US20160251853A1 - Concrete deck for an integrated building system assembly platform - Google Patents

Concrete deck for an integrated building system assembly platform Download PDF

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Publication number
US20160251853A1
US20160251853A1 US15/148,546 US201615148546A US2016251853A1 US 20160251853 A1 US20160251853 A1 US 20160251853A1 US 201615148546 A US201615148546 A US 201615148546A US 2016251853 A1 US2016251853 A1 US 2016251853A1
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Prior art keywords
concrete deck
shear connector
modular concrete
shear
girders
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Abandoned
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US15/148,546
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Zigmund Rubel
Donald Foldenauer
Sungmin Kim
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ADITAZZ Inc
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ADITAZZ Inc
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Priority to US201361876475P priority Critical
Priority to US14/484,051 priority patent/US20150068138A1/en
Application filed by ADITAZZ Inc filed Critical ADITAZZ Inc
Priority to US15/148,546 priority patent/US20160251853A1/en
Assigned to ADITAZZ, INC. reassignment ADITAZZ, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: RUBEL, ZIGMUND, FOLDENAUER, DONALD, KIM, SUNGMIN
Publication of US20160251853A1 publication Critical patent/US20160251853A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/14Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or girders laid in two directions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/023Separate connecting devices for prefabricated floor-slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/10Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with metal beams or girders, e.g. with steel lattice girders
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/44Floors composed of stones, mortar, and reinforcing elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/04Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres
    • E04C2/06Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials of concrete or other stone-like material; of asbestos cement; of cement and other mineral fibres reinforced
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C5/00Reinforcing elements, e.g. for concrete; Auxiliary elements therefor
    • E04C5/01Reinforcing elements of metal, e.g. with non-structural coatings
    • E04C5/02Reinforcing elements of metal, e.g. with non-structural coatings of low bending resistance
    • E04C5/04Mats
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C5/00Reinforcing elements, e.g. for concrete; Auxiliary elements therefor
    • E04C5/16Auxiliary parts for reinforcements, e.g. connectors, spacers, stirrups
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2424Clamping connections other than bolting or riveting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2442Connections with built-in weakness points
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2454Connections between open and closed section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/2484Details of floor panels or slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/17Floor structures partly formed in situ
    • E04B2005/176Floor structures partly formed in situ with peripheral anchors or supports

Abstract

Embodiments of a method for constructing a floor in a steel framed building are disclosed. In an embodiment, the method includes placing a modular concrete deck platform on horizontal beams and girders of a steel framed building, the modular concrete deck platform having a perimeter shape that corresponds to dimensions of a bay of the steel framed building. Shear connector openings located on the sides of the modular concrete deck expose a portion of the top surface. The shear connector openings are recesses on side surfaces of the modular concrete deck platform and a shear connector rebar extends out of each shear connector opening. The method further includes, after the modular concrete deck platform is placed on the horizontal beams and girders, attaching shear connections to the horizontal beams and girders of the steel framed building in the exposed portion of the top surface and within the closed loop.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a Divisional of co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/484,051, filed Sep. 9, 2014, which is entitled to the benefit of provisional U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 61/876,475, filed Sep. 11, 2013, entitled “Concrete Deck for an Integrated Building System Assembly Platform,” which is incorporated by reference herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention relates generally to structural framed buildings, and, more specifically to modular components for structural framed buildings.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Structurally framed buildings generally include a steel or concrete frame of columns, girders, and beams that support concrete decks. The construction of steel framed building floors and platforms are assembled onsite without any aggregation of components into modules prior to arriving on the building site. Concrete floors are poured onsite at each building under construction. Onsite pouring of concrete is laden with variability and problems compared to a factory controlled mix and setting of concrete. Many factors affect the life, strength, and overall quality of concrete, including weather conditions and the quality of skilled labor.
  • SUMMARY
  • Embodiments of a deck assembly module for a steel framed building are disclosed. In an embodiment, a deck assembly module includes a modular concrete deck platform. The modular concrete deck platform includes a concrete slab having a top major surface and a bottom major surface and a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar within the concrete slab. The concrete slab further includes a shear connector opening on a side surface of a side of the concrete slab. The shear connector opening is a recess on the side surface of the concrete slab. The modular concrete deck platform further includes an integrated attachment assembly within the shear connector opening on the side of the concrete slab. The integrated attachment assembly includes a shear connector rebar including an extension of continuous reinforcing bar extending out of the shear connector opening and back into the shear connector opening. The shear connector rebar and the shear connector opening form a closed loop.
