US20160174226A1 - Range extension within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications - Google Patents

Range extension within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications Download PDF

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Publication number
US20160174226A1
US20160174226A1 US15/051,996 US201615051996A US2016174226A1 US 20160174226 A1 US20160174226 A1 US 20160174226A1 US 201615051996 A US201615051996 A US 201615051996A US 2016174226 A1 US2016174226 A1 US 2016174226A1
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wireless communication
communication device
plurality
clock signal
down
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US15/051,996
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Ron Porat
Vinko Erceg
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Avago Technologies General IP Singapore Pte Ltd
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Broadcom Corp
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Priority to US201161478707P priority
Priority to US13/448,301 priority patent/US9281928B2/en
Application filed by Broadcom Corp filed Critical Broadcom Corp
Priority to US15/051,996 priority patent/US20160174226A1/en
Assigned to BROADCOM CORPORATION reassignment BROADCOM CORPORATION ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ERCEG, VINKO, PORAT, RON
Publication of US20160174226A1 publication Critical patent/US20160174226A1/en
Assigned to AVAGO TECHNOLOGIES GENERAL IP (SINGAPORE) PTE. LTD. reassignment AVAGO TECHNOLOGIES GENERAL IP (SINGAPORE) PTE. LTD. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BROADCOM CORPORATION
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • H04W72/0446Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource the resource being a slot, sub-slot or frame
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0044Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path allocation of payload
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0058Allocation criteria
    • H04L5/0064Rate requirement of the data, e.g. scalable bandwidth, data priority
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • H04W72/044Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource
    • H04W72/0453Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is defined based on the type of the allocated resource the resource being a frequency, carrier or frequency band
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0001Arrangements for dividing the transmission path
    • H04L5/0003Two-dimensional division
    • H04L5/0005Time-frequency
    • H04L5/0007Time-frequency the frequencies being orthogonal, e.g. OFDM(A), DMT
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0058Allocation criteria
    • H04L5/0069Allocation based on distance or geographical location
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L5/00Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
    • H04L5/003Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
    • H04L5/0078Timing of allocation
    • H04L5/0087Timing of allocation when data requirements change
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • H04W84/10Small scale networks; Flat hierarchical networks
    • H04W84/12WLAN [Wireless Local Area Networks]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D70/00Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks
    • Y02D70/10Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT]
    • Y02D70/12Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT] in 3rd Generation Partnership Project [3GPP] networks
    • Y02D70/122Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT] in 3rd Generation Partnership Project [3GPP] networks in 2nd generation [2G] networks
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D70/00Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks
    • Y02D70/10Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT]
    • Y02D70/12Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT] in 3rd Generation Partnership Project [3GPP] networks
    • Y02D70/124Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT] in 3rd Generation Partnership Project [3GPP] networks in 3rd generation [3G] networks
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02DCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES [ICT], I.E. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AIMING AT THE REDUCTION OF THIR OWN ENERGY USE
    • Y02D70/00Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks
    • Y02D70/10Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT]
    • Y02D70/14Techniques for reducing energy consumption in wireless communication networks according to the Radio Access Technology [RAT] in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE] networks

Abstract

Range extension within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications. A given communication device designed and implemented for operation in accordance with a given communication protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice operates in accordance with a down-clocked manner to effectuate operation in accordance with at least one other communication protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice. For example, first channelization may undergo down-clocking by a particular and desired ratio to generate a second channelization. As such, at least one portion of a physical layer (PHY) of a given communication device may be leveraged for use in at least one other or additional operational mode based upon the down-clocking employed. Sub-channel and/or channel adaptation may be made based upon any of a number of considerations (e.g., independently by one device, cooperatively by two or more devices, local and/or remote operating condition(s) [or changes thereof], etc.).

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENTS/PATENT APPLICATIONS
  • The present U.S. Utility Patent Application claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §120 as a continuation of U.S. Utility application Ser. No. 13/448,301, entitled “Range extension within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications,” filed Apr. 16, 2012, pending, and scheduled subsequently to be issued as U.S. Pat. No. 9,281,928 on Mar. 8, 2016 (as indicated in an ISSUE NOTIFICATION mailed from the USPTO on Feb. 17, 2016), which claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/476,746, entitled “Range extension within multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications,” filed 04-18-2011, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/478,707, entitled “Frequency selective transmission within multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications,” filed Apr. 25, 2011, all of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety and made part of the present U.S. Utility Patent Application for all purposes.
  • INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
  • The following U.S. Utility Patent Application is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and made part of the present U.S. Utility Patent Application for all purposes:
  • 1. U.S. Utility patent application Ser. No. 13/448,307, entitled “Frequency selective transmission within multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications,” filed on Apr. 16, 2012, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,848,639 on Sep. 30, 2014.
  • INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
  • The following IEEE standards/draft IEEE standards are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety and are made part of the present U.S. Utility Patent Application for all purposes:
  • 1. IEEE Std 802.11™—2012, “IEEE Standard for Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” IEEE Computer Society, Sponsored by the LAN/MAN Standards Committee, IEEE Std 802.11™-2012, (Revision of IEEE Std 802.11-2007), 2793 total pages (incl. pp. i-xcvi, 1-2695).
  • 2. IEEE Std 802.11n™—2009, “IEEE Standard for Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications; Amendment 5: Enhancements for Higher Throughput,” IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Std 802.11n™-2009, (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.11™—2007 as amended by IEEE Std 802.11k™—2008, IEEE Std 802.11r™—2008, IEEE Std 802.11y™—2008, and IEEE Std 802.11r™—2009), 536 total pages (incl. pp. i-xxxii, 1-502).
  • 3. IEEE Draft P802.11-REVmb™/D12, November 2011 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.11™-2007 as amended by IEEE Std 802.11k™-2008, IEEE Std 802.11r™-2008, IEEE Std 802.11y™-2008, IEEE Std 802.11w™-2009, IEEE Std 802.11n™-2009, IEEE Std 802.11p™-2010, IEEE Std 802.11z™-2010, IEEE Std 802.11v™-2011, IEEE Std 802.11u™-2011, and IEEE Std 802.11s™-2011), “IEEE Standard for Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” Prepared by the 802.11 Working Group of the LAN/MAN Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, 2910 total pages (incl. pp. i-cxxviii, 1-2782).
  • 4. IEEE P802.11ac™/D2.1, March 2012, “Draft STANDARD for Information Technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications, Amendment 4: Enhancements for Very High Throughput for Operation in Bands below 6 GHz,” Prepared by the 802.11 Working Group of the 802 Committee, 363 total pages (incl. pp. i-xxv, 1-338).
  • 5. IEEE P802.11ad™/D6.0, March 2012, (Draft Amendment based on IEEE P802.11REVmb D12.0), (Amendment to IEEE P802.11REVmb D12.0 as amended by IEEE 802.11ae D8.0 and IEEE 802.11aa D9.0), “IEEE P802.11ad™/D6.0 Draft Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Specific Requirements—Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications—Amendment 3: Enhancements for Very High Throughput in the 60 GHz Band,” Sponsor: IEEE 802.11 Committee of the IEEE Computer Society, IEEE-SA Standards Board, 664 total pages.
  • 6. IEEE Std 802.11 ae™—2012, “IEEE Standard for Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements; Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications,” “Amendment 1: Prioritization of Management Frames,” IEEE Computer Society, Sponsored by the LAN/MAN Standards Committee, IEEE Std 802.11ae™-2012, (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.11™-2012), 52 total pages (incl. pp. i-xii, 1-38).
  • 7. IEEE P802.11af™/D1.06, March 2012, (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.11REVmb™/D12.0 as amended by IEEE Std 802.11ae™/D8.0, IEEE Std 802.11aa™/D9.0, IEEE Std 802.11ad™/D5.0, and IEEE Std 802.11ac™/D2.0), “Draft Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Specific requirements—Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications—Amendment 5: TV White Spaces Operation,” Prepared by the 802.11 Working Group of the IEEE 802 Committee, 140 total pages (incl. pp. i-xxii, 1-118).
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Technical Field of the Invention
  • The invention relates generally to communication systems; and, more particularly, it relates to effectuating long range and low rate wireless communications within such communication systems.
  • 2. Description of Related Art
  • Communication systems are known to support wireless and wire lined communications between wireless and/or wire lined communication devices. Such communication systems range from national and/or international cellular telephone systems to the Internet to point-to-point in-home wireless networks. Each type of communication system is constructed, and hence operates, in accordance with one or more communication standards. For instance, wireless communication systems may operate in accordance with one or more standards including, but not limited to, IEEE 802.11x, Bluetooth, advanced mobile phone services (AMPS), digital AMPS, global system for mobile communications (GSM), code division multiple access (CDMA), local multi-point distribution systems (LMDS), multi-channel-multi-point distribution systems (MMDS), and/or variations thereof.
  • Depending on the type of wireless communication system, a wireless communication device, such as a cellular telephone, two-way radio, personal digital assistant (PDA), personal computer (PC), laptop computer, home entertainment equipment, et cetera communicates directly or indirectly with other wireless communication devices. For direct communications (also known as point-to-point communications), the participating wireless communication devices tune their receivers and transmitters to the same channel or channels (e.g., one of the plurality of radio frequency (RF) carriers of the wireless communication system) and communicate over that channel(s). For indirect wireless communications, each wireless communication device communicates directly with an associated base station (e.g., for cellular services) and/or an associated access point (e.g., for an in-home or in-building wireless network) via an assigned channel. To complete a communication connection between the wireless communication devices, the associated base stations and/or associated access points communicate with each other directly, via a system controller, via the public switch telephone network, via the Internet, and/or via some other wide area network.
  • For each wireless communication device to participate in wireless communications, it includes a built-in radio transceiver (i.e., receiver and transmitter) or is coupled to an associated radio transceiver (e.g., a station for in-home and/or in-building wireless communication networks, RF modem, etc.). As is known, the receiver is coupled to the antenna and includes a low noise amplifier, one or more intermediate frequency stages, a filtering stage, and a data recovery stage. The low noise amplifier receives inbound RF signals via the antenna and amplifies then. The one or more intermediate frequency stages mix the amplified RF signals with one or more local oscillations to convert the amplified RF signal into baseband signals or intermediate frequency (IF) signals. The filtering stage filters the baseband signals or the IF signals to attenuate unwanted out of band signals to produce filtered signals. The data recovery stage recovers raw data from the filtered signals in accordance with the particular wireless communication standard.
  • As is also known, the transmitter includes a data modulation stage, one or more intermediate frequency stages, and a power amplifier. The data modulation stage converts raw data into baseband signals in accordance with a particular wireless communication standard. The one or more intermediate frequency stages mix the baseband signals with one or more local oscillations to produce RF signals. The power amplifier amplifies the RF signals prior to transmission via an antenna.
  • Typically, the transmitter will include one antenna for transmitting the RF signals, which are received by a single antenna, or multiple antennae (alternatively, antennas), of a receiver. When the receiver includes two or more antennae, the receiver will select one of them to receive the incoming RF signals. In this instance, the wireless communication between the transmitter and receiver is a single-output-single-input (SISO) communication, even if the receiver includes multiple antennae that are used as diversity antennae (i.e., selecting one of them to receive the incoming RF signals). For SISO wireless communications, a transceiver includes one transmitter and one receiver. Currently, most wireless local area networks (WLAN) that are IEEE 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g employ SISO wireless communications.
  • Other types of wireless communications include single-input-multiple-output (SIMO), multiple-input-single-output (MISO), and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO). In a SIMO wireless communication, a single transmitter processes data into radio frequency signals that are transmitted to a receiver. The receiver includes two or more antennae and two or more receiver paths. Each of the antennae receives the RF signals and provides them to a corresponding receiver path (e.g., LNA, down conversion module, filters, and ADCs). Each of the receiver paths processes the received RF signals to produce digital signals, which are combined and then processed to recapture the transmitted data.
