; 61/298,159, filed Jan. 25, 2010; 61/299,888, filed Jan. 29, 2010; 61/318,197, filed Mar. 26, 2010; 61/333,625, filed May 11, 2010; 61/413,334, filed Nov. 12, 2010; 61/636,377, filed Apr. 20, 2012; 61/654,612, filed Jun. 1, 2012; Ser. No. 12/779,007, filed May 12, 2010, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,985,188; International Application PCT/US11/36097, filed May 11, 2011; and U.S. Ser. No. 61/558,885, filed Nov. 11, 2011; are all incorporated here by reference in their entirety.
  • Also incorporated by reference in their entirety are the following European patent applications: EP10162755.2 filed May 12, 2010; EP10162760.2 filed May 12, 2010; EP10162756.0 filed May 12, 2010; EP10162758.6 filed May 12, 2010; EP10162761.0 filed May 12, 2010; and EP10162757.8 filed May 12, 2010. These European patent applications describe apparatus, vessels, precursors, coatings or layers and methods (in particular coating methods and test methods for examining the coatings or layers) which can generally be used in performing the present invention, unless stated otherwise herein. They also describe SiOx barrier coatings or layers to which reference is made herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to the technical field of lubricated and siliconized surfaces, for example interior surfaces of pharmaceutical packages or other vessels for storing or other contact with fluids. (A “deposit of lubricant” as defined in this specification also includes deposits of “lubricants” for non-lubricating uses, for example siliconization of a vessel wall to prevent adherence of a fluid stored in the vessel.)
  • The present invention also relates to a pharmaceutical package or other vessel and to a method for making a pharmaceutical package with a lubricated surface. The present invention also relates more generally to medical articles, including articles other than packages or vessels, for example catheters.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • In glass syringes and other pharmaceutical packages, silicone oil is typically used as a lubricant to allow the plunger tip to slide in the barrel, and/or to promote draining of the intended deliverable fluid from the syringe surfaces.
  • Glass pharmaceutical packages or other vessels are prone to breakage or degradation during manufacture, filling operations, shipping and use, which means that glass particulates may enter the drug. The presence of glass particles has led to many FDA Warning Letters and to product recalls.
  • Glass-forming processes do not yield the tight dimensional tolerances required for some of the newer auto-injectors and delivery systems. Glass is also more difficult and expensive to fabricate into syringes than injection molded plastics.
  • An important consideration regarding medical syringes is to ensure that the plunger can move at a constant speed and with a constant force when it is pressed into the barrel during use, with a low initiation or breakout force, Fi, and a low maintenance force, Fm. A similar consideration making lubrication desirable applies to vessels such as pharmaceutical vials which have to be closed by a closure, for example a plunger tip, septum or stopper, and to the septum or stopper itself, and more generally to any surface which desirably provides smooth operation of moving parts and/or is protectively coated.
  • One factor affecting the magnitude and aging of the breakout force is the surface composition and topology of the syringe. Specifically, the breakout force is lower for glass syringes than for plastic syringes due to the surface energy differences between glass and plastic (glass is a hydrophilic surface and plastic is a hydrophobic surface). PDMS is hydrophobic. It would be useful to provide a similar breakout force profile on plastic and glass syringes, and for the effect of aging on the breakout force to be minimal.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • A non-limiting aspect of the invention is a syringe having a PECVD treated generally cylindrical interior surface defining an inner sliding surface; and a deposit of fluid lubricant on the PECVD treated surface. The PECVD treatment provides a primer coating or layer on the sliding surface that retains the deposit of fluid lubricant in place on the surface.
  • The primer coating or layer improves the lubrication between the relatively sliding parts. More evenly distributed lubricant might be a factor in lowering the sliding friction and making the sliding friction more uniform. As another potential result, in a medical vessel coated on the interior wall with the primer coating or layer and a deposit of lubricant, the more evenly distributed lubricant can improve draining of the vessel. As a third potential result, the more evenly distributed lubricant can be used in a smaller quantity to obtain the same technical effect or advantage, thus potentially reducing the amount of lubricant available to mix with the contents of the vessel. Some potential examples of the lubricant mixing with the contents of the vessel are mechanical or chemical emulsification of the lubricant and a drug or other contents of the vessel.
  • Optionally, the primer coating or layer itself, without a deposit of lubricant, can improve draining of the vessel.
  • Optionally, a similar breakout force profile can be obtained on plastic and glass syringes if the plastic syringes are treated as described in this specification.
  • Another non-limiting aspect of the invention is a method of making a syringe as described above.
  • A syringe is provided having a surface to be lubricated.
  • A primer coating or layer of SiOxCy or SiNxCy, in which x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y is from about 0.6 to about 3, is applied to the surface. The primer coating or layer can be applied by chemical vapor deposition of a polysiloxane or polysilazane precursor, typically in the presence of oxygen. The primer coating or layer is applied either directly to the syringe surface or with one or more intervening coatings or layers between the primer coating or layer and the syringe surface. The primer coating or layer has a first primer surface facing away from the syringe surface and a second primer surface facing the syringe surface.
  • A deposit of lubricant is applied to the first primer surface.
  • Another non-limiting aspect of the invention is a prefilled syringe comprising a syringe as described above containing a fluid to be dispensed and closed with a plunger. The fluid to be dispensed can be any of the inhalation anesthetics, injectable drugs, liquid drugs (non-injectable), drug classes, diagnostic test materials, or other materials recited in the specification or claims.
  • Many other embodiments of the present invention are expressly contemplated, as recited in the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is an exploded longitudinal section of a syringe, plunger, and cap assembly of a prefilled syringe.
  • FIG. 2 is an enlarged detail view of the barrel wall and coatings shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 is a plot of Fi, the force required to initiate movement of a plunger within the barrel of a syringe, for syringes having a treated plunger tip.
  • FIG. 4 is another plot of Fi, the force required to initiate movement of a plunger within the barrel of a syringe, for syringes having a treated plunger tip.
  • The following reference characters are used in the drawing figures:
  • 214 Wall
    216 Exterior surface (of 241)
    218 Fluid
    250 Syringe barrel
    252 Syringe
    254 Inner or interior surface (of 250)
    256 Back end (of 250)
    258 Plunger (of 252) (relatively sliding part)
    259 Outer sliding surface
    260 Front end (of 250)
    262 Cap
    264 Inner or interior surface (of 262)
    266 Adhesion layer
    286 Primer coating or layer
    287 Fluid lubricant
    288 Barrier coating or layer
    300 Lumen (of 250)
    650 Exemplary data point, COP syringe without
    plasma treatment (comparative example)
    652 Exemplary data point, COP syringe with
    PECVD plasma treatment applying SiOx
    barrier layer and SiOxCy pH protective
    layer (inventive example)
    654 Exemplary data point, COP syringe with
    PECVD plasma treatment applying SiOx
    barrier layer as the outer layer
    (inventive example)
    656 Exemplary data point, glass syringe
    (comparative example)
    658 Exemplary data point, glass syringe
    (comparative example)
    660 Exemplary data point, plasma treatment
    without organosilicon precursor
    (inventive example)
  • Definition Section
  • In the context of the present invention, the following definitions and abbreviations are used:
  • The term “at least” in the context of the present invention means “equal or more” than the integer following the term. The word “comprising” does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article “a” or “an” does not exclude a plurality unless indicated otherwise. Whenever a parameter range is indicated, it is intended to disclose the parameter values given as limits of the range and all values of the parameter falling within said range.
  • “First” and “second” or similar references to, for example, deposits of lubricant, processing stations or processing devices refer to the minimum number of deposits, processing stations or devices that are present, but do not necessarily represent the order or total number of deposits, processing stations and devices or require additional deposits, processing stations and devices beyond the stated number. These terms do not limit the number of processing stations or the particular processing carried out at the respective stations.
  • For purposes of the present invention, an “organosilicon precursor” is a compound having at least one of the linkages:
  • Figure US20170232198A1-20170817-C00001
  • which is a tetravalent silicon atom connected to an oxygen or nitrogen atom and an organic carbon atom (an organic carbon atom being a carbon atom bonded to at least one hydrogen atom). A volatile organosilicon precursor, defined as such a precursor that can be supplied as a vapor in a PECVD apparatus, is an optional organosilicon precursor. Optionally, the organosilicon precursor is selected from the group consisting of a linear siloxane, a monocyclic siloxane, a polycyclic siloxane, a polysilsesquioxane, an alkyl trimethoxysilane, a linear silazane, a monocyclic silazane, a polycyclic silazane, a polysilsesquiazane, and a combination of any two or more of these precursors.
  • The feed amounts of PECVD precursors, gaseous reactant or process gases, and carrier gas are sometimes expressed in “standard volumes” in the specification and claims. The standard volume of a charge or other fixed amount of gas is the volume the fixed amount of the gas would occupy at a standard temperature and pressure (without regard to the actual temperature and pressure of delivery). Standard volumes can be measured using different units of volume, and still be within the scope of the present disclosure and claims. For example, the same fixed amount of gas could be expressed as the number of standard cubic centimeters, the number of standard cubic meters, or the number of standard cubic feet. Standard volumes can also be defined using different standard temperatures and pressures, and still be within the scope of the present disclosure and claims. For example, the standard temperature might be 0° C. and the standard pressure might be 760 Torr (as is conventional), or the standard temperature might be 20° C. and the standard pressure might be 1 Torr. But whatever standard is used in a given case, when comparing relative amounts of two or more different gases without specifying particular parameters, the same units of volume, standard temperature, and standard pressure are to be used relative to each gas, unless otherwise indicated.
  • The corresponding feed rates of PECVD precursors, gaseous reactant or process gases, and carrier gas are expressed in standard volumes per unit of time in the specification. For example, in the working examples the flow rates are expressed as standard cubic centimeters per minute, abbreviated as sccm. As with the other parameters, other units of time can be used, such as seconds or hours, but consistent parameters are to be used when comparing the flow rates of two or more gases, unless otherwise indicated.
  • The present syringes optionally can be used as pharmaceutical packages or other vessels in which the lumen has a void volume of from 0.5 to 50 mL, optionally from 1 to 10 mL, optionally from 0.5 to 5 mL, optionally from 1 to 3 mL. The substrate surface can be part or all of the inner or interior surface of a vessel having at least one opening and an inner or interior surface.
  • A “hydrophobic layer” in the context of the present invention means that the coating or layer lowers the wetting tension of a surface coated with the coating or layer, compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. Hydrophobicity is thus a function of both the uncoated substrate and the coating or layer. The same applies with appropriate alterations for other contexts wherein the term “hydrophobic” is used. The term “hydrophilic” means the opposite, i.e. that the wetting tension is increased compared to reference sample. The present hydrophobic layers are primarily defined by their hydrophobicity and the process conditions providing hydrophobicity
  • The values of w, x, y, and z as applicable to the empirical composition SiwOxCyHz throughout this specification should be understood as ratios or an empirical formula (for example for a coating or layer), rather than as a limit on the number or type of atoms in a molecule. For example, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, which has the molecular composition Si4O4C8H24, can be described by the following empirical formula, arrived at by dividing each of w, x, y, and z in the molecular formula by 4, the largest common factor: Si1O1C2H6. The values of w, x, y, and z are also not limited to integers. For example, (acyclic) octamethyltrisiloxane, molecular composition Si3O2C8H24, is reducible to Si1O0.67C2.67H8. Also, although SiOxCyHz is described as equivalent to SiOxCy, it is not necessary to show the presence of hydrogen in any proportion to show the presence of SiOxCy.
  • “Wetting tension” is a specific measure for the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of a surface. An optional wetting tension measurement method in the context of the present invention is ASTM D 2578 or a modification of the method described in ASTM D 2578. This method uses standard wetting tension solutions (called dyne solutions) to determine the solution that comes nearest to wetting a plastic film surface for exactly two seconds. This is the film's wetting tension. The procedure utilized is varied herein from ASTM D 2578 in that the substrates are not flat plastic films, but are tubes made according to the Protocol for Forming PET Tube and (except for controls) coated according to the Protocol for coating Tube Interior with Hydrophobic Coating or Layer (see Example 9 of EP2251671 A2).
  • A “primer coating or layer” according to the present invention is a coating or layer which is more receptive than the uncoated surface to a deposit of lubricant. The deposit of lubricant reduces the frictional resistance of the coated surface in comparison to a reference surface that is uncoated. The primer coating or layer optionally can have a composition according to the empirical composition SiOx, or according to the empirical composition SiwOxCyHz, (or its equivalent SiOxCy) as defined herein, which omits hydrogen because it is not measured by the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) method used in this specification to define the composition of a plasma treated surface or a CVD or chemical vapour deposition coating or layer. The primer coating or layer generally has an atomic ratio SiwOxCy (or its equivalent SiOxCy) wherein w is 1, x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4, y is from about 0.6 to about 3.
  • Typically, expressed as the formula SiwOxCy, the atomic ratios of Si, O, and C in the “primer coating or layer” are, as several options:
  • Si 100:O 50-150:C 90-200 (i.e. w=1, x=0.5 to 1.5, y=0.9 to 2);
  • Si 100:O 70-130:C 90-200 (i.e. w=1, x=0.7 to 1.3, y=0.9 to 2)
  • Si 100:O 80-120:C 90-150 (i.e. w=1, x=0.8 to 1.2, y=0.9 to 1.5)
  • Si 100:O 90-120:C 90-140 (i.e. w=1, x=0.9 to 1.2, y=0.9 to 1.4), or
  • Si 100:O 92-107:C 116-133 (i.e. w=1, x=0.92 to 1.07, y=1.16 to 1.33)
  • The atomic ratio can be determined by XPS. Taking into account the H atoms, which are not measured by XPS, the coating or layer may thus in one aspect have the formula SiwOxCyHz (or its equivalent SiOxCy), for example where w is 1, x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4, y is from about 0.6 to about 3, and z is from about 2 to about 9. Typically, such coating or layer would hence contain 36% to 41% carbon normalized to 100% carbon plus oxygen plus silicon.
  • “Frictional resistance” can be static frictional resistance and/or kinetic frictional resistance.
