US20160001255A1 - Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer - Google Patents

Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20160001255A1
US20160001255A1 US14/323,262 US201414323262A US2016001255A1 US 20160001255 A1 US20160001255 A1 US 20160001255A1 US 201414323262 A US201414323262 A US 201414323262A US 2016001255 A1 US2016001255 A1 US 2016001255A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
module
static mixer
feed
ionic liquid
reactor
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US14/323,262
Inventor
Huping Luo
Arthur William Etchells, III
Donald Henry Mohr
Hye Kyung Cho Timken
Moinuddin Ahmed
Krishniah Parimi
Bong Kyu Chang
Michael John Girgis
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Chevron USA Inc
Original Assignee
Chevron USA Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Chevron USA Inc filed Critical Chevron USA Inc
Priority to US14/323,262 priority Critical patent/US20160001255A1/en
Assigned to CHEVRON U.S.A. INC. reassignment CHEVRON U.S.A. INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ETCHELLS, ARTHUR WILLIAM, III, LUO, HUPING, PARIMI, KRISHNIAH, TIMKEN, HYE KYUNG CHO, AHMED, MOINUDDIN, CHANG, BONG KYU, GIRGIS, MICHAEL JOHN, MOHR, Donald Henry
Publication of US20160001255A1 publication Critical patent/US20160001255A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D17/00Separation of liquids, not provided for elsewhere, e.g. by thermal diffusion
    • B01D17/02Separation of non-miscible liquids
    • B01D17/0208Separation of non-miscible liquids by sedimentation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F13/00Other mixers; Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F13/10Mixing plant, including combinations of mixers, e.g. of dissimilar mixers
    • B01F13/1013Combinations of similar mixers, e.g. with rotary stirring devices in two or more receptacles
    • B01F13/1016Combinations of similar mixers, e.g. with rotary stirring devices in two or more receptacles in two or more consecutive, i.e. successive, mixing receptacles or being consecutively arranged
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F5/00Flow mixers; Mixers for falling materials, e.g. solid particles
    • B01F5/06Mixers in which the components are pressed together through slits, orifices, or screens; Static mixers; Mixers of the fractal type
    • B01F5/0602Static mixers, i.e. mixers in which the mixing is effected by moving the components jointly in changing directions, e.g. in tubes provided with baffles or obstructions
    • B01F5/0609Mixing tubes, e.g. the material being submitted to a substantially radial movement or to a movement partially in reverse direction
    • B01F5/061Straight mixing tubes, e.g. with smooth walls, having baffles or obstructions therein without substantial pressure drop; Baffles therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F5/00Flow mixers; Mixers for falling materials, e.g. solid particles
    • B01F5/10Circulation mixers, e.g. at least part of the mixture being discharged from, and reintroduced into, a receptacle, e.g. with rotary stirrer
    • B01F5/102Circulation mixers, e.g. at least part of the mixture being discharged from, and reintroduced into, a receptacle, e.g. with rotary stirrer the mixture being circulated during mixing through a set of tubes, e.g. involving gradually introducing a component into a circulating flow
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J14/00Chemical processes in general for reacting liquids with liquids; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/0053Details of the reactor
    • B01J19/006Baffles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J19/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J19/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside
    • B01J19/245Stationary reactors without moving elements inside placed in series
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J4/00Feed or outlet devices; Feed or outlet control devices
    • B01J4/001Feed or outlet devices as such, e.g. feeding tubes
    • B01J4/004Sparger-type elements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a smaller number of carbon atoms
    • C07C2/54Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a smaller number of carbon atoms by addition of unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated hydrocarbons or to hydrocarbons containing a six-membered aromatic ring with no unsaturation outside the aromatic ring
    • C07C2/56Addition to acyclic hydrocarbons
    • C07C2/58Catalytic processes
    • C07C2/62Catalytic processes with acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G29/00Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, with other chemicals
    • C10G29/20Organic compounds not containing metal atoms
    • C10G29/205Organic compounds not containing metal atoms by reaction with hydrocarbons added to the hydrocarbon oil
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01FMIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING
    • B01F15/00Accessories for mixers ; Auxiliary operations or auxiliary devices; Parts or details of general application
    • B01F15/02Feed or discharge mechanisms
    • B01F15/0201Feed mechanisms
    • B01F2015/0221Feeding the components in several steps, e.g. successive steps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00002Chemical plants
    • B01J2219/00018Construction aspects
    • B01J2219/0002Plants assembled from modules joined together
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00761Details of the reactor
    • B01J2219/00763Baffles
    • B01J2219/00765Baffles attached to the reactor wall
    • B01J2219/00777Baffles attached to the reactor wall horizontal
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/24Stationary reactors without moving elements inside

Abstract

Systems and apparatus for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may comprise a modular reactor comprising a plurality of mixer modules. The mixer modules may be arranged in series. One or more feed modules may be disposed between the mixer modules. Such systems may be used for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation reactions. Processes for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion are also disclosed.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This disclosure relates to reactors, systems, and processes for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation.
  • BACKGROUND
  • There is a need for apparatus, reactors, and systems for the efficient mixing of two or more immiscible liquids, such as ionic liquid catalysts and hydrocarbon feeds for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes including ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation.
  • SUMMARY
  • In an embodiment there is provided a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system comprising a modular reactor comprising a plurality of mixer modules and one or more feed modules. The mixer modules are arranged in series, each mixer module and each feed module is vertically aligned, and each mixer module is arranged coaxially with each feed module.