  • Embodiments of a steel framed building are disclosed. In an embodiment, a steel framed building includes a structural frame defining a footprint of the steel framed building, the structural frame including vertical columns and horizontal beams and girders. The horizontal beams and girders define bays within the steel framed building. The steel framed building further includes modular concrete deck platforms attached to the structural frame. The modular concrete deck platforms include a concrete slab having a top major surface and a bottom major surface and a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar within the concrete slab. The concrete slab further includes a shear connector opening on a side surface of a side of the concrete slab. There may be at least one shear connector opening on all sides of the concrete slab. The shear connector opening is a recess on the side surface of the concrete slab. The modular concrete deck platforms further include an integrated attachment assembly within the shear connector opening on the side of the concrete slab. The integrated attachment assembly includes a shear connector rebar including an extension of continuous reinforcing bar extending out of the shear connector opening and back into the shear connector opening. The shear connector rebar and the shear connector opening form a closed loop.
  • Embodiments of a method for constructing a floor in a steel framed building are disclosed. In an embodiment, the method includes placing a modular concrete deck platform on horizontal beams and girders of a steel framed building, the modular concrete deck platform having a perimeter shape that corresponds to dimensions of a bay of the steel framed building. The beams and girders outline the perimeter of the bay. The placing the modular concrete deck platform includes placing the perimeter edges of a bottom surface of the modular concrete deck platform on a portion of a top surface of the beams and girders. Shear connector openings located on the sides of the modular concrete deck expose a portion of the top surface. The shear connector openings are recesses on side surfaces of the modular concrete deck platform. A shear connector rebar extends out of each shear connector opening. The shear connector rebar includes an extension of reinforcing bar extending out of each shear connector opening and back into each shear connector opening and the shear connector openings forms a closed loop. The method further includes attaching shear connections to the horizontal beams and girders of the steel framed building in the exposed portion of the top surface and within the closed loop.
  • Other aspects and advantages of embodiments of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, illustrated by way of example of the principles of the invention.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 depicts a perspective view of one embodiment of a structural frame of a framed building.
  • FIG. 2A depicts a plan view of an embodiment of a steel frame of a steel framed building.
  • FIG. 2B highlights a mid-bay in the embodiment of the steel frame of FIG. 2B.
  • FIG. 2C highlights two end-bays in the embodiment of the steel frame of FIG. 2A.
  • FIG. 3 depicts an embodiment of three modular concrete deck platforms side by side.
  • FIG. 4 depicts an embodiment of an arrangement of modular concrete deck platforms in a floor plan.
  • FIG. 5A depicts an embodiment of a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar.
  • FIG. 5B depicts a cut-away view of an embodiment of a concrete slab including a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar within the concrete slab.
  • FIG. 6 depicts an embodiment of an integrated attachment assembly within a shear connector opening of a modular concrete deck platform.
  • FIG. 7 depicts a perspective view of an embodiment of modular concrete deck platforms placed on the structural frame of a building.
  • FIG. 8 depicts a closer view of the integrated attachment assembly of FIG. 7.
  • FIG. 9 depicts a plan view of an embodiment of shear connections and the integrated attachment assembly of a modular concrete deck platform.
  • FIG. 10 depicts a cut-away view of an embodiment of a modular concrete deck platform placed on a beam of a building.
  • FIG. 11A depicts an embodiment of an integrated attachment assembly of a concrete deck platform.
  • FIG. 11B depicts another embodiment of an integrated attachment assembly of a concrete deck platform.
  • FIG. 11C depicts another embodiment of an integrated attachment assembly of a concrete deck platform.
  • FIG. 12 depicts a perspective view of a modular concrete deck platform with attachment elements in a grid pattern at the surface of the concrete deck.
  • Throughout the description, similar reference numbers may be used to identify similar elements. Additionally, in some cases, reference numbers are not repeated in each figure in order to preserve the clarity and avoid cluttering of the figures.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • It will be readily understood that the components of the embodiments as generally described herein and illustrated in the appended figures could be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations. Thus, the following more detailed description of various embodiments, as represented in the figures, is not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure, but is merely representative of various embodiments. While the various aspects of the embodiments are presented in drawings, the drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale unless specifically indicated. In addition, the drawing shapes are illustrative only unless specifically indicated.
  • The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims rather than by this detailed description. All changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.