  • One of the optional embodiments of the present invention is a syringe part, for example a syringe or plunger tip, coated with a deposit of lubricant on a primer coating or layer. In this contemplated embodiment, the relevant static frictional resistance in the context of the present invention is the breakout force as defined herein, and the relevant kinetic frictional resistance in the context of the present invention is the plunger sliding force as defined herein. For example, the plunger sliding force as defined and determined herein is suitable to determine the presence or absence and the lubricity and/or protective characteristics of a deposit of lubricant on a primer coating or layer in the context of the present invention whenever the coating or layer is applied to any syringe or syringe part, for example to the inner wall of a syringe. The breakout force is of particular relevance for evaluation of the coating or layer effect on a prefilled syringe, i.e. a syringe which is filled after coating and can be stored for some time, for example several months or even years, before the plunger tip is moved again (has to be “broken out”).
  • The “plunger sliding force” (synonym to “glide force,” “maintenance force”, or Fm, also used in this description) in the context of the present invention is the force required to maintain movement of a plunger tip in a syringe, for example during aspiration or dispense. It can advantageously be determined using the ISO 7886-1:1993 test described herein and known in the art. A synonym for “plunger sliding force” often used in the art is “plunger force” or “pushing force”.
  • The “plunger breakout force” (synonym to “breakout force”, “break loose force”, “initiation force”, Fi, also used in this description) in the context of the present invention is the initial force required to move the plunger tip in a syringe, for example in a prefilled syringe.
  • Both “plunger sliding force” and “plunger breakout force” and methods for their measurement are described in more detail in subsequent parts of this description. These two forces can be expressed in N, lbs or kg. These units correlate as follows: 1N=0.102 kg=0.2248 lbs (pounds).
  • Sliding force and breakout force are sometimes used herein to describe the forces required to advance a stopper or other closure into a pharmaceutical package or other vessel, such as a medical sample tube or a vial, to seat the stopper in a vessel to close the vessel. Its use is analogous to use in the context of a syringe and its plunger tip, and the measurement of these forces for a vessel and its closure are contemplated to be analogous to the measurement of these forces for a syringe, except that at least in most cases no liquid is ejected from a vessel when advancing the closure to a seated position.
  • “Slidably” means that the plunger tip, closure, or other removable part is permitted to slide in a syringe or other vessel.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present invention will now be described more fully, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which several embodiments are shown. This invention can, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth here. Rather, these embodiments are examples of the invention, which has the full scope indicated by the language of the claims. Like numbers refer to like or corresponding elements throughout. The following disclosure relates to all embodiments unless specifically limited to a certain embodiment.
  • Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2 showing an embodiment, a syringe 252 comprises a syringe barrel 250 having a PECVD treated generally cylindrical interior surface 254 defining an inner sliding surface; and a deposit of fluid lubricant 287 on the PECVD treated surface 254.
  • The syringe as illustrated includes a plunger 258 having an outer sliding surface 259 configured to slide within the lumen 300 along the inner sliding surface 254. Optionally, the outer sliding surface 259 can be a PECVD treated surface as well.
  • The term “syringe,” as used here, is broadly defined to include cartridges, injection “pens,” and other types of barrels or reservoirs adapted to be assembled with one or more other components to provide a functional syringe. “Syringe” is also broadly defined to include related articles such as auto-injectors, which provide a mechanism for dispensing the contents.
  • Optionally, the syringe, in particular a surface of a syringe such as the interior surface 254 to be lubricated, comprises a first deposit of lubricant 287 applied to the primer surface.
  • Optionally for any of the embodiments of FIGS. 19-21, at least a portion of the wall 214 of the vessel 250 comprises or consists essentially of a polymer, for example a polyolefin (for example a cyclic olefin polymer, a cyclic olefin copolymer, or polypropylene), a polyester, for example polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate, a polycarbonate, or any combination or copolymer of any of these. Specific contemplated wall materials include COC (cyclic olefin copolymer), COP (cyclic olefin polymer), PET (polyethylene terephthalate), polypropylene (PP), or a combination of two or more of these. Optionally, at least a portion of the wall 214 of the vessel 250 comprises or consists essentially of glass, for example borosilicate glass.
  • The plunger can be made of a variety of materials. For example, at least a portion of the plunger can be made of chlorobutyl rubber, bromobutyl rubber, silicone rubber, or a combination of any two or none of these.
  • Optionally, the PECVD treated surface comprises a primer coating or layer 286 of SiOxCy, in which x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y is from about 0.6 to about 3. Optionally, x is between 0.5 and 1.5 and y is between 0.9 and 2. Optionally, x is between 0.7 and 1.3 and y is between 0.9 and 2. Optionally, x is between 0.8 and 1.2 and y is between 0.9 and 1.5. Optionally, x is between 0.9 and 1.2 and y is between 0.9 and 1.4. Optionally, x is between 0.92 and 1.07 and y is between 1.16 and 1.33.
  • As another option, the PECVD treated surface comprises a primer coating or layer 286 of SiOx, in which x is from 1.5 to 2.9.
  • Optionally, the primer coating or layer 286 is between 10 and 1000 nm thick. Optionally, the primer coating or layer is between 10 and 1000 nm thick. Optionally, the primer coating or layer is between 50 and 800 nm thick. Optionally, the primer coating or layer is between 100 and 700 nm thick. Optionally, the primer coating or layer is between 300 and 600 nm thick.
  • Optionally, the primer coating or layer 286 contacting the fluid is between 10 and 1000 nm thick two years after the article is assembled. Optionally, the primer coating or layer contacting the fluid is between 20 and 700 nm thick two years after the article is assembled. Optionally, the primer coating or layer contacting the fluid is between 50 and 500 nm thick two years after the article is assembled. Optionally, the primer coating or layer contacting the fluid is between 100 and 400 nm thick two years after the article is assembled. Optionally, the primer coating or layer contacting the fluid is between 150 and 300 nm thick two years after the article is assembled.
  • Optionally, the fluid removes the primer coating or layer at a rate of 1 nm or less of primer coating or layer thickness per 44 hours of contact with the fluid. Optionally, the fluid removes the primer coating or layer at a rate of 1 nm or less of primer coating or layer thickness per 88 hours of contact with the fluid. Optionally, the fluid removes the primer coating or layer at a rate of 1 nm or less of primer coating or layer thickness per 175 hours of contact with the fluid. Optionally, the fluid removes the primer coating or layer at a rate of 1 nm or less of primer coating or layer thickness per 250 hours of contact with the fluid. Optionally, the fluid removes the primer coating or layer at a rate of 1 nm or less of primer coating or layer thickness per 350 hours of contact with the fluid.
  • Optionally, the primer has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 70° to 130°. Optionally, the interior surface of the primer has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 90° to 110°. Optionally, the interior surface of the primer has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 80° to 120°.
  • Optionally, the fluid lubricant 287 comprises polydimethylsiloxane. A deposit of fluid lubricant 287 can be formed on the CVD treated surface 254 in any convenient manner, such as by spraying a liquid lubricant or by applying it using an applicator. Optionally, the lubricant has a molecular weight of from about 1900 to about 37,000 and a viscosity of from about 20 CSt. to about 13,000 CSt.
  • Optionally, the lubricant has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 90° to 150° 0.203. Optionally, the lubricant has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 90° to 110°. Optionally, the lubricant has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 90° to 120°. Optionally, the lubricant has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 0° to 35° greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of the primer coating or layer.
  • Optionally, the deposit of lubricant on the primer coating or layer is effective to provide a lower frictional resistance than the uncoated syringe surface between the syringe surface and a relatively sliding part at least one year after the syringe is assembled with a plunger. the frictional resistance is reduced by at least 25% in comparison to the uncoated article surface. Optionally, the frictional resistance is reduced by at least 45% in comparison to the uncoated article surface. Optionally, the frictional resistance is reduced by at least 60% in comparison to the uncoated article surface. Optionally, the deposit of lubricant is effective to reduce the frictional resistance between a portion of the article surface contacted by the fluid and a relatively sliding part after the article is assembled. Optionally, the deposit of lubricant is effective to reduce the frictional resistance between the article surface and a relatively sliding part at least one year after the article is assembled. Optionally, the deposit of lubricant is effective to reduce the frictional resistance between the article surface and a relatively sliding part at least eighteen months after the article is assembled. Optionally, the deposit of lubricant is effective to reduce the frictional resistance between the article surface and a relatively sliding part at least two years after the article is assembled.
  • Further PECVD coatings or layers are contemplated, in addition to the primer coating or layer 286.
  • Optionally, a barrier coating or layer 288 can be provided between the primer coating or layer 286 and the syringe surface 254. The barrier coating or layer 288 can be made at least in part of SiOx, wherein x is from 1.5 to 2.9, from 2 to 1000 nm thick. The barrier coating or layer of SiOx has an interior surface facing the lumen and an outer surface facing the wall inner or article surface 254. The barrier coating or layer 288 is effective to reduce the ingress of atmospheric gas into the lumen 212, compared to an uncoated container otherwise the same as the pharmaceutical package or other vessel 210.
  • As another option, an adhesion layer 266 can be provided between the barrier coating or layer 288 and the syringe surface 254.
  • A method of making a syringe as previously described is also contemplated. To carry out the method, a syringe is provided having a surface to be lubricated. A primer coating or layer of SiOxCy or SiNxCy is applied to the surface; in these formulas x can be from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y can be from about 0.6 to about 3. The primer coating or layer can be applied by chemical vapor deposition of a polysiloxane or polysilazane precursor, in the presence of oxygen. The primer coating or layer can be applied either directly to the syringe surface or with one or more intervening coatings or layers between the primer coating or layer and the syringe surface.
  • The primer coating or layer can have a first primer surface facing away from the syringe surface and a second primer surface facing the syringe surface. A first deposit of lubricant can be adhered to the first primer surface.
  • Optionally, a fluid can be placed in the lumen via the opening and the opening can be closed with a closure such as the plunger 258. The fluid can be an aqueous liquid, for example a drug. The drug can be a parenteral drug, as one type of example.
  • The fluid can be a member selected from the group consisting of:
  • Inhalation Anesthetics Aliflurane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane (Suprane) Diethyl Ether Enflurane (Ethrane) Ethyl Chloride Ethylene Halothane (Fluothane) Isoflurane (Forane, Isoflo)
  • Isopropenyl vinyl ether
  • Methoxyflurane
  • methoxyflurane,
  • Methoxypropane Nitrous Oxide Roflurane Sevoflurane (Sevorane, Ultane, Sevoflo) Teflurane Trichloroethylene Vinyl Ether Xenon Injectable Drugs Ablavar (Gadofosveset Trisodium Injection) Abarelix Depot Abobotulinumtoxin A Injection (Dysport) ABT-263 ABT-869 ABX-EFG Accretropin (Somatropin Injection) Acetadote (Acetylcysteine Injection) Acetazolamide Injection (Acetazolamide Injection) Acetylcysteine Injection (Acetadote) Actemra (Tocilizumab Injection) Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection) Actummune Activase Acyclovir for Injection (Zovirax Injection) Adacel Adalimumab Adenoscan (Adenosine Injection) Adenosine Injection (Adenoscan) Adrenaclick AdreView (Iobenguane I 123 Injection for Intravenous Use) Afluria Ak-Fluor (Fluorescein Injection) Aldurazyme (Laronidase) Alglucerase Injection (Ceredase) Alkeran Injection (Melphalan Hcl Injection) Allopurinol Sodium for Injection (Aloprim) Aloprim (Allopurinol Sodium for Injection) Alprostadil Alsuma (Sumatriptan Injection) ALTU-238 Amino Acid Injections Aminosyn Apidra Apremilast Alprostadil Dual Chamber System for Injection (Caverject Impulse) AMG 009 AMG 076 AMG 102 AMG 108 AMG 114 AMG 162 AMG 220 AMG 221 AMG 222 AMG 223 AMG 317 AMG 379 AMG 386 AMG 403 AMG 477 AMG 479 AMG 517 AMG 531 AMG 557 AMG 623 AMG 655 AMG 706 AMG 714 AMG 745 AMG 785 AMG 811 AMG 827 AMG 837 AMG 853 AMG 951 Amiodarone HCl Injection (Amiodarone HCl Injection) Amobarbital Sodium Injection (Amytal Sodium) Amytal Sodium (Amobarbital Sodium Injection) Anakinra Anti-Abeta Anti-Beta7 Anti-Beta20 Anti-CD4 Anti-CD20 Anti-CD40 Anti-IFNalpha Anti-IL13 Anti-OX40L Anti-oxLDS Anti-NGF Anti-NRP1 Arixtra Amphadase (Hyaluronidase Inj) Ammonul (Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection) Anaprox Anzemet Injection (Dolasetron Mesylate Injection)
  • Apidra (Insulin Glulisine [rDNA origin] Inj)
  • Apomab
  • Aranesp (darbepoetin alfa)