  • In another embodiment, there is provided a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system comprising a modular reactor comprising a plurality of mixer modules and one or more feed modules, and a feed supply line in fluid communication with each feed module. The mixer modules are arranged in series, each feed module is disposed between two of the mixer modules, each mixer module and each feed module is vertically aligned, and each mixer module is coaxial with each feed module.
  • In yet another embodiment there is provided a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system comprising a modular reactor having a base and a top; and a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor. The circulation loop has a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor. The system is configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the base of the modular reactor into the circulation loop. The circulation loop further has a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor. The system is further configured for delivering a recirculation stream to the top of the modular reactor. The modular reactor comprises a first static mixer; a first feed module disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first static mixer; and a second static mixer disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first feed module. The first static mixer is coaxial with the first feed module and the second static mixer.
  • In still a further embodiment there is provided a process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the process comprising withdrawing reactor effluent from a modular reactor, the reactor effluent comprising unreacted hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon feed; adding ionic liquid catalyst to the reactor effluent to provide a recirculation stream; introducing the recirculation stream into a first mixer module of the modular reactor; via the first mixer module, mixing the recirculation stream to provide an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion comprising the ionic liquid catalyst and the unreacted hydrocarbons; via a first feed module, distributing the hydrocarbon feed at an elevation between the first mixer module and at least a second mixer module disposed downstream from the first mixer module; and via at least the second mixer module, mixing the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion.
  • Further embodiments of systems and processes for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion are described hereinbelow and shown in the Drawings. As used herein, the terms “comprising” and “comprises” mean the inclusion of named elements or steps that are identified following those terms, but not necessarily excluding other unnamed elements or steps.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1A and 1B each schematically represent a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes, according to embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 schematically represents a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 schematically represents a modular reactor as seen from the side, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4A schematically represents components of a modular reactor in exploded view as seen from the side, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4B schematically represents a modular reactor as seen from the side, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4C schematically represents a modular reactor as seen along the line 4C-4C of FIG. 4B, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 4D schematically represents a modular reactor as seen along the line 4D-4D of FIG. 4B, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 5 schematically represents a modular reactor, as seen from the side, in combination with a circulation loop, according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIGS. 6A and 6B each schematically represents a sparger for distributing hydrocarbon feed to a modular reactor, as seen in reverse plan view, according to embodiments of the present invention; and
  • FIG. 7 schematically represents a system and process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, according to another embodiment of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Ionic liquid catalysts may be useful for a range of hydrocarbon conversion reactions, including alkylation reactions for the production of alkylate, e.g., comprising gasoline blending components, and the like. Systems for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion according to this disclosure may comprise a modular reactor and at least one circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor, wherein each modular reactor may comprise a plurality of mixer modules arranged in series.
  • Modular reactors as disclosed herein provide for the rapid and thorough mixing of ionic liquid catalyst and hydrocarbon reactants so as to generate a large surface area of ionic liquid catalyst phase in an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon mixture, thereby enabling highly efficient ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes on a commercial scale.
  • Systems for Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Alkylation
  • Although systems may be described herein primarily with reference to ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation reactions, such systems may also be applicable to other ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion reactions as well as to other processes more generally.
  • In an embodiment, a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes may comprise a modular reactor comprising a plurality of mixer modules and one or more feed modules. Each of the plurality of mixer modules may be arranged in series. In an embodiment, each of the mixer modules and each of the feed modules may be arranged vertically or upright. In an embodiment, each of the mixer modules and each of the feed modules may be vertically aligned, and each of the mixer modules may be arranged coaxially with each of the feed modules.
  • In an embodiment, the mixer modules may be arranged alternately with the feed modules such that each feed module is disposed between two adjacent mixer modules. The mixer modules on top of the feed modules will therefore produce highly turbulent flow field to allow rapid mixing in the feed modules. The mixer modules and the feed modules may be stacked on top of each other such that each mixer module may be in contact with at least one of the feed modules, and each feed module may be in contact with two adjacent mixer modules.
  • In an embodiment, the modular reactor may have one more mixer module than feed module. That is to say, for a modular reactor wherein the number of mixer modules is n, the number of feed modules may be (n−1). In an embodiment, the number of mixer modules per modular reactor may be in the range from two (2) to 10, or from two (2) to six (6), or from two (2) to four (4).
  • In an embodiment, each mixer module and each feed module may have a circular cross-section. In a sub-embodiment, the internal diameter of each mixer module may be the same or essentially the same as the internal diameter of each feed module. In an embodiment, each mixer module may occupy essentially the entire cross-sectional area of the modular reactor. In an embodiment, the modular reactor may be at least substantially cylindrical.
  • In an embodiment, each mixer module may comprise a static mixer. In an embodiment, each mixer module may comprise at least one mixer element. In a sub-embodiment, the mixer element(s) may be disposed within a cylindrical housing. In an embodiment, a surface of the mixer element may comprise a hydrophobic material. In an embodiment, each mixer module may comprise a material selected from a ceramic, an engineering plastic, and a metal alloy. In a sub-embodiment, the mixer module may comprise one or more metal alloys, e.g., selected from Monel®, Hastelloy®, stainless steel, and tantalum-coated stainless steel. In an embodiment, the mixer module may comprise one or more engineering plastics, e.g., selected from polypropylene, Teflon®, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and polyoxymethylene (POM). In a sub-embodiment, a mixer module of the modular reactor may comprise a housing comprising a metal alloy and one or more mixer elements comprising an engineering plastic.