  • Reference throughout this specification to features, advantages, or similar language does not imply that all of the features and advantages that may be realized with the present invention should be or are in any single embodiment. Rather, language referring to the features and advantages is understood to mean that a specific feature, advantage, or characteristic described in connection with an embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. Thus, discussions of the features and advantages, and similar language, throughout this specification may, but do not necessarily, refer to the same embodiment.
  • Furthermore, the described features, advantages, and characteristics of the invention may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments. One skilled in the relevant art will recognize, in light of the description herein, that the invention can be practiced without one or more of the specific features or advantages of a particular embodiment. In other instances, additional features and advantages may be recognized in certain embodiments that may not be present in all embodiments of the invention.
  • Reference throughout this specification to “one embodiment,” “an embodiment,” or similar language means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the indicated embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. Thus, the phrases “in one embodiment,” “in an embodiment,” and similar language throughout this specification may, but do not necessarily, all refer to the same embodiment.
  • While many embodiments are described herein, at least some of the described embodiments allow for fabrication of modular concrete deck platforms at a central facility before being transported to a building site for placement on a steel frame of a building. The modular concrete deck platforms may be fabricated in a facility allowing for more optimal control of the curing of the concrete to better meet building requirements. The modular concrete deck platforms may be fabricated to the standard size of bays of a steel frame building. The modular concrete deck platforms have an integrated attachment assembly located within recesses on the side of the modular concrete deck platforms. The platforms may be placed on the steel frame with the recesses exposing the integrated attachment assemblies and the beam on which the platforms are placed. Shear connections may then be attached to the beams and can interface with the integrated attachment assemblies. The recesses and any gaps between the platforms may then be filled with a grout material to create a seamless floor for the building.
  • Some embodiments allow for better quality control as platforms may be fabricated at a central site. Greater quality control allows for potential reduced overall weight of the platforms without sacrificing design requirements. Some embodiments allow for rapid connection of platforms to a steel frame. The crew would not need to wait for concrete floors to set before proceeding to fabricate the next floor. Buildings utilizing embodiments described herein may be erected significantly faster as platforms will have already been fabricated.
  • Some embodiments allow for savings in fireproofing material and time. Embodiments allow for reduction of fire proofing material (as well as the labor time to apply it) during the fireproofing of a steel frame building. Fireproofing material is sprayed on metal decks to meet building codes. Some building codes require fireproofing to be over-sprayed by at least 12″ when conductive material touches a structural steel frame. The use of concrete decks may eliminate or reduce costly fireproofing material.
  • FIG. 1 depicts a plan view of one embodiment of a structural frame 100 of a framed building. The structural frame 100 may include columns 102—which are generally vertical to the surface on which the building sits—and girders 104 and other support beams 106, which are generally horizontal to the surface on which the building sits. Structural frames 100 and framed buildings are well known in the field.
  • In one embodiment, the structural frames 100 are steel frames. In one embodiment, the columns 102 are “I” shaped steel beams, referred to as “I-beams”. In general, the I-beams may be spaced apart in a grid structure to create varying sizes of buildings. The structural frames 100 may be any type, shape, or material used for framing the framed building. The material for the framed building may include a composite of more than one material.
  • The spacing of the girders 104 may be determined by the spacing of the columns 102. The spacing of the beams 106 may be more flexible than the spacing of the girders 104. The beams 106 may be located between pairs of columns 102, and additional beams 106 may be located between columns 102.
  • FIG. 2A depicts a plan view of an embodiment of a steel frame 200 of a steel framed building. The steel frame includes support columns 102, which are generally vertical to the surface on which the building sits, and girders 104 and beams 106, which are generally horizontal to the surface on which the building sits.
  • In the embodiment of FIG. 2A, the columns 102 are “I” shaped steel beams, referred to as “I-beams.” In general, the I-beams are spaced apart in a grid structure that includes an X-span dimension and a Y-span dimension. For example, X and Y spans in the range of 10-70 feet are known and X and Y spans in the range of 20-40 feet are common. Additionally, other dimensions are possible. Although I-beams are described as one type of steel column, other types and/or shapes of steel columns are possible. Further, the columns may be made out of other materials and/or a composite of steel and at least one other material.
  • In the embodiment of FIG. 2A, the girders 104 and beams 106 are “I” shaped steel beams, sometimes referred to as “W sections.” Typically, the girders connect to the columns in one direction and the beams connect between the girders and the columns 102 in a direction that is perpendicular to the girders. Although the girders and beams have been described as I-beams, in alternative embodiments, the girders and beams may include, for example, rectangular tubes, tees, angled shaped pieces, and zee shaped pieces.