  • Argatroban (Argatroban Injection) Arginine Hydrochloride Injection (R-Gene 10) Aristocort Aristospan Arsenic Trioxide Injection (Trisenox) Articane HCl and Epinephrine Injection (Septocaine) Arzerra (Ofatumumab Injection) Asclera (Polidocanol Injection) Ataluren Ataluren-DMD Atenolol Inj (Tenormin I.V. Injection) Atracurium Besylate Injection (Atracurium Besylate Injection) Avastin Azactam Injection (Aztreonam Injection) Azithromycin (Zithromax Injection) Aztreonam Injection (Azactam Injection) Baclofen Injection (Lioresal Intrathecal) Bacteriostatic Water (Bacteriostatic Water for Injection) Baclofen Injection (Lioresal Intrathecal) Bal in Oil Ampules (Dimercarprol Injection) BayHepB BayTet Benadryl Bendamustine Hydrochloride Injection (Treanda) Benztropine Mesylate Injection (Cogentin) Betamethasone Injectable Suspension (Celestone Soluspan) Bexxar Bicillin C-R 900/300 (Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Injection) Blenoxane (Bleomycin Sulfate Injection) Bleomycin Sulfate Injection (Blenoxane) Boniva Injection (Ibandronate Sodium Injection) Botox Cosmetic (OnabotulinumtoxinA for Injection) BR3-FC Bravelle (Urofollitropin Injection) Bretylium (Bretylium Tosylate Injection) Brevital Sodium (Methohexital Sodium for Injection) Brethine Briobacept BTT-1023 Bupivacaine HCl Byetta Ca-DTPA (Pentetate Calcium Trisodium Inj) Cabazitaxel Injection (Jevtana) Caffeine Alkaloid (Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection) Calcijex Injection (Calcitrol) Calcitrol (Calcijex Injection) Calcium Chloride (Calcium Chloride Injection 10%) Calcium Disodium Versenate (Edetate Calcium Disodium Injection) Campath (Altemtuzumab) Camptosar Injection (Irinotecan Hydrochloride) Canakinumab Injection (Ilaris) Capastat Sulfate (Capreomycin for Injection) Capreomycin for Injection (Capastat Sulfate) Cardiolite (Prep kit for Technetium Tc99 Sestamibi for Injection) Carticel Cathflo Cefazolin and Dextrose for Injection (Cefazolin Injection) Cefepime Hydrochloride Cefotaxime Ceftriaxone Cerezyme Carnitor Injection Caverject Celestone Soluspan Celsior Cerebyx (Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection) Ceredase (Alglucerase Injection) Ceretec (Technetium Tc99m Exametazime Injection) Certolizumab CF-101 Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate (Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate Injection) Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate Injection (Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate) Cholestagel (Colesevelam HCL) Choriogonadotropin Alfa Injection (Ovidrel) Cimzia Cisplatin (Cisplatin Injection) Clolar (Clofarabine Injection) Clomiphine Citrate Clonidine Injection (Duraclon) Cogentin (Benztropine Mesylate Injection) Colistimethate Injection (Coly-Mycin M) Coly-Mycin M (Colistimethate Injection) Compath Conivaptan Hcl Injection (Vaprisol) Conjugated Estrogens for Injection (Premarin Injection) Copaxone Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection (Acthrel) Corvert (Ibutilide Fumarate Injection) Cubicin (Daptomycin Injection) CF-101 Cyanokit (Hydroxocobalamin for Injection) Cytarabine Liposome Injection (DepoCyt) Cyanocobalamin
  • Cytovene (ganciclovir)
  • D.H.E. 45 Dacetuzumab Dacogen (Decitabine Injection) Dalteparin Dantrium IV (Dantrolene Sodium for Injection) Dantrolene Sodium for Injection (Dantrium IV) Daptomycin Injection (Cubicin) Darbepoietin Alfa DDAVP Injection (Desmopressin Acetate Injection) Decavax Decitabine Injection (Dacogen) Dehydrated Alcohol (Dehydrated Alcohol Injection) Denosumab Injection (Prolia) Delatestryl Delestrogen Delteparin Sodium Depacon (Valproate Sodium Injection) Depo Medrol (Methylprednisolone Acetate Injectable Suspension) DepoCyt (Cytarabine Liposome Injection) DepoDur (Morphine Sulfate XR Liposome Injection) Desmopressin Acetate Injection (DDAVP Injection) Depo-Estradiol
  • Depo-Provera 104 mg/ml
    Depo-Provera 150 mg/ml
  • Depo-Testosterone Dexrazoxane for Injection, Intravenous Infusion Only (Totect) Dextrose/Electrolytes Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Inj (Dextrose 5% in 0.9% Sodium Chloride) Dextrose Diazepam Injection (Diazepam Injection) Digoxin Injection (Lanoxin Injection) Dilaudid-HP (Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Injection) Dimercarprol Injection (Bal in Oil Ampules) Diphenhydramine Injection (Benadryl Injection) Dipyridamole Injection (Dipyridamole Injection) DMOAD Docetaxel for Injection (Taxotere) Dolasetron Mesylate Injection (Anzemet Injection) Doribax (Doripenem for Injection) Doripenem for Injection (Doribax) Doxercalciferol Injection (Hectorol Injection) Doxil (Doxorubicin Hcl Liposome Injection) Doxorubicin Hcl Liposome Injection (Doxil) Duraclon (Clonidine Injection) Duramorph (Morphine Injection) Dysport (Abobotulinumtoxin A Injection) Ecallantide Injection (Kalbitor)
  • EC-Naprosyn (naproxen)
  • Edetate Calcium Disodium Injection (Calcium Disodium Versenate) Edex (Alprostadil for Injection) Engerix Edrophonium Injection (Enlon) Eliglustat Tartate Eloxatin (Oxaliplatin Injection) Emend Injection (Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine Injection) Enalaprilat Injection (Enalaprilat Injection) Enlon (Edrophonium Injection) Enoxaparin Sodium Injection (Lovenox) Eovist (Gadoxetate Disodium Injection)
  • Enbrel (etanercept)
  • Enoxaparin Epicel Epinepherine Epipen Epipen Jr. Epratuzumab Erbitux Ertapenem Injection (Invanz) Erythropoieten Essential Amino Acid Injection (Nephramine) Estradiol Cypionate Estradiol Valerate Etanercept Exenatide Injection (Byetta) Evlotra
  • Fabrazyme (Adalsidase beta)
  • Famotidine Injection FDG (Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection) Feraheme (Ferumoxytol Injection) Feridex I.V. (Ferumoxides Injectable Solution) Fertinex Ferumoxides Injectable Solution (Feridex I.V.) Ferumoxytol Injection (Feraheme) Flagyl Injection (Metronidazole Injection) Fluarix Fludara (Fludarabine Phosphate) Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection (FDG) Fluorescein Injection (Ak-Fluor) Follistim AQ Cartridge (Follitropin Beta Injection) Follitropin Alfa Injection (Gonal-f RFF) Follitropin Beta Injection (Follistim AQ Cartridge) Folotyn (Pralatrexate Solution for Intravenous Injection) Fondaparinux
  • Forteo (Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection)
  • Fostamatinib Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine Injection (Emend Injection) Foscarnet Sodium Injection (Foscavir) Foscavir (Foscarnet Sodium Injection) Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection (Cerebyx) Fospropofol Disodium Injection (Lusedra) Fragmin
  • Fuzeon (enfuvirtide)
  • GA101 Gadobenate Dimeglumine Injection (Multihance) Gadofosveset Trisodium Injection (Ablavar) Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance) Gadoversetamide Injection (OptiMARK) Gadoxetate Disodium Injection (Eovist) Ganirelix (Ganirelix Acetate Injection) Gardasil GC1008 GDFD Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for Injection (Mylotarg) Genotropin Gentamicin Injection GENZ-112638 Golimumab Injection (Simponi Injection) Gonal-f RFF (Follitropin Alfa Injection) Granisetron Hydrochloride (Kytril Injection) Gentamicin Sulfate Glatiramer Acetate Glucagen Glucagon HAE1 Haldol (Haloperidol Injection) Havrix Hectorol Injection (Doxercalciferol Injection) Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor Heparin Herceptin
  • hG-CSF
  • Humalog Human Growth Hormone Humatrope HuMax Humegon Humira Humulin Ibandronate Sodium Injection (Boniva Injection) Ibuprofen Lysine Injection (NeoProfen) Ibutilide Fumarate Injection (Corvert) Idamycin PFS (Idarubicin Hydrochloride Injection) Idarubicin Hydrochloride Injection (Idamycin PFS) Ilaris (Canakinumab Injection) Imipenem and Cilastatin for Injection (Primaxin I.V.) Imitrex Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection (Xeomin)
  • Increlex (Mecasermin [rDNA origin] Injection)
  • Indocin IV (Indomethacin Inj) Indomethacin Inj (Indocin IV) Infanrix Innohep Insulin
  • Insulin Aspart [rDNA origin] Inj (NovoLog)
    Insulin Glargine [rDNA origin] Injection (Lantus)
    Insulin Glulisine [rDNA origin] Inj (Apidra)
    Interferon alfa-2b, Recombinant for Injection (Intron A)
    Intron A (Interferon alfa-2b, Recombinant for Injection)
  • Invanz (Ertapenem Injection) Invega Sustenna (Paliperidone Palmitate Extended-Release Injectable Suspension)
  • Invirase (saquinavir mesylate)
    lobenguane I 123 Injection for Intravenous Use (AdreView)
    lopromide Injection (Ultravist)
    loversol Injection (Optiray Injection)
    Iplex (Mecasermin Rinfabate [rDNA origin] Injection)
  • Iprivask Irinotecan Hydrochloride (Camptosar Injection) Iron Sucrose Injection (Venofer) Istodax (Romidepsin for Injection) Itraconazole Injection (Sporanox Injection) Jevtana (Cabazitaxel Injection) Jonexa Kalbitor (Ecallantide Injection) KCL in D5NS (Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection) KCL in D5W KCL in NS Kenalog 10 Injection (Triamcinolone Acetonide Injectable Suspension) Kepivance (Palifermin) Keppra Injection (Levetiracetam) Keratinocyte KFG Kinase Inhibitor Kineret (Anakinra) Kinlytic (Urokinase Injection) Kinrix
  • Klonopin (clonazepam)
  • Kytril Injection (Granisetron Hydrochloride)
  • lacosamide Tablet and Injection (Vimpat)
  • Lactated Ringer's Lanoxin Injection (Digoxin Injection) Lansoprazole for Injection (Prevacid I.V.) Lantus Leucovorin Calcium (Leucovorin Calcium Injection) Lente (L) Leptin Levemir Leukine Sargramostim Leuprolide Acetate Levothyroxine Levetiracetam (Keppra Injection) Lovenox Levocarnitine Injection (Carnitor Injection) Lexiscan (Regadenoson Injection) Lioresal Intrathecal (Baclofen Injection)
  • Liraglutide [rDNA] Injection (Victoza)
  • Lovenox (Enoxaparin Sodium Injection) Lucentis (Ranibizumab Injection) Lumizyme Lupron (Leuprolide Acetate Injection) Lusedra (Fospropofol Disodium Injection) Maci Magnesium Sulfate (Magnesium Sulfate Injection) Mannitol Injection (Mannitol IV) Marcaine (Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection) Maxipime (Cefepime Hydrochloride for Injection) MDP Multidose Kit of Technetium Injection (Technetium Tc99m Medronate Injection)
  • Mecasermin [rDNA origin] Injection (Increlex)
    Mecasermin Rinfabate [rDNA origin] Injection (Iplex)
  • Melphalan Hcl Injection (Alkeran Injection) Methotrexate Menactra Menopur (Menotropins Injection) Menotropins for Injection (Repronex) Methohexital Sodium for Injection (Brevital Sodium) Methyldopate Hydrochloride Injection, Solution (Methyldopate Hcl) Methylene Blue (Methylene Blue Injection) Methylprednisolone Acetate Injectable Suspension (Depo Medrol) MetMab Metoclopramide Injection (Reglan Injection) Metrodin (Urofollitropin for Injection) Metronidazole Injection (Flagyl Injection) Miacalcin Midazolam (Midazolam Injection) Mimpara (Cinacalet) Minocin Injection (Minocycline Inj) Minocycline Inj (Minocin Injection) Mipomersen Mitoxantrone for Injection Concentrate (Novantrone) Morphine Injection (Duramorph) Morphine Sulfate XR Liposome Injection (DepoDur) Morrhuate Sodium (Morrhuate Sodium Injection) Motesanib Mozobil (Plerixafor Injection) Multihance (Gadobenate Dimeglumine Injection) Multiple Electrolytes and Dextrose Injection Multiple Electrolytes Injection Mylotarg (Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin for Injection)
  • Myozyme (Alglucosidase alfa)
  • Nafcillin Injection (Nafcillin Sodium) Nafcillin Sodium (Nafcillin Injection) Naltrexone XR Inj (Vivitrol)
  • Naprosyn (naproxen)
  • NeoProfen (Ibuprofen Lysine Injection) Nandrol Decanoate Neostigmine Methylsulfate (Neostigmine Methylsulfate Injection) NEO-GAA NeoTect (Technetium Tc 99m Depreotide Injection) Nephramine (Essential Amino Acid Injection)
  • Neulasta (pegfilgrastim)
  • Neupogen (Filgrastim) Novolin Novolog NeoRecormon Neutrexin (Trimetrexate Glucuronate Inj) NPH (N) Nexterone (Amiodarone HCl Injection) Norditropin (Somatropin Injection) Normal Saline (Sodium Chloride Injection) Novantrone (Mitoxantrone for Injection Concentrate) Novolin 70/30 Innolet (70% NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension and 30% Regular, Human Insulin Injection)
  • NovoLog (Insulin Aspart [rDNA origin] Inj)
    Nplate (romiplostim)
    Nutropin (Somatropin (rDNA origin) for Inj)
  • Nutropin AQ
  • Nutropin Depot (Somatropin (rDNA origin) for Inj)
  • Octreotide Acetate Injection (Sandostatin LAR) Ocrelizumab Ofatumumab Injection (Arzerra) Olanzapine Extended Release Injectable Suspension (Zyprexa Relprevv) Omnitarg
  • Omnitrope (Somatropin [rDNA origin] Injection)
  • Ondansetron Hydrochloride Injection (Zofran Injection) OptiMARK (Gadoversetamide Injection)
  • Optiray Injection (loversol Injection)
  • Orencia Osmitrol Injection in Aviva (Mannitol Injection in Aviva Plastic Vessel) Osmitrol Injection in Viaflex (Mannitol Injection in Viaflex Plastic Vessel) Osteoprotegrin Ovidrel (Choriogonadotropin Alfa Injection) Oxacillin (Oxacillin for Injection) Oxaliplatin Injection (Eloxatin) Oxytocin Injection (Pitocin) Paliperidone Palmitate Extended-Release Injectable Suspension (Invega Sustenna) Pamidronate Disodium Injection (Pamidronate Disodium Injection) Panitumumab Injection for Intravenous Use (Vectibix) Papaverine Hydrochloride Injection (Papaverine Injection) Papaverine Injection (Papaverine Hydrochloride Injection) Parathyroid Hormone Paricalcitol Injection Fliptop Vial (Zemplar Injection) PARP Inhibitor Pediarix PEGIntron Peginterferon Pegfilgrastim Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Pentetate Calcium Trisodium Inj (Ca-DTPA) Pentetate Zinc Trisodium Injection (Zn-DTPA) Pepcid Injection (Famotidine Injection) Pergonal Pertuzumab Phentolamine Mesylate (Phentolamine Mesylate for Injection)
  • Physostigmine Salicylate (Physostigmine Salicylate (injection))
    Physostigmine Salicylate (injection) (Physostigmine Salicylate)
  • Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection (Zosyn) Pitocin (Oxytocin Injection) Plasma-Lyte 148 (Multiple Electrolytes Inj) Plasma-Lyte 56 and Dextrose (Multiple Electrolytes and Dextrose Injection in Viaflex Plastic Vessel) PlasmaLyte Plerixafor Injection (Mozobil) Polidocanol Injection (Asclera) Potassium Chloride Pralatrexate Solution for Intravenous Injection (Folotyn) Pramlintide Acetate Injection (Symlin) Premarin Injection (Conjugated Estrogens for Injection) Prep kit for Technetium Tc99 Sestamibi for Injection (Cardiolite) Prevacid I.V. (Lansoprazole for Injection) Primaxin I.V. (Imipenem and Cilastatin for Injection) Prochymal Procrit Progesterone ProHance (Gadoteridol Injection Solution) Prolia (Denosumab Injection) Promethazine HCl Injection (Promethazine Hydrochloride Injection) Propranolol Hydrochloride Injection (Propranolol Hydrochloride Injection) Quinidine Gluconate Injection (Quinidine Injection) Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection) R-Gene 10 (Arginine Hydrochloride Injection) Ranibizumab Injection (Lucentis) Ranitidine Hydrochloride Injection (Zantac Injection) Raptiva Reclast (Zoledronic Acid Injection) Recombivarix HB Regadenoson Injection (Lexiscan) Reglan Injection (Metoclopramide Injection) Remicade Renagel Renvela (Sevelamer Carbonate) Repronex (Menotropins for Injection) Retrovir IV (Zidovudine Injection)