  • For a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) wireless communication, the transmitter includes two or more transmission paths (e.g., digital to analog converter, filters, up-conversion module, and a power amplifier) that each converts a corresponding portion of baseband signals into RF signals, which are transmitted via corresponding antennae to a receiver. The receiver includes a single receiver path that receives the multiple RF signals from the transmitter. In this instance, the receiver uses beam forming to combine the multiple RF signals into one signal for processing.
  • For a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication, the transmitter and receiver each include multiple paths. In such a communication, the transmitter parallel processes data using a spatial and time encoding function to produce two or more streams of data. The transmitter includes multiple transmission paths to convert each stream of data into multiple RF signals. The receiver receives the multiple RF signals via multiple receiver paths that recapture the streams of data utilizing a spatial and time decoding function. The recaptured streams of data are combined and subsequently processed to recover the original data.
  • With the various types of wireless communications (e.g., SISO, MISO, SIMO, and MIMO), it would be desirable to use one or more types of wireless communications to enhance data throughput within a WLAN. For example, high data rates can be achieved with MIMO communications in comparison to SISO communications. However, most WLAN include legacy wireless communication devices (i.e., devices that are compliant with an older version of a wireless communication standard). As such, a transmitter capable of MIMO wireless communications should also be backward compatible with legacy devices to function in a majority of existing WLANs.
  • Therefore, a need exists for a WLAN device that is capable of high data throughput and is backward compatible with legacy devices.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication system.
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication device.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a radio frequency (RF) transmitter.
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of an RF receiver.
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a method for baseband processing of data.
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a method that further defines Step 120 of FIG. 5.
  • FIGS. 7-9 are diagrams illustrating various embodiments for encoding the scrambled data.
  • FIGS. 10A and 10B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of a radio transmitter.
  • FIGS. 11A and 11B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of a radio receiver.
  • FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of an access point (AP) and multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices operating according to one or more various aspects and/or embodiments of the invention.
  • FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication device, and clusters, as may be employed for supporting communications with at least one additional wireless communication device.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates an embodiment of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing).
  • FIG. 15 illustrates an embodiment of down-clocking for by different respective transceiver sections within a communication device.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates an embodiment of bandwidth partitioning into various channels, which may be of different widths, and partitioning of channels into sub-channels.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates an embodiment of bandwidth partitioning into various channels, which may be of common/uniform widths, and partitioning of channels into sub-channels.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates an alternative embodiment of bandwidth partitioning into various channels.
  • FIG. 19 illustrates an embodiment of bandwidth assignment among various channels for use in transmission and/or reception by various wireless communication devices.
  • FIG. 20 illustrates an embodiment of a communication device in which bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using a common encoder.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates an embodiment of a communication device in which bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using different respective encoders.
  • FIG. 22 illustrates an embodiment of a communication device in which any combinations of bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using different respective encoders.
  • FIG. 23 illustrates an embodiment of repetition encoding in the time domain.
  • FIG. 24 illustrates an embodiment of repetition encoding in the frequency domain.
  • FIG. 25 illustrates various embodiments of a communication device.
  • FIG. 26A, FIG. 26B, FIG. 27A, and FIG. 27B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of methods for operating one or more wireless communication devices.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication system 10 that includes a plurality of base stations and/or access points 12-16, a plurality of wireless communication devices 18-32 and a network hardware component 34. The wireless communication devices 18-32 may be laptop host computers 18 and 26, personal digital assistant hosts 20 and 30, personal computer hosts 24 and 32 and/or cellular telephone hosts 22 and 28. The details of an embodiment of such wireless communication devices are described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 2.
  • The base stations (BSs) or access points (APs) 12-16 are operably coupled to the network hardware 34 via local area network connections 36, 38 and 40. The network hardware 34, which may be a router, switch, bridge, modem, system controller, etc., provides a wide area network connection 42 for the communication system 10. Each of the base stations or access points 12-16 has an associated antenna or antenna array to communicate with the wireless communication devices in its area. Typically, the wireless communication devices register with a particular base station or access point 12-14 to receive services from the communication system 10. For direct connections (i.e., point-to-point communications), wireless communication devices communicate directly via an allocated channel.
  • Typically, base stations are used for cellular telephone systems (e.g., advanced mobile phone services (AMPS), digital AMPS, global system for mobile communications (GSM), code division multiple access (CDMA), local multi-point distribution systems (LMDS), multi-channel-multi-point distribution systems (MMDS), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), high-speed uplink packet access (HSDPA and/or variations thereof) and like-type systems, while access points are used for in-home or in-building wireless networks (e.g., IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, ZigBee, any other type of radio frequency based network protocol and/or variations thereof). Regardless of the particular type of communication system, each wireless communication device includes a built-in radio and/or is coupled to a radio. Such wireless communication devices may operate in accordance with the various aspects of the invention as presented herein to enhance performance, reduce costs, reduce size, and/or enhance broadband applications.
  • FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication device that includes the host device 18-32 and an associated radio 60. For cellular telephone hosts, the radio 60 is a built-in component. For personal digital assistants hosts, laptop hosts, and/or personal computer hosts, the radio 60 may be built-in or an externally coupled component. For access points or base stations, the components are typically housed in a single structure.
  • As illustrated, the host device 18-32 includes a processing module 50, memory 52, radio interface 54, input interface 58 and output interface 56. The processing module 50 and memory 52 execute the corresponding instructions that are typically done by the host device. For example, for a cellular telephone host device, the processing module 50 performs the corresponding communication functions in accordance with a particular cellular telephone standard.
  • The radio interface 54 allows data to be received from and sent to the radio 60. For data received from the radio 60 (e.g., inbound data), the radio interface 54 provides the data to the processing module 50 for further processing and/or routing to the output interface 56. The output interface 56 provides connectivity to an output display device such as a display, monitor, speakers, etc. such that the received data may be displayed. The radio interface 54 also provides data from the processing module 50 to the radio 60. The processing module 50 may receive the outbound data from an input device such as a keyboard, keypad, microphone, etc. via the input interface 58 or generate the data itself. For data received via the input interface 58, the processing module 50 may perform a corresponding host function on the data and/or route it to the radio 60 via the radio interface 54.
  • Radio 60 includes a host interface 62, a baseband processing module 64, memory 66, a plurality of radio frequency (RF) transmitters 68-72, a transmit/receive (T/R) module 74, a plurality of antennae 82-86, a plurality of RF receivers 76-80, and a local oscillation module 100. The baseband processing module 64, in combination with operational instructions stored in memory 66, execute digital receiver functions and digital transmitter functions, respectively. The digital receiver functions, as will be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 11B, include, but are not limited to, digital intermediate frequency to baseband conversion, demodulation, constellation demapping, decoding, de-interleaving, fast Fourier transform, cyclic prefix removal, space and time decoding, and/or descrambling. The digital transmitter functions, as will be described in greater detail with reference to later Figures, include, but are not limited to, scrambling, encoding, interleaving, constellation mapping, modulation, inverse fast Fourier transform, cyclic prefix addition, space and time encoding, and/or digital baseband to IF conversion. The baseband processing modules 64 may be implemented using one or more processing devices. Such a processing device may be a microprocessor, micro-controller, digital signal processor, microcomputer, central processing unit, field programmable gate array, programmable logic device, state machine, logic circuitry, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or any device that manipulates signals (analog and/or digital) based on operational instructions. The memory 66 may be a single memory device or a plurality of memory devices. Such a memory device may be a read-only memory, random access memory, volatile memory, non-volatile memory, static memory, dynamic memory, flash memory, and/or any device that stores digital information. Note that when the processing module 64 implements one or more of its functions via a state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry, the memory storing the corresponding operational instructions is embedded with the circuitry comprising the state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry.
  • In operation, the radio 60 receives outbound data 88 from the host device via the host interface 62. The baseband processing module 64 receives the outbound data 88 and, based on a mode selection signal 102, produces one or more outbound symbol streams 90. The mode selection signal 102 will indicate a particular mode as are illustrated in the mode selection tables, which appear at the end of the detailed discussion. For example, the mode selection signal 102, with reference to table 1 may indicate a frequency band of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz, a channel bandwidth of 20 or 22 MHz (e.g., channels of 20 or 22 MHz width) and a maximum bit rate of 54 megabits-per-second. In other embodiments, the channel bandwidth may extend up to 1.28 GHz or wider with supported maximum bit rates extending to 1 gigabit-per-second or greater. In this general category, the mode selection signal will further indicate a particular rate ranging from 1 megabit-per-second to 54 megabits-per-second. In addition, the mode selection signal will indicate a particular type of modulation, which includes, but is not limited to, Barker Code Modulation, BPSK, QPSK, CCK, 16 QAM and/or 64 QAM. As is further illustrated in table 1, a code rate is supplied as well as number of coded bits per sub-carrier (NBPSC), coded bits per OFDM symbol (NCBPS), data bits per OFDM symbol (NDBPS).
  • The mode selection signal may also indicate a particular channelization for the corresponding mode which for the information in table 1 is illustrated in table 2. As shown, table 2 includes a channel number and corresponding center frequency. The mode select signal may further indicate a power spectral density mask value which for table 1 is illustrated in table 3. The mode select signal may alternatively indicate rates within table 4 that has a 5 GHz frequency band, 20 MHz channel bandwidth and a maximum bit rate of 54 megabits-per-second. If this is the particular mode select, the channelization is illustrated in table 5. As a further alternative, the mode select signal 102 may indicate a 2.4 GHz frequency band, 20 MHz channels and a maximum bit rate of 192 megabits-per-second as illustrated in table 6. In table 6, a number of antennae may be utilized to achieve the higher bit rates. In this instance, the mode select would further indicate the number of antennae to be utilized. Table 7 illustrates the channelization for the set-up of table 6. Table 8 illustrates yet another mode option where the frequency band is 2.4 GHz, the channel bandwidth is 20 MHz and the maximum bit rate is 192 megabits-per-second. The corresponding table 8 includes various bit rates ranging from 12 megabits-per-second to 216 megabits-per-second utilizing 2-4 antennae and a spatial time encoding rate as indicated. Table 9 illustrates the channelization for table 8. The mode select signal 102 may further indicate a particular operating mode as illustrated in table 10, which corresponds to a 5 GHz frequency band having 40 MHz frequency band having 40 MHz channels and a maximum bit rate of 486 megabits-per-second. As shown in table 10, the bit rate may range from 13.5 megabits-per-second to 486 megabits-per-second utilizing 1-4 antennae and a corresponding spatial time code rate. Table 10 further illustrates a particular modulation scheme code rate and NBPSC values. Table 11 provides the power spectral density mask for table 10 and table 12 provides the channelization for table 10.
  • It is of course noted that other types of channels, having different bandwidths, may be employed in other embodiments without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. For example, various other channels such as those having 80 MHz, 120 MHz, and/or 160 MHz of bandwidth may alternatively be employed such as in accordance with IEEE Task Group ac (TGac VHTL6).
  • The baseband processing module 64, based on the mode selection signal 102 produces the one or more outbound symbol streams 90, as will be further described with reference to FIGS. 5-9 from the output data 88. For example, if the mode selection signal 102 indicates that a single transmit antenna is being utilized for the particular mode that has been selected, the baseband processing module 64 will produce a single outbound symbol stream 90. Alternatively, if the mode select signal indicates 2, 3 or 4 antennae, the baseband processing module 64 will produce 2, 3 or 4 outbound symbol streams 90 corresponding to the number of antennae from the output data 88.
