US2016589A - Speed regulator for internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Speed regulator for internal combustion engines Download PDF

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US2016589A
US2016589A US684167A US68416733A US2016589A US 2016589 A US2016589 A US 2016589A US 684167 A US684167 A US 684167A US 68416733 A US68416733 A US 68416733A US 2016589 A US2016589 A US 2016589A
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Prior art keywords
valve
engine
depression
pistons
speed
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US684167A
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Boudin Edgard
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Boudin Edgard
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D9/00Controlling engines by throttling air or fuel-and-air induction conduits or exhaust conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02DCONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02D2700/00Mechanical control of speed or power of a single cylinder piston engine
    • F02D2700/02Controlling by changing the air or fuel supply
    • F02D2700/0217Controlling by changing the air or fuel supply for mixture compressing engines using liquid fuel
    • F02D2700/0225Control of air or mixture supply
    • F02D2700/0228Engines without compressor
    • F02D2700/023Engines without compressor by means of one throttle device
    • F02D2700/0235Engines without compressor by means of one throttle device depending on the pressure of a gaseous or liquid medium
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/7722Line condition change responsive valves
    • Y10T137/7748Combustion engine induction type
    • Y10T137/7751With suction compensator
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
    • Y10T137/7722Line condition change responsive valves
    • Y10T137/7748Combustion engine induction type
    • Y10T137/7752With separate reactor surface

Description

Oct. 8, 1935. E. BoUDlN SPEED REGULATOR FOR ITERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 2 sheets-sheet 1 Filed Aug. 8, 1935 INVENTOI Oct. 8, 1935. E. BoUDlN l SPEED REGULATOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Aug. 8, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 y l l l l Idlfl I I l Il Edgard BOLLCL'UL INVEN'TORl which is based upon the vacuum existing in Patented Oct. 8, 1935 SPEED REGULATOR FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Edgard Boudin, Brussels, Belgium Application In PATENT OFFICE August 8', 1933,A Serial No. 684,167 Germany August 15, 1932 zciaims. (c1. 13u-15s) The present invention relates to a speed regulator for internal combustion engines. The principle of the speed regulator for internal combustion engines, the automatic action of depression or partial the admission pipes of the fuel gases and the atmospheric pressure is already well known. A shutter or cut-off organ is inserted in the said piping and is actuated and controlled by By referring to means of a suitable mechanism.

the diagram shown in Figure 5 it will be seen that a curve A representing the partial vacuum created in the supply piping of a motor, shows the effect of a shutter or cut-oir beginning of cates the depression or from O to OI, the supply the carburetter. The the said curve (abscissee O) indipartial vacuum created (starting from the ordinate D which is equal to the atmospheric pressure) at a full admission,

when the motor works i. e. full load. For a comparatively large amount of throttling the depression does not increase denly but further on enormously or sud- (up to the abscissae Ol which represents the minimum cross sectional area of admission c-a-al, that is to say,

that cross sectional area which corresponds to the no-load running of the motor) the said depression or partial vacuum rises suddenly. This curve -A represents the partial vacuum above the cut-off member or shutter provided between the admission pipe of the engine and the Carburettor.

depression existing below the said cut-olf member or throttle and shown by the curve B gradually and progressively decreases as the passage of the admission channels is throttled more and more.

The deformation of any kind within the limits of its of spring is, elasticity or resiliency,

proportional to the load applied to said spring. Obviously if a spring is used -to counteract and counterbalance any kind jected to and of device which is subacted upon by the variable depression or partial vacuum, which varies according to resultant of the two curves spring will on like A and B, the said ly be able to equalize or balance the said depression or partial vacuum for one value quite inadequate for (for instance for lthe value correa fully open admission) but will be other values. Therefore, a

series of springs would be required, the resistance of which would have curve of to be adjusted in successive would have to follow as closely as the depression or partial h a device, the adjustment of which v2' which are in fact constituted 'end shields 3 and 4 end capped in an airtight manner by means of vthe spring covers 5 and 6. thus apparatus airtight. Y 55 would be a very diicult and delicate matter, does however not possess the characteristic features which are a sine qua non condition of its successful application.