  • rhApo2L/TRAIL
  • Ringer's and 5% Dextrose Injection (Ringers in Dextrose) Ringer's Injection (Ringers Injection) Rituxan Rituximab
  • Rocephin (ceftriaxone)
  • Rocuronium Bromide Injection (Zemuron)
  • Roferon-A (interferon alfa-2a)
    Romazicon (flumazenil)
  • Romidepsin for Injection (Istodax) Saizen (Somatropin Injection) Sandostatin LAR (Octreotide Acetate Injection) Sclerostin Ab
  • Sensipar (cinacalcet)
  • Sensorcaine (Bupivacaine HCl Injections) Septocaine (Articane HCl and Epinephrine Injection)
  • Serostim LQ (Somatropin (rDNA origin) Injection)
  • Simponi Injection (Golimumab Injection) Sodium Acetate (Sodium Acetate Injection) Sodium Bicarbonate (Sodium Bicarbonate 5% Injection) Sodium Lactate (Sodium Lactate Injection in AVIVA) Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection (Ammonul)
  • Somatropin (rDNA origin) for Inj (Nutropin)
  • Sporanox Injection (Itraconazole Injection) Stelara Injection (Ustekinumab) Stemgen Sufenta (Sufentanil Citrate Injection) Sufentanil Citrate Injection (Sufenta) Sumavel Sumatriptan Injection (Alsuma) Symlin Symlin Pen Systemic Hedgehog Antagonist Synvisc-One (Hylan G-F 20 Single Intra-articular Injection) Tarceva Taxotere (Docetaxel for Injection) Technetium Tc 99m Telavancin for Injection (Vibativ) Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel) Tenormin I.V. Injection (Atenolol Inj)
  • Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection (Forteo)
  • Testosterone Cypionate Testosterone Enanthate Testosterone Propionate
  • Tev-Tropin (Somatropin, rDNA Origin, for Injection)
    tgAAC94
  • Thallous Chloride Theophylline Thiotepa (Thiotepa Injection) Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Thyrogen (Thyrotropin Alfa for Injection) Ticarcillin Disodium and Clavulanate Potassium Galaxy (Timentin Injection) Tigan Injection (Trimethobenzamide Hydrochloride Injectable) Timentin Injection (Ticarcillin Disodium and Clavulanate Potassium Galaxy) TNKase Tobramycin Injection (Tobramycin Injection) Tocilizumab Injection (Actemra) Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection) Totect (Dexrazoxane for Injection, Intravenous Infusion Only) Trastuzumab-DM1 Travasol (Amino Acids (Injection)) Treanda (Bendamustine Hydrochloride Injection) Trelstar (Triptorelin Pamoate for Injectable Suspension) Triamcinolone Acetonide Triamcinolone Diacetate Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension (Aristospan Injection 20 mg) Triesence (Triamcinolone Acetonide Injectable Suspension) Trimethobenzamide Hydrochloride Injectable (Tigan Injection) Trimetrexate Glucuronate Inj (Neutrexin) Triptorelin Pamoate for Injectable Suspension (Trelstar) Twinject Trivaris (Triamcinolone Acetonide Injectable Suspension) Trisenox (Arsenic Trioxide Injection) Twinrix Typhoid Vi
  • Ultravist (lopromide Injection)
  • Urofollitropin for Injection (Metrodin) Urokinase Injection (Kinlytic) Ustekinumab (Stelara Injection) Ultralente (U)
  • Valium (diazepam)
  • Valproate Sodium Injection (Depacon) Valtropin (Somatropin Injection) Vancomycin Hydrochloride (Vancomycin Hydrochloride Injection) Vancomycin Hydrochloride Injection (Vancomycin Hydrochloride) Vaprisol (Conivaptan Hcl Injection) VAQTA Vasovist (Gadofosveset Trisodium Injection for Intravenous Use) Vectibix (Panitumumab Injection for Intravenous Use) Venofer (Iron Sucrose Injection) Verteporfin Inj (Visudyne) Vibativ (Telavancin for Injection)
  • Victoza (Liraglutide [rDNA] Injection)
    Vimpat (lacosamide Tablet and Injection)
  • Vinblastine Sulfate (Vinblastine Sulfate Injection) Vincasar PFS (Vincristine Sulfate Injection) Victoza Vincristine Sulfate (Vincristine Sulfate Injection) Visudyne (Verteporfin Inj) Vitamin B-12 Vivitrol (Naltrexone XR Inj) Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection) Xeloda
  • Xenical (orlistat)
  • Xeomin (Incobotulinumtoxin A for Injection) Xolair Zantac Injection (Ranitidine Hydrochloride Injection) Zemplar Injection (Paricalcitol Injection Fliptop Vial) Zemuron (Rocuronium Bromide Injection)
  • Zenapax (daclizumab)
  • Zevalin Zidovudine Injection (Retrovir IV) Zithromax Injection (Azithromycin) Zn-DTPA (Pentetate Zinc Trisodium Injection) Zofran Injection (Ondansetron Hydrochloride Injection) Zingo Zoledronic Acid for Inj (Zometa) Zoledronic Acid Injection (Reclast) Zometa (Zoledronic Acid for Inj) Zosyn (Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection) Zyprexa Relprevv (Olanzapine Extended Release Injectable Suspension) Liquid Drugs (Non-Injectable) Abilify AccuNeb (Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution) Actidose Aqua (Activated Charcoal Suspension) Activated Charcoal Suspension (Actidose Aqua) Advair Agenerase Oral Solution (Amprenavir Oral Solution) Akten (Lidocaine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Gel) Alamast (Pemirolast Potassium Ophthalmic Solution) Albumin (Human) 5% Solution (Buminate 5%) Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution Alinia Alocril Alphagan Alrex Alvesco Amprenavir Oral Solution Analpram-HC Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution (Brovana) Aristospan Injection 20 mg (Triamcinolone Hexacetonide Injectable Suspension) Asacol Asmanex Astepro Astepro (Azelastine Hydrochloride Nasal Spray) Atrovent Nasal Spray (Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Spray) Atrovent Nasal Spray 0.06 Augmentin ES-600 Azasite (Azithromycin Ophthalmic Solution) Azelaic Acid (Finacea Gel) Azelastine Hydrochloride Nasal Spray (Astepro) Azelex (Azelaic Acid Cream) Azopt (Brinzolamide Ophthalmic Suspension) Bacteriostatic Saline Balanced Salt Bepotastine Bactroban Nasal Bactroban Beclovent Benzac W Betimol Betoptic S Bepreve Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution Bleph 10 (Sulfacetamide Sodium Ophthalmic Solution 10%) Brinzolamide Ophthalmic Suspension (Azopt) Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution (Xibrom) Bromhist Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution) Budesonide Inhalation Suspension (Pulmicort Respules) Cambia (Diclofenac Potassium for Oral Solution) Capex Carac Carboxine-PSE Carnitor Cayston (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) Cellcept Centany Cerumenex Ciloxan Ophthalmic Solution (Ciprofloxacin HCL Ophthalmic Solution) Ciprodex Ciprofloxacin HCL Ophthalmic Solution (Ciloxan Ophthalmic Solution) Clemastine Fumarate Syrup (Clemastine Fumarate Syrup) CoLyte (PEG Electrolytes Solution) Combiven Comtan Condylox Cordran Cortisporin Ophthalmic Suspension Cortisporin Otic Suspension Cromolyn Sodium Inhalation Solution (Intal Nebulizer Solution) Cromolyn Sodium Ophthalmic Solution (Opticrom)
  • Crystalline Amino Acid Solution with Electrolytes (Aminosyn Electrolytes)
  • Cutivate Cuvposa (Glycopyrrolate Oral Solution) Cyanocobalamin (CaloMist Nasal Spray) Cyclosporine Oral Solution (Gengraf Oral Solution) Cyclogyl Cysview (Hexaminolevulinate Hydrochloride Intravesical Solution) DermOtic Oil (Fluocinolone Acetonide Oil Ear Drops) Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray DDAVP Derma-Smoothe/FS Dexamethasone Intensol Dianeal Low Calcium Dianeal PD Diclofenac Potassium for Oral Solution (Cambia) Didanosine Pediatric Powder for Oral Solution (Videx) Differin Dilantin 125 (Phenytoin Oral Suspension) Ditropan Dorzolamide Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Trusopt) Dorzolamide Hydrochloride-Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution (Cosopt) Dovonex Scalp (Calcipotriene Solution) Doxycycline Calcium Oral Suspension (Vibramycin Oral) Efudex Elaprase (Idursulfase Solution) Elestat (Epinastine HCl Ophthalmic Solution) Elocon Epinastine HCl Ophthalmic Solution (Elestat) Epivir HBV
  • Epogen (Epoetin alfa)
  • Erythromycin Topical Solution 1.5% (Staticin) Ethiodol (Ethiodized Oil) Ethosuximide Oral Solution (Zarontin Oral Solution) Eurax Extraneal (Icodextrin Peritoneal Dialysis Solution) Felbatol Feridex I.V. (Ferumoxides Injectable Solution) Flovent Floxin Otic (Ofloxacin Otic Solution) Flo-Pred (Prednisolone Acetate Oral Suspension) Fluoroplex Flunisolide Nasal Solution (Flunisolide Nasal Spray 0.025%) Fluorometholone Ophthalmic Suspension (FML) Flurbiprofen Sodium Ophthalmic Solution (Ocufen) FML Foradil Formoterol Fumarate Inhalation Solution (Perforomist) Fosamax Furadantin (Nitrofurantoin Oral Suspension) Furoxone Gammagard Liquid (Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) 10%) Gantrisin (Acetyl Sulfisoxazole Pediatric Suspension) Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution (Zymar) Gengraf Oral Solution (Cyclosporine Oral Solution) Glycopyrrolate Oral Solution (Cuvposa) Halcinonide Topical Solution (Halog Solution) Halog Solution (Halcinonide Topical Solution) HEP-LOCK U/P (Preservative-Free Heparin Lock Flush Solution) Heparin Lock Flush Solution (Hepflush 10) Hexaminolevulinate Hydrochloride Intravesical Solution (Cysview) Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Lortab Elixir) Hydroquinone 3% Topical Solution (Melquin-3 Topical Solution) IAP Antagonist Isopto Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Spray (Atrovent Nasal Spray) Itraconazole Oral Solution (Sporanox Oral Solution) Ketorolac Tromethamine Ophthalmic Solution (Acular LS) Kaletra Lanoxin Lexiva Leuprolide Acetate for Depot Suspension (Lupron Depot 11.25 mg) Levobetaxolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension (Betaxon) Levocarnitine Tablets, Oral Solution, Sugar-Free (Carnitor) Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% (Quixin) Lidocaine HCl Sterile Solution (Xylocaine MPF Sterile Solution) Lok Pak (Heparin Lock Flush Solution) Lorazepam Intensol Lortab Elixir (Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution) Lotemax (Loteprednol Etabonate Ophthalmic Suspension) Loteprednol Etabonate Ophthalmic Suspension (Alrex) Low Calcium Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions (Dianeal Low Calcium) Lumigan (Bimatoprost Ophthalmic Solution 0.03% for Glaucoma) Lupron Depot 11.25 mg (Leuprolide Acetate for Depot Suspension) Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension (Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension) MEK Inhibitor Mepron Mesnex Mestinon Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema (Rowasa) Melquin-3 Topical Solution (Hydroquinone 3% Topical Solution) MetMab Methyldopate Hcl (Methyldopate Hydrochloride Injection, Solution)
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL)
  • Methylprednisolone Acetate Injectable Suspension (Depo Medrol)
  • Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL (Methylin Oral Solution)
    Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Solu Medrol)
  • Metipranolol Ophthalmic Solution (Optipranolol) Migranal Miochol-E (Acetylcholine Chloride Intraocular Solution) Micro-K for Liquid Suspension (Potassium Chloride Extended Release Formulation for Liquid Suspension) Minocin (Minocycline Hydrochloride Oral Suspension) Nasacort Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and Hydrocortisone Nepafenac Ophthalmic Suspension (Nevanac) Nevanac (Nepafenac Ophthalmic Suspension) Nitrofurantoin Oral Suspension (Furadantin) Noxafil (Posaconazole Oral Suspension)
  • Nystatin (oral) (Nystatin Oral Suspension)
    Nystatin Oral Suspension (Nystatin (oral))
  • Ocufen (Flurbiprofen Sodium Ophthalmic Solution) Ofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution (Ofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution) Ofloxacin Otic Solution (Floxin Otic) Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday) Opticrom (Cromolyn Sodium Ophthalmic Solution) Optipranolol (Metipranolol Ophthalmic Solution) Patanol Pediapred PerioGard Phenytoin Oral Suspension (Dilantin 125) Phisohex Posaconazole Oral Suspension (Noxafil) Potassium Chloride Extended Release Formulation for Liquid Suspension (Micro-K for Liquid Suspension) Pataday (Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution) Patanase Nasal Spray (Olopatadine Hydrochloride Nasal Spray) PEG Electrolytes Solution (CoLyte) Pemirolast Potassium Ophthalmic Solution (Alamast) Penlac (Ciclopirox Topical Solution) PENNSAID (Diclofenac Sodium Topical Solution) Perforomist (Formoterol Fumarate Inhalation Solution) Peritoneal Dialysis Solution Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Neo-Synephrine) Phospholine Iodide (Echothiophate Iodide for Ophthalmic Solution) Podofilox (Podofilox Topical Solution) Pred Forte (Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension) Pralatrexate Solution for Intravenous Injection (Folotyn) Pred Mild Prednisone Intensol Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension (Pred Forte) Prevacid PrismaSol Solution (Sterile Hemofiltration Hemodiafiltration Solution) ProAir Proglycem ProHance (Gadoteridol Injection Solution) Proparacaine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Alcaine) Propine Pulmicort Pulmozyme Quixin (Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.5%) QVAR Rapamune Rebetol Relacon-HC Rotarix (Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral Suspension) Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral Suspension (Rotarix) Rowasa (Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema) Sabril (Vigabatrin Oral Solution) Sacrosidase Oral Solution (Sucraid) Sandimmune Sepra Serevent Diskus Solu Cortef (Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate)
  • Solu Medrol (Methylprednisolone sodium succinate)
  • Spiriva Sporanox Oral Solution (Itraconazole Oral Solution) Staticin (Erythromycin Topical Solution 1.5%) Stalevo Starlix Sterile Hemofiltration Hemodiafiltration Solution (PrismaSol Solution) Stimate Sucralfate (Carafate Suspension) Sulfacetamide Sodium Ophthalmic Solution 10% (Bleph 10) Synarel Nasal Solution (Nafarelin Acetate Nasal Solution for Endometriosis) Taclonex Scalp (Calcipotriene and Betamethasone Dipropionate Topical Suspension) Tamiflu Tobi TobraDex Tobradex ST (Tobramycin/Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Suspension 0.3%/0.05%) Tobramycin/Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Suspension 0.3%/0.05% (Tobradex ST) Timolol Timoptic Travatan Z Treprostinil Inhalation Solution (Tyvaso) Trusopt (Dorzolamide Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution) Tyvaso (Treprostinil Inhalation Solution) Ventolin Vfend Vibramycin Oral (Doxycycline Calcium Oral Suspension) Videx (Didanosine Pediatric Powder for Oral Solution) Vigabatrin Oral Solution (Sabril) Viokase Viracept Viramune Vitamin K1 (Fluid Colloidal Solution of Vitamin K1) Voltaren Ophthalmic (Diclofenac Sodium Ophthalmic Solution) Zarontin Oral Solution (Ethosuximide Oral Solution) Ziagen Zyvox Zymar (Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution) Zymaxid (Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution) Drug Classes