  • Depending on the number of outbound streams 90 produced by the baseband module 64, a corresponding number of the RF transmitters 68-72 will be enabled to convert the outbound symbol streams 90 into outbound RF signals 92. The implementation of the RF transmitters 68-72 will be further described with reference to FIG. 3. The transmit/receive module 74 receives the outbound RF signals 92 and provides each outbound RF signal to a corresponding antenna 82-86.
  • When the radio 60 is in the receive mode, the transmit/receive module 74 receives one or more inbound RF signals via the antennae 82-86. The T/R module 74 provides the inbound RF signals 94 to one or more RF receivers 76-80. The RF receiver 76-80, which will be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 4, converts the inbound RF signals 94 into a corresponding number of inbound symbol streams 96. The number of inbound symbol streams 96 will correspond to the particular mode in which the data was received (recall that the mode may be any one of the modes illustrated in tables 1-12). The baseband processing module 64 receives the inbound symbol streams 90 and converts them into inbound data 98, which is provided to the host device 18-32 via the host interface 62.
  • In one embodiment of radio 60 it includes a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter may include a MAC module, a PLCP module, and a PMD module. The Medium Access Control (MAC) module, which may be implemented with the processing module 64, is operably coupled to convert a MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU) into a MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) in accordance with a WLAN protocol. The Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP) Module, which may be implemented in the processing module 64, is operably coupled to convert the MPDU into a PLCP Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) in accordance with the WLAN protocol. The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) module is operably coupled to convert the PPDU into a plurality of radio frequency (RF) signals in accordance with one of a plurality of operating modes of the WLAN protocol, wherein the plurality of operating modes includes multiple input and multiple output combinations.
  • An embodiment of the Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) module, which will be described in greater detail with reference to FIGS. 10A and 10B, includes an error protection module, a demultiplexing module, and a plurality of direction conversion modules. The error protection module, which may be implemented in the processing module 64, is operably coupled to restructure a PPDU (PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Procedure) Protocol Data Unit) to reduce transmission errors producing error protected data. The demultiplexing module is operably coupled to divide the error protected data into a plurality of error protected data streams The plurality of direct conversion modules is operably coupled to convert the plurality of error protected data streams into a plurality of radio frequency (RF) signals.
  • As one of average skill in the art will appreciate, the wireless communication device of FIG. 2 may be implemented using one or more integrated circuits. For example, the host device may be implemented on one integrated circuit, the baseband processing module 64 and memory 66 may be implemented on a second integrated circuit, and the remaining components of the radio 60, less the antennae 82-86, may be implemented on a third integrated circuit. As an alternate example, the radio 60 may be implemented on a single integrated circuit. As yet another example, the processing module 50 of the host device and the baseband processing module 64 may be a common processing device implemented on a single integrated circuit. Further, the memory 52 and memory 66 may be implemented on a single integrated circuit and/or on the same integrated circuit as the common processing modules of processing module 50 and the baseband processing module 64.
  • FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a radio frequency (RF) transmitter 68-72, or RF front-end, of the WLAN transmitter. The RF transmitter 68-72 includes a digital filter and up-sampling module 75, a digital-to-analog conversion module 77, an analog filter 79, and up-conversion module 81, a power amplifier 83 and a RF filter 85. The digital filter and up-sampling module 75 receives one of the outbound symbol streams 90 and digitally filters it and then up-samples the rate of the symbol streams to a desired rate to produce the filtered symbol streams 87. The digital-to-analog conversion module 77 converts the filtered symbols 87 into analog signals 89. The analog signals may include an in-phase component and a quadrature component.
  • The analog filter 79 filters the analog signals 89 to produce filtered analog signals 91. The up-conversion module 81, which may include a pair of mixers and a filter, mixes the filtered analog signals 91 with a local oscillation 93, which is produced by local oscillation module 100, to produce high frequency signals 95. The frequency of the high frequency signals 95 corresponds to the frequency of the outbound RF signals 92.
  • The power amplifier 83 amplifies the high frequency signals 95 to produce amplified high frequency signals 97. The RF filter 85, which may be a high frequency band-pass filter, filters the amplified high frequency signals 97 to produce the desired output RF signals 92.
  • As one of average skill in the art will appreciate, each of the radio frequency transmitters 68-72 will include a similar architecture as illustrated in FIG. 3 and further include a shut-down mechanism such that when the particular radio frequency transmitter is not required, it is disabled in such a manner that it does not produce interfering signals and/or noise.
  • FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of an RF receiver. This may depict any one of the RF receivers 76-80. In this embodiment, each of the RF receivers 76-80 includes an RF filter 101, a low noise amplifier (LNA) 103, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) 105, a down-conversion module 107, an analog filter 109, an analog-to-digital conversion module 111 and a digital filter and down-sampling module 113. The RF filter 101, which may be a high frequency band-pass filter, receives the inbound RF signals 94 and filters them to produce filtered inbound RF signals. The low noise amplifier 103 amplifies the filtered inbound RF signals 94 based on a gain setting and provides the amplified signals to the programmable gain amplifier 105. The programmable gain amplifier further amplifies the inbound RF signals 94 before providing them to the down-conversion module 107.
  • The down-conversion module 107 includes a pair of mixers, a summation module, and a filter to mix the inbound RF signals with a local oscillation (LO) that is provided by the local oscillation module to produce analog baseband signals. The analog filter 109 filters the analog baseband signals and provides them to the analog-to-digital conversion module 111 which converts them into a digital signal. The digital filter and down-sampling module 113 filters the digital signals and then adjusts the sampling rate to produce the digital samples (corresponding to the inbound symbol streams 96).
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a method for baseband processing of data. This diagram shows a method for converting outbound data 88 into one or more outbound symbol streams 90 by the baseband processing module 64. The process begins at Step 110 where the baseband processing module receives the outbound data 88 and a mode selection signal 102. The mode selection signal may indicate any one of the various modes of operation as indicated in tables 1-12. The process then proceeds to Step 112 where the baseband processing module scrambles the data in accordance with a pseudo random sequence to produce scrambled data. Note that the pseudo random sequence may be generated from a feedback shift register with the generator polynomial of S(x)=x7+x4+1.
  • The process then proceeds to Step 114 where the baseband processing module selects one of a plurality of encoding modes based on the mode selection signal. The process then proceeds to Step 116 where the baseband processing module encodes the scrambled data in accordance with a selected encoding mode to produce encoded data. The encoding may be done utilizing any one or more a variety of coding schemes (e.g., convolutional coding, Reed-Solomon (RS) coding, turbo coding, turbo trellis coded modulation (TTCM) coding, LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) coding, etc.).
  • The process then proceeds to Step 118 where the baseband processing module determines a number of transmit streams based on the mode select signal. For example, the mode select signal will select a particular mode which indicates that 1, 2, 3, 4 or more antennae may be utilized for the transmission. Accordingly, the number of transmit streams will correspond to the number of antennae indicated by the mode select signal. The process then proceeds to Step 120 where the baseband processing module converts the encoded data into streams of symbols in accordance with the number of transmit streams in the mode select signal. This step will be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 6.
  • FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a method that further defines Step 120 of FIG. 5. This diagram shows a method performed by the baseband processing module to convert the encoded data into streams of symbols in accordance with the number of transmit streams and the mode select signal. Such processing begins at Step 122 where the baseband processing module interleaves the encoded data over multiple symbols and sub-carriers of a channel to produce interleaved data. In general, the interleaving process is designed to spread the encoded data over multiple symbols and transmit streams. This allows improved detection and error correction capability at the receiver. In one embodiment, the interleaving process will follow the IEEE 802.11(a) or (g) standard for backward compatible modes. For higher performance modes (e.g., IEEE 802.11(n), the interleaving will also be done over multiple transmit paths or streams.
  • The process then proceeds to Step 124 where the baseband processing module demultiplexes the interleaved data into a number of parallel streams of interleaved data. The number of parallel streams corresponds to the number of transmit streams, which in turn corresponds to the number of antennae indicated by the particular mode being utilized. The process then continues to Steps 126 and 128, where for each of the parallel streams of interleaved data, the baseband processing module maps the interleaved data into a quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) symbol to produce frequency domain symbols at Step 126. At Step 128, the baseband processing module converts the frequency domain symbols into time domain symbols, which may be done utilizing an inverse fast Fourier transform. The conversion of the frequency domain symbols into the time domain symbols may further include adding a cyclic prefix to allow removal of intersymbol interference at the receiver. Note that the length of the inverse fast Fourier transform and cyclic prefix are defined in the mode tables of tables 1-12. In general, a 64-point inverse fast Fourier transform is employed for 20 MHz channels and 128-point inverse fast Fourier transform is employed for 40 MHz channels.
  • The process then proceeds to Step 130 where the baseband processing module space and time encodes the time domain symbols for each of the parallel streams of interleaved data to produce the streams of symbols. In one embodiment, the space and time encoding may be done by space and time encoding the time domain symbols of the parallel streams of interleaved data into a corresponding number of streams of symbols utilizing an encoding matrix. Alternatively, the space and time encoding may be done by space and time encoding the time domain symbols of M-parallel streams of interleaved data into P-streams of symbols utilizing the encoding matrix, where P=2M In one embodiment the encoding matrix may comprise a form of:
  • [ C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 2 M - 1 C 2 M - C 2 * C 1 * - C 4 * C 3 * - C 2 M * C 2 M - 1 ]
  • The number of rows of the encoding matrix corresponds to M and the number of columns of the encoding matrix corresponds to P. The particular symbol values of the constants within the encoding matrix may be real or imaginary numbers.
  • FIGS. 7-9 are diagrams illustrating various embodiments for encoding the scrambled data.
  • FIG. 7 is a diagram of one method that may be utilized by the baseband processing module to encode the scrambled data at Step 116 of FIG. 5. In this method, the encoding of FIG. 7 may include an optional Step 144 where the baseband processing module may optionally perform encoding with an outer Reed-Solomon (RS) code to produce RS encoded data. It is noted that Step 144 may be conducted in parallel with Step 140 described below.
  • Also, the process continues at Step 140 where the baseband processing module performs a convolutional encoding with a 64 state code and generator polynomials of G0=1338 and G1=1718 on the scrambled data (that may or may not have undergone RS encoding) to produce convolutional encoded data. The process then proceeds to Step 142 where the baseband processing module punctures the convolutional encoded data at one of a plurality of rates in accordance with the mode selection signal to produce the encoded data. Note that the puncture rates may include 1/2, 2/3 and/or 3/4, or any rate as specified in tables 1-12. Note that, for a particular, mode, the rate may be selected for backward compatibility with IEEE 802.11(a), IEEE 802.11(g), or IEEE 802.11(n) rate requirements.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram of another encoding method that may be utilized by the baseband processing module to encode the scrambled data at Step 116 of FIG. 5. In this embodiment, the encoding of FIG. 8 may include an optional Step 148 where the baseband processing module may optionally perform encoding with an outer RS code to produce RS encoded data. It is noted that Step 148 may be conducted in parallel with Step 146 described below.
  • The method then continues at Step 146 where the baseband processing module encodes the scrambled data (that may or may not have undergone RS encoding) in accordance with a complimentary code keying (CCK) code to produce the encoded data. This may be done in accordance with IEEE 802.11(b) specifications, IEEE 802.11(g), and/or IEEE 802.11(n) specifications.
  • FIG. 9 is a diagram of yet another method for encoding the scrambled data at Step 116, which may be performed by the baseband processing module. In this embodiment, the encoding of FIG. 9 may include an optional Step 154 where the baseband processing module may optionally perform encoding with an outer RS code to produce RS encoded data.
  • Then, in some embodiments, the process continues at Step 150 where the baseband processing module performs LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) coding on the scrambled data (that may or may not have undergone RS encoding) to produce LDPC coded bits. Alternatively, the Step 150 may operate by performing convolutional encoding with a 256 state code and generator polynomials of G0=5618 and G1=7538 on the scrambled data the scrambled data (that may or may not have undergone RS encoding) to produce convolutional encoded data. The process then proceeds to Step 152 where the baseband processing module punctures the convolutional encoded data at one of the plurality of rates in accordance with a mode selection signal to produce encoded data. Note that the puncture rate is indicated in the tables 1-12 for the corresponding mode.