The essential feature of the present invention 5 consists mainly in a correcting device for speed regulators which renders it possible to vary the resistance opposed to the depression or partial vacuum existing in the admission piping of the engine, and to do this in such a manner as to 10 counterbalance the cut-off or shutter in its Various positions of throttling the passage area of the gas or fuel gas supply pipes.

This correcting device will act upon the spring in such a manner that the adequate resistance l5 is obtained which is required to counterbalance the system by imparting to it a variable iiexibility with respect to the depression or partial vacuum curve.

The appended drawings illustrate a preferred 20 embodiment of the invention which is in no way limited to it, by way of example.

In these drawings Figure 1 shows a plan View of the speed regulator and also in a longitudinal section; Figure 2 shows the same regulating de- 25 vice in an elevation and in a longitudinal section passing through the axis of the cut-0E member. or throttle, the latter shown as throttling the admission to the permissible maximum amount, that is to say, the cross-sectional area ofthe 30 gaseous fuel supply adapted to the running of the motor at no load. The drawings furthermore show how the regulating device is interposed between the admission piping denoted by M and the carburetter C with its butterfly valve 31.

Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the regulator according to the line :c-y of Figure 4, and Figure `4 shows an elevation ofthe said regulator as seen from outside, whereas Figure 5 shows the housing l which is bored out on its whole length Yfor the purpose of accommodating the cut-off shutter or throttle consisting of two parts 2 and by two pistons. 45 Owing to the fact that these pistons are adapted to move towards one another, they effect the throttling of the cross sectional area of the bore forming the extension of the admission pipe of the engine to the carburetter (Figure 2). This 50 body or housing I is closed at each end by the and the whole is at each making the'whole The above mentioned housing I is moreover provided with another bore, within which the valve l of the corrector device is suitably mounted together with its adjusting and regulating devices 27, 28, 29. A channel 8 puts the internal face of each piston 2 and 2 into communication by means of the passages 8', 8, 8.

The valve 7 communicates with the atmosphere by means of the orifice 24 and the apparatus is airtight so long as the valve 'I is not lifted off its seat 25.

The pistons 2 and 2 are provided with slots which enable them to slide along the pins or bolts 9 and Iil. It will be seen in Figure 2, Y(on which the cut-01T or throttle member is purposely shown in its closed position) that the slot H corresponding to the piston 2 uncovers the port I2 provided in one of the overlapping lips of the said slots.

The piston 2 is provided with a rod I3 ywith suitable adjustable lock nuts I4 thus allowing its travel or stroke to be regulated, whereas the piston 2 has a constant stroke or travel which is determined by the length of its' slot abutting on the rod 9. Each of the pistons 2 and 2 is rigidly mounted on and therefore integral with the screw threaded rods I5, I6, I'l which allow them to be held back by means of the tension springs I8, I9, 2li, which are supported by and rest against the end covers 3 and l the springs being adapted to be screwed into them. Each of the rods I8, I9 and 29 are threaded at one of their extremities on to which nuts and lock nuts 2|, 22, 23, are screwed. This arrangement enables the resilience of these springs to be varied according to the effective number of turns and to their individual tension.

The correcting device consists of the double acting valve 'l which is adapted according to requirements either to throttle the air supply coming through the inlet orice 2Q by sitting either on its seat 25 or on its seat 26. A regulating spring 2l is adapted to have its tension adjusted to the proper amount by means of the rectilinear displacement of its supporting sleeve or collar 28 by adjusting the stationary screw 29. The resilience of the spring 2'I is attained by screwing the turns of this spring more or less into the nut of the valve 'l in the same manner as it is done by screwing the springs I8, I9, 20 into the covers 3 and 4. The air which is admitted into the apparatus at the given moment so as to enable it to act on the pistons 2 and 2 thus enters the apparatus through the valve 'I passes then through 8 thus penetrating into the interior of the piston 2, then passes into the channel 8 through 8 and finally enters into the interior of the piston 2 through the passage 8".