  • The spacing of the girders 104 is dictated by the spacing of the columns 102. The spacing of the beams 106 is more flexible. In an embodiment, beams 106 are located between pairs of columns 102 and additional beams 106 are located between columns 102. In an embodiment, beams are spaced apart by about 10 feet, although other spacing is possible. As will be described below, the spacing of the columns, girders, and beams forms “bays,” where a bay is generally defined as the area bordered by a pair of parallel girders and a pair of parallel beams. The dimensions of the bays may be the same from bay-to-bay or may vary depending on the building. In an embodiment, some of the bays in a building have similar dimensions while other bays of the building have dimensions that are customized to correspond to specific features of the building. As is described below, the deck assembly modules are sized such that a deck assembly module fills a bay. The shape of a bay may vary depending on whether the bay is a mid-bay or an end-bay, where a mid-bay is bordered by girders and beams but does not include any column connection points and an end-bay includes at least one column connection point. FIG. 2B highlights a mid-bay 204 a in the steel frame 200 of FIG. 2A. As shown in FIG. 2B, the mid-bay 204 a does not have any sides or corners that are formed by a column 102. FIG. 2C highlights two end-bays 204 b in the steel frame 200 of FIG. 2A. As shown in FIG. 2C, the two end-bays 204 b have two corners of the bays 204 b that are at least partially formed by a column 102. The existence of the columns 102 at the corners of the bays 204 b changes the shape of the end-bays 204 b. In an embodiment, deck assembly modules that are intended for end-bays 204 b are configured to cope around the columns 102 of the steel frame 200. Additionally, the shape of the deck assembly modules will depend on which side of the deck assembly module abuts to the columns 102. In some embodiments, a steel framed building may not include a column at four points of a bay as depicted in FIGS. 2A-2C. For example, a steel framed building may not include a column 102 at a perimeter location of the steel framed building or at a cantilevered floor. In these cases, it is possible to have a deck assembly module that has coping to accommodate only one column 102. Additionally, it is possible to have a deck assembly module that has coping to accommodate more than two columns 102 or features other than columns 102.
  • In an embodiment, each deck assembly module is configured to have a shape that corresponds to the shape of the bays 204 that are formed by the steel frame 200. For example, deck assembly modules intended for the mid-bays 204 a are shaped to correspond to the shape of the mid-bays 204 a and deck assembly modules intended for the end-bays 204 b are shaped to correspond to the shape of the end-bays 204 b. Additionally, deck assembly modules that are intended for end-bays 204 b are shaped to correspond to the particular location of the columns 102. For example, the two corners of a deck assembly module that will abut to a column 102 are dependent on the location of the deck assembly module relative to the columns 102. With reference to FIG. 2C, the upper end-bay needs a deck assembly module that has coped corners at the upper right and upper left corners and the lower end-bay needs a deck assembly module that has coped corners at the lower right and lower left corners. The size and shape of the deck assembly module can be set to correspond to various different sizes and configurations of steel frames. For example, the deck assembly modules can be designed to accommodate any size and configuration of girders 104 and/or beams 106. In an embodiment, the deck assembly module is configured to cooperate with any of the structural configurations commonly used, such as circular or rectangular tubes, channels, angles, tees, and/or zee shaped pieces.
  • In an embodiment, the exact size and shape of the deck assembly module may be governed in part by at least one of the following parameters: structural performance requirements of the steel frame 200; structural requirements per regulatory requirements or design codes; the framing geometry of the steel frame 200; transportation requirements of the jurisdictions in which the deck assembly module is transported on public roads; and vehicle availability for transport. In an embodiment, the deck assembly module is designed with a 10′-0″ maximum width dimension and a fifty foot maximum length dimension so that the deck assembly module can be transported as one piece on public roads using conventional transportation means. In another embodiment, the deck assembly module is designed with a 15′-0″ maximum width dimension and a fifty foot maximum length dimension, although it should be understood that other dimensions are possible.
  • Other building design requirements may affect the size and shape of deck assembly modules, as well as the materials used. Appropriately sized reinforcing bar (or rebar) and other materials and additives may be dictated by the specific use of a building. The deck assembly modules may be designed for a range of vertical gravity loads, to deflect no more than required under dead and live loading values, to limit cracking to structurally acceptable values, to achieve an appropriate fire rating, and to appropriately cover various shaped bays in a framed building. The deck assembly modules may be designed such that they can be tiled or patterned in any configuration over the plan of a building with only shear connection openings (which is described in more detail below). The shear force in deck assembly modules may be influenced by many factors, including but not limited to, seismic design category, soil category, the lateral system, building height, and building weight.