  • The encoding of FIG. 9 may further include the optional Step 154 where the baseband processing module combines the convolutional encoding with an outer Reed Solomon code to produce the convolutional encoded data.
  • FIGS. 10A and 10B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of a radio transmitter. This may involve the PMD module of a WLAN transmitter. In FIG. 10A, the baseband processing is shown to include a scrambler 172, channel encoder 174, interleaver 176, demultiplexer 170, a plurality of symbol mappers 180-184, a plurality of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT)/cyclic prefix addition modules 186-190 and a space/time encoder 192. The baseband portion of the transmitter may further include a mode manager module 175 that receives the mode selection signal 173 and produces settings 179 for the radio transmitter portion and produces the rate selection 171 for the baseband portion. In this embodiment, the scrambler 172, the channel encoder 174, and the interleaver 176 comprise an error protection module. The symbol mappers 180-184, the plurality of IFFT/cyclic prefix modules 186-190, the space time encoder 192 comprise a portion of the digital baseband processing module.
  • In operations, the scrambler 172 adds (e.g., in a Galois Finite Field (GF2)) a pseudo random sequence to the outbound data bits 88 to make the data appear random. A pseudo random sequence may be generated from a feedback shift register with the generator polynomial of S(x)=x7+x4+1 to produce scrambled data. The channel encoder 174 receives the scrambled data and generates a new sequence of bits with redundancy. This will enable improved detection at the receiver. The channel encoder 174 may operate in one of a plurality of modes. For example, for backward compatibility with IEEE 802.11(a) and IEEE 802.11(g), the channel encoder has the form of a rate 1/2 convolutional encoder with 64 states and a generator polynomials of G0=1338 and G1=1718. The output of the convolutional encoder may be punctured to rates of 1/2, 2/3, and 3/4 according to the specified rate tables (e.g., tables 1-12). For backward compatibility with IEEE 802.11(b) and the CCK modes of IEEE 802.11(g), the channel encoder has the form of a CCK code as defined in IEEE 802.11(b). For higher data rates (such as those illustrated in tables 6, 8 and 10), the channel encoder may use the same convolution encoding as described above or it may use a more powerful code, including a convolutional code with more states, any one or more of the various types of error correction codes (ECCs) mentioned above (e.g., RS, LDPC, turbo, TTCM, etc.) a parallel concatenated (turbo) code and/or a low density parity check (LDPC) block code. Further, any one of these codes may be combined with an outer Reed Solomon code. Based on a balancing of performance, backward compatibility and low latency, one or more of these codes may be optimal. Note that the concatenated turbo encoding and low density parity check will be described in greater detail with reference to subsequent Figures.
  • The interleaver 176 receives the encoded data and spreads it over multiple symbols and transmit streams. This allows improved detection and error correction capabilities at the receiver. In one embodiment, the interleaver 176 will follow the IEEE 802.11(a) or (g) standard in the backward compatible modes. For higher performance modes (e.g., such as those illustrated in tables 6, 8 and 10), the interleaver will interleave data over multiple transmit streams. The demultiplexer 170 converts the serial interleave stream from interleaver 176 into M-parallel streams for transmission.
  • Each symbol mapper 180-184 receives a corresponding one of the M-parallel paths of data from the demultiplexer. Each symbol mapper 180-182 lock maps bit streams to quadrature amplitude modulated QAM symbols (e.g., BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM, 256 QAM, etc.) according to the rate tables (e.g., tables 1-12). For IEEE 802.11(a) backward compatibility, double Gray coding may be used.
  • The map symbols produced by each of the symbol mappers 180-184 are provided to the IFFT/cyclic prefix addition modules 186-190, which performs frequency domain to time domain conversions and adds a prefix, which allows removal of inter-symbol interference at the receiver. Note that the length of the IFFT and cyclic prefix are defined in the mode tables of tables 1-12. In general, a 64-point IFFT will be used for 20 MHz channels and 128-point IFFT will be used for 40 MHz channels.
  • The space/time encoder 192 receives the M-parallel paths of time domain symbols and converts them into P-output symbols. In one embodiment, the number of M-input paths will equal the number of P-output paths. In another embodiment, the number of output paths P will equal 2M paths. For each of the paths, the space/time encoder multiples the input symbols with an encoding matrix that has the form of
  • [ C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 2 M - 1 C 2 M - C 2 * C 1 * - C 4 * C 3 * - C 2 M * C 2 M - 1 ] .
  • The rows of the encoding matrix correspond to the number of input paths and the columns correspond to the number of output paths.
  • FIG. 10B illustrates the radio portion of the transmitter that includes a plurality of digital filter/up-sampling modules 194-198, digital-to-analog conversion modules 200-204, analog filters 206-216, FQ modulators 218-222, RF amplifiers 224-228, RF filters 230-234 and antennae 236-240. The P-outputs from the space/time encoder 192 are received by respective digital filtering/up-sampling modules 194-198. In one embodiment, the digital filters/up sampling modules 194-198 are part of the digital baseband processing module and the remaining components comprise the plurality of RF front-ends. In such an embodiment, the digital baseband processing module and the RF front end comprise a direct conversion module.
  • In operation, the number of radio paths that are active correspond to the number of P-outputs. For example, if only one P-output path is generated, only one of the radio transmitter paths will be active. As one of average skill in the art will appreciate, the number of output paths may range from one to any desired number.
  • The digital filtering/up-sampling modules 194-198 filter the corresponding symbols and adjust the sampling rates to correspond with the desired sampling rates of the digital-to-analog conversion modules 200-204. The digital-to-analog conversion modules 200-204 convert the digital filtered and up-sampled signals into corresponding in-phase and quadrature analog signals. The analog filters 206-214 filter the corresponding in-phase and/or quadrature components of the analog signals, and provide the filtered signals to the corresponding I/Q modulators 218-222. The FQ modulators 218-222 based on a local oscillation, which is produced by a local oscillator 100, up-converts the FQ signals into radio frequency signals.
  • The RF amplifiers 224-228 amplify the RF signals which are then subsequently filtered via RF filters 230-234 before being transmitted via antennae 236-240.
  • FIGS. 11A and 11B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of a radio receiver (as shown by reference numeral 250). These diagrams illustrate a schematic block diagram of another embodiment of a receiver. FIG. 11A illustrates the analog portion of the receiver which includes a plurality of receiver paths. Each receiver path includes an antenna, RF filters 252-256, low noise amplifiers 258-262, I/Q demodulators 264-268, analog filters 270-280, analog-to-digital converters 282-286 and digital filters and down-sampling modules 288-290.
  • In operation, the antennae receive inbound RF signals, which are band-pass filtered via the RF filters 252-256. The corresponding low noise amplifiers 258-262 amplify the filtered signals and provide them to the corresponding I/Q demodulators 264-268. The I/Q demodulators 264-268, based on a local oscillation, which is produced by local oscillator 100, down-converts the RF signals into baseband in-phase and quadrature analog signals.
  • The corresponding analog filters 270-280 filter the in-phase and quadrature analog components, respectively. The analog-to-digital converters 282-286 convert the in-phase and quadrature analog signals into a digital signal. The digital filtering and down-sampling modules 288-290 filter the digital signals and adjust the sampling rate to correspond to the rate of the baseband processing, which will be described in FIG. 11B.
  • FIG. 11B illustrates the baseband processing of a receiver. The baseband processing includes a space/time decoder 294, a plurality of fast Fourier transform (FFT)/cyclic prefix removal modules 296-300, a plurality of symbol demapping modules 302-306, a multiplexer 308, a deinterleaver 310, a channel decoder 312, and a descramble module 314. The baseband processing module may further include a mode managing module 175, which produces rate selections 171 and settings 179 based on mode selections 173. The space/time decoding module 294, which performs the inverse function of space/time encoder 192, receives P-inputs from the receiver paths and produce M-output paths. The M-output paths are processed via the FFT/cyclic prefix removal modules 296-300 which perform the inverse function of the IFFT/cyclic prefix addition modules 186-190 to produce frequency domain symbols.
  • The symbol demapping modules 302-306 convert the frequency domain symbols into data utilizing an inverse process of the symbol mappers 180-184. The multiplexer 308 combines the demapped symbol streams into a single path.
  • The deinterleaver 310 deinterleaves the single path utilizing an inverse function of the function performed by interleaver 176. The deinterleaved data is then provided to the channel decoder 312 which performs the inverse function of channel encoder 174. The descrambler 314 receives the decoded data and performs the inverse function of scrambler 172 to produce the inbound data 98.
  • FIG. 12 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of an access point (AP) and multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices operating according to one or more various aspects and/or embodiments of the invention. The AP point 1200 may compatible with any number of communication protocols and/or standards, e.g., IEEE 802.11(a), IEEE 802.11(b), IEEE 802.11(g), IEEE 802.11(n), as well as in accordance with various aspects of invention. According to certain aspects of the present invention, the AP supports backwards compatibility with prior versions of the IEEE 802.11x standards as well. According to other aspects of the present invention, the AP 1200 supports communications with the WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206 with channel bandwidths, MIMO dimensions, and at data throughput rates unsupported by the prior IEEE 802.11x operating standards. For example, the access point 1200 and WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206 may support channel bandwidths from those of prior version devices and from 40 MHz to 1.28 GHz and above. The access point 1200 and WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206 support MIMO dimensions to 4×4 and greater. With these characteristics, the access point 1200 and WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206 may support data throughput rates to 1 GHz and above.
  • The AP 1200 supports simultaneous communications with more than one of the WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206. Simultaneous communications may be serviced via OFDM tone allocations (e.g., certain number of OFDM tones in a given cluster), MIMO dimension multiplexing, or via other techniques. With some simultaneous communications, the AP 1200 may allocate one or more of the multiple antennae thereof respectively to support communication with each WLAN device 1202, 1204, and 1206, for example.
  • Further, the AP 1200 and WLAN devices 1202, 1204, and 1206 are backwards compatible with the IEEE 802.11 (a), (b), (g), and (n) operating standards. In supporting such backwards compatibility, these devices support signal formats and structures that are consistent with these prior operating standards.
  • Generally, communications as described herein may be targeted for reception by a single receiver or for multiple individual receivers (e.g. via multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO), and/or OFDMA transmissions, which are different than single transmissions with a multi-receiver address). For example, a single OFDMA transmission uses different tones or sets of tones (e.g., clusters or channels) to send distinct sets of information, each set of set of information transmitted to one or more receivers simultaneously in the time domain. Again, an OFDMA transmission sent to one user is equivalent to an OFDM transmission (e.g., OFDM may be viewed as being a subset of OFDMA). A single MU-MIMO transmission may include spatially-diverse signals over a common set of tones, each containing distinct information and each transmitted to one or more distinct receivers. Some single transmissions may be a combination of OFDMA and MU-MIMO. Multi-user (MU), as described herein, may be viewed as being multiple users sharing at least one cluster (e.g., at least one channel within at least one band) at a same time.
  • MIMO transceivers illustrated may include SISO, SIMO, and MISO transceivers. The clusters employed for such communications (e.g., OFDMA communications) may be continuous (e.g., adjacent to one another) or discontinuous (e.g., separated by a guard interval of band gap). Transmissions on different OFDMA clusters may be simultaneous or non-simultaneous. Such wireless communication devices as described herein may be capable of supporting communications via a single cluster or any combination thereof. Legacy users and new version users (e.g., TGac MU-MIMO, OFDMA, MU-MIMO/OFDMA, etc.) may share bandwidth at a given time or they can be scheduled at different times for certain embodiments. Such a MU-MIMO/OFDMA transmitter (e.g., an AP or a STA) may transmit packets to more than one receiving wireless communication device (e.g., STA) on the same cluster (e.g., at least one channel within at least one band) in a single aggregated packet (such as being time multiplexed). In such an instance, channel training may be required for all communication links to the respective receiving wireless communication devices (e.g., STAs).
  • FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating an embodiment of a wireless communication device, and clusters, as may be employed for supporting communications with at least one additional wireless communication device. Generally speaking, a cluster may be viewed as a depiction of the mapping of tones, such as for an OFDM symbol, within or among one or more channels (e.g., sub-divided portions of the spectrum) that may be situated in one or more bands (e.g., portions of the spectrum separated by relatively larger amounts). As an example, various channels of 20 MHz may be situated within or centered around a 5 GHz band. The channels within any such band may be continuous (e.g., adjacent to one another) or discontinuous (e.g., separated by some guard interval or band gap). Oftentimes, one or more channels may be situated within a given band, and different bands need not necessarily have a same number of channels therein. Again, a cluster may generally be understood as any combination one or more channels among one or more bands.
  • The wireless communication device of this diagram may be of any of the various types and/or equivalents described herein (e.g., AP, WLAN device, or other wireless communication device including, though not limited to, any of those depicted in FIG. 1, etc.). The wireless communication device includes multiple antennae from which one or more signals may be transmitted to one or more receiving wireless communication devices and/or received from one or more other wireless communication devices.
  • Such clusters may be used for transmissions of signals via various one or more selected antennae. For example, different clusters are shown as being used to transmit signals respectively using different one or more antennae.
  • Also, it is noted that, with respect to certain embodiments, general nomenclature may be employed wherein a transmitting wireless communication device (e.g., such as being an Access point (AP), or a wireless station (STA) operating as an ‘AP’ with respect to other STAs) initiates communications, and/or operates as a network controller type of wireless communication device, with respect to a number of other, receiving wireless communication devices (e.g., such as being STAs), and the receiving wireless communication devices (e.g., such as being STAs) responding to and cooperating with the transmitting wireless communication device in supporting such communications. Of course, while this general nomenclature of transmitting wireless communication device(s) and receiving wireless communication device(s) may be employed to differentiate the operations as performed by such different wireless communication devices within a communication system, all such wireless communication devices within such a communication system may of course support bi-directional communications to and from other wireless communication devices within the communication system. In other words, the various types of transmitting wireless communication device(s) and receiving wireless communication device(s) may all support bi-directional communications to and from other wireless communication devices within the communication system. Generally speaking, such capability, functionality, operations, etc. as described herein may be applied to any wireless communication device.
  • Various aspects and principles, and their equivalents, of the invention as presented herein may be adapted for use in various standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices (including those currently under development) such as those in accordance with IEEE 802.11x (e.g., where x is a, b, g, n, ac, ad, ae, af, ah, etc.).
  • For example, the IEEE 802.11ah is a new protocol/standard currently under development and is intended for long range and low rate applications operating in worldwide spectrum below 1 GHz. The available spectrum in each country differs and requires flexible design to accommodate different options. As such, modifications to the IEEE 802.11 standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices may be made to effectuate longer delay spread and lower data rate applications such as may be employed in accordance with the IEEE 802.11ah developing standard.
  • Herein, certain adaptation and/or modification may be made with respect to IEEE 802.11ac standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices to provide efficient support for longer delay spread and lower data rate applications.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates an embodiment 1400 of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). OFDM modulation may be viewed a dividing up an available spectrum into a plurality of narrowband sub-carriers (e.g., lower data rate carriers). Typically, the frequency responses of these sub-carriers are overlapping and orthogonal. Each sub-carrier may be modulated using any of a variety of modulation coding techniques.
  • OFDM modulation operates by performing simultaneous transmission of a larger number of narrowband carriers (or multi-tones). Oftentimes a guard interval (GI) or guard space is also employed between the various OFDM symbols to try to minimize the effects of ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference) that may be caused by the effects of multi-path within the communication system (which can be particularly of concern in wireless communication systems). In addition, a CP (Cyclic Prefix) may also be employed within the guard interval to allow switching time (when jumping to a new band) and to help maintain orthogonality of the OFDM symbols.
  • Generally speaking, OFDM system design is based on the expected delay spread within the communication system (e.g., the expected delay spread of the communication channel). The references [1], [2] and [3] indicate delay spread in the order of several μsecs (e.g., in particular, ITU Ped B has maximum delay spread of 3.7 μsecs). Therefore, down clocking of the IEEE 802.11ac physical layer (PHY) by at least a factor of 8 is operative to generate a cyclic prefix (CP)=3.2 μsecs for the 1/8 option and 6.4 μsecs for the 1/4 option allowing for efficient support for most channels using 1/8 CP and support for extreme channels using 1/4 CP. For relatively short indoor channels, support for 1/32 CP is recommended to improve efficiency by 9% relative to 1/8 CP.
  • However, the available spectrum in the United States of America (USA) (26 MHz), Japan (8 MHz), Korea (6.5 MHz), and China (2/4/8/40 MHz) may be better utilized with 2 MHz channels. In certain embodiments presented herein, channels of bandwidth of 2 MHz are employed, as is described elsewhere herein.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates an embodiment 1500 of down-clocking for by different respective transceiver sections within a communication device. In this embodiment, a single one down clocking ratio of 10 is operative to generate 2/4/8/16 MHz channels for proposed IEEE 802.11ah in all regions by co-opting the PHY definitions of IEEE 802.11ac (64/128/256/512 size fast Fourier transform (FFT)).
  • This is operative to provide for an adequate CP size of 4 μsecs for 1/8 while allowing for carrier frequency offset estimation of up to 62.5 kHz comfortably above 40 parts per million (ppm) in S1G frequencies.
  • With respect to channelization, this is operative to support thirteen, six and three 2/4/8 MHz non-overlapping channels respectively in the USA. Three 2 MHz channels may be employed in Korea.
  • This is operative to allow for 2 channels in the 863-868.6 MHz band in Europe. A slightly more optimized down-clocking by a factor of 11 would be operative to include 3 channels into that band. Currently, Japanese regulatory rules permit up to 1 MHz channels in Japan and this can be achieved by defining a new PHY with an FFT size 32.
  • As may be seen in the diagram, a first clock having a first frequency (e.g., CLK1) may be divided down by a factor of 10 to generate a second having a second frequency (e.g., CLK1/10). Generally, a first set of clock signals each having a respective and different first frequency may be divided down by a factor of 10 to generate a second set of clock signals each having a respective and different second frequency. For example, in one particular embodiment, a first set of clocks respectively having frequencies of 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, and/or 160 MHz may be divided down by a factor of 10 to generate a second set of clock signals respectively having frequencies of 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, and/or 16 MHz. The first set of clocks (e.g., 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, and/or 160 MHz) may be used to operate the PHY of a first one or more transceiver module/circuitry. The second set of clocks (e.g., 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, and 10 MHz) may be used to operate the PHY of a second one or more transceiver module/circuitry.
  • The different respective first and second clocks may be implemented and operative for use (e.g., such as by the PHY) of a first and second one or more transceiver modules/circuitries within the wireless communication device.
  • Each of the respective clocks within the various sets may be selectively provided to different portions of the first/second one or more transceiver module/circuitry. That is to say, within the first/second set of clocks, the different clocks therein may be provided to different respective portions of the first/second one or more transceiver module/circuitry (e.g., 20 MHz to a first portion, 40 MHz to a second portion, etc.). For example, the first clocks may be employed by a first one or more transceiver modules/circuitries within the wireless communication device, and a second clocks may be employed by a second one or more transceiver modules/circuitries within the wireless communication device.
  • It is of course noted that such respective transceiver modules/circuitries may respectively be implemented as having different respective transmitter and receiver components. In some embodiments, a given communication device may include a singular set of transceiver modules/circuitries, and depending upon the frequency of the clock signal provided thereto, signaling would be generated in accordance with one of any of a number of respective communication protocols, standards, and/or recommended practices. That is to say, when a first clock frequency is employed, signaling may be generated in accordance with a first communication protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice. Then, if a second clock frequency is employed (e.g., such as a down clocked version of the first clock frequency), then signaling may be generated in accordance with a second communication protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates an embodiment 1600 of bandwidth partitioning into various channels, which may be of different widths, and partitioning of channels into sub-channels. This is operative to support for non-contiguous operation, in that, the respective bandwidths of the channels of a used spectrum portion may be non-uniform in spectral width. For example, this is operative to provide support for non-contiguous 8 MHz channels (e.g., using a total of 16 MHz bandwidth by using two respective 8 MHz channel, such as 8+8) such as in accordance with and adapted from IEEE 802.11ac.
  • However, due to the narrow bandwidth operation proposed herein for IEEE 802.11ah, support for other combinations such as 8+2 (e.g., combination of an 8 MHz channel and a 2 MHz channel), 4+4 (e.g., combination of two 4 MHz channels), 2+2 (e.g., combination of two 2 MHz channels), 2+4 (e.g., combination of a 4 MHz channel and a 2 MHz channel), etc. is proposed herein as well to provide improved diversity to the narrowband channels and also to provide improve access to the channel by utilizing vacant narrowband channels across the spectrum.
  • In accordance with this, the encoding process can be done using either of the following two options: (1) one encoder spanning the two non-contiguous channels/bands (e.g., such as may be effectuated with respect to FIG. 19), or (2) employing a separate encoder for each sub-channel/band (e.g., such as may be effectuated with respect to FIG. 20 and FIG. 21).
  • The radio frequency (RF) front end (e.g., an analog front end (AFE)) can use either of the following two options: (2) one wideband front end covering the two non-contiguous bands and the spectrum in between. Filtering of the undesired band is done in the digital domain, or (2) two separate RF carriers each with its own filters matched to each sub-band or sub-channel.
  • The extension to 3 or more non-contiguous channels (and any combination thereof) can be done on the same way.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates an embodiment 1700 of bandwidth partitioning into various channels, which may be of common/uniform widths, and partitioning of channels into sub-channels. This is operative to support for non-contiguous operation, in that, the respective bandwidths of the channels of a used spectrum portion may be uniform in spectral width. For example, this is operative to provide support for non-contiguous channels of a common bandwidth (e.g., each being of 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or some other common/uniform width.
  • As within other embodiments, combinations of various bandwidth channels may also be effectuated (e.g., combination of 2, 3, or more channels) to provide improved diversity to the narrowband channels and also to provide improve access to the channel by utilizing vacant narrowband channels across the spectrum.
  • In accordance with this, the encoding process can be done using either of the following two options: (1) one encoder spanning the two non-contiguous channels/bands (e.g., such as may be effectuated with respect to FIG. 20), or (2) employing a separate encoder for each sub-channel/band (e.g., such as may be effectuated with respect to FIG. 21 and FIG. 22).
  • The radio frequency (RF) front end (e.g., an analog front end (AFE)) can use either of the following two options: (2) one wideband front end covering the two non-contiguous bands and the spectrum in between. Filtering of the undesired band is done in the digital domain, or (2) two separate RF carriers each with its own filters matched to each sub-band or sub-channel.
  • Of course, extension to any number of non-contiguous channels (and any combination thereof) can be done in an analogous manner.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates an alternative embodiment 1800 of bandwidth partitioning into various channels. This top of this diagram shows an embodiment in which the respective bandwidths of the channels of a used spectrum portion (e.g., ΔBW within the range of 902 to 928 MHz) are non-uniform in spectral width (e.g., being 2/4/8 MHz in the top embodiment).