  • A system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes may further comprise a feed supply line. In an embodiment, each feed module may include a feed conduit. Each feed conduit may be in fluid communication with the feed supply line, and the system may be configured for delivering hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor via each of the feed modules. Each feed module may be configured so as to uniformly distribute the hydrocarbon feed over the entire cross-section of the modular reactor. In an embodiment, the hydrocarbon feed may be introduced into the modular reactor at high speed sufficient to allow rapid mixing of the hydrocarbon feed stream with the liquid stream from the upper mixer module. In an embodiment, each feed module may comprise a sparger, such as a tree sparger or a ring sparger. In a sub-embodiment, such a sparger may have a diameter in the range from 40 to 100% of the internal diameter of each mixer module and of each feed module, or from 60 to 100% of the internal diameter of each mixer module and of each feed module, or from 90 to 99% of the internal diameter of each mixer module and of each feed module.
  • In an embodiment, the modular reactor may be configured for facile assembly and disassembly of the mixer modules to and from the feed modules. In a sub-embodiment, each mixer module may be configured for facile assembly to, and disassembly from, at least one of the feed modules; and each feed module may be configured for facile assembly to, and disassembly from, two of the mixer modules. In an embodiment, each mixer module may comprise a mixer module proximal flange at the mixer module proximal end and a mixer module distal flange at the mixer module distal end.
  • In an embodiment, each feed module may comprise a feed module proximal flange at the feed module proximal end and a feed module distal flange at the feed module distal end. The mixer module distal flange may be configured for coupling to a feed module proximal flange, such that the mixer module distal end may be affixed to the proximal end of an adjacent, downstream feed module. In an embodiment, such affixation of the mixer module distal end to the feed module proximal end may be reversible. The feed module distal flange may be configured for coupling to the mixer module proximal flange of an adjacent, downstream mixer module, such that the feed module distal flange may be affixed, e.g., reversibly, to the mixer module proximal flange.
  • A system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may further comprise a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor. The modular reactor may have a base and a top. The circulation loop may have a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor, and the circulation loop may further have a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor. The system may be configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the modular reactor via the first loop end into the circulation loop. The system may be further configured for delivering a recirculation stream to the top of the modular reactor via the second loop end. The circulation loop may comprise an ionic liquid catalyst inlet configured for adding fresh ionic liquid catalyst to withdrawn reactor effluent to provide the recirculation stream; for example, the recirculation stream may comprise withdrawn reactor effluent in combination with freshly added ionic liquid catalyst. The circulation loop may further comprise a heat exchanger configured for cooling the recirculation stream.
  • According to another embodiment of a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system may comprise a modular reactor comprising a plurality of mixer modules and one or more feed modules, and a feed supply line in fluid communication with each feed module. The mixer modules may be arranged in series. In an embodiment, each feed module may be disposed between two mixer modules. Each mixer module and each feed module may be vertically aligned, and each mixer module may be coaxial with each feed module. In an embodiment, each mixer module may occupy a volume in the range from 10 to 50% of the total volume of the modular reactor.
  • In an embodiment, each feed module may include a feed conduit. Each feed conduit may be in fluid communication with the feed supply line, and the system may be configured for delivering hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor via each feed module. In an embodiment, each mixer module may be in fluid communication with, and in contact with, at least one feed module. In an embodiment, each feed module may be in fluid communication with, and reversibly affixed to, two mixer modules.
  • In an embodiment, the system may further comprise a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor. The circulation loop may have a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor and a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor. The system may be configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the modular reactor via the first loop end into the circulation loop. The circulation loop may comprise an ionic liquid catalyst inlet configured for adding fresh ionic liquid catalyst to withdrawn reactor effluent to provide a recirculation stream. The circulation loop may further comprise a heat exchanger configured for cooling the recirculation stream.
  • In an embodiment, the plurality of mixer modules may comprise a first mixer module and at least a second mixer module disposed downstream from the first mixer module. The first mixer module may be in fluid communication with the second loop end for receiving the recirculation stream from the circulation loop. In an embodiment, the first mixer module may be configured for mixing the recirculation stream such that the ionic liquid catalyst component of the recirculation stream is dispersed into an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion, wherein the emulsion may comprise small to microscopic droplets of the ionic liquid catalyst, e.g., having a droplet diameter in the range from 1 to 1000 microns, or from 5 to 500 microns, or from 10 to 250 microns. The system may be configured for distributing the hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor, e.g., via each feed module, between each adjacent pair of mixer modules. Each subsequent (downstream) mixer module may be configured for thoroughly and rapidly mixing the distributed hydrocarbon feed with the mixed recirculation stream emanating from the first mixer module.
  • According to a further embodiment of a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes, the system may comprise a modular reactor and a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor. The circulation loop may have a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor and a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor. The system may be configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the base of the modular reactor into the circulation loop, and the system may be further configured for delivering a recirculation stream to the top of the modular reactor.
  • The modular reactor may comprise a first static mixer, a second static mixer, and a first feed module disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first static mixer. The second static mixer may be disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first feed module. The first static mixer may be coaxial with the first feed module and the second static mixer.
  • In an embodiment, the first feed module may be reversibly affixed to, and in contact with, each of the first static mixer and the second static mixer. The modular reactor may further comprise a second feed module disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the second static mixer. The modular reactor may further comprise a third static mixer disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the second feed module. The first static mixer may be coaxial with the second feed module and the third static mixer. In an embodiment, each static mixer may comprise a cylindrical housing and at least one mixer element disposed within the cylindrical housing.