  • While the majority of steel framed buildings use orthogonal geometry for framing, the deck assembly modules may be fabricated to other polygonal and/or curvilinear shapes to correspond to the structural framing of a building.
  • FIG. 3 depicts an embodiment of three modular concrete deck platforms 202 a and 202 b side by side. In the illustrated embodiment, the three modular concrete deck platforms 202 a-202 b would correspond to bays 204 a-204 b. The center modular concrete deck platform 304 a corresponds to bay 204 a, and the modular concrete deck platforms 202 b correspond to bay 204 b. As illustrated, the two end modular concrete deck platforms 202 b are shaped to correspond to the particular location of columns 102 of a building. For example, the two corners of the modular concrete deck platforms 202 b that will abut to a column 102 are shaped to allow placement of the modular concrete deck platforms 202 b next to a column 102. The shape may vary to correspond directly to any shaped column that may be present in a building. In some embodiments, the modular concrete deck platforms 202 will be shaped principally like the shape of bays 204. In the illustrated embodiment, the shape of the modular concrete deck platforms 202 is principally rectangular. The end modular concrete deck platforms 202 b have corner notches that correspond to the placement of the modular concrete deck platforms 202 b in relation to columns 102. The center modular concrete deck platform 202 a does not have corner notches. The location of such polygonal and/or curvilinear notches is dependent on the location of the modular concrete deck platform 202 relative to the columns 102. The location may be along a side of a modular concrete deck platform 202 instead of a corner of the modular concrete deck platform 202.
  • The illustrated embodiment further depicts shear connector openings 302 on the side surface of sides of the modular concrete deck platforms 202. The modular concrete deck platforms 202 are formed into a concrete slab. Within the concrete slab is reinforcing bar (not shown). The shear connector openings 302 occur on the sides of the concrete slabs. In the illustrated embodiment, each modular concrete deck platform 202 has three shear connector openings 302 on the long sides of the modular concrete deck platform 202 and one shear connector opening 302 on the short sides of the modular concrete deck platform 202. These shear connector openings 302 may house an integrated attachment assembly to allow for stabilizing of the modular concrete deck platforms 202 to the beams 106 and girders 104 of a building frame. In some embodiments, the shear connector openings 302 may be spaced evenly in standardized increments along the side of a modular concrete deck platform 202. In some embodiments, the shear connector openings 302 may be staggered in uneven increments. Some embodiments may have more or less shear connector openings 302 than are illustrated in FIG. 3. For example, in some embodiments, there may be only one shear connector opening 302 on each principal side of a modular concrete deck platform 202. In other embodiments, each principal side may have more than one shear connector opening 302. The number and location of shear connector openings 302 may vary depending on the design requirements of a particular building or other considerations. In some embodiments, each shear connector opening 302 will interface with shear connections (described more fully below). Each shear connector opening 302 many interface with as few as one shear connection or as many as necessary to transfer the forces from the platform 202 to the structural frame.
  • The shear connector openings 302 are notches or recesses on the side of the concrete slab. The sides of the concrete slab are fabricated to match the geometry of bays 204 of a building. The shear connector openings 302 are recesses within the matching geometry that allow for access to a beam 106 or girder 104 after setting a modular concrete deck platform 202 in place. The illustrated embodiment of FIG. 3 shows the modular concrete deck platforms 202 as they would be placed next to each other on the beams 106 and girders 104. As shown, even when the modular concrete deck platforms 202 are placed, the shear connector openings 302 allow for stabilization of the modular concrete deck platform 202 to the beams 106 and girders 104 of the building. Shear connector openings 302 may be of any shape, size, or geometry. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connector opening 302 is a rectangular geometrical recess. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connector opening 302 extends from a top major surface of the concrete slab to a bottom major surface (not visible) of the concrete slab.
  • FIG. 4 depicts an embodiment of an arrangement of modular concrete deck platforms 202 in a floor plan. In the illustrated embodiment, the modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be arranged in any configuration or floor plan. The modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be arranged in various configurations. In the illustrated embodiment, the configuration of modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be arranged and placed while leaving a void 206. A void 206 may be necessary for an elevator shaft or other particular building function. The modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be fabricated offsite, transported to the building site, and assembled on the beams and girders of a building. The shear connector openings 302 still allow access to the beams and girders. While the illustrated modular concrete deck platforms 202 are all principally rectangular, they may be fabricated in any shape possible for a concrete deck. For example, the shape may be any polygonal and/or curvilinear shape.