  • This bottom of this diagram shows an embodiment in which the respective bandwidths of the channels of a used spectrum portion (e.g., ΔBW within the range of 902 to 928 MHz) are non-uniform in spectral width (e.g., being 2/4/8/16 MHz in the bottom embodiment).
  • FIG. 19 illustrates an embodiment 1900 of bandwidth assignment among various channels for use in transmission and/or reception by various wireless communication devices. As a function of time, it may be seen that the combination of channels used for transmission and/or reception may vary, and the respective duration of certain communications may vary in duration as well. In some embodiments, such channel assignment may be made by a transmitting wireless communication device (e.g., AP). such a transmitting wireless communication device (e.g., AP) may operate by transmitting some form of control, management, and/or other type of frame transmitting from the transmitting wireless communication device (e.g., AP) to a group of receiving wireless communication devices (e.g., STAs) so that all of the wireless communication devices within the communication system know the channel assignment.
  • As may be seen, proceeding along the time axis from left to right, a combination of two contiguous channels (e.g., CH1 and CH2) is firstly employed for communications; the duration in which these two contiguous channels are employed is Δt1. Next, a combination of three non-contiguous channels (e.g., CH3, CH5, and CHn) is employed for communications; the duration in which these three non-contiguous channels are employed is Δt2, which is different than t1.
  • Next, initial communications are performed using CH1, then CH4 is added to grow the channel allocation/assignment/reservation (e.g., in which a combination to two contiguous channels are employed, CH1 and CH4), and then CH6 is added to grow further the channel allocation/assignment/reservation (e.g., in which a combination of three contiguous channels are employed, CH1, CH4, and CH6).
  • As may be understood with respect to this diagram, any combination of channels may be employed for transmission and/or reception by various wireless communication devices during different respective time intervals (that may differ in terms of duration/length).
  • FIG. 20 illustrates an embodiment 2000 of a communication device in which bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using a common encoder. This diagram shows how differently selected bits (e.g., non-encoded bits) corresponding to different channel combinations (e.g., a combination being any combination of any one or more channels) using a common encoder. However, the different selected bits (e.g., non-encoded bits) may undergo encoding at different times thereby generating different coded bit groups, which may be transmitted respectively at different times.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates an embodiment 2100 of a communication device in which bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using different respective encoders. In this embodiment, differently selected bits (e.g., non-encoded bits) corresponding to different channels are respectively provided to different respective encoders (e.g., encoder 1, encoder 2, and so on up to encoder n) thereby generating different coded bit groups (e.g., encoded bits 1, encoded bits 2, and so on up to encoded bits n). The various encoders (e.g., encoder 1, encoder 2, and so on up to encoder n) may each be operative to employ different respective codes (e.g., selected from among turbo, turbo trellis coded modulation (TTCM), LDPC (Low Density Parity Check), Reed-Solomon (RS), BCH (Bose and Ray-Chaudhuri), convolutional, and/or any combination thereof, etc.).
  • Thereafter, a bit combination module is operative to process the different coded bit groups (e.g., encoded bits 1, encoded bits 2, and so on up to encoded bits n) thereby generating a combined bit stream.
  • FIG. 22 illustrates an embodiment 2200 of a communication device in which any combinations of bits corresponding respectively to different channels undergo encoding using different respective encoders. In this embodiment, differently selected bits (e.g., non-encoded bits) corresponding to different channels are respectively provided to a channel selection module that is operative to select any combination of bits corresponding to any combination of one or more channels thereby generating respective groups of bits.
  • The respective groups of bits then undergo encoding within different respective encoders (e.g., encoder 1, encoder 2, and so on up to encoder n) thereby generating different coded bit groups (e.g., encoded bits 1, encoded bits 2, and so on up to encoded bits n). Thereafter, a bit combination module is operative to process the different coded bit groups (e.g., encoded bits 1, encoded bits 2, and so on up to encoded bits m) thereby generating a combined bit stream.
  • FIG. 23 illustrates an embodiment 2300 of repetition encoding in the time domain. The use of repetition encoding is operative to extend the range of OFDM rates. When comparing IEEE 802.11ac to previous versions of IEEE 802.11x, rates associated with 256 QAM modulation have been added to increase throughput.
  • In order to improve range using OFDM (such as may be employed in accordance with IEEE 802.11ah), two rates, namely MCS0 with repetition 2 and repetition 4, may be added thereto. Also, the use of MCS1 with repetition 2 may be employed instead of MCS0, since it may be effectual to provide improved performance in a communication channel affected deleteriously Rayleigh fading.
  • This MCS definition uses repetition across frequency to provide improved frequency diversity by mapping each symbol into two or four tones separated by half or quarter of the available bandwidth. In order to reduce peak to average power ratio (PAPR), a known phase offset may also be added we propose to add between the repeated symbols. Hence, the lowest rate in the system with 1/8 CP and using 2 MHz bandwidth is 7.2 Mbps/10/4=180 kbps.
  • To allow even lower bit rate such as 90 kbps without defining a new narrower channel (1 MHz), we propose one of the following modes:
  • (1) MCS0 with repetition 8 provides even more frequency diversity. The current IEEE 802.11ac design uses 52 data sub-carriers which is not divisible by 8 but the 802.11a design uses 48 data sub-carriers, a design still used in 802.11ac for the legacy signal and LTF fields.
  • (2) Symbol repetition in time. The receiver combines the output of two symbols to gain 3 dB at the expense of one symbol delay in the decoding.
  • (3) Symbol repetition in frequency.
  • FIG. 24 illustrates an embodiment 2400 of repetition encoding in the frequency domain. The respective data sub-carriers (tones) may be divided into a number of respective groups (e.g., 2 groups, 3 groups, 4 groups, etc.) for use in mapping respective OFDM symbols thereto. For example, exact mapping can use any combination. For example, in the case of 2 groups: odd and even sub-carriers, lower half sub-carriers and upper half sub-carriers, etc. For example, in the case of 3 groups: the lower, middle, and upper third groups of sub-carriers, every 3rd sub-carrier into one of 3 respective groups (e.g., tones 1, 4, 7, etc. in a first group; tones 2, 5, 8, etc. in a second group; and tones 3, 6, 9, etc. in a third group). For example, in the case of 4 groups: the bottom fourth, next fourth, next fourth and uppermost fourth may compose 4 respective groups of sub-carriers, every 4th sub-carrier into one of 4 respective groups (e.g., tones 1, 5, 8, etc. in a first group; tones 2, 6, 9, etc. in a second group; tones 3, 7, 10, etc. in a third group; and tones 4, 8, 11, etc. in a fourth group).
  • For example, considering the embodiment in the case of 2 groups, 64 FFT 52 data sub-carriers may be partitioned into two equal groups, each of which is mapped to one of two successive OFDM symbols and boosted by 3 dB. Again, the exact mapping can use any combination such as odd and even sub-carriers, or mapping to half the band on one OFDM symbol and the second half in the second OFDM symbol. In one embodiment, the two groups should optimally use different sub-carriers to maintain the same overall power spectral density in each sub-carrier. The pilot sub-carriers can also be evenly split between the two OFDM symbols or transmitted in each OFDM symbol to minimize change. In this approach, there is no delay as the receiver feeds the decoder symbol by symbol.
  • FIG. 25 illustrates various embodiments 2500 of a communication device. As may be seen with respect to this diagram, as shown in the top of the diagram, a down clock module may be implemented within the wireless communication device to process a first clock signal to generate a second clock signal. A physical layer (PHY) within the wireless communication device may be operated based upon the second clock signal. In some instances, the PHY of a given the wireless communication device may be designed in operative in accordance with at least one communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice. Depending upon the particular clocking that is provided to the PHY, the PHY will be operative in accordance with a particular one of those communication standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices. As may be understood with respect to this variant, a down clocking of a PHY that has been designed and implemented for operation within a first communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice may effectuate the operation of that PHY for operation within a second communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice.
  • It is noted that certain embodiments may be implemented to include a PHY that is selectively operable based upon two or more different respective clocks. For example, considering the bottom portion of this diagram, a down clock module may be implemented to process a first clock signal to generate a second clock signal. The PHY may be selectively operable in accordance with either respective clocking. That is to say, when the PHY operates in accordance with a first clock signal, then the PHY would be operative in accordance with the first communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice. Alternatively, when that very same PHY operates in accordance with the second clock signal (e.g., such as a down clock version of first clock signal), then the PHY would be operative in accordance with a second communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice. It is of course noted that more than two respective clock signals may be employed within alternative embodiments, such that, depending upon the particular clocking provided to a PHY, that PHY would operate in accordance with different respective communication standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices.
  • As described elsewhere herein with respect to various embodiments and/or diagrams, relationship between the channelization of different respective communication standards, protocols, and/or recommended practices may effectuate the selective and adaptive operation of a PHY in accordance with more than one such communication standard, protocol, and/or recommended practice.
  • FIG. 26A, FIG. 26B, FIG. 27A, and FIG. 27B are diagrams illustrating embodiments of methods for operating one or more wireless communication devices.
  • Referring to method 2600 of FIG. 26A, the method 2600 begins by down-clocking at least one clock signal using a single down clocking ratio to generate a plurality of clock signals, as shown in a block 2610. In certain alternate embodiments, such down-clocking may be based upon one or more different respective clocks to generate one or more different respective down-clock clocks.
  • The method 2600 continues by operating a physical layer (PHY) of a first communication device to support communications with at least one additional (e.g., a 2nd, or 2nd, 3rd, etc.) communication device using at least one channel having a respective channel bandwidth corresponding to at least one of the plurality of clock signals, as shown in a block 2620. It is noted that adaptation may be effectuated such that a first respective channel bandwidth may be employed at or during a first time, and a second respective channel bandwidth may be employed at or during a second time, etc. Such adaptation may be based upon any one or more different respective considerations, including any one or more local and/or remote operating condition (or any change thereof), information received from the at least one additional communication device, etc.
  • Via at least one antenna of the communication device, the method 2600 then operates by transmitting or receiving the communications wirelessly, as shown in a block 2630. As may be understood, such operation of the PHY of the first communication device may be operative to assist in appropriate operation to support one or both of transmission or receipt of communications wirelessly from at least one additional communication device
  • Referring to method 2601 of FIG. 26B, the method 2601 begins by down-clocking a first at least one clock signal using a single down-clocking ratio to generate a second at least one clock signal, as shown in a block 2611.
  • The method 2601 then operates by operating a PHY corresponding to a first protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice of a first communication device to support communications with at least one additional (e.g., a 2nd, or 2nd, 3rd, etc.) communication device using at least one channel having a respective channel bandwidth corresponding to the second at least one clock signal thereby operating the PHY in accordance with a second protocol, standard, and/or recommended practice, as shown in a block 2621.
  • Via at least one antenna of the communication device, the method 2601 then operates by transmitting or receiving the communications wirelessly, as shown in a block 2631. Again, as may be understood with respect to this embodiment and/or others, such operation of the PHY of the first communication device may be operative to assist in appropriate operation to support one or both of transmission or receipt of communications wirelessly from at least one additional communication device.
  • Referring to method 2700 of FIG. 27A, the method 2700 begins by operating a PHY of a first communication device to support communications with at least one additional (e.g., a 2nd, or 2nd, 3rd, etc.) communication device using a first channel having a respective channel bandwidth at or during a first time, as shown in a block 2710.
  • The method 2700 continues by operating the PHY to support communications with the at least one additional communication device using a second channel having the respective channel bandwidth (e.g., of the first channel) or having at least one additional respective channel bandwidth at or during a second time, as shown in a block 2720. As may be understood, adaptation between different respective channels (and/or between different respective sub-channels) may be made such that a given PHY may adaptively and selectively operate in accordance with a different respective sub-channels, channels, bandwidths, etc. at or during different respective times. Referring to method 2701 of FIG. 27B, the method 2701 begins by operating a PHY of a first communication device to support communications with at least one additional (e.g., a 2nd, or 2nd, 3rd, etc.) communication device using a first channel having a respective channel bandwidth, as shown in a block 2711.