  • The second feed module may be reversibly affixed to, and in contact with, each of the second static mixer and the third static mixer. In an embodiment, the first feed module may be configured for uniformly distributing hydrocarbon feed at an elevation between the first static mixer and the second static mixer. The second feed module may be configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed at an elevation between the second static mixer and the third static mixer. The use of multiple feed modules for introducing hydrocarbon feed at different elevations of the modular reactor may serve to minimize the local olefin concentration within the modular reactor so as to provide better reactor performance and superior product(s), e.g., alkylate.
  • According to yet another embodiment, a process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, e.g., isoparaffin/olefin alkylation, may be practiced using systems as disclosed herein. Such systems may comprise a modular reactor having a top and a base, and at least one circulation loop in fluid communication with the top and the base of the modular reactor. The modular reactor may comprise a plurality of mixer modules. The modular reactor may further comprise at least one feed module. Hydrocarbon feed may be delivered to the modular reactor, e.g., between adjacent mixer modules, via the at least one feed module. In an embodiment, each mixer module may be disposed vertically in series. Such systems for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may further comprise additional elements, features, and characteristics as described herein and as shown in the drawings.
  • In an embodiment, such a process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may include: withdrawing reactor effluent from the modular reactor, the reactor effluent comprising unreacted hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor; adding ionic liquid catalyst to the reactor effluent to provide a recirculation stream; introducing the recirculation stream into a first (e.g., uppermost) mixer module of the modular reactor; via the first mixer module, mixing the recirculation stream to provide an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion comprising the ionic liquid catalyst and the unreacted hydrocarbons; via a first feed module, distributing the hydrocarbon feed at an elevation between the first mixer module and at least a second mixer module disposed downstream from the first mixer module; and via at least the second mixer module, mixing the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion. In an embodiment, the ionic liquid catalyst may be added to the reactor effluent at a rate sufficient to maintain the overall ionic liquid catalyst volume in the modular reactor in the range from 0.5 to 50 vol %, or from 1 to 10 vol %, or from 2 to 6 vol %.
  • In an embodiment, such a process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may further include adding a co-catalyst, or a catalyst promoter, or both a catalyst promoter and a co-catalyst, to the modular reactor. In an embodiment, such a co-catalyst may comprise an alkyl chloride. A catalyst promoter for addition to the modular reactor may comprise a hydrogen halide, such as HCl. In an embodiment, a co-catalyst and/or a catalyst promoter may be fed to the modular reactor by injection into the hydrocarbon feed, or by injection into the ionic liquid catalyst, or by direct injection into the modular reactor.
  • In an embodiment, the reactor effluent may be withdrawn from the base of the modular reactor via the circulation loop. Fresh ionic liquid catalyst may be added to the withdrawn reactor effluent to provide the recirculation stream, and the recirculation stream may be cooled in the circulation loop before introducing the cooled recirculation stream into the first mixer module of the modular reactor. The reactor effluent may be recirculated to the modular reactor without any attempt to separate the reactor effluent within the circulation loop. As an example, in an embodiment the circulation loop may lack a separation unit or other apparatus for phase separation of the reactor effluent or the recirculation stream. A portion of the withdrawn reactor effluent may be removed from the circulation loop for fractionation to provide an alkylate product.
  • In an embodiment, the flow rate through the circulation loop may be much greater than the total flow rate of the hydrocarbon feeds to reduce the temperature rise in the modular reactor and to enhance the feed dilution in the feed modules and mixer modules. In an embodiment, the flow rate through the circulation loop may be in the range from 2 to 50 times the flow rate of the hydrocarbon feed, or from 2 to 25 times the flow rate of the hydrocarbon feed, or from 4 to 10 times the flow rate of the hydrocarbon feed.
  • The step of mixing the recirculation stream via the first mixer module may comprise contacting the unreacted hydrocarbons with the ionic liquid catalyst in the first mixer module under alkylation conditions to provide an alkylate product. The step of mixing the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion via at least the second mixer module may comprise contacting the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid catalyst in at least the second mixer module under alkylation conditions to provide an additional amount of the alkylate product. Any remaining unreacted hydrocarbons in at least the second mixer module may also be contacted with the ionic liquid catalyst under alkylation conditions to provide further quantities of the alkylate product. In an embodiment, each mixer module of the modular reactor may serve as an ionic liquid alkylation zone. Furthermore, in an embodiment each feed module of the modular reactor may also serve as an ionic liquid alkylation zone.
  • In an embodiment, the first feed module may be disposed between the first and second mixer modules, such that the first feed module is disposed downstream from the first mixer module and the second mixer module is disposed downstream from the first feed module. Flow through the modular reactor may be downward, e.g., from the first mixer module to the first feed module and the second mixer module. The first feed module may be coaxial with both the first mixer module and the second mixer module. In an embodiment, the modular reactor may comprise additional mixer modules and additional feed modules. The mixer modules may be arranged alternately with the feed modules. Each feed module may be disposed between two mixer modules such that when the number of mixer modules is n, the number of feed modules is (n−1), wherein n may be in the range from two (2) to 10, or from two (2) to six (6), or from two (2) to four (4). In an embodiment, mixer modules of the modular reactor, e.g., the first mixer module and the second mixer module, may each comprise a static mixer. In an embodiment, at least one feed module of the modular reactor, e.g., the first feed module, may comprise a sparger.