  • 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
    5-aminosalicylates
    5HT3 receptor antagonists
    adamantane antivirals
    adrenal cortical steroids
    adrenal corticosteroid inhibitors
    adrenergic bronchodilators
    agents for hypertensive emergencies
    agents for pulmonary hypertension
    aldosterone receptor antagonists
    alkylating agents
    alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists
    alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
    alternative medicines
    amebicides
    aminoglycosides
    aminopenicillins
    aminosalicylates
    amylin analogs
  • Analgesic Combinations Analgesics
  • androgens and anabolic steroids
    angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
    angiotensin II inhibitors
    anorectal preparations
    anorexiants
    antacids
    anthelmintics
    anti-angiogenic ophthalmic agents
    anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies
    anti-infectives
    antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting
    antiadrenergic agents, peripherally acting
    antiandrogens
    antianginal agents
    antiarrhythmic agents
    antiasthmatic combinations
    antibiotics/antineoplastics
    anticholinergic antiemetics
    anticholinergic antiparkinson agents
    anticholinergic bronchodilators
    anticholinergic chronotropic agents
    anticholinergics/antispasmodics
    anticoagulants
    anticonvulsants
    antidepressants
    antidiabetic agents
    antidiabetic combinations
    antidiarrheals
    antidiuretic hormones
    antidotes
    antiemetic/antivertigo agents
    antifungals
    antigonadotropic agents
    antigout agents
    antihistamines
    antihyperlipidemic agents
    antihyperlipidemic combinations
    antihypertensive combinations
    antihyperuricemic agents
    antimalarial agents
    antimalarial combinations
    antimalarial quinolines
    antimetabolites
    antimigraine agents
    antineoplastic detoxifying agents
    antineoplastic interferons
    antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies
    antineoplastics
    antiparkinson agents
    antiplatelet agents
    antipseudomonal penicillins
    antipsoriatics
    antipsychotics
    antirheumatics
    antiseptic and germicides
    antithyroid agents
    antitoxins and antivenins
    antituberculosis agents
    antituberculosis combinations
    antitussives
    antiviral agents
    antiviral combinations
    antiviral interferons
    anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics
    aromatase inhibitors
    atypical antipsychotics
    azole antifungals
    bacterial vaccines
    barbiturate anticonvulsants
    barbiturates
    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors
    benzodiazepine anticonvulsants
    benzodiazepines
    beta-adrenergic blocking agents
    beta-lactamase inhibitors
    bile acid sequestrants
    biologicals
    bisphosphonates
    bone resorption inhibitors
    bronchodilator combinations
    bronchodilators
    calcitonin
    calcium channel blocking agents
    carbamate anticonvulsants
    carbapenems
    carbonic anhydrase inhibitor anticonvulsants
    carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    cardiac stressing agents
    cardioselective beta blockers
    cardiovascular agents
    catecholamines
    CD20 monoclonal antibodies
    CD33 monoclonal antibodies
    CD52 monoclonal antibodies
    central nervous system agents
    cephalosporins
    cerumenolytics
    chelating agents
    chemokine receptor antagonist
    chloride channel activators
    cholesterol absorption inhibitors
    cholinergic agonists
    cholinergic muscle stimulants
    cholinesterase inhibitors
    CNS stimulants
    coagulation modifiers
    colony stimulating factors
    contraceptives
    corticotropin
    coumarins and indandiones
    cox-2 inhibitors
    decongestants
    dermatological agents
    diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals
    dibenzazepine anticonvulsants
    digestive enzymes
    dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors
    diuretics
    dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents
    drugs used in alcohol dependence
    echinocandins
    EGFR inhibitors
    estrogen receptor antagonists
    estrogens
    expectorants
    factor Xa inhibitors
    fatty acid derivative anticonvulsants
    fibric acid derivatives
    first generation cephalosporins
    fourth generation cephalosporins
    functional bowel disorder agents
    gallstone solubilizing agents
    gamma-aminobutyric acid analogs
    gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitors
    gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitors
    gastrointestinal agents
    general anesthetics
    genitourinary tract agents
    GI stimulants
    glucocorticoids
    glucose elevating agents
    glycopeptide antibiotics
    glycoprotein platelet inhibitors
    glycylcyclines
    gonadotropin releasing hormones
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists
    gonadotropins
    group I antiarrhythmics
    group II antiarrhythmics
    group III antiarrhythmics
    group IV antiarrhythmics
    group V antiarrhythmics
    growth hormone receptor blockers
    growth hormones
    H. pylori eradication agents
    H2 antagonists
    hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer
    heparin antagonists
    heparins
    HER2 inhibitors
    herbal products
    histone deacetylase inhibitors
    hormone replacement therapy
    hormones
    hormones/antineoplastics
    hydantoin anticonvulsants
    illicit (street) drugs
    immune globulins
    immunologic agents
    immunosuppressive agents
    impotence agents
    in vivo diagnostic biologicals
    incretin mimetics
    inhaled anti-infectives
    inhaled corticosteroids
    inotropic agents
    insulin
    insulin-like growth factor
    integrase strand transfer inhibitor
    interferons
    intravenous nutritional products
    iodinated contrast media
    ionic iodinated contrast media
    iron products
    ketolides
    laxatives
    leprostatics
    leukotriene modifiers
    lincomycin derivatives
    lipoglycopeptides
    local injectable anesthetics
    loop diuretics
    lung surfactants
    lymphatic staining agents
    lysosomal enzymes
    macrolide derivatives
    macrolides
    magnetic resonance imaging contrast media
    mast cell stabilizers
    medical gas
    meglitinides
    metabolic agents
    methylxanthines
    mineralocorticoids
    minerals and electrolytes
    miscellaneous agents
    miscellaneous analgesics
    miscellaneous antibiotics
    miscellaneous anticonvulsants
    miscellaneous antidepressants
    miscellaneous antidiabetic agents
    miscellaneous antiemetics
    miscellaneous antifungals
    miscellaneous antihyperlipidemic agents
    miscellaneous antimalarials
    miscellaneous antineoplastics
    miscellaneous antiparkinson agents
    miscellaneous antipsychotic agents
    miscellaneous antituberculosis agents
    miscellaneous antivirals
    miscellaneous anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics
    miscellaneous biologicals
    miscellaneous bone resorption inhibitors
    miscellaneous cardiovascular agents
    miscellaneous central nervous system agents
    miscellaneous coagulation modifiers
    miscellaneous diuretics
    miscellaneous genitourinary tract agents
    miscellaneous GI agents
    miscellaneous hormones
    miscellaneous metabolic agents
    miscellaneous ophthalmic agents
    miscellaneous otic agents
    miscellaneous respiratory agents
    miscellaneous sex hormones
    miscellaneous topical agents
    miscellaneous uncategorized agents
    miscellaneous vaginal agents
    mitotic inhibitors
    monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    monoclonal antibodies
    mouth and throat products
    mTOR inhibitors
    mTOR kinase inhibitors
    mucolytics
    multikinase inhibitors
    muscle relaxants
    mydriatics
    narcotic analgesic combinations
    narcotic analgesics
    nasal anti-infectives
    nasal antihistamines and decongestants
    nasal lubricants and irrigations
    nasal preparations
    nasal steroids
    natural penicillins
    neuraminidase inhibitors
    neuromuscular blocking agents
    next generation cephalosporins
    nicotinic acid derivatives
    nitrates
  • NNRTIs
  • non-cardioselective beta blockers
    non-iodinated contrast media
    non-ionic iodinated contrast media
    non-sulfonylureas
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents
    norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
    norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors
    nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
    nutraceutical products
    nutritional products
    ophthalmic anesthetics
    ophthalmic anti-infectives
    ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agents
    ophthalmic antihistamines and decongestants
    ophthalmic diagnostic agents
    ophthalmic glaucoma agents
    ophthalmic lubricants and irrigations
    ophthalmic preparations
    ophthalmic steroids
    ophthalmic steroids with anti-infectives
    ophthalmic surgical agents
    oral nutritional supplements
    otic anesthetics
    otic anti-infectives
    otic preparations
    otic steroids
    otic steroids with anti-infectives
    oxazolidinedione anticonvulsants
    parathyroid hormone and analogs
    penicillinase resistant penicillins
    penicillins
    peripheral opioid receptor antagonists
    peripheral vasodilators
    peripherally acting antiobesity agents
    phenothiazine antiemetics
    phenothiazine antipsychotics
    phenylpiperazine antidepressants
    plasma expanders
    platelet aggregation inhibitors
    platelet-stimulating agents
    polyenes
    potassium-sparing diuretics
    probiotics
    progesterone receptor modulators
    progestins
    prolactin inhibitors
    prostaglandin D2 antagonists
    protease inhibitors
    proton pump inhibitors
    psoralens
    psychotherapeutic agents
    psychotherapeutic combinations
    purine nucleosides
    pyrrolidine anticonvulsants
    quinolones
    radiocontrast agents
    radiologic adjuncts
    radiologic agents
    radiologic conjugating agents
    radiopharmaceuticals
    RANK ligand inhibitors
    recombinant human erythropoietins
    renin inhibitors
    respiratory agents
    respiratory inhalant products
    rifamycin derivatives
    salicylates
    sclerosing agents
    second generation cephalosporins
    selective estrogen receptor modulators
    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
    serotoninergic neuroenteric modulators
    sex hormone combinations
    sex hormones
    skeletal muscle relaxant combinations
    skeletal muscle relaxants
    smoking cessation agents
    somatostatin and somatostatin analogs
    spermicides
    statins
    sterile irrigating solutions
    streptomyces derivatives
    succinimide anticonvulsants
    sulfonamides
    sulfonylureas
    synthetic ovulation stimulants
    tetracyclic antidepressants
    tetracyclines
    therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals
    thiazide diuretics
    thiazolidinediones
    thioxanthenes
    third generation cephalosporins
    thrombin inhibitors
    thrombolytics
    thyroid drugs
    tocolytic agents
    topical acne agents
    topical agents
    topical anesthetics
    topical anti-infectives
    topical antibiotics
    topical antifungals
    topical antihistamines
    topical antipsoriatics
    topical antivirals
    topical astringents
    topical debriding agents
    topical depigmenting agents
    topical emollients
    topical keratolytics
    topical steroids
    topical steroids with anti-infectives
    toxoids
    triazine anticonvulsants
    tricyclic antidepressants
    trifunctional monoclonal antibodies
    tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors
    tyrosine kinase inhibitors
    ultrasound contrast media
    upper respiratory combinations
    urea anticonvulsants
    urinary anti-infectives
    urinary antispasmodics
    urinary pH modifiers
    uterotonic agents
    vaccine
    vaccine combinations
    vaginal anti-infectives
    vaginal preparations
    vasodilators
    vasopressin antagonists
    vasopressors
    VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors
    viral vaccines
    viscosupplementation agents
    vitamin and mineral combinations
    vitamins
  • Diagnostic Tests 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  • ACE (Angiotensin I converting enzyme)
  • Acetaminophen
  • Acid phosphatase
  • ACTH
  • Activated clotting time
    Activated protein C resistance
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  • Albumin Aldolase Aldosterone
  • Alkaline phosphatase
    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
    Alpha1-antitrypsin
  • Alpha-fetoprotein Alpha-fetoprotien
  • Ammonia levels
  • Amylase
  • ANA (antinuclear antibodies)
    ANA (antinuclear antibodies)
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
  • Anion gap
  • Anticardiolipin antibody
    Anticardiolipin antivbodies (ACA)
    Anti-centromere antibody
    Antidiuretic hormone
  • Anti-DNA Anti-Dnase-B
  • Anti-Gliadin antibody
    Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody
    Anti-HBc (Hepatitis B core antibodies
    Anti-HBs (Hepatitis B surface antibody
    Antiphospholipid antibody
    Anti-RNA polymerase
    Anti-Smith (Sm) antibodies
    Anti-Smooth Muscle antibody
  • Antistreptolysin O (ASO) Antithrombin III
  • Anti-Xa activity
    Anti-Xa assay
  • Apolipoproteins Arsenic
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  • B12 Basophil Beta-2-Microglobulin Beta-hydroxybutyrate B-HCG Bilirubin
  • Bilirubin, direct
    Bilirubin, indirect
    Bilirubin, total
    Bleeding time
    Blood gases (arterial)
    Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  • BUN
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  • CA 125 CA 15-3 CA 19-9 Calcitonin Calcium
  • Calcium (ionized)
    Carbon monoxide (CO)
    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
  • CBC CEA
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
  • Ceruloplasmin CH50Chloride Cholesterol Cholesterol, HDL
  • Clot lysis time
    Clot retraction time
  • CMP CO2
  • Cold agglutinins
  • Complement C3 Copper
  • Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test
  • Cortisol
  • Cortrosyn stimulation test
  • C-peptide CPK (Total) CPK-MB
  • C-reactive protein
  • Creatinine
  • Creatinine kinase (CK)
  • Cryoglobulins
  • DAT (Direct antiglobulin test)
  • D-Dimer
  • Dexamethasone suppression test
  • DHEA-S
  • Dilute Russell viper venom
  • Elliptocytes Eosinophil
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Estradiol Estriol Ethanol
