US2016742A - Point structure for straight knitting machines - Google Patents

Point structure for straight knitting machines Download PDF

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US2016742A
US2016742A US74884034A US2016742A US 2016742 A US2016742 A US 2016742A US 74884034 A US74884034 A US 74884034A US 2016742 A US2016742 A US 2016742A
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point
needle
needles
tip
loop
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Gastrich Gustav
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Textile Machine Works
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Textile Machine Works
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B11/00Straight-bar knitting machines with fixed needles
    • D04B11/18Straight-bar knitting machines with fixed needles for producing patterned fabrics
    • D04B11/22Straight-bar knitting machines with fixed needles for producing patterned fabrics with stitch patterns

Description

Oct. 8, 1935. G. GASTRICH POINT STRUCTURE FOR STRAIGHT KNITTING MACHINES 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed June 2, 1933 L 1 r:- E FL 3.5.

Fir-IL IN V EN TOR. 69151210 g I A TTORNE Y.

Oct. 8, 1935. G. GASTRICH POINT STRUCTURE FOR STRAIGHT KNITTING MACHINES 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 F1 IE- -7. F15 -EI- Original Filed June 2, 1955 Fi -5- Fla-Eu- INVENTOR. iii/Z Liaairiah, ATTORNEY.

Oct. 8, 1935. GASTRlCH 2,016,742

POINT STRUCTURE FOR STRAIGHT KNITTING MACHINES Original Filed June 2 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 I INVEN TOR: fiusiivv fizvsii'ick I BY I ATTORNE Oct. 8, 1935.- s c I I 7 2,016,742

POINT. STRUCTURE FOR STRAIGHT KNITTING MACHINES Original Filed June 2, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 IN V EN TOR.

' This tension results in an increased flexure of when the needle and the point Patente PGINT STRUCTURE FOR, STRAEGHT T'iEmG CHINES corporation of Pennsylvania Original application June 2, 1933, Serial No.

Divided and this application October 18,1934, Serial No. 748,840

6 Claims.

My invention relates to novel loop engaging point members particularly constructed for cooperation with spring beard knitting needles to produce special loops in fabrics,- such as those of the run-proof type.

This application is a division of my copending application on a Method'and means for forming special loops in knitted fabrics, Serial No. 673,985, filed June 2, 1933, issued October 30, 1934 as Patent No. 1,978,454, and assigned to Textile Machine Works, Wyomissing, Pennsylvania.

In the manufacture of run-resist, or run-proof, knitted fabrics and articles of wearing apparel, such as hosiery, plain loops arefirst formed, and the bight portions of selected loops, such as alternate loops, are extended or spread, by means of transfer or other loop-spreading points, from the needles, about which the loops are originally formed, to other needles. These operations produce locking or barrier stitches for limiting or preventing runs in the fabric caused by thread rupture. A loop may be spread from one needle to the next adjacent needle, or it may be spread across several needles, in either the same, or a succeeding, course. When a loop is spread from one needle to another, a greater thread length than that of a plain loop is required, and, since the loop, prior to spreading, is of ordinary length, the spread loop is under greater tension during the spreading operation than the plain loop.

the needle, and a greater tendency of the loop to slip off the needle during the spreading operation.

Heretofore, it has been proposed to employ a loop shifting point in which the entire lower portion of one of the side walls, which define the groove of the point, is cutaway to enable the needle beard to remain open, at the time the; needle and the point go to press, for insertion of the point intothe loop to be spread, so that, descend into the knockover-bit structure, the loop will slide upwardly to a position under the beard of the needle, and thereby be prevented from slipping off the needle during the spreading operation. This point construction, however, has a serious drawback because, at the time the needle and point go to press, the tip of the point does not remain in the center of the needle groove as it should remain to operate properly, but is deflected to one side, in a direction to cause the beard of the.

needle to be-defiected or forced to one side. -When the needles and the points descend into the knockover bit structure, the needle beards strike the knockover bits, thus damaging or stripping the beards from the needles, causing excessive breakage and resulting in imperfect fabric.

An object of the invention is the provision, for use in combination with a spring beard needle in a knitting machine, of a loop-spreading point for permitting the needle beard to remain open during the descent of the needle and the point into the knockover bit structure, which point will not cause deflection or distortion of the needle beard, and which will ensure accurate alignment .of the needle with its associated point during engagement of the point with the needle in the needle groove,

Another, object of the invention is to provide such a point which will ensure that selected loops will pass under the beards of the needles, about' which they are formed, prior to a loop-shifting or spreading operation.