  • In an embodiment, the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion formed by mixing the recirculation stream in the first mixer module may comprise small to microscopic droplets of the ionic liquid catalyst, e.g., having a droplet diameter in the range from 1 to 1000 microns, or from 5 to 500 microns, or from 10 to 250 microns. Different combinations of static mixer elements and liquid linear velocities may be chosen to achieve the said range of droplet size for the ionic liquid catalyst. For example, both helical type- and plate type static mixers that are able to produce high turbulence and achieve good radial mixing may be used.
  • The system may be configured for distributing the hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor, e.g., via each feed module, between each adjacent pair of mixer modules. The second mixer module and any subsequent (downstream) mixer module(s) may be configured for thoroughly mixing the distributed hydrocarbon feed with the mixed recirculation stream emanating from the first mixer module so as to maintain the ionic liquid catalyst droplet diameter within the ranges cited hereinabove.
  • A range of the ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes may be practiced using systems, apparatus, and processes as disclosed herein. As non-limiting examples, such hydrocarbon conversion processes may include or be selected from: paraffin alkylation, paraffin isomerization, olefin oligomerization, cracking of olefins or paraffins, and aromatic alkylation.
  • In an embodiment of a process for ionic liquid catalyzed paraffin alkylation, the hydrocarbon feed may comprise at least one C2-C10 olefin and at least one C4-C10 isoparaffin. In an embodiment, the ionic liquid catalyst may comprise a chloroaluminate ionic liquid. In an embodiment, the alkylation conditions may comprise a temperature in the range from −40° C. to 150° C., and a pressure in the range from atmospheric pressure to 8000 kPa. In an embodiment, the overall ionic liquid catalyst volume in the modular reactor may be maintained in the range from 0.5 to 50 vol %, or from 1 to 10 vol %, or from 2 to 6 vol %. Hydrocarbon feeds, ionic liquid catalysts, and conditions for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation are described hereinbelow.
  • Systems and apparatus for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, including alkylation for gasoline production, will now be described with reference to the drawings.
  • FIG. 1A schematically represents a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes. System 100 may comprise at least one modular reactor 200 and at least one circulation loop 400. Modular reactor 200 provides for the rapid and thorough mixing of ionic liquid catalyst and hydrocarbon reactants. As an example, modular reactor 200 may generate a large surface area of the ionic liquid catalyst phase in an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon mixture, thereby providing for the highly efficient performance of ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes.
  • Modular reactor 200 may have a reactor top 202 and a reactor base 203. In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may be vertically aligned having a height greater than its width. In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may be substantially cylindrical. In an embodiment, system 100 may comprise a plurality of mixer modules 210 per modular reactor 200 (see, for example, FIGS. 2, 3, and 4A-4B). Circulation loop 400 may be in fluid communication with modular reactor 200 for withdrawing liquid (e.g., reactor effluent) from modular reactor 200 into circulation loop 400. Circulation loop 400 may further be in fluid communication with modular reactor 200 for recirculating at least a portion of the withdrawn liquid to the reactor top 202 of modular reactor 200. Although only one circulation loop 400 is shown in FIG. 1A, in an embodiment system 100 may comprise a plurality of circulation loops 400 per modular reactor 200, wherein each circulation loop 400 may be in fluid communication with modular reactor 200.
  • FIG. 1B schematically represents a system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes, wherein system 100 may comprise a plurality of modular reactors 200 per circulation loop 400. In an embodiment, the plurality of modular reactors 200 may be arranged in parallel. Each modular reactor 200 in the embodiment of FIG. 1B provides for the rapid and thorough mixing of ionic liquid catalyst and hydrocarbon reactants, substantially as described with reference to FIG. 1A, thereby providing for the highly efficient performance of ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes.
  • Each modular reactor 200 in the embodiment of FIG. 1B may have features, elements, and characteristics as described, for example, with reference to FIGS. 1A, 2, 3, and 4A-4B. Although two modular reactors 200 are shown in FIG. 1B, larger numbers of modular reactors may also be used per circulation loop 400. In an embodiment, the use of multiple modular reactors 200 per circulation loop 400 may serve to increase the overall reactor throughput. In an embodiment, reactor scale-up may be conveniently achieved by the addition of modular reactors 200 to system 100.
  • FIG. 2 schematically represents a system 100 for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, wherein system 100 comprises a modular reactor 200 and a circulation loop 400. Modular reactor 200 may comprise a plurality of mixer modules 210 and one or more feed modules 300. Each mixer module 210 may be configured for mixing liquid(s), e.g., comprising two or more immiscible liquids, flowing through modular reactor 200. Although three mixer modules 210 are shown in FIG. 2, modular reactor 200 may comprise other numbers of mixer modules 210 (see, for example, FIG. 3).
  • Circulation loop 400 may comprise a first loop end 400 a coupled to reactor base 203 and a second loop end 400 b coupled to reactor top 202. Circulation loop 400 may further comprise a loop outlet 402, an ionic liquid catalyst inlet 404, a circulation pump 406, and a heat exchanger 408. In embodiments having a plurality of circulation loops 400 per modular reactor 200, each circulation loop 400 may have a dedicated circulation pump 406 and heat exchanger 408.