  • FIG. 5A depicts an embodiment of a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502. The reinforcing bar 502 may be placed in various patterns to best strengthen and reinforce the concrete slab. FIG. 5B depicts a cut-away view of an embodiment of a concrete slab 504 including a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502 a-502 b within the concrete slab 504. The concrete slab 504 is formed around the reinforcing bar 502 a-502 b. The illustrated embodiment depicts a lower grid 502 a and an upper grid 502 b. Any configuration of reinforcing bar 502 is possible depending on the size and thickness of the concrete slab 504. The concrete slab 504 shows a top major surface 506 while the bottom major surface 510 is not visible.
  • FIG. 6 depicts a close-up view of an embodiment of an integrated attachment assembly within a shear connector opening 302 of a modular concrete deck platform 202. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connector opening 302 is similar to the embodiments shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. The shear connector opening 302 is a recess extending from a top major surface 506 to a bottom major surface of the concrete deck. The geometry of the illustrated shear connector opening 302 is rectangular as viewed from above the top major surface 506. The geometry of the shear connector opening 302 is the shape created by the surfaces of the recess and bounded by the plane of the side surface 508, that is, where the side surface 508 of the modular concrete deck platform would be if there was no recess. In some embodiments, the integrated attachment assembly is fully within the geometry of the shear connector opening 302. In the illustrated embodiment, the integrated attachment assembly protrudes from the shear connector opening 302 no further than the side surface 508. This allows for modular concrete deck platforms to be placed side by side without any interference. The modular concrete deck platforms can be fabricated to appropriate size and specifications offsite and transported to the building site and placed on the beams and girders. As the integrated attachment assembly does not extend beyond the side surface of the modular concrete deck platform, the modular concrete deck platforms may be placed side by side creating an appropriate floor plan.
  • The integrated attachment assembly includes a shear connector rebar 602. The shear connector rebar 602 is an extension of continuous reinforcing bar extending out of the surface of the shear connector opening 302 and back into the surface of the shear connector opening 302. The concrete slab 504 is formed around the reinforcing bar but exposes a portion or extension of continuous reinforcing bar within the shear connector opening 302. The extension of continuous reinforcing bar and the surface of the shear connector opening form a closed loop. The closed loop formed by the shear connector rebar and shear connector opening surface interfaces with shear connections that are described more fully below. The shear connections are attached to the beams and girders of a building.
  • FIG. 7 depicts a perspective view of an embodiment of modular concrete deck platforms 202 as placed on the structural frame of a building. In the illustrated embodiment, the modular concrete deck platforms are placed to cover the bays of a building. The edges of the bottom major surface of the concrete slab rest on the horizontal I-beam or beam 106. The shear connector openings 302 allow access to the beams or girders even when modular concrete deck platforms are placed side by side. In an embodiment, shear connections 604 interface within the closed loop of the integrated attachment assembly and the shear connections are fastened or attached to the beams and girders. After the shear connections 604 are attached to the beams and/or girders, the shear connections 604 will restrict major shear movement between the top surface of the beams and girders and the bottom surface of the modular concrete deck platform. The shear connections 604 may abut the shear connector rebar 602 or may interface within the loop created by the shear connector rebar 602 and the surface of the shear connector opening 302 to allow minimal shear movement that may occur during normal expansion and contraction, earthquakes, or other movement events.
  • FIG. 8 depicts a closer view of an integrated attachment assembly of FIG. 7. The illustrated embodiment depicts the integrated attachment assembly within the concrete slab and extending out of the concrete slab. The rebar forms a loop with dashed lines showing the portion of the rebar formed within the concrete slab and showing the portion of the reinforcing bar extending out of the surface of the shear connector opening and back into the surface of the shear connector opening. The illustrated embodiment shows the bottom surface of the platform resting on the top surface of the beam 106. Also depicted are the shear connections 604 as they are placed to interface within the closed loop created by the extension of reinforcing bar 602. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connections 604 abut the reinforcing bar 602. In other embodiments, the shear connections 604 are not in contact with the reinforcing bar 602. The shear connections 604 are then attached or fastened to the beam 106 in some fashion.