  • The method 2701 then operates by determining whether or not one or more conditions have been met, as shown in a decision block 2721. Any desired one or more condition may be employed within the decision block 2721. For example, such condition may be made based upon one or more received communications (e.g., feedback, and acknowledgment, etc.) provided from one or more other communication devices. Alternatively, such a condition may be a change in any one or more local and/or remote operating conditions. Generally speaking, any desired condition and/or change thereof may be used as the criterion or criteria by which such determination is made within the block 2721.
  • If the condition is met in the decision block 2721, then the method 2701 operates by operating the PHY to support communications with the at least one additional communication device using a second channel having the respective channel bandwidth (e.g., of the first channel) or having at least one additional respective channel bandwidth, as shown in a block 2731.
  • Alternatively, if the condition is not met in the decision block 2721, the method 2701 then operates by continuing to operate the PHY of the first communication device using the first channel having the respective channel bandwidth, as shown in the block 2711. As may be understood, such adaptation and selectivity between different respective channel bandwidths may be made based on one or more criteria. If any one or more such desired conditions associated with the one or more criteria is not met, then operation of the PHY continues unchanged. However, based upon any one or more such desired conditions associated with the one or more criteria in fact being met, then operation of the PHY is modified, adapted, changed, etc.
  • It is also noted that the various operations and functions as described with respect to various methods herein may be performed within a wireless communication device, such as using a baseband processing module and/or a processing module implemented therein, (e.g., such as in accordance with the baseband processing module 64 and/or the processing module 50 as described with reference to FIG. 2) and/or other components therein. For example, such a baseband processing module can generate such signals and frames as described herein as well as perform various operations and analyses as described herein, or any other operations and functions as described herein, etc. or their respective equivalents.
  • In some embodiments, such a baseband processing module and/or a processing module (which may be implemented in the same device or separate devices) can perform such processing to generate signals for transmission using at least one of any number of radios and at least one of any number of antennae to another wireless communication device (e.g., which also may include at least one of any number of radios and at least one of any number of antennae) in accordance with various aspects of the invention, and/or any other operations and functions as described herein, etc. or their respective equivalents. In some embodiments, such processing is performed cooperatively by a processing module in a first device, and a baseband processing module within a second device. In other embodiments, such processing is performed wholly by a baseband processing module or a processing module.
  • As may be used herein, the terms “substantially” and “approximately” provides an industry-accepted tolerance for its corresponding term and/or relativity between items. Such an industry-accepted tolerance ranges from less than one percent to fifty percent and corresponds to, but is not limited to, component values, integrated circuit process variations, temperature variations, rise and fall times, and/or thermal noise. Such relativity between items ranges from a difference of a few percent to magnitude differences. As may also be used herein, the term(s) “operably coupled to”, “coupled to”, and/or “coupling” includes direct coupling between items and/or indirect coupling between items via an intervening item (e.g., an item includes, but is not limited to, a component, an element, a circuit, and/or a module) where, for indirect coupling, the intervening item does not modify the information of a signal but may adjust its current level, voltage level, and/or power level. As may further be used herein, inferred coupling (i.e., where one element is coupled to another element by inference) includes direct and indirect coupling between two items in the same manner as “coupled to”. As may even further be used herein, the term “operable to” or “operably coupled to” indicates that an item includes one or more of power connections, input(s), output(s), etc., to perform, when activated, one or more its corresponding functions and may further include inferred coupling to one or more other items. As may still further be used herein, the term “associated with”, includes direct and/or indirect coupling of separate items and/or one item being embedded within another item. As may be used herein, the term “compares favorably”, indicates that a comparison between two or more items, signals, etc., provides a desired relationship. For example, when the desired relationship is that signal 1 has a greater magnitude than signal 2, a favorable comparison may be achieved when the magnitude of signal 1 is greater than that of signal 2 or when the magnitude of signal 2 is less than that of signal 1.
  • As may also be used herein, the terms “processing module”, “module”, “processing circuit”, and/or “processing unit” (e.g., including various modules and/or circuitries such as may be operative, implemented, and/or for encoding, for decoding, for baseband processing, etc.) may be a single processing device or a plurality of processing devices. Such a processing device may be a microprocessor, micro-controller, digital signal processor, microcomputer, central processing unit, field programmable gate array, programmable logic device, state machine, logic circuitry, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or any device that manipulates signals (analog and/or digital) based on hard coding of the circuitry and/or operational instructions. The processing module, module, processing circuit, and/or processing unit may have an associated memory and/or an integrated memory element, which may be a single memory device, a plurality of memory devices, and/or embedded circuitry of the processing module, module, processing circuit, and/or processing unit. Such a memory device may be a read-only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), volatile memory, non-volatile memory, static memory, dynamic memory, flash memory, cache memory, and/or any device that stores digital information. Note that if the processing module, module, processing circuit, and/or processing unit includes more than one processing device, the processing devices may be centrally located (e.g., directly coupled together via a wired and/or wireless bus structure) or may be distributedly located (e.g., cloud computing via indirect coupling via a local area network and/or a wide area network). Further note that if the processing module, module, processing circuit, and/or processing unit implements one or more of its functions via a state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry, the memory and/or memory element storing the corresponding operational instructions may be embedded within, or external to, the circuitry comprising the state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry. Still further note that, the memory element may store, and the processing module, module, processing circuit, and/or processing unit executes, hard coded and/or operational instructions corresponding to at least some of the steps and/or functions illustrated in one or more of the Figures. Such a memory device or memory element can be included in an article of manufacture.
  • The present invention has been described above with the aid of method steps illustrating the performance of specified functions and relationships thereof. The boundaries and sequence of these functional building blocks and method steps have been arbitrarily defined herein for convenience of description. Alternate boundaries and sequences can be defined so long as the specified functions and relationships are appropriately performed. Any such alternate boundaries or sequences are thus within the scope and spirit of the claimed invention. Further, the boundaries of these functional building blocks have been arbitrarily defined for convenience of description. Alternate boundaries could be defined as long as the certain significant functions are appropriately performed. Similarly, flow diagram blocks may also have been arbitrarily defined herein to illustrate certain significant functionality. To the extent used, the flow diagram block boundaries and sequence could have been defined otherwise and still perform the certain significant functionality. Such alternate definitions of both functional building blocks and flow diagram blocks and sequences are thus within the scope and spirit of the claimed invention. One of average skill in the art will also recognize that the functional building blocks, and other illustrative blocks, modules and components herein, can be implemented as illustrated or by discrete components, application specific integrated circuits, processors executing appropriate software and the like or any combination thereof.
  • The present invention may have also been described, at least in part, in terms of one or more embodiments. An embodiment of the present invention is used herein to illustrate the present invention, an aspect thereof, a feature thereof, a concept thereof, and/or an example thereof. A physical embodiment of an apparatus, an article of manufacture, a machine, and/or of a process that embodies the present invention may include one or more of the aspects, features, concepts, examples, etc. described with reference to one or more of the embodiments discussed herein. Further, from figure to figure, the embodiments may incorporate the same or similarly named functions, steps, modules, etc. that may use the same or different reference numbers and, as such, the functions, steps, modules, etc. may be the same or similar functions, steps, modules, etc. or different ones.
  • Unless specifically stated to the contra, signals to, from, and/or between elements in a figure of any of the figures presented herein may be analog or digital, continuous time or discrete time, and single-ended or differential. For instance, if a signal path is shown as a single-ended path, it also represents a differential signal path. Similarly, if a signal path is shown as a differential path, it also represents a single-ended signal path. While one or more particular architectures are described herein, other architectures can likewise be implemented that use one or more data buses not expressly shown, direct connectivity between elements, and/or indirect coupling between other elements as recognized by one of average skill in the art.
  • The term “module” is used in the description of the various embodiments of the present invention. A module includes a functional block that is implemented via hardware to perform one or module functions such as the processing of one or more input signals to produce one or more output signals. The hardware that implements the module may itself operate in conjunction software, and/or firmware. As used herein, a module may contain one or more sub-modules that themselves are modules.
  • While particular combinations of various functions and features of the present invention have been expressly described herein, other combinations of these features and functions are likewise possible. The present invention is not limited by the particular examples disclosed herein and expressly incorporates these other combinations.