When the piston 2 has during its course of travel uncovered the port I2 a part of the air admitted by the valve 'l passes over into the admission pipe of the engine. As this air however is only admitted thereinto at high loads it exercises no appreciable influence on the carburizing process and may be considered to come from a carburetter tted with a diffuser having a diameter a few tenths of millimetres in excess of the diameter that would ordinarily have been chosen.

It is possible to regulate the quantity of air passing through the valve 'I by regulating the adjustable air passage I2 in respect to the position of the piston I 2.

It is thus easily seen that the air taken in at atmospheric pressure may drop in pressure within the interior of the apparatus to such extent that it assists the spring in neutralizing or counteractlng the action of the partial vacuum acting on the external surface of the cutting-off or throttling pistons 2 and 2. The pistons may, therefore, assume a position giving a clear passage area to the carburetted gases in proportion to the partial vacuum which varies according to 5 the number of revolutions of the engine, thus allowing just sufcient gas to pass to keep up the required output of the motor.

Fig. 3 shows the cross section of the regulator along the engine gas feed line. 10 As shown in Fig. 2, M is adjacent the extension of the engine gas feed line, and C is adjacent the connection between the carburetor and the regulator. 'Ihrough an opening 33 the internal face of valve 'I (Fig. 1) communicates with the engine 15 gas feed line through a channel which divides into two branches. These open at 34, M to the engine gas feed side and at 35, C to the carburetor side (see also Fig. 2). By means of a screw 35 the cross section of the channel may be varied at 34 20 with respect to the cross section at 35.

This adjustment makes possible the accurate control of valve 'l (Fig. l) for slight engine variations as indicated by curves A and B in Fig. 5. The start of the curve (abscissa O) indicates the 25 depression produced at the highest permissible engine speed. If for any reason the engine speed increases, the depression also increases to a certain extent. I'he purpose of the regulator is to prevent such increase .and it must immediately 30 begin to function to diminish the gas feed sufciently for slowing down the motor but only t0 a point near the permissible speed. Curve A shows that when the gas feed is constricted the depression increases considerably above the regu- 35 lator (at M).

Curve B shows that in response to such constriction the depression on the carburetor side (at C) diminishes quite fast. If, therefore, the channel connecting the valve 'I with the gas feed line 40 is subjected only to the influence of the depression at M, the valve will be maintained open when the depression is many times greater than the initial depression which exists in the gas 'feed line at full engine speed. The engine must be slowed 45 down considerably to reestablish this initial depression when the pistons 2 and 2 are close together and not when they are apart and permit gas to flow. The engine will slow down because, as shown by curve A, approach of the pistons to 50 one another increases the depression at a given speed.

If the connection between valve l and the gas feed opened only on the carburetor side C and behaved only as shown by curve B, then for a 55 given constriction of the gas` feed the depression would diminish and would rapidly approach atmospheric pressure. Thus the valve i would be under the influence of a lower depression than the one causing its initial opening. Spring 27 50 would close the valve and pistons 2 and 2 would go apart. The engine would again speed up, the valve 'I would reopen, gas feed diminish, etc., etc. Owing to this pumping action stable engine speeds could not be maintained. 55

Owing to the fact that the regulator is open to the engine and carburetor sides, by means of the adjusting screw 26 the flow from C to M may be maintained at a steady rate. The intensity of the ,m iiow will be suiicient to keep the valve I open when the engine is slowed down to or maintained at the predetermined speed. The valve responds to every pressure Variation and opens more or less to admit Variable quantities of atmospheric air. ,I5