  • System 100 may further comprise a feed supply line 302. Each feed module 300 may include a feed conduit 304 in fluid communication with feed supply line 302. In an embodiment, each feed module 300 may be configured for introducing a hydrocarbon feed 301 into modular reactor 200, e.g., at an elevation between two adjacent, vertically stacked mixer modules 210. In an embodiment, each feed module 300 may be configured for uniformly distributing the hydrocarbon feed 301 over the entire cross-sectional area of modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, the hydrocarbon feed 301 may comprise an olefin feed stream, an isoparaffin feed stream, or a mixed olefin/isoparaffin feed, for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation, e.g., as described hereinbelow. In an embodiment, the hydrocarbon feed 301 introduced into modular reactor 200 may comprise a liquid feed.
  • System 100 may be configured for withdrawing reactor effluent 206 from base 203 of modular reactor 200 into circulation loop 400. Reactor effluent 206 may comprise ionic liquid catalyst that has previously contacted the hydrocarbon feed 301 in modular reactor 200. Fresh ionic liquid catalyst 403 may be added to reactor effluent 206, within circulation loop 400, via ionic liquid catalyst inlet 404 to provide a recirculation stream 412. A portion of withdrawn reactor effluent 206 may be removed from circulation loop 400, via loop outlet 402, e.g., for fractionation thereof to provide an alkylate product.
  • Although only one modular reactor 200 is shown in FIG. 2, in an embodiment a plurality of modular reactors 200 may be used per circulation loop 400 (see, for example, FIG. 1B). Loop outlet 402 and ionic liquid catalyst inlet 404 may be disposed at various locations within circulation loop 400 other than as shown in FIG. 2. In an embodiment, system 100 may be configured for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation reactions and processes. Feeds, ionic liquid catalysts, and reaction conditions for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation are described hereinbelow.
  • FIG. 3 schematically represents a modular reactor as seen from the side. Modular reactor 200 may have a reactor top 202 and a reactor base 203. Modular reactor 200 may be in fluid communication with a first loop end 400 a and a second loop end 400 b of circulation loop 400 (see, for example, FIG. 2). In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may comprise a plurality of mixer modules 210 a-210 n and a plurality of feed modules 300 a-300 n. Modular reactor 200 may receive recirculation stream 412 at the first (uppermost) mixer module 210 a via second loop end 400 b.
  • In an embodiment, mixer modules 210 a-210 n may be arranged alternately with feed modules 300 a-300 n such that each feed module 300 is disposed between two mixer modules 210. In an embodiment, all mixer modules 210 a-210 n and all feed modules 300 a-300 n may be arranged in series. In an embodiment, each of modular reactor 200, mixer modules 210 a-210 n, and feed modules 300 a-300 n may be arranged vertically or upright. In an embodiment, each mixer module 210 a-210 n and each feed module 300 a-300 n may be vertically aligned, and each of mixer modules 210 a-210 n may be arranged coaxially with each of feed modules 300 a-300 n.
  • In an embodiment, mixer modules 210 a-210 n and feed modules 300 a-300 n may be stacked on top of each other, such that each mixer module 210 a-210 n may be in contact (contiguous) with at least one of feed modules 300 a-300 n, and each feed module 300 a-300 n may be in contact (contiguous) with two of mixer modules 210 a-210 n. In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may have one more mixer module 210 than feed module 300. As an example, for a modular reactor 200 having n mixer modules 210 a-210 n, the number of feed modules 300 may be (n−1). In an embodiment, each modular reactor 200 may typically comprise from two (2) to 10 mixer modules 210, or from two (2) to six (6) mixer modules 210, or from two (2) to four (4) mixer modules 210.
  • FIG. 4A schematically represents components of a modular reactor in exploded view as seen from the side; FIG. 4B schematically represents a modular reactor as seen from the side; FIG. 4C schematically represents a modular reactor as seen along the line 4C-4C of FIG. 4B; and FIG. 4D schematically represents a modular reactor as seen along the line 4D-4D of FIG. 4B. With reference to FIGS. 4A-4D, modular reactor 200 may comprise a plurality of vertically aligned mixer modules 210. Although two mixer modules 210 are shown in FIGS. 4A-4B, other numbers of mixer modules 210 may also be used (see, e.g., FIG. 3). In an embodiment, a feed module 300 may be disposed between each adjacent pair of mixer modules 210 such that when the number of mixer modules 210 is n, the number of feed modules 300 is (n−1).
  • In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may be configured such that all mixer modules 210 and feed module(s) 300 are coaxial. A common axis of modular reactor 200, mixer modules 210, and feed module(s) 300 is indicated in FIG. 4A by the line labeled AMM/AFM (wherein the mixer module axis and the feed module axis are designated as AMM and AFM, respectively).
  • With further reference to FIGS. 4A-4D, in an embodiment each mixer module 210 may include a mixer module housing 218 and each feed module 300 may include a feed module housing 318. In an embodiment, each mixer module 210 of modular reactor 200 may have a circular cross-section, and each mixer module 210 may have the same or essentially the same internal diameter, DMM. In an embodiment, each feed module 300 of modular reactor 200 may have a circular cross-section, and each feed module 300 may have the same or essentially the same internal diameter, DFM. In a sub-embodiment, the internal diameter, DMM, of each mixer module of a given modular reactor 200 may be the same or essentially the same as the internal diameter, DFM, of each feed module. In an embodiment, each mixer module 210 may occupy essentially the entire cross-sectional area of modular reactor 200.