  • Ethylene glycol
    Euglobulin lysis
  • Factor V Leiden
  • Factor VIII inhibitor
    Factor VIII level
  • Ferritin
  • Fibrin split products
  • Fibrinogen Folate
  • Folate (serum
    Fractional excretion of sodium (FENA)
    FSH (follicle stimulating factor)
  • FTA-ABS
  • Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)
  • Gastrin
  • GGTP (Gamma glutamyl transferase)
  • Glucose
  • Growth hormone
  • Haptoglobin
  • HBeAg (Hepatitis Be antigen)
    HBs-Ag (Hepatitis B surface antigen)
    Helicobacter pylori
  • Hematocrit Hematocrit (HCT) Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1C
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis
    Hepatitis A antibodies
    Hepatitis C antibodies
    IAT (Indirect antiglobulin test)
  • Immunofixation (IFE) Iron
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    Lactic acid (lactate)
  • LDH
  • LH (Leutinizing hormone
  • Lipase
  • Lupus anticoagulant
  • Lymphocyte Magnesium
  • MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin
    MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
    MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
  • Methylmalonate Monocyte
  • MPV (mean platelet volume)
  • Myoglobin Neutrophil
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • Phosphorus
  • Platelets (pit)
  • Potassium Prealbumin Prolactin
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
  • Protein C Protein S
  • PSA (prostate specific antigen)
    PT (Prothrombin time)
    PTT (Partial thromboplastin time)
    RDW (red cell distribution width)
  • Renin Rennin
  • Reticulocyte count
    reticulocytes
    Rheumatoid factor (RF)
  • Sed Rate
  • Serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT
    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP)
  • Sodium
  • T3-resin uptake (T3RU)
  • T4, Free
  • Thrombin time
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Thyroxine (T4)
  • Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
    Total protein
  • Transferrin
  • Transferrin saturation
  • Triglyceride (TG) Troponin
  • Uric acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • White blood cells (WBC)
    Widal test
    Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with SiOx
  • The apparatus and protocol generally as found in U.S. Pat. No. 7,985,188 were used for coating syringe barrel interiors with an SiOx barrier coating or layer, in some cases with minor variations. A similar apparatus and protocol were used for coating vials with an SiOx barrier coating or layer, in some cases with minor variations.
  • Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with Primer Coating or Layer
  • Syringe barrels already interior coated with a barrier coating or layer of SiOx, as previously identified, are further interior coated with a primer coating or layer of SiOxCy as previously identified, generally following the protocols of U.S. Pat. No. 7,985,188 for applying the lubricity coating or layer, except with modified conditions in certain instances.
  • Protocol for Fi (Breakout or Initiation Force) Measurement
  • Convenient methods for measuring the breakout or initiation force required to initiate travel of a previously parked plunger in a syringe are described in Examples 11, 12, or 21 of U.S. Pat. No. 7,985,188, which are incorporated here by reference.
  • Protocol for Total Silicon Measurement
  • This protocol is used to determine the total amount of silicon coatings present on the entire vessel wall. A supply of 0.1 N potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution is prepared, taking care to avoid contact between the solution or ingredients and glass. The water used is purified water, 18 M′Ω quality. A Perkin Elmer Optima Model 7300DV ICP-OES instrument is used for the measurement except as otherwise indicated.
  • Each device (vial, syringe, tube, or the like) to be tested and its cap and crimp (in the case of a vial) or other closure are weighed empty to 0.001 g, then filled completely with the KOH solution (with no headspace), capped, crimped, and reweighed to 0.001 g. In a digestion step, each vial is placed in an autoclave oven (liquid cycle) at 121° C. for 1 hour. The digestion step is carried out to quantitatively remove the silicon coatings from the vessel wall into the KOH solution. After this digestion step, the vials are removed from the autoclave oven and allowed to cool to room temperature. The contents of the vials are transferred into ICP tubes. The total Si concentration is run on each solution by ICP/OES following the operating procedure for the ICP/OES.
  • The total Si concentration is reported as parts per billion of Si in the KOH solution. This concentration represents the total amount of silicon coatings that were on the vessel wall before the digestion step was used to remove it.
  • The total Si concentration can also be determined for fewer than all the silicon layers on the vessel, as when an SiOx barrier layer is applied, an SiOxCy second layer (for example, a lubricity layer or a primer coating or layer) is then applied, and it is desired to know the total silicon concentration of just the SiOxCy layer. This determination is made by preparing two sets of vessels, one set to which only the SiOx layer is applied and the other set to which the same SiOx layer is applied, followed by the SiOxCy layer or other layers of interest. The total Si concentration for each set of vessels is determined in the same manner as described above. The difference between the two Si concentrations is the total Si concentration of the SiOxCy second layer.
  • Protocol for Measuring Dissolved Silicon in a Vessel
  • In some of the working examples, the amount of silicon dissolved from the wall of the vessel by a test solution is determined, in parts per billion (ppb), for example to evaluate the dissolution rate of the test solution. This determination of dissolved silicon is made by storing the test solution in a vessel provided with an SiOx and/or SiOxCy coating or layer under test conditions, then removing a sample of the solution from the vessel and testing the Si concentration of the sample. The test is done in the same manner as the Protocol for Total Silicon Measurement, except that the digestion step of that protocol is replaced by storage of the test solution in the vessel as described in this protocol. The total Si concentration is reported as parts per billion of Si in the test solution
  • Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate
  • The average dissolution rates reported in the working examples are determined as follows. A series of test vessels having a known total silicon measurement are filled with the desired test solution analogous to the manner of filling the vials with the KOH solution in the Protocol for Total Silicon Measurement. (The test solution can be a physiologically inactive test solution as employed in the present working examples or a physiologically active pharmaceutical preparation intended to be stored in the vessels to form a pharmaceutical package). The test solution is stored in respective vessels for several different amounts of time, then analyzed for the Si concentration in parts per billion in the test solution for each storage time. The respective storage times and Si concentrations are then plotted. The plots are studied to find a series of substantially linear points having the steepest slope.
  • The plot of dissolution amount (ppb Si) versus days decreases in slope with time, even though it does not appear that the Si layer has been fully digested by the test solution.
  • For the PC194 test data in Table 3, linear plots of dissolution versus time data are prepared by using a least squares linear regression program to find a linear plot corresponding to the first five data points of each of the experimental plots. The slope of each linear plot is then determined and reported as representing the average dissolution rate applicable to the test, measured in parts per billion of Si dissolved in the test solution per unit of time.
  • Protocol for Determining Calculated Shelf Life
  • The calculated shelf life values reported in the working examples below are determined by extrapolation of the total silicon measurements and average dissolution rates, respectively determined as described in the Protocol for Total Silicon Measurement and the Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate. The assumption is made that under the indicated storage conditions the SiOxCy primer coating or layer will be removed at the average dissolution rate until the coating is entirely removed. Thus, the total silicon measurement for the vessel, divided by the dissolution rate, gives the period of time required for the test solution to totally dissolve the SiOxCy coating. This period of time is reported as the calculated shelf life. Unlike commercial shelf life calculations, no safety factor is calculated. Instead, the calculated shelf life is the calculated time to failure.
  • It should be understood that because the plot of ppb Si versus hours decreases in slope with time, an extrapolation from relatively short measurement times to relatively long calculated shelf lives is believed to be a “worst case” test that tends to underestimate the calculated shelf life actually obtainable.
  • EXAMPLES Examples 1-3
  • Syringe samples 1-3, employing three different primer coatings or layers, were produced under the following PECVD conditions:
      • OMCTS—2.5 sccm
      • Argon gas—7.6 sccm (when used)
      • Oxygen 0.38 sccm (when used)
      • Power—3 watts
      • Power on time—10 seconds
  • Syringe 1 had a three-component primer coating or layer employing OMCTS, oxygen, and carrier gas. Syringe 2 had a two component primer coating or layer employing OMCTS and oxygen, but no carrier gas. Syringe 3 had a one-component primer coating or layer (OMCTS only). The primer coatings or layers produced according to these working examples are contemplated to function as protective coatings or layers to increase the shelf life of the vessels, compared to similar vessels provided with a barrier coating or layer but no primer coating or layer.
  • Examples 4-6
  • HMDSO was used as the precursor in Examples 4-6. The results are shown in Table 1. The coatings produced according to these working examples are contemplated to function as primer coatings or layers, and also as protective coatings or layers to increase the shelf life of the vessels, compared to similar vessels provided with a barrier coating or layer but no primer coating or layer.
  • Example 7: Primer Coating or Layer Extractables
  • Silicon extractables from syringes were measured using ICP-MS analysis as described in the Protocol for Measuring Dissolved Silicon in a Vessel. The syringes were evaluated in both static and dynamic situations. The Protocol for Measuring Dissolved Silicon in a Vessel, modified as follows, describes the test procedure:
      • Syringe filled with 2 ml of 0.9% saline solution
      • Syringe placed in a stand—stored at 50° C. for 72 hours.
      • After 72 hours saline solution test for dissolved silicon
      • Dissolved silicon measured before and after saline solution expelled through syringe.
  • The extractable Silicon Levels from a silicone oil coated glass syringe and a protective coated and SiOx coated COC syringe are shown in Table 2. Precision of the ICP-MS total silicon measurement is +/−3%.
  • Comparative Example 8: Dissolution of SiOx Coating Versus pH
  • The Protocol for Measuring Dissolved Silicon in a Vessel is followed, except as modified here. Test solutions—50 mM buffer solutions at pH 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 are prepared. Buffers are selected having appropriate pKa values to provide the pH values being studied. A potassium phosphate buffer is selected for pH 3, 7, 8 and 12, a sodium citrate buffer is utilized for pH 6 and tris buffer is selected for pH 9. 3 ml of each test solution is placed in borosilicate glass 5 ml pharmaceutical vials and SiOx coated 5 ml thermoplastic pharmaceutical vials. The vials are all closed with standard coated stoppers and crimped. The vials are placed in storage at 20-25° C. and pulled at various time points for inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICP) analysis of Si content in the solutions contained in the vials, in parts per billion (ppb) by weight, for different storage times.
  • The Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate Si content is used to monitor the rate of glass dissolution, except as modified here. The data is plotted to determine an average rate of dissolution of borosilicate glass or SiOx coating at each pH condition.
  • The rate of Si dissolution in ppb is converted to a predicted thickness (nm) rate of Si dissolution by determining the total weight of Si removed, then using a surface area calculation of the amount of vial surface (11.65 cm2) exposed to the solution and a density of SiOx of 2.2 g/cm3. The predicted initial thickness of the SiOx coating required, based on the conditions and assumptions of this example (assuming a residual SiOx coating of at least 30 nm at the end of the desired shelf life of two years, and assuming storage at 20 to 25° C.) is about 36 nm at pH 5, about 80 nm at pH 6, about 230 nm at pH 7, about 400 nm at pH 7.5, about 750 nm at pH 8, and about 2600 nm at pH 9.
  • The coating thicknesses represent atypically harsh case scenarios for pharma and biotech products. Most biotech products and many pharma products are stored at refrigerated conditions and none are typically recommended for storage above room temperature. As a general rule of thumb, storage at a lower temperature reduces the thickness required, all other conditions being equivalent.
  • The following conclusions are reached, based on this test. First, the amount of dissolved Si in the SiOx coating or glass increases exponentially with increasing pH. Second, the SiOx coating dissolves more slowly than borosilicate glass at a pH lower than 8. The SiOx coating shows a linear, monophasic dissolution over time, whereas borosilicate glass tends to show a more rapid dissolution in the early hours of exposure to solutions, followed by a slower linear dissolution. This may be due to surface accumulation of some salts and elements on borosilicate during the forming process relative to the uniform composition of the SiOx coating. This result incidentally suggests the utility of an SiOx coating on the wall of a borosilicate glass vial to reduce dissolution of the glass at a pH lower than 8. Third, PECVD applied barrier coatings for vials in which pharmaceutical preparations are stored will need to be adapted to the specific pharmaceutical preparation and proposed storage conditions (or vice versa), at least in some instances in which the pharmaceutical preparation interacts with the barrier coating significantly.