Another object is to provide such a point which will enable selected loops to pass under the beards of the needles prior to the descent of the needles, and their associated points, into the knockover bit structure, while substantially unaffecting the timing of the needles and points, and the associated mechanisms, during the operating cycle thereof.-

With these and other objects in View, which will become apparent in the-following description of the illustrative embodiments of the invention shown in the accompanying drawings, the invention resides in the novel elements, features of construction, and combination of parts in cooperative relationship, as hereinafter more particularly pointed out in the claims.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a side view of a loop spreading point constructed in accordance with my invention for producing right-spread loops;

Fig. 2 is a front View of the point member of 40 Fig. 1;

i Fig. 3 is a front view of a loop-spreading point constructed in accordance with the invention to produce left spread loops;

Fig. 4 is a side view of the point member of Fig. 3;

Figs. 5'and 6 are enlarged fragmentary front and side views of a needle, and a loop spreading point, constructed in accordance with the invention showing the alignment of, and coaction between, the needle and the point;

Figs. 7 and 8 are enlarged fragmentary front and side views of a needle and loop-spreading point, illustrating the manner in which a point causes deflection of the needle beard;

Fig. 9 is a greatly enlarged cross sectional view, taken substantially along the line 99 of Fig. 6, the figure being turned through an angle of ninety degrees, so that the beard of the needle is represented as facing toward the observer;

Fig. 10 is a greatly enlarged cross sectional view, taken substantially along the line I0I0 of Fig. 8, this figure also being turned through an angle of ninety degrees;

Figs. 11 to 15 are views illustrating the points and needles in various positions assumed during the formation of spread loops.

Fig. 16 is a diagrammatic View illustrating a loop formation, and the points and needles in the positions shown in Figs. 11 to 15, while knitting run-proof fabric; and

Fig. 17 shows a point of modified form in one operating position.

Referring to the drawings:

Figs. 1 to 8, and 11 to 17, illustrate portions of a Reading full fashioned knitting machine embodying the elements of my invention. For clearness, only those parts of the machine necessary for an understanding of the invention are illustrated; the other parts, and the manner of operation thereof, being well known in the art, as fully shown and described in the Reading Full Fashioned Knitting Machine catalogue, copy-' right, 1929, and published by the Textile Machine Works, Reading, Pennsylvania.

Referring to Figs. 11 to 17, a sinker and divider mechanism is of usual construction comprising sinkers 95 and dividers 96 mounted in a sinker head having movable knockover bits 91. The sinkers and dividers, and the associated devices and mechanisms, are operated in proper time relation to enable the needles to form loops, and to cooperate with the lock stitch motion mechanism to spread or extend selected loops, from the wales in which they originate, into adjacent wales of the fabric.

A look stitch motion mechanism, as shown in the application of which this application is a division, comprises various parts and devices cooperating to cause point members I04, Figs. 11 to 16, to engage loops on selected needles, and spread or extend the same over adjacent needles, to produce interlocking loops alternating in position with respect to each other, in succeeding courses of the fabric, to enable the same to possess non-run characteristics.

The point members I04 are of special construction to enable them to properly cooperate with a lock stitch motion mechanism, as shown in the parent application. To spread or extend loops from selected needles to adjacent needles, it is necessary to laterally shift the points a distance of one or a greater number of needles, at the proper time, in the cycle of operation of the points and needles. Any mechanism suitable forthe purpose may be employed, for laterally shifting the points, to perform the loop spreading operation, but I preferably employ mechanism of the type disclosed and claimed in my copending application, Serial No. 623,206, filed July .18, 1932,

' and issued April 16, 1935, as Patent No. 1,998,364,

to cause shifting movement of the points, at the I proper times, to spread loops Ia over pairs of adjacent needles, and to alternate the positions of the spread loops I in succeeding interlocking courszs 2, 2a, Fig. 16; or to spread the loops I alternately in opposite directions, if so desired.