  • In an embodiment, an integrated attachment assembly is integrated into each side of each modular concrete deck platform 202, at appropriate points to resist shear forces. In an embodiment, the shear connector openings 302 are of a sufficient size to allow the use of this system with any beams with a flange width of 6″ or greater. In some embodiments, the shear connector openings 302 of adjacent modular concrete deck platforms 302 align. In some embodiments, shear connector openings 302 of adjacent modular concrete deck platforms 302 do not align. The integrated attachment assembly is designed for the appropriate loads to transfer forces to the beams. In an embodiment, the shear connector rebar 602 focuses the horizontal shear force transfer in the deck platform 202 to the beam 106 below, as compared to conventional means where the transfer is distributed through the length of the beam 106. Such embodiments allow the deck platform 202 to be manufactured off site and connected to the beam 106 on site because of the efficient use of integrated attachment assemblies. In an embodiment, each connection capacity is based on the minimum design requirement and translated into the specific number and capacity of the shear connections 604, the factored shear capacity of the concrete and the top layer of horizontal reinforcement, and the factored shear capacity of the stirrup legs crossing the interface between the pre-cast slab and post-installed grout.
  • FIG. 9 depicts a plan view of an embodiment of shear connections 604 and the integrated attachment assembly of a modular concrete deck platform 202. The plan view depicts a structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502 within the concrete slab. The reinforcing bar 502 may be spaced appropriately to adequately reinforce the concrete slab. The plan view also depicts the integrated attachment assembly and extension of reinforcing bar 602. The concrete slab is formed around a portion of the reinforcing bar 602 making the reinforcing bar integral to the concrete slab. A portion of the reinforcing bar extends out of the concrete slab within the shear connector opening 302. The portion of the reinforcing bar 602 exposed within the shear connector opening 302 and a side surface of the shear connector opening form a closed loop. Within this closed loop, shear connections 604 may be placed after placing the modular concrete deck platform on the beams. In some embodiments, the shear connections 604 are pins that are inserted into the closed loop of the integrated attachment assembly which are then welded to the beams 106. In some embodiments, the shear connections 604 are placed before placing the modular concrete deck platform. In some embodiments, the shear connections 604 are protrusions on the beams 106 and girders 104 themselves. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connections 604 do not abut the extension of reinforcing bar 602. In the illustrated embodiment, the shear connector opening 302 is a rectangular geometry and the reinforcing bar 602 and integrated attachment assembly protrude from the concrete slab within the geometry of the shear connector opening 302. In some embodiments, the outer edge of the reinforcing bar 602 extends to the plane created by the side surface of the side of the modular concrete deck platform 202.
  • In the illustrated embodiment, the integrated attachment assembly is a loop of rebar 602. In some embodiments, the rebar 602 interfaces within the structural grid of reinforcing bar 502. For example, the rebar 602 may form a loop around the reinforcing bar 502. In some embodiments, the rebar 602 is separate from the structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502. In some embodiments, the rebar 602 is integrated into or connected to the structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502. For example, the structural grid pattern of reinforcing bar 502 may have a portion of the grid exposed within the geometry of the shear connector opening. This exposed portion may be the shear connector rebar that interfaces with the shear connections 604.
  • The illustrated embodiments of FIGS. 7-9 depict three pins or shear connections 604. In some embodiments, the number of shear connections 604 may be more or less than what is depicted. Embodiments may include the use of one or more shear connections 604. Some embodiments may include the use of as few as one shear connection 604. Some embodiments may include as many shear connections 604 as are necessary to transfer forces from the platform 202 to the structural frame.
  • FIG. 10 depicts a cutaway view of an embodiment of a modular concrete deck platform placed on a beam of a building. The illustrated embodiment depicts a side cutaway of the structural grid of reinforcing bar 502 and a side cutaway view of the reinforcing bar 602 of the integrated attachment assembly. As illustrated, an extension of continuous reinforcing bar 602 protrudes from the concrete deck 504 within the geometry of the shear connector opening 302 and does not extend beyond the side surface of the modular concrete deck platform. The edge of the bottom surface of the modular concrete deck platform rests on the top surface of the I-beam 106. In the illustrated embodiment, the modular concrete deck platform is placed on less than half of the top surface of the beam 106. This allows for the other half of the top surface of the beam 106 to support an adjacent modular concrete deck platform 202. Any gap between adjacent modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be filled with a grout. In some embodiments, the modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be placed flush to adjacent modular concrete deck platforms 202.