  • Example 9
  • An experiment is conducted with vessels coated with SiOx coating+OMCTS primer coating or layer, to test the primer coating or layer for its functionality as a protective coating or layer. The vessels are 5 mL vials (the vials are normally filled with product to 5 mL; their capacity without headspace, when capped, is about 7.5 mL) composed of cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC, Topas® 6013M-07).
  • Sixty vessels are coated on their interior surfaces with an SiOx coating produced in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process using a HMDSO precursor gas according to the Protocol for Coating Tube Interior with SiOx set forth above, except that equipment suitable for coating a vial is used. The following conditions are used.
      • HMDSO flow rate: 0.47 sccm
      • Oxygen flow rate: 7.5 sccm
      • RF power: 70 Watts
      • Coating time: 12 seconds (includes a 2-sec RF power ramp-up time)
  • Next the SiOx coated vials are coated over the SiOx with an SiOxCy coating produced in a PECVD process using an OMCTS precursor gas according to the Protocol for Coating COC Syringe Barrel Interior with OMCTS Lubricity Coating set forth above, except that the same coating equipment is used as for the SiOx coating. Thus, the special adaptations in the protocol for coating a syringe are not used. The following conditions are used.
      • OMCTS flow rate: 2.5 sccm
      • Argon flow rate: 10 sccm
      • Oxygen flow rate: 0.7 sccm
      • RF power: 3.4 Watts
      • Coating time: 5 seconds
  • Eight vials are selected and the total deposited quantity of PECVD coating (SiOx+SiOxCy) is determined with a Perkin Elmer Optima Model 7300DV ICP-OES instrument, using the Protocol for Total Silicon Measurement set forth above. This measurement determines the total amount of silicon in both coatings, and does not distinguish between the respective SiOx and SiOxCy coatings. The results are shown below.
  • Vial Total Silicon ug/L
    1 13844
    2 14878
    3 14387
    4 13731
    5 15260
    6 15017
    7 15118
    8 12736
    Mean 14371
    StdDev 877
    Quantity of SiOx + Lubricity layer on Vials
  • In the following work, except as indicated otherwise in this example, the Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate is followed. Two buffered pH test solutions are used in the remainder of the experiment, respectively at pH 4 and pH 8 to test the effect of pH on dissolution rate. Both test solutions are 50 mM buffers using potassium phosphate as the buffer, diluted in water for injection (WFI) (0.1 um sterilized, filtered). The pH is adjusted to pH 4 or 8, respectively, with concentrated nitric acid.
  • 25 vials are filled with 7.5 ml per vial of pH 4 buffered test solution and 25 other vials are filled with 7.5 ml per vial of pH 4 buffered test solution (note the fill level is to the top of the vial—no head space). The vials are closed using prewashed butyl stoppers and aluminum crimps. The vials at each pH are split into two groups. One group at each pH containing 12 vials is stored at 4° C. and the second group of 13 vials is stored at 23° C.
  • The vials are sampled at Days 1, 3, 6, and 8. The Protocol for Measuring Dissolved Silicon in a Vessel is used, except as otherwise indicated in this example. The analytical result is reported on the basis of parts per billion of silicon in the buffered test solutions of each vial. A dissolution rate is calculated in terms of parts per billion per day as described above in the Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate. The results at the respective storage temperatures follow:
  • Vial SiOx + Lubricity Vial SiOx + Lubricity
    Coating at pH 4 Coating at pH 8
    Shelf Life Conditions 23° C.
    Si Dissolution Rate 31 7
    (PPB/day)
    Shelf Life Conditions 4° C.
    Si Dissolution Rate 7 11
    (PPB/day)
  • The observations of Si dissolution versus time for the OMCTS-based coating at pH8 and pH 4 indicate the pH 4 rates are higher at ambient conditions. Thus, the pH 4 rates are used to determine how much material would need to be initially applied to leave a coating of adequate thickness at the end of the shelf life, taking account of the amount of the initial coating that would be dissolved. The results of this calculation are:
  • Shell Life Calculation
    Vial SiOx + Lubricity
    Coating at pH 4
    Si Dissolution Rate (PPB/day) 31
    Mass of Coating Tested (Total Si) 14,371
    Shelf Life (days) at 23° C. 464
    Shelf Life (years) at 23° C. 1.3
    Required Mass of Coating 22,630
    (Total Si) - 2 years
    Required Mass of Coating 33,945
    (Total Si) - 3 years
  • Based on this calculation, the OMCTS protective layer needs to be about 2.5 times thicker—resulting in dissolution of 33945 ppb versus the 14,371 ppb representing the entire mass of coating tested—to achieve a 3-year calculated shelf life.
  • Example 10
  • The results of Comparative Example 8 and Example 9 above can be compared as follows, where the “primer coating or layer” is the coating of SiOxCy referred to in Example 9.
  • Shelf Life Conditions - - pH 8 and 23° C.
    Vial SiOx Vial SiOx + Lubricity Coating
    Si Dissolution Rate 1,250 7
    (PPB/day)
  • This data shows that the silicon dissolution rate of SiOx alone is reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude at pH 8 in vials also coated with SiOxCy coatings.
  • Another comparison is shown by the data in Table 5 from several different experiments carried out under similar accelerated dissolution conditions.
  • Table 5, Row A (SiOx with OMCTS coating) versus C (SiOx without OMCTS coating) show that the OMCTS primer coating or layer is also an effective protective coating or layer to the SiOx coating at pH 8. The OMCTS coating reduced the one-day dissolution rate from 2504 ug/L (“u” or μ or the Greek letter “mu” as used herein are identical, and are abbreviations for “micro”) to 165 ug/L. This data also shows that an HMDSO-based SiwOxCy (or its equivalent SiOxCy) overcoat (Row D) provided a far higher dissolution rate than an OMCTS-based SiwOxCy (or its equivalent SiOxCy) overcoat (Row A).
  • Example 11
  • An experiment similar to Example 9 was carried out, modified as indicated in this example and in Table 3 (where the results are tabulated). 100 5 mL COP vials were made and coated with an SiOx barrier layer and an OMCTS-based primer coating or layer as described previously, except that for Sample PC194 only the primer coating or layer was applied. The coating quantity was again measured in parts per billion extracted from the surfaces of the vials to remove the entire primer coating or layer, as reported in Table 3.
  • In this example, several different coating dissolution conditions were employed. The test solutions used for dissolution contained either 0.02 or 0.2 wt. % polysorbate-80 surfactant, as well as a buffer to maintain a pH of 8. Dissolution tests were carried out at either 23° C. or 40° C.
  • Multiple syringes were filled with each test solution, stored at the indicated temperature, and analyzed at several intervals to determine the extraction profile and the amount of silicon extracted. An average dissolution rate for protracted storage times was then calculated by extrapolating the data obtained according to the Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate. The results were calculated as described previously and are shown in Table 3. Of particular note, as shown on Table 3, were the very long calculated shelf lives of the filled packages provided with a PC 194 primer coating or layer:
      • 21045 days (over 57 years) based on storage at a pH of 8, 0.02 wt. % polysorbate-80 surfactant, at 23° C.;
      • 38768 days (over 100 years) based on storage at a pH of 8, 0.2 wt. % polysorbate-80 surfactant, at 23° C.;
      • 8184 days (over 22 years) based on storage at a pH of 8, 0.02 wt. % polysorbate-80 surfactant, at 40° C.; and
      • 14732 days (over 40 years) based on storage at a pH of 8, 0.2 wt. % polysorbate-80 surfactant, at 40° C.
  • Referring to Table 3, the longest calculated shelf lives corresponded with the use of an RF power level of 150 Watts and a corresponding high W/FM value. It is believed that the use of a higher power level causes higher cross-link density of the primer coating or layer.
  • Example 12—Deposit of Lubricant
  • A preliminary study was conducted to compare the relative amounts of free (i.e. readily removable) Dow Corning 360 Medical Fluid (PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid) on:
      • borosilicate glass vials,
      • SiOx barrier-coated COP vials, and
      • SiOx barrier-coated COP vials further coated with an OMCTS primer coating or layer.
  • The SiOx barrier coatings were applied according to the Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with SiOx. The OMCTS primer coating or layer was applied according to the Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with OMCTS Primer Coating or Layer.
  • This study was carried out by applying a deposit of Dow Corning 360 Medical Fluid (having a viscosity of 350 CST) to the test vials
  • To carry out the preliminary study, the vials were filled with a 50 mM potassium phosphate solution of pH 8 with 0.2% Tween®-80. The filled vials were closed with a prewashed stopper and aluminum crimp and stored for up to 600 hours at a temperature of 40° C., then the solutions from the vials were tested for PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid content according to the Protocol for Determining Average Dissolution Rate.
  • This preliminary study showed that the OMCTS primer coating or layer prevented significant amounts of PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid from dissolving into a Tween solution, while significant amounts of PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid dissolved in solution from the borosilicate glass vials and SiOx barrier-coated COP vials. The OMCTS primer coating or layer appeared to have a great affinity for PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid, compared to the other substrates tested.
  • Example 13—Hypothetical Example of Deposit of Lubricant
  • A more rigorous study similar to Example 12 is conducted, using as the substrates:
      • borosilicate glass vials,
      • uncoated COP vials,
      • SiOx barrier-coated COP vials, and
      • SiOx barrier-coated COP vials further coated with an OMCTS primer coating or layer.
  • One set of each type of vial is provided with a deposit of PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid, except that, as indicated above, some of the test vials receiving the deposit of lubricant have not previously been coated with a primer coating or layer. A second set of each type of vial does not receive a deposit of lubricant and serves as controls.
  • The vials are filled with one of the following test solutions:
      • 50 mM aqueous phosphate solutions with pHs of 4.0, 6.5, 8.0, 8.0, each also containing 0.2% Tween®-80
      • water for injection (wfi) and
      • 300 mM aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl).
  • All vials with solution are incubated at 40° C. and samples pulled at the intervals shown in the table below for testing. The following tests are performed:
      • Dissolved Si in solution, a measure of silicone oil and dissolved SiO2
      • Total Organic Carbon (TOC) on solution not containing tween, to determine amount of silicone oil in solution
      • Particulates focusing on low micron channels to measure micelles of silicone oil
      • pH of wfi solutions
      • Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) as deemed appropriate to verify integrity of barrier coatings
  • The study is expected to demonstrate that the application of a primer coating or layer as described in this specification improves the retention of the PMDS non-reactive silicone fluid on the vials.
  • Example 14—Measurement of Contact Angle
  • The test purpose was to determine the contact angle or surface energy on the inside surface of two kinds of plastic vials and one kind of glass vial
  • The specimens that underwent testing and analysis reported here are three kinds of vials. The specimens are (A) an uncoated COP vial, (B) an SiOx+primer layer coated COP vial prepared according to the above Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with SiOx, followed by the Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with OMCTS Primer Coating or Layer, and (C) a glass vial. Small pieces were obtained by cutting the plastic vials or crushing the glass vial in order to test the inside surface.
  • The analysis instrument for the contact angle tests is the Contact Angle Meter model DM-701, made by Kyowa Interface Science Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). To obtain the contact angle, five water droplets were deposited on the inside surface of small pieces obtained from each specimen. The testing conditions and parameters are summarized below. Both plastic vials were cut and trimmed, while the glass vial needed to be crushed. The best representative pieces for each specimen were selected for testing. A dropsize of 1 μL (one microliter) was used for all samples. Due to the curvature of the specimens, a curvature correction routine was used to accurately measure the contact angle. The second table below contains the values for the radius of curvature used for each specimen.
  • Contact Angle Testing Conditions and Parameters
  • Test instrument DM-701 Contact Angle Meter
    Liquid Dispenser 22 gauge stainless steel needle
    Drop Size 1 μL
    Test liquid Distilled water
    Environment Ambient air, room temperature
  • Radius of Curvature for Each Vial Specimen
  • Radius of Curvature
    Specimen (μm, micrometers)
    COP 9240
    COP plus primer 9235
    Glass 9900
  • The contact angle results for each specimen are provided below.
  • The COP plus primer coated specimen had the highest average contact angle of all tested specimens. The average contact angle for the COP plus primer coating or layer specimen was 99.1. The average contact angle for the uncoated COP specimen was 90.5°. The glass specimen had a significantly lower average contact angle at 10.6°. This data shows the utility of the primer coating to raise the contact angle of the uncoated COP vessel. It is expected that an SiOx coated vessel without the primer coating or layer would exhibit a result similar to glass, which shows a hydrophilic coating relative to the primer coating or layer.
  • Contact Angle Result for Each Tested Specimen (degrees)
    Test Std.
    Specimen Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 5 Ave Dev.
    COP 88.9 91.9 89.1 91.4 91.1 90.5 1.4
    COP/Primer 98.9 96.8 102.2 98.3 99.5 99.1 2.0
    Glass 11.6 10.6 10.1 10.4 10.4 10.6 0.6
  • Example 15
  • The purpose of this example was to evaluate the recoverability or drainage of a slightly viscous aqueous solution from glass, COP and coated vials,
  • This study evaluated the recovery of a 30 cps (centipoise) carbohydrate solution in water-for-injection from (A) an uncoated COP vial, (B) an SiOx+primer layer coated COP vial prepared according to the above Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with SiOx, followed by the Protocol for Coating Syringe Barrel Interior with OMCTS Primer Coating or Layer, and (C) a glass vial.
  • 2.0 ml of the carbohydrate solution was pipetted into 30 vials each of glass, COP and primer coated vials. The solution was aspirated from the vials with a 10 ml syringe, through a 23 gauge, 1.5″ needle. The vials were tipped to one side as the solution was aspirated to maximize the amount recovered. The same technique and similar withdrawal time was used for all vials. The vials were weighed empty, after placing 2.0 ml of the solution to the vial and at the conclusion of aspirating the solution from the vial. The amount delivered to the vial (A) was determined by subtracting the weight of the empty vial from the weight of the vial with the 2.0 ml of solution. The weight of solution not recovered (B) was determined by subtracting the weight of the empty vial from the weight of the vials after aspirating the solution from the vial. The percent unrecovered was determined by dividing B by A and multiplying by 100.
  • It was observed during the aspiration of drug product that the glass vials remained wetted with the solution. The COP vial repelled the liquid and as the solution was aspirated from the vials. This helped with recovery but droplets were observed to bead on the sidewalls of the vials during the aspiration. The primer coated vials also repelled the liquid during aspiration but no beading of solution on the sidewalls was observed.