  • Each mixer module 210 may have a mixer module proximal end 211 a and a mixer module distal end 211 b. Each mixer module 210 may be configured for facile assembly to, and disassembly from, at least one feed module 300; and each feed module 300 may be configured for facile assembly to, and disassembly from, two mixer modules 210. In an embodiment, each mixer module 210 may comprise a mixer module proximal flange 212 a at the mixer module proximal end 211 a and a mixer module distal flange 212 b at the mixer module distal end 211 b.
  • In an embodiment, each feed module 300 may comprise a feed module proximal flange 312 a at the feed module proximal end 311 a and a feed module distal flange 312 b at the feed module distal end 311 b. Mixer module distal flange 212 b may be configured for coupling to feed module proximal flange 312 a, such that mixer module distal end 211 b may be affixed to the proximal end 311 a of an adjacent, downstream feed module 300. In an embodiment, such affixation of mixer module distal end 211 b to feed module proximal end 311 a may be reversible. Feed module distal flange 312 b may be configured for coupling to mixer module proximal flange 212 a of an adjacent, downstream mixer module 210, e.g., such that feed module distal end 311 b may be reversibly affixed to mixer module proximal end 211 a. Flanged couplings for pipes and cylindrical housings comprising metal(s), plastics or other materials, and the like are known in the art.
  • In an embodiment, at least one mixer module 210 of modular reactor 200 may comprise a static mixer. In a sub-embodiment, each mixer module 210 of modular reactor 200 may comprise a static mixer. In an embodiment, each mixer module 210 may comprise at least one mixer element disposed within mixer module housing 218 (see, for example, FIG. 5). Various static mixers having a broad range of characteristics may be obtained commercially.
  • In an embodiment, mixer modules 210 for modular reactor 200 may be selected such that a total pressure drop across modular reactor 200, from reactor top 202 to reactor base 203, is in the range from 15 to 115 psig, or from 20 to 100 psig. System 100 and modular reactor 200 may be configured to produce small to microscopic droplets of ionic liquid catalyst within mixer modules 210 of modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, such droplets of ionic liquid catalyst may have a diameter in the range from 1 to 1000 microns, or from 5 to 500 microns, or from 10 to 250 microns. Such droplets may provide not only an ionic liquid catalyst surface area that will produce a high rate of reaction and a high quality product (e.g., alkylate), but also a hydrocarbon/ionic liquid mixed phase that is conducive to subsequent phase separation downstream. The size or size range of ionic liquid droplets produced by modular reactor 200 may be selected, for example, by adjusting the flow rate across modular reactor 200 and by mixer element design.
  • FIG. 5 schematically represents a modular reactor as seen from the side. Modular reactor 200 may have a reactor top 202 and a reactor base 203. In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may comprise a first mixer module 210 a, a second mixer module 210 b, and a third mixer module 210 c. Mixer modules 210 a-210 c may comprise mixer elements 220 a-220 c, respectively, disposed within mixer module housing 218. Such mixer modules 210 a-210 c comprising one or more mixer elements may be referred to herein as static mixers. Static mixers may also be known as motionless mixers. Systems and apparatus as disclosed herein are not limited to any specific static mixer type, configuration, or design.
  • In an embodiment, mixer module housing 218 may comprise a cylindrical housing. In an embodiment, each of mixer modules 210 a-210 c may have a separate mixer module housing 218, and modular reactor 200 may be configured such that each of mixer modules 210 a-210 c may be removed separately (see, for example, FIGS. 4A-4B). Such modular construction of modular reactor 200 allows for the facile assembly and disassembly of modular reactor 200. Mixer modules 210 a-210 c may additionally include various elements, features and characteristics as described herein, for example, with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4A-4D.
  • With further reference to FIG. 5, modular reactor 200 may be in fluid communication with first loop end 400 a of circulation loop 400 at reactor base 203 for withdrawing reactor effluent from modular reactor 200. Modular reactor 200 may further be in fluid communication with second loop end 400 b of circulation loop 400 at reactor top 202 for delivering recirculation stream 412 to modular reactor 200. First mixer module 210 a may be coaxial with second mixer module 210 b and third mixer module 210 c.
  • With still further reference to FIG. 5, a first feed module 300 a may be disposed between first and second mixer modules, 210 a and 210 b, respectively, such that first feed module 300 a is disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, first mixer module 210 a. Second mixer module 210 b may be disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, first feed module 300 a. First feed module 300 a may be configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed between first mixer module 210 a and second mixer module 210 b. First feed module 300 a may be reversibly affixed to, and in contact (contiguous) with, each of first mixer module 210 a and second mixer module 210 b.
  • A second feed module 300 b may be disposed between second and third mixer modules, 210 b and 210 c, respectively, such that second feed module 300 b is disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, second mixer module 210 b. Third mixer module 210 c may be disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, second feed module 300 b. First mixer module 210 a may be coaxial with first feed module 300 a and second feed module 300 b. Second feed module 300 b may be configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed between second mixer module 210 b and third mixer module 210 c. Second feed module 300 b may be reversibly affixed to, and in contact with, each of second mixer module 210 b and third mixer module 210 c.