  • Mode Selection Tables:
  • TABLE 1
    2.4 GHz, 20/22 MHz channel BW, 54 Mbps max bit rate
    Code
    Rate Modulation Rate NBPSC NCBPS NDBPS EVM Sensitivity ACR AACR
    Barker
    1 BPSK
    Barker
    2 QPSK
    5.5 CCK
    6 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24 −5 −82 16 32
    9 BPSK 0.75 1 48 36 −8 −81 15 31
    11 CCK
    12 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48 −10 −79 13 29
    18 QPSK 0.75 2 96 72 −13 −77 11 27
    24 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96 −16 −74 8 24
    36 16-QAM 0.75 4 192 144 −19 −70 4 20
    48 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192 −22 −66 0 16
    54 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216 −25 −65 −1 15
  • TABLE 2
    Channelization for Table 1
    Frequency
    Channel (MHz)
    1 2412
    2 2417
    3 2422
    4 2427
    5 2432
    6 2437
    7 2442
    8 2447
    9 2452
    10 2457
    11 2462
    12 2467
  • TABLE 3
    Power Spectral Density (PSD) Mask for Table 1
    PSD Mask 1
    Frequency Offset dBr
    −9 MHz to 9 MHz 0
    +/−11 MHz −20
    +/−20 MHz −28
    +/−30 MHz and greater −50
  • TABLE 4
    5 GHz, 20 MHz channel BW, 54 Mbps max bit rate
    Code
    Rate Modulation Rate NBPSC NCBPS NDBPS EVM Sensitivity ACR AACR
    6 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24 −5 −82 16 32
    9 BPSK 0.75 1 48 36 −8 −81 15 31
    12 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48 −10 −79 13 29
    18 QPSK 0.75 2 96 72 −13 −77 11 27
    24 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96 −16 −74 8 24
    36 16-QAM 0.75 4 192 144 −19 −70 4 20
    48 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192 −22 −66 0 16
    54 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216 −25 −65 −1 15
  • TABLE 5
    Channelization for Table 4
    Frequency Frequency
    Channel (MHz) Country Channel (MHz) Country
    240 4920 Japan
    244 4940 Japan
    248 4960 Japan
    252 4980 Japan
    8 5040 Japan
    12 5060 Japan
    16 5080 Japan
    36 5180 USA/Europe 34 5170 Japan
    40 5200 USA/Europe 38 5190 Japan
    44 5220 USA/Europe 42 5210 Japan
    48 5240 USA/Europe 46 5230 Japan
    52 5260 USA/Europe
    56 5280 USA/Europe
    60 5300 USA/Europe
    64 5320 USA/Europe
    100 5500 USA/Europe
    104 5520 USA/Europe
    108 5540 USA/Europe
    112 5560 USA/Europe
    116 5580 USA/Europe
    120 5600 USA/Europe
    124 5620 USA/Europe
    128 5640 USA/Europe
    132 5660 USA/Europe
    136 5680 USA/Europe
    140 5700 USA/Europe
    149 5745 USA
    153 5765 USA
    157 5785 USA
    161 5805 USA
    165 5825 USA
  • TABLE 6
    2.4 GHz, 20 MHz channel BW, 192 Mbps max bit rate
    ST
    TX Code Modu- Code
    Rate Antennas Rate lation Rate NBPSC NCBPS NDBPS
    12 2 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    24 2 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    48 2 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    96 2 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    108 2 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
    18 3 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    36 3 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    72 3 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    144 3 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    162 3 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
    24 4 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    48 4 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    96 4 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    192 4 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    216 4 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
  • TABLE 7
    Channelization for Table 6
    Frequency
    Channel (MHz)
    1 2412
    2 2417
    3 2422
    4 2427
    5 2432
    6 2437
    7 2442
    8 2447
    9 2452
    10 2457
    11 2462
    12 2467
  • TABLE 8
    5 GHz, 20 MHz channel BW, 192 Mbps max bit rate
    TX
    An-
    ten- ST Code Modu- Code
    Rate nas Rate lation Rate NBPSC NCBPS NDBPS
    12 2 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    24 2 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    48 2 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    96 2 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    108 2 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
    18 3 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    36 3 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    72 3 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    144 3 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    162 3 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
    24 4 1 BPSK 0.5 1 48 24
    48 4 1 QPSK 0.5 2 96 48
    96 4 1 16-QAM 0.5 4 192 96
    192 4 1 64-QAM 0.666 6 288 192
    216 4 1 64-QAM 0.75 6 288 216
  • TABLE 9
    channelization for Table 8
    Frequency Frequency
    Channel (MHz) Country Channel (MHz) Country
    240 4920 Japan
    244 4940 Japan
    248 4960 Japan
    252 4980 Japan
    8 5040 Japan
    12 5060 Japan
    16 5080 Japan
    36 5180 USA/Europe 34 5170 Japan
    40 5200 USA/Europe 38 5190 Japan
    44 5220 USA/Europe 42 5210 Japan
    48 5240 USA/Europe 46 5230 Japan
    52 5260 USA/Europe
    56 5280 USA/Europe
    60 5300 USA/Europe
    64 5320 USA/Europe
    100 5500 USA/Europe
    104 5520 USA/Europe
    108 5540 USA/Europe
    112 5560 USA/Europe
    116 5580 USA/Europe
    120 5600 USA/Europe
    124 5620 USA/Europe
    128 5640 USA/Europe
    132 5660 USA/Europe
    136 5680 USA/Europe
    140 5700 USA/Europe
    149 5745 USA
    153 5765 USA
    157 5785 USA
    161 5805 USA
    165 5825 USA
  • TABLE 10
    5 GHz, with 40 MHz channels and max bit rate of 486 Mbps
    TX ST Code Code
    Rate Antennas Rate Modulation Rate NBPSC
    13.5 Mbps  1 1 BPSK 0.5 1
     27 Mbps 1 1 QPSK 0.5 2
     54 Mbps 1 1 16-QAM 0.5 4
    108 Mbps 1 1 64-QAM 0.666 6
    121.5 Mbps 1 1 64-QAM 0.75 6
     27 Mbps 2 1 BPSK 0.5 1
     54 Mbps 2 1 QPSK 0.5 2
    108 Mbps 2 1 16-QAM 0.5 4
    216 Mbps 2 1 64-QAM 0.666 6
    243 Mbps 2 1 64-QAM 0.75 6
    40.5 Mbps  3 1 BPSK 0.5 1
     81 Mbps 3 1 QPSK 0.5 2
    162 Mbps 3 1 16-QAM 0.5 4
    324 Mbps 3 1 64-QAM 0.666 6
    365.5 Mbps 3 1 64-QAM 0.75 6
     54 Mbps 4 1 BPSK 0.5 1
    108 Mbps 4 1 QPSK 0.5 2
    216 Mbps 4 1 16-QAM 0.5 4
    432 Mbps 4 1 64-QAM 0.666 6
    486 Mbps 4 1 64-QAM 0.75 6
  • TABLE 11
    Power Spectral Density (PSD) mask for Table 10
    PSD Mask 2
    Frequency Offset dBr
    −19 MHz to 19 MHz 0
    +/−21 MHz −20
    +/−30 MHz −28
    +/−40 MHz and greater −50
  • TABLE 12
    Channelization for Table 10
    Frequency Frequency
    Channel (MHz) Country Channel (MHz) County
    242 4930 Japan
    250 4970 Japan
    12 5060 Japan
    38 5190 USA/Europe 36 5180 Japan
    46 5230 USA/Europe 44 5520 Japan
    54 5270 USA/Europe
    62 5310 USA/Europe
    102 5510 USA/Europe
    110 5550 USA/Europe
    118 5590 USA/Europe
    126 5630 USA/Europe
    134 5670 USA/Europe
    151 5755 USA
    159 5795 USA
  • REFERENCES
    • [1] 11-11-0251-00-00ah-outdoor-channel models-for-802-11ah.ppt
    • [2] 11-11-0436-00-00ah-path-loss-and-delay-spread-models-for-11ah.pptx
    • [3] 11-11-0444-00-00af-comments-for-phy.pptx

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A wireless communication device comprising:
a processor configured to:
process communications received from another wireless communication device to determine whether the another wireless communication device is operating based on a first communication protocol associated with a first clock signal or a second communication protocol associated with a second clock signal that is a down-clocked version of the first clock signal;
when it is determined that the another wireless communication device is operating based on the second communication protocol, receive a channel assignment from the another wireless communication device that specifies a plurality of channels and a plurality of time periods for use by a plurality of other wireless communication devices and process the channel assignment to determine if the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices; and
when it is determined that the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices specified within the channel assignment, support other communications with the another wireless communication device based on the channel assignment within at least one time period of the a plurality of time periods and based on the second communication protocol.
2. The wireless communication device of claim 1 further comprising:
a down-clocking module configured to:
down-clock the first clock signal using a down-clocking factor of 10 to generate the second clock signal;
down-clock a 20 mega-Hertz (MHz) clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 2 MHz clock signal;
down-clock a 40 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 4 MHz clock signal; and
down-clock a 80 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate an 8 MHz clock signal; and
a communication interface, coupled to the processor, that is configured to receive the communications from another wireless communication device and to operate based on the second communication protocol when clocked at the second clock signal.
3. The wireless communication device of claim 1, wherein the channel assignment specifies at least one of multi-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) signaling or orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) signaling for the plurality of other wireless communication devices and further specifies:
a first channel of the plurality of channels having a first channel bandwidth for use by the wireless communication device; and
a second channel of the plurality of channels having a second channel bandwidth that is different than the first channel bandwidth for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices.
4. The wireless communication device of claim 1, wherein the channel assignment specifies:
one channel of the plurality of channels for use by the wireless communication device during a first time period of the plurality of time periods; and
the one channel of the plurality of channels for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices during a second time period of the plurality of time periods.
5. The wireless communication device of claim 1, wherein the processor is further configured to:
transmit a frame to the another wireless communication device during a time period of the plurality of time periods specified for use by the wireless communication device in the channel assignment when supporting the other communications based on the second communication protocol.
6. The wireless communication device of claim 1 further comprising:
a communication interface, coupled to the processor, that is configured to support communications within at least one of a satellite communication system, a wireless communication system, a wired communication system, a fiber-optic communication system, or a mobile communication system; and
the processor configured to receive the channel assignment from the another wireless communication device and to support the other communications with the another wireless communication device via the communication interface.
7. The wireless communication device of claim 1 further comprising:
a wireless station (STA) or a smart meter station (SMSTA), wherein the another wireless communication device includes an access point (AP).
8. The wireless communication device of claim 1 further comprising:
an access point (AP), wherein the another wireless communication device includes a wireless station (STA) or a smart meter station (SMSTA).
9. A wireless communication device comprising:
a processor configured to:
process communications received from another wireless communication device to determine whether the another wireless communication device is operating based on a first communication protocol associated with a first clock signal or a second communication protocol associated with a second clock signal that is a down-clocked version of the first clock signal based on a down-clocking factor of 10;
when it is determined that the another wireless communication device is operating based on the second communication protocol, receive a channel assignment from the another wireless communication device that specifies a plurality of channels and a plurality of time periods for use by a plurality of other wireless communication devices and process the channel assignment to determine if the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices; and
when it is determined that the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices specified within the channel assignment, transmit a frame to the another wireless communication device during a time period of the plurality of time periods specified for use by the wireless communication device in the channel assignment when supporting other communications based on the second communication protocol.
10. The wireless communication device of claim 9 further comprising:
a down-clocking module configured to:
down-clock the first clock signal using a down-clocking factor of 10 to generate the second clock signal;
down-clock a 20 mega-Hertz (MHz) clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 2 MHz clock signal;
down-clock a 40 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 4 MHz clock signal; and
down-clock a 80 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate an 8 MHz clock signal; and
a communication interface, coupled to the processor, that is configured to receive the communications from another wireless communication device and to operate based on the second communication protocol when clocked at the second clock signal.
11. The wireless communication device of claim 9, wherein the channel assignment specifies at least one of multi-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) signaling or orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) signaling for the plurality of other wireless communication devices and further specifies:
a first channel of the plurality of channels having a first channel bandwidth for use by the wireless communication device; and
a second channel of the plurality of channels having a second channel bandwidth that is different than the first channel bandwidth for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices.
12. The wireless communication device of claim 9, wherein the channel assignment specifies:
one channel of the plurality of channels for use by the wireless communication device during a first time period of the plurality of time periods; and
the one channel of the plurality of channels for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices during a second time period of the plurality of time periods.
13. The wireless communication device of claim 9 further comprising:
a wireless station (STA) or a smart meter station (SMSTA), wherein the another wireless communication device includes an access point (AP).
14. A method for execution by a wireless communication device, the method comprising:
processing communications received from another wireless communication device via a communication interface of the wireless communication device to determine whether the another wireless communication device is operating based on a first communication protocol associated with a first clock signal or a second communication protocol associated with a second clock signal that is a down-clocked version of the first clock signal;
when it is determined that the another wireless communication device is operating based on the second communication protocol, receiving a channel assignment from the another wireless communication device that specifies a plurality of channels and a plurality of time periods for use by a plurality of other wireless communication devices and process the channel assignment to determine if the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices; and
when it is determined that the wireless communication device is included in the plurality of other wireless communication devices specified within the channel assignment, supporting other communications with the another wireless communication device based on the channel assignment within at least one time period of the a plurality of time periods and based on the second communication protocol.
15. The method of claim 14 further comprising:
down-clocking the first clock signal using a down-clocking factor of 10 to generate the second clock signal;
down-clocking a 20 mega-Hertz (MHz) clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 2 MHz clock signal;
down-clocking a 40 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate a 4 MHz clock signal; and
down-clocking a 80 MHz clock signal using the down-clocking factor of 10 to generate an 8 MHz clock signal; and
operating the communication interface of the wireless communication device based on the second communication protocol when clocked at the second clock signal.
16. The method of claim 14, wherein the channel assignment specifies at least one of multi-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) signaling or orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) signaling for the plurality of other wireless communication devices and further specifies:
a first channel of the plurality of channels having a first channel bandwidth for use by the wireless communication device; and
a second channel of the plurality of channels having a second channel bandwidth that is different than the first channel bandwidth for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices.
17. The method of claim 14, wherein the channel assignment specifies:
one channel of the plurality of channels for use by the wireless communication device during a first time period of the plurality of time periods; and
the one channel of the plurality of channels for use by at least one other wireless communication device of the plurality of other wireless communication devices during a second time period of the plurality of time periods.
18. The method of claim 14 further comprising:
transmitting, via the communication interface of the wireless communication device, a frame to the another wireless communication device during a time period of the plurality of time periods specified for use by the wireless communication device in the channel assignment when supporting the other communications based on the second communication protocol.
19. The method of claim 14, wherein the wireless communication device includes a wireless station (STA) or a smart meter station (SMSTA), and the another wireless communication device includes an access point (AP).
20. The method of claim 14 further comprising:
operating the communication interface of the wireless communication device to support communications within at least one of a satellite communication system, a wireless communication system, a wired communication system, a fiber-optic communication system, or a mobile communication system.
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