  • After the modular concrete deck platform 502 is placed on the beam 106, and the shear connections 604 are attached to the beam 106, the shear connector openings 302 and any gap between adjacent modular concrete deck platforms 202 may be filled with grout. Grout may be any material or substance that fills in the space within the shear connector openings 302. In some embodiments, the grout may be a concrete similar to the concrete of the concrete slab of the modular concrete deck platform 202. In some embodiments, the grout will be of strength equal to or greater than the strength of the concrete slab itself. In an embodiment, such grouting at the shear connection and between the platform pieces will complete the fire-rating requirement of the floor slab through the platform pieces and create a composite assembly for the structure.
  • FIGS. 11A-11C depict top views of embodiments of integrated attachment assemblies and geometries of shear connector openings 302. The geometry of the shear connector openings 302 may be a recess of any polygonal and/or curvilinear shape. FIGS. 11A and 11B depict a rectangular geometry of the shear connector openings 302 similar to previous figures described herein. FIG. 11C depicts a recess in a triangular geometry. In addition, the extension of continuous reinforcing bar 602 may extend out of the back surface of the shear connector opening 302 as depicted in FIG. 11A. In some embodiments, the extension of continuous reinforcing bar 602 may extend out of the side surfaces of the shear connector opening 302 as depicted in FIG. 11B. In the embodiment of FIG. 11B, the shear connector rebar 602 and three surfaces of the shear connector opening still form a closed loop. In addition, the portion (shown in dashed lines) of the integrated attachment assembly within the concrete slab may vary. For example, the portion of reinforcing bar 602 within the concrete slab of FIG. 11A forms a loop within the concrete slab. The portion of reinforcing bar 602 within the concrete slab of FIG. 11B extends in different directions. The portion of reinforcing bar 602 within the concrete slab of FIG. 11C forms a semi-circle.
  • FIG. 12 depicts a perspective view of a modular concrete deck platform with attachment elements 702 in a grid pattern at the surface of the concrete deck. A mechanical fastening framework may be provided on the surface of a modular concrete deck platform surface. A grid pattern of mechanical attachment elements 702 allows for the attachment of anchorages to a platform 202. The locations of the attachment elements 702 may be predefined in a grid like pattern independent of the building to which platform 202 is attached. The attachment elements 702 could be on the top major surface and/or bottom major surface of the platform 202. The patterned attachment elements 702 have significant value in the constructing of buildings as it removes the need to drill into the platform for anchorage points after placement of the platform. The patterned attachment elements 702 also have significant value in the lifecycle of a building as it greatly reduces the need to drill into the platform for anchorage points in an already occupied building.
  • In the above description, specific details of various embodiments are provided. However, some embodiments may be practiced with less than all of these specific details. In other instances, certain methods, procedures, components, structures, and/or functions are described in no more detail than to enable the various embodiments of the invention, for the sake of brevity and clarity.
  • Although specific embodiments of the invention have been described and illustrated, the invention is not to be limited to the specific forms or arrangements of parts so described and illustrated. The scope of the invention is to be defined by the claims appended hereto and their equivalents.

Claims (3)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for constructing a floor in a steel framed building, the method comprising:
placing a modular concrete deck platform on horizontal beams and girders of a steel framed building, the modular concrete deck platform having a perimeter shape that corresponds to dimensions of a bay of the steel framed building, wherein the beams and girders outline the perimeter of the bay,
wherein the placing the modular concrete deck platform comprises placing perimeter edges of a bottom surface of the modular concrete deck platform on a portion of a top surface of the beams and girders, and wherein shear connector openings on sides of the modular concrete deck expose a portion of the top surface, wherein the shear connector openings are recesses on side surfaces of the modular concrete deck platform, and wherein a shear connector rebar comprising an extension of reinforcing bar extending out of each shear connector opening and back into each shear connector opening and the shear connector openings forms a closed loop; and
after placing the modular concrete deck platform on the horizontal beams and girders of the steel framed building, attaching shear connections to the horizontal beams and girders of the steel framed building in the exposed portion of the top surface and within the closed loop.
2. The method of claim 1, the method further comprising filling the shear connector openings with a grout after attaching the shear connections to the horizontal beams and girders of the steel framed building.
3. The method of claim 1, the method further comprising placing a second modular concrete deck platform adjacent to the modular concrete deck platform, wherein the placing the second modular concrete deck platform comprises placing perimeter edges of a bottom surface of the second modular concrete deck platform on a portion of a top surface of the beams and girders, wherein an edge of the modular concrete deck platform and an edge of the second modular concrete deck platform each rest on portions of the same beam.
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