. the two curves A and B of the diagram in Fig- The closing of the cut-off member or shutter is limited by the abutment |3-I4 in such a manner that the maximum engine speed is obtained at no-load. When, therefore, the cut-off member or shutter tends to attain this limit, the engine will be slowed down. If the latter is working against a constant resistance the cut-off member being in a state of equilibrium opens proportionally and stabilizes the cross sectional area of this orifice. On the other hand, if this resistance increases, the pistons 2 and 2 recede from one another and the partial vacuum acting on the valve 1 reaches the value existing at C as well as in M, and if the resistance drops below the value which caused the valve 1 to open, it will be unbalanced and pressed on its seat 25 thus causing uniform and equal pressure to exist in the whole apparatus. The springs then cause the complete reopening of the pistons 2 and 2. If one starts from the slow speed of the engine, c-a-d, with the butterfiy valve 31 nearly completely closed, then the latter causes in the piping and consequently also in the regulator a considerable'partial vacuum, which exerts a very great tractive effort on the valve 1 lowering the latter. on to its seat 2B thus shutting off the admission of air in the same way as it does when it sits on its seat 25. This arrangement is provided so that no quantity of supplementary air in excess of that passing through the carbureter can enter, whereby the slowing down will be regulated. When the butterfly valve 31 is opened, this partial vacuum decreases and at a certain moment the valve 1 passes from one of its seats to the other and shuts o upto the moment when the regulator is again called into action.

The valve 1 instantly responds to the control and it is possible to apply the total motor couple in one single acceleration effect.

Assuming for example an engine which must not exceed a speed of 2500 revolutions, the valve will be adjusted so as to open at a speed of 2350 revolutions. The spring of the piston 2 will be adjusted so as to balance the valve at this particular number of revolutions, and the piston 2 will be set to operate at 2400 revolutions. If this speed is exceeded the two pistons close, and if the resistance, i. e. the load on the engine, diminishes to no-load the cut-off member or shutter will remain in the closed position which it asumes at 2500 revolutions. If the engine attains under load a speed of 2500 revolutions and the same load remains, the cut-off or shutter is balanced at a speed of about 2400 to 2350 revolutions and opens more and more as the load increases.

In a cut-off or shutter device having two pistons it is possible to make use of the nature of ure 5 so as to obtain a certain corrective action on the springs. The outer faces of the pistons have a slope which during operation produces a V shaped opening whereby one half of the piston 5 faces are influenced at a certain moment which they approach one another, viz: the top half by the effects according to curve A and the other half by the effect according to curve B.

With pistons having annular semi-circular 10 faces on their top half, the surfaces may be varied, the remaining portion of these faces receding with respect to these segments, and thus share the influence of the curve B. The nearer segments are subject to the influence of 15 the curve A which may be a means to vary the tractive effort due to the partial vacuum which influences consequently these pistons.

It is moreover possible to utilize the difference of pressure drop or partial vacuum which may 20 exist above the corrective device (curve A) and below it (curve B).

What I claim is:-

1. In a speed regulator for internal combustion engines having a carburetor with fuel feed lines 25 and a channel for conducting combustible gases to the engine, a cylinder in said channel and substantially at right angles to the latter, two opposed pistons in said cylinder and having outside faces, means comprising a valve for selectively 30 exposing said outside faces to the atmosphere and to the pressure in said channel, an adjustably tensioned spring for counterbalancing said valve, two branches leading from said channel and connecting said pistons on one side with said chan- 35 nel and on the other side with the fuel feed lines of the carburetor, means for varying the crosssection of'one branch with respect to the cross section of the other branch, the degrees of opening of said valve being determined by the dif- 4,0 ference between atmospheric pressure and gas pressure in said channel, and by the depression produced by the passage of gas through said branch, said depression depending in turn on the position of said pistons, and means for independ- 45 ently and separately adjusting said pistons.

2. A speed regulator according to claim 1 and in which said pistons have differential internal faces in different planes, whereby for certain degrees of throttling of said channel, a variable sur- 50 face of each piston is subjected to the depression existing in said channel on one side of said pistons and the balance of said surface is subjected to the depression existing on the other side of said pistons. 55

EDGARD BOUDIN.

US684167A 1932-08-15 1933-08-08 Speed regulator for internal combustion engines Expired - Lifetime US2016589A (en)

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