The point member preferably employed, in connection with the lock stitch motion mechanism, is shown in Figs. 1 to 8. Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 6 ShOW 8! point member for spreading the interlocking loops I to the right, Fig. 16. Figs. 3 and 4 show a point of the same type for producing left spread loops. The point member comprises an elongated body including an angularly related butt portion I40, a stem or shank MI, and a longitudinal section of channel form having side walls I43 and I44 merging into a bottom wall and defining a groove I42 for receiving the spring beard I45 of the as sociated needle 88. Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 or Figs. 3 and 4, the side wall I43 terminates, at one end, at a position between the grooved portion and the tip of the point, the wall being removed or omitted, on an extension I of the point body, from a position b to the tip I5I of the point. This structure is for the purpose of permitting the spring beard I45 toopen, after the needle and point have gone to press, and are in the position shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 12, so that the loop Ia, into which the point is inserted, will slide under the beard of the needle during descent of the needle and the point into the knockover bit structure, as illustrated in Fig. 13. The loop spreading points may be thereby caused to travel in the same path as, and have substantially the movements of, transfcr points in the usual narrowing, or other loop transfer, operations.

The extension I58 thus includes a portion of only the one side wall I44, and a portion I54 of the bottom wall of the grooved portion; to render it ing relation to both lateral side walls of the needle in the needle groove It has heretofore been proposed to employ a loop-spreading point, such as shown in Figs. '7 and 8, in which one of the walls I4! is cut away throughout the greater part of its length, and through the tip I48 of thepoint, to permit the needle beard I45 to remain open at the time the needle and the point go to press. .This point, however, has proved impracticable, because of the fact that a large number of needle beards are deflected sidewise by the points, as shown in Fig. 7, at the time the needles and the points go to press, the needle beards being deflected to such an extent that they strike the knockover bits 9! and are stripped thereby from the needles during descent of the needles and the-points into the knockover bits. I have found that the principal reason for this excessive deflection and breakage of the needle beards is as follows:

Referring to Fig.- 10, which is a greatly enlarged cross sectional view, taken as indicated by the line III-I6 of Fig. 8, except that the beard of the needle ispresented toward the observer, the bottom I 49 of the needle groove has a relatively broad rounded surface. At the time the needle and point go to press, and the tip I48 of the point enters the needle groove, considerable pressure is exertedupon the needle and the point, and, since substantially one half of the lower end, including the tip of the point, has been cut away, the point is unsymmetrical, and is off center with respect to the needle groove;

the point therefore tending to center itself by and y to the right, as viewed in Figs. 7 and 10,

causes deflection of the needle beard in the same direction.

It might ordinarily be assumed that this relatively small displacement of the point would have little practical effect upon the needle heard, but the following factors show otherwise: The distance, from the position e, where the point presses against the needle beard, to the positionat the tip of the point, is but a small portion of the distance from the tip of the point to the part of the point clamped to the point bar, and therefore, the lateral displacement, which occurs at the position e, is substantially the same as that at the tip of the point; the distance from the position (1, at the end of the needle, to the position e, however, being much less than the distance from the position e to the position 1, at the-tip of the needle beard, so that the displacing movement, imparted by the point to the beard at the position e, is magnified several times at the tip of the beard, and thus, for any given displacement of the tip of the point, there results therefrom a much greater displacement at the tip of the beard. Therefore, a relatively small displacement of the point in the needle groove causes the beard to be deflected to such extent that it is likely to strike the knockover bit structure when the needle and the point descend.

In a point member constructed in accordance with the invention, as more clearly seen in the'enlarged views of Figs. 5, 6 and 9, the solid section of metal l5l is provided at the tip of thepoint, so that the tip is symmetrical; that 'is, it is shaped as though the walls M2 and M3,

and the bottom wall therebetween. were continued down to, and through, the tip HM, and

shaped in accordance with the cross-sectional contour of the needle groove so that, when it is in this groove, there is substantially no lateral play between the needle and the point. In other words, it is of such size and configuration as to closely fit the needle groove, and to coact with both walls l5? of the needle. This construction ensures that the point will be accurately centered in the needle groove, and will be maintained in precise alignment therewith, so that the needle beard is not deflected by the point, but retains its normal position.

It has also been found desirable to have the wall M3 of the point, Figs. 1 and 2, of such length, from a to b, that the end of theneedle will be received by the point groove-early in the pressing operation, as shown in Fig. 11. This feature provides an additional means for aligning the point with the needle, so that the point will be aligned at two points, with respect to the needle, at the time the needle and the point go to press. The longer wall portion also materially strengthens the point at the place where considerable stress is exerted thereon by the loop to. engaged by it during the spreading operation, and prevents, or minimizes, bending and breakage of the of the point. To cause thebeard to reopen, the