  • The conclusion was that primer coated vials do not wet with aqueous solutions as do glass vials, leading to superior recovery of drug product relative to glass. Primer coated vials were not observed to cause beading of solution on sidewall during aspiration of aqueous products therefore coated vials performed better than uncoated COP vials in product recovery experiments.
  • Example 16—PECVD Treatments and Lubricity Testing
  • Multiple syringe samples of each type defined below are plasma processed (except the comparative examples), lubricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), assembled and filled, and then tested for breakout force. The plasma treating processes and PECVD primer coating formulations used on the syringes tested in this example are among those defined by the parameters set out in Table 4 (employing HMDSO to deposit a PECVD coating, or no HMDSO to effect a plasma treatment without coating, or no HMDSO to effect a plasma treatment of the SiOxCy or SiNxCy coated surface), and the data obtained is presented in FIG. 3.
  • The treatment conditions and data identified as “421-48 COP” relate to plastic syringe samples composed of cyclic olefin polymer (COP) that has not been plasma treated (Comparative example).
  • The treatment conditions and data identified as “EO-4 bilayer” relate to plastic syringe samples composed of cyclic olefin polymer. A bi-layer coating (an SiOx barrier coating or layer, followed by an SiOxCy pH protective coating or layer) is applied to the interior surface of the syringe using a PECVD process. The top (pH protective) layer is hydrophobic. After PDMS is applied onto the top layer the syringe is treated with ethylene oxide (sterilization).
  • The treatment conditions and data identified as “EO-1 SiOx” relate to plastic syringe samples composed of cyclic olefin polymer. A SiOx coating is applied to the interior surface of the syringe using a PECVD process. The SiOx layer is hydrophilic. PDMS is applied on to the SiOx layer. The syringe has been treated with ethylene oxide (sterilization).
  • The treatment conditions and data identified as “BD” relate to a glass syringe commercially available from Becton, Dickinson and Company or a related company, which is coated by the supplier with 1000 cst PDMS (Comparative example).
  • The treatment conditions and data identified as “Schott” relate to a glass syringe commercially available from Schott AG or a related company, which is coated by the supplier with 1000 cst PDMS (Comparative example).
  • The barrel interior of each of the above-listed samples except the glass syringes is coated with approximately 1 mg of PDMS (Dow 360 Medical Fluid, 1,000 cst) using an IVEK Multispense 2000 coater under the following conditions:
      • Volume—0.8-1.0 mL
      • Dispense Rate—10 □L/sec
      • Atomizing Pressure—5-8 psi (×N/cm2)
      • Back Pressure—25-30 psi (×N/cm2)
  • The syringe barrels are then assembled with Grey Stelmi plunger tips, which are parked in the syringe for the amount of time indicated in FIG. 3, then tested for Fi (breakout force). Breakout force testing is then conducted similarly to the testing in Example 21 of U.S. Pat. No. 7,985,188.
  • The results of this testing are shown in FIG. 3. Fi in Newtons (N) is shown in the vertical scale. and hours are shown in the horizontal scale.
  • The following guide is provided to assist interpretation of the test results represented in FIG. 3. A high breakout force is undesirable because it indicates that a user administering medication to a patient using the syringe needs to apply a large force to start the plunger moving. Typically, the force to keep the plunger moving is lower than the breakout force, so the syringe typically is prone to jerking after breakout when administration of a medicament is started, causing discomfort to the recipient. A rapidly increasing breakout force versus park time is undesirable because it indicates that the syringe will soon age as the park time increases, to the point where the breakout force is high with the disadvantage noted above. Thus, a rapidly increasing breakout force with park time indicates a syringe with a short useful shelf life.
  • As FIG. 3 illustrates, the data points such as 650 represent the breakout force data for the lubricated, non-plasma treated COP syringe. This syringe type has the highest breakout force after any tested park time, and the breakout force increases substantially with park time—for example at 0.25 hours (15 minutes) park time the breakout force is about 6 N but at 24 hours the breakout force is about 18 N—three times as great.
  • The bilayer syringe samples represented by the data points 652 of FIG. 3 have a much lower breakout force and a much lower rate of increase of breakout force with park time than the non-plasma-treated samples represented by the data points 650. Thus, at 0.25 hours (15 minutes) park time the breakout force is about 3.5 N, while at 24 hours park time the breakout force is about 7.6 N.
  • The SiOx barrier coated syringe samples represented by the data points 654 of FIG. 3 have a much lower breakout force and rate of increase with park time than the samples described above represented by the data points 650 and 652. Thus, at 0.25 hours, 15 minutes, the SiOx barrier coated syringe samples have a breakout force of less than 2 N, comparable to that of the glass-coated syringes represented by the overlapping data points 656 and 658, and at 24 hours the overlap is similar and the breakout force is about 3.5 N. Under the test conditions, therefore, the COP syringes that are barrier coated and lubricated with PDMS perform about as well as the glass syringes. This is a surprising result, showing that the barrier coating on a plastic syringe makes its breakout performance substantially that of a much more expensive and breakable glass syringe.
  • Example 17—PECVD and Plasma Treatments and Lubricity Testing
  • Example 17 is carried out comparably to Example 16, except that in addition to the above types of samples, all represented by data points having the same reference numbers in FIG. 4 as in FIG. 3, another type of samples, represented by data points such as 660, represented among the surface modifications in Table 4 employing no monomer (“NA”), was also prepared and tested. These represent plasma treatment without PECVD coating, or plasma treatment after applying a pH protective layer by PECVD. FIG. 4 shows similar results again, and for the plasma treatment only samples represented by the points 660, the results are surprisingly similar to those obtained using glass or SiOx barrier coated syringe barrels.
  • The working examples thus show several different types of plasma treatments, with and without deposition of a PECVD coating, improving the breakout force and the rate of increase of breakout force with park time in a molded plastic syringe.
  • Tables
  • TABLE 1
    primer coating or layer
    OMCTS O2 Ar
    Example (sccm) (sccm) (sccm)
    I 2.5 0.38 7.6
    J 2.5 0.38
    K 2.5
  • TABLE 2
    Silicon Extractables Comparison of Lubricity Coatings
    Package Type Static (ug/L) Dynamic (ug/L)
    Cyclic Olefin Syringe with CV 70 81
    Holdings SiOCH Lubricity Coating
    Borocilicate Glass Syringe 825 835
    with silicone oil
  • TABLE 3
    OMCTS Argon O2 Total Si Average
    Flow Flow Flow Plasma (ppb) Calculated Rate of
    Rate Rate Rate Power Duration W/FM (OMCTS) Shelf-life Dissolution
    Sample (sccm) (sccm) (sccm) (W) (sec) (kJ/kg) layer) (days) (ppb/day)
    Si Dissolution @
    Process Parameters pH 8/23° C./0.02% Tween ®-80
    PC194 0.5 20 0.5 150 20 1223335 73660 21045 3.5
    018 1.0 20 0.5 18 15 77157 42982 1330 32.3
    Si Dissolution @
    Process Parameters pH 8/23° C./0.2% Tween ®-80
    PC194 0.5 20 0.5 150 20 1223335 73660 38768 1.9
    018 1.0 20 0.5 18 15 77157 42982 665 64.6
    048 4 80 2 35 20 37507 56520 1074 52.62
    Si Dissolution @
    Process Parameters pH 8/40° C./0.02% Tween ®-80
    PC194 0.5 20 0.5 150 20 1223335 73660 8184 9
    018 1.0 20 0.5 18 15 77157 42982 511 84
    Si Dissolution @
    Process Parameters pH 8/40° C./0.2% Tween ®-80
    PC194 0.5 20 0.5 150 20 1223335 73660 14732 5
    018 1.0 20 0.5 18 15 77157 42982 255 168
  • TABLE 4
    Surface Monomer Argon Oxygen Power Time
    Mod Monomer (sccm) (sccm) (sccm) (W) (sec)
    1 HMDSO about 3 0 25 35 2.5
    2 HMDSO 0 25 35 5
    3 HMDSO 0 25 35 10
    4 HMDSO 0 25 40 5
    5 HMDSO 0 50 40 5
    6 HMDSO 0 75 40 5
    7 None NA 50 0 40 5
    8 None NA 25 25 40 5
    9 None NA 0 50 40 5
  • TABLE 5
    Silicon Dissolution with pH 8 at 40° C.
    Vial Coating (ug/L)
    Description 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 7 days 10 days 15 days
    A. SiOx made 165 211 226 252 435 850 1,364
    with HMDSO
    Plasma +
    SiwOxCy or its
    equivalent
    SiOxCy made
    with OMCTS
    Plasma
    B. SiwOxCy or 109 107 76 69 74 158 198
    its equivalent
    SiOxCy made
    with OMCTS
    Plasma
    C. SiOx made 2,504 4,228 5,226 5,650 9,292 10,177 9,551
    with HMDSO
    Plasma
    D. SiOx made 1,607 1,341 3,927 10,182 18,148 20,446 21,889
    with HMDSO
    Plasma +
    SiwOxCy or its
    equivalent
    SiOxCy made
    with HMDSO
    Plasma
    E. SiwOxCy or 1,515 1,731 1,813 1,743 2,890 3,241 3,812
    its equivalent
    SiOxCy made
    with HMDSO
    Plasma

Claims (30)

1. A vessel having a lumen defined at least in part by a wall, the wall having an interior surface facing the lumen, an outer surface, and a coating set on the interior surface comprising:
a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) primer coating or layer on the interior surface, in which the primer coating or layer consists essentially of SiOxCy, in which x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y is from about 0.6 to about 3; and
optionally a barrier coating or layer between the primer coating or layer and the vessel wall, in which the barrier coating consists essentially of SiOx, in which x is from 1.5 to 2.9;
wherein, in the presence of a fluid composition contained in the lumen, the coating set presents a higher recovery rate for the fluid composition than an uncoated fluid contacting surface or a glass surface.
2. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the fluid is an aqueous liquid.
3. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the fluid is a high viscosity solution or a low viscosity solution.
4. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the fluid contains a drug.
5. The vessel of claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the wall of the vessel comprises a cyclic olefin polymer.
6. The vessel of claim 1, wherein at least a portion of the wall of the vessel comprises glass.
7. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the vessel is a syringe barrel, a vial, or a blister package.
8. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the barrier coating or layer is from 4 nm to 500 nm thick.
9. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the primer coating is applied by PECVD of a precursor feed comprising an acyclic siloxane, a monocyclic siloxane, a polycyclic siloxane, a polysilsesquioxane, a monocyclic silazane, a polycyclic silazane, a polysilsesquiazane, a silatrane, a silquasilatrane, a silproatrane, an azasilatrane, an azasilquasiatrane, an azasilproatrane, or a combination of any two or more of these precursors.
10. The vessel of claim 1, wherein the primer coating or layer is between 10 and 1000 nm thick.
11. The vessel of claim 1, further comprising an adhesion layer between the barrier coating or layer and the vessel wall.
12. A vessel having a lumen defined at least in part by a wall, the wall having an interior surface facing the lumen, an outer surface, and a coating set on the interior surface comprising:
a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) primer coating or layer on the interior surface, in which the primer coating or layer consists essentially of SiOxCy, in which x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y is from about 0.6 to about 3; and
optionally a barrier coating or layer between the primer coating or layer and the vessel wall, in which the barrier coating consists essentially of SiOx, in which x is from 1.5 to 2.9;
wherein the coating set has a higher contact angle with water than an uncoated fluid contacting surface or a glass surface.
13. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 0° C. to 35° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of the uncoated COP surface.
14. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 0° C. to 20° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of the uncoated COP surface.
15. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of at least 4° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of the uncoated COP surface.
16. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 0° C. to 100° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of glass surface.
17. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of from 0° C. to 80° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of glass surface.
18. The vessel of claim 12, wherein the primer coated surface has a contact angle (with distilled water) of at least 70° C. greater than the contact angle (with distilled water) of glass surface.
19. A vessel having a lumen defined at least in part by a wall, the wall having an interior surface facing the lumen, an outer surface, and a coating set on the interior surface comprising:
a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) primer coating or layer on the interior surface, in which the primer coating or layer consists essentially of SiOxCy, in which x is from about 0.5 to about 2.4 and y is from about 0.6 to about 3;
optionally a barrier coating or layer between the primer coating or layer and the vessel wall, in which the barrier coating consists essentially of SiOx, in which x is from 1.5 to 2.9; and
a deposit of fluid lubricant on the PECVD treated surface; wherein the primer coated surface has a greater affinity for the fluid lubricant deposited thereon than an uncoated fluid contact surface or a glass surface.
20. The vessel of claim 19, wherein the fluid lubricant comprises polydimethylsiloxane.
21. The vessel of claim 19, wherein the deposit of fluid lubricant is formed on the PECVD treated surface by spraying a liquid lubricant.
22. The vessel of claim 19, further comprising an adhesion layer between the barrier coating or layer and the vessel wall.
23. The vessel of claim 19, wherein the vessel is a syringe having a barrel.
24. The vessel of claim 23, wherein the syringe further comprises a plunger within the barrel.
25. The vessel of claim 24, wherein at least a portion of the plunger comprises chlorobutyl rubber, bromobutyl rubber, silicone rubber, or a combination of any two or more of these.
26. The vessel of claim 24, wherein the plunger has an outer sliding surface configured to slide within the inner surface of the lumen of the barrel.
27. The vessel of claim 26, wherein the outer sliding surface is a PECVD treated surface.
28. The vessel of claim 19, wherein at least a portion of the wall of the vessel comprises a cyclic olefin polymer.
29. The vessel of claim 19, wherein the primer coating is applied by PECVD of a precursor feed comprising an acyclic siloxane, a monocyclic siloxane, a polycyclic siloxane, a polysilsesquioxane, a monocyclic silazane, a polycyclic silazane, a polysilsesquiazane, a silatrane, a silquasilatrane, a silproatrane, an azasilatrane, an azasilquasiatrane, an azasilproatrane, or a combination of any two or more of these precursors.
30. The vessel of claim 19, wherein the primer coating or layer is between 10 and 1000 nm thick.
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