normal downward travel of the point is retarded for a brief interval of time, immediately after the needle and point go to press, to cause relativev sliding movement between them. This action decreases the extent of overlap between the needle and the point to permit the needle beard to open prior to, and remain open during, the descent of the needle and the point together into the knockover bit structure. as shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 12, for ensuring that the loop la will slide under the beard. The downward travel of the point relative to the needle is retarded for a short interval of time immediately after the needle and the point have gone to press, Fig. 11, and until the needle beard has opened, Fig. 12. The downward movement of the point is accelerated during a brief interval of time, and, at the position of the needle and the point, after they have descended into the knockover bits, Fig. 13, the point and the needle are again in the usual positions relative to each other. In this manner, the timing of the needle and the point relative to each other is unchanged, except during a very slight interval of time during travel thereof, and the timing of the needle and the point relative to the L.

the invention to existing installations for the production of run-proof fabric by the simple expedient of replacing the usual narrowing lift cams, and adding point bars carrying spread loop points of the type herein disclosed. The change, in the contour of the narrowing lift cams, does not ap- :3

preciably affect the action thereof, when performing narrowing or other loop transfer operations, thereby rendering a machine so equipped capable of selectively knitting run-proof and plainlrnit fabrics, or fabrics of other types ordinarily producible on the machine, or any desired combination thereof.

Figs. 11 to 15 illustrate one each of a series of needles 8Q, loop spreading points 8M, sinkers and dividers 95 and 96, and knockover bits 9?, in various relative positions during the loop spreading operation in producing the fabric of Fig. 16.

Fig. 17 illustrates a point E53 of modified form having its tip constructed in the manner of the point tilt hereinbefore described, but in which 5) and the point are in contact with each other. C)

This. point may be employed with the regular narrowing lift cams for narrowing and other loop transfer operations, since it is unnecessary to retard the downward movement of the point to permit'the needle heard to open, and, although (55 this point is not so rugged as the preferred point it, it-ensures accuratealignment of the needle with the point, and, for various purposes, may be employed with substantially the advantages of the preferred form.

Referring to Fig. 15, when the loop is being elongated or, spread, the sinkers and the dividers have been retracted to prevent interference with the points in the lateral shiftingthereof. The

cam surfaces of the pattern cams are of such contour as to twice change the normal position of the point rod, for subsequent shift thereof, to alternate or stagger the spread loops walewise -of the fabric, as illustrated in Fig. 16.

Figs. 11 to 16 inclusive, illustrate the relative movement of a single point I54 in the row of points, and a single needle 80 in the row of needies for spreading the loop Ia about adjacent needles. Fig. 11 shows the point at the beginning of its descent, and immediately after the needle and the point have gone to press. The two walls of the point groove engage the end of the needles, and the tip of the point is engaged in the groove of the needle, thus providing two points of alignment of these members relative to each other. At this time, the needle beard has been closed by the action of the point.

In Fig. 12, the point and the needle have continued their descent, but the movement of the point, relative to the needle, has been retarted by the action of the narrowing lift cam, so that the degree of overlap of the needle and the point is decreased to an extent sufficient to cause the beard of the needle to open prior to the descent of the needle and the point into the knockover bits, thus enabling the loop Ia to slide under the heard in the further downward movement of the needle and the point, as shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 14 shows the point and the needle after they have descended into the knockover bits, at which time, the needle has moved away from the point, one limb of the loop being retained under the beard of the needle.

Fig. 15 illustrates the relative positions of the point and the needle after they have risen to a position such that the point is above the knockover bit structure, at which time, the point is .usual positions relative to the points.

' shifted laterally for extending the bight portion of the loop to position to be delivered to an adiacent needle.

Fig. 16 is a plan view looking down upon the fabric as it is knit, and shows the points I04, and the bight portions of the loops Ia thereon, in position to be engaged by adjacent rising needles a, thus completing the'spreading opera- .tion, thereby to produce an interlocking course,

as shown; the spread loops in adjacent interlocking courses 2, 211 being staggered, thereby to lock each wale of the fabric.

The beards of the needles are closed by engagement with the points I04, at the time the needles and the points go to press, Fig. 11. To cause the beards to open immediately thereafter, the contour of the usual narrowing lift cam may readily be changed to decrease the speed of the points relative to the needles at this time. The extent of overlap of the points and needles is thereby increased, and, immediately after the needles and points have descended into the knockover bit structure, the speed of the points is increased until they are again in the usual position relative to the needles. This action may also be obtained by modifying the usual needle lever cam employed in narrowing, to increase the speed of the needles relative to the points immediately after the needles and points have gone to press, to thereby decrease the extent of overlap therebetween. Thus the needle beards are caused to open, and the speed of the needles decreased, immediately after the needles and the points have descended into the knockover bit structure, until the needles again assume the case, the timing of the points and the needles relative to each other is unchanged, except for In either the brief interval of time between the time the needles and points go to press and the time they descend into the knockover bit structure. In this manner, the timing of the points and needles, with respect to the other elements of the machine, remains unaffected, and thus, the normal coaction between, and operation of, the various mechanisms and parts of the knitting machine remain unchanged.

When the point I53, of the modified form, Fig. 17, is employed, it is unnecessary to retard the point movement, or speed up the needle movement, to permit the beard to open, since the beard is not closed, by pressure of the point against it at the time the needle and point go to press. Otherwise, the action of the point I53 is the same as that of the point 104, and the various movements of the point, during the spreading operation, are the same as those of the point I 04 in Figs. 12 to 16, inclusive.

While I have described the invention in connection with a Reading full fashioned knitting machine of conventional type, it is to be understood that my invention may also be employed with knitting machines 'of various other makes and types for producing stockings, or other knitted fabrics, and articles of wearing apparel, and including single unit machines by which the entire stocking blank or other article is produced.

For brevity, in the specification and claims, the term run-proof fabric is employed in -a generic sense, and includes a fabric having one or more interlocking or barrier courses, and in which a run will not take place, or in which a run is limited, depending upon the specific arrangement of barrier courses and interlocking loops employed; the term spread referring to a loop that extends from the needle creating the loop to another needle, either in the same course or in a succeeding course of the fabric, in contradistinction to plain and transferred loops, the latter of which are bodily lifted from one needle and deposited upon an adjacent heedle.

The statement that the loop spreading point is adapted to permit the needle beard to remain open, while the point is engaged in the groove of the needle, refers to the points of both forms, viz., the point in which the needle beards are temporarily closed, or partially closed, when the needles and the points go to press, and then are permitted to reopen, and the point in which the needle beards remain open, when the needles and the points go to press.

Of course, the improvements shown and described may be changed and modified in various ways without departing from the invention herein disclosed a n d hereinafter claimed.

I claim:

1. An implement of the character described comprising a butt-end shank, a tip and longitudinal section connecting the shank and the tip including walls forming a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip and an element of substantially the cross-sectional shape, and constituting a continuation, of a portion of a wall of the groove extending from specifically the lower end of the groove to the tip, the tip be- 7 including walls forming a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip and an element of substantially the cross-sectional shape, and constituting a continuation, of a portion of one of the side walls of the groove extending from the'lower end of the groove to the tip, the tip being wider than said extending element.

3. An implement of the character described comprising a butt end shank, a tip and a longitudinal section connecting the shank and the tip including walls forming a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip and an element of substantially the cross-sectional shape, and constituting a continuation, of portions of the bottom and one of the side walls of the groove extending from the lower end of the groove to the tip, the tip being wider than said extending element.

4. An implement of the character described comprising a. butt-end shank, a tip and a longitudinal section connecting the shank and the tip including walls forming a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip extending from the lower end of the groove to the tip, the tip being substantially twice as wide as said extending element.

5. An implement of the character described comprising an elongated body including a longi- 5 tudinal section having bottom and side walls providing a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip, a longitudinal extension of said body from one of said walls, and a tip constituting a longitudinal continuation of said extension including a portion having outer surfaces substantially constituting longitudinal projections of outer surfaces of said bottom and side walls. I

6. An implement of the character described comprising an elongated body including a longitudinal section having bottom and side walls providing a groove having its lower end disposed a substantial distance above the tip, a longitudinal extension of said body from one of said walls, and a tip constituting a longitudinal continuation of said extension including a solid portion having outer surfaces substantially constituting longi'tudinal projections of outer surfaces of said bottom and side walls.

GUSTAV GASTRICH.

US74884034 1933-06-02 1934-10-18 Point structure for straight knitting machines Expired - Lifetime US2016742A (en)

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US673985A US1978454A (en) 1933-06-02 1933-06-02 Method and means for forming special loops in knitted fabrics
US74884034 US2016742A (en) 1933-06-02 1934-10-18 Point structure for straight knitting machines

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2955444A (en) * 1956-07-03 1960-10-11 Stucki Robert Process of knitting a non-run fabric

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2955444A (en) * 1956-07-03 1960-10-11 Stucki Robert Process of knitting a non-run fabric

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