  • First feed module 300 a and second feed module 300 b may comprise a first feed conduit 304 a and a second feed conduit 304 b, respectively. First feed module 300 a and second feed module 300 b may further comprise a first sparger 320 a and a second sparger 320 b, respectively. First sparger 320 a and second sparger 320 b may be in fluid communication with first feed conduit 304 a and second feed conduit 304 b, respectively. Each of first feed conduit 304 a and second feed conduit 304 b may be in fluid communication with feed supply line 302 (see, for example, FIG. 2) for providing hydrocarbon feed to modular reactor 200. Although, FIG. 5 shows three mixer modules 210 a-210 c and two feed modules 300 a, 300 b, other numbers of mixer modules and feed modules are also possible (see, for example, FIG. 3).
  • FIGS. 6A and 6B each schematically represents a sparger, as seen in reverse plan view, for distributing hydrocarbon feed 301 to a modular reactor 200. FIG. 6A schematically represents a tree sparger 320′ in combination with a feed conduit 304. FIG. 6B schematically represents a ring sparger 320″ in combination with a feed conduit 304. In an embodiment, one or more feed modules 300 of modular reactor 200 (e.g., feed modules 300 a-300 n, FIG. 3) may each comprise tree sparger 320′ or ring sparger 320″.
  • Feed conduit 304 may be in fluid communication with spargers 320′/320″ and with feed supply line 302 (see, e.g., FIG. 2) for providing hydrocarbon feed 301 to spargers 320′/320″. Each of spargers 320′/320″ may be configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed 301 at a location upstream from an adjacent downstream mixer module 210 (see, for example, FIG. 5). In an embodiment, spargers 320′/320″ may be configured for uniformly distributing the hydrocarbon feed over the entire cross-sectional area of modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, spargers 320′/320″ may have a circular cross-section and a diameter DS. In an embodiment, the diameter, DS, of spargers 320′/320″ may be in the range from 40 to 100% of the mixer module internal diameter, DMM, or from 60 to 100% of the mixer module internal diameter, DMM, or from 90 to 99% of the mixer module internal diameter, DMM. In an embodiment, the mixer module internal diameter, DMM, may be the same or essentially the same as the feed module internal diameter, DFM.
  • In an embodiment, system 100 as disclosed herein may be used for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation processes. In an embodiment, the ionic liquid catalyst may comprise, e.g., a chloroaluminate ionic liquid as described hereinbelow. In an embodiment, the hydrocarbon feed may comprise at least one of an olefin feed stream, an isoparaffin feed stream, and a mixed olefin/isoparaffin feed, for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation, e.g., as also described hereinbelow.
  • FIG. 7 schematically represents a system and process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, according to another embodiment. System 100′ of FIG. 7 may comprise a modular reactor 200 having a reactor top 202, a reactor base 203, and a reactor outlet 204. Modular reactor 200 may comprise a plurality of mixer modules and one or more feed modules (see, for example, FIGS. 3-5). System 100′ may have elements and features in common with system 100 (see, for example, FIGS. 1A-1B and 2). In modular reactor 200, at least one isoparaffin and at least one olefin may be contacted with ionic liquid catalyst under ionic liquid alkylation conditions. Ionic liquid alkylation conditions, feedstocks, and ionic liquid catalysts that may be suitable for performing ionic liquid alkylation reactions are described, for example, hereinbelow.
  • In an embodiment, a process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion may include adding a co-catalyst, or a catalyst promoter, or both a catalyst promoter and a co-catalyst, to modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, such a co-catalyst may comprise an alkyl chloride. A catalyst promoter for addition to the modular reactor may comprise a hydrogen halide, such as HCl. In an embodiment, a co-catalyst and/or a catalyst promoter may be fed to modular reactor 200 via the hydrocarbon feed, or via the ionic liquid catalyst feed, or by separate direct injection into modular reactor 200. The addition of co-catalyst(s) and/or catalyst promoter(s) to modular reactor 200 is not shown in the Drawings. Various methods and techniques for introducing co-catalyst(s) and/or catalyst promoter(s) to modular reactor 200 will be apparent to the skilled artisan.
  • System 100′ may further comprise a circulation loop 400. Circulation loop 400 may comprise a first loop end 400 a coupled to vessel outlet 204 and a second loop end 400 b coupled to reactor top 202. In an embodiment, a first mixer module 210 a may be disposed at reactor top 202 (see, for example, FIG. 3), and second loop end 400 b may be coupled to, and in fluid communication with, first mixer module 210 a. Circulation loop 400 may further comprise a circulation pump 406, and a heat exchanger 408. Circulation loop 400 may still further comprise at least one circulation loop conduit 410, e.g., for coupling components of circulation loop 400 to vessel outlet 204 and reactor top 202.
  • System 100′ may still further comprise an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon (IL/HC) separator 500 in fluid communication with circulation loop 400, and a fractionation unit 600 in fluid communication with IL/HC separator 500. Reactor effluent 206 may be withdrawn from modular reactor 200 into circulation loop 400 via vessel outlet 204. A portion of the reactor effluent 206 may be fed from circulation loop 400, via a line 501, to IL/HC separator 500 for separation of the portion of reactor effluent into a hydrocarbon phase 502 and an ionic liquid phase 403′. Non-limiting examples of separation processes that can be used for such phase separation include coalescence, phase separation, extraction, membrane separation, and partial condensation. IL/HC separator 500 may comprise, for example, one or more of the following: a settler, a coalescer, a centrifuge, a cyclone, a distillation column, a condenser, and a filter. In an embodiment, IL/HC separator 500 may comprise a gravity based settler and a coalescer disposed downstream from the gravity based settler.
  • It can be seen from FIG. 7 that IL/HC separator 500 may be external to circulation loop 400. In an embodiment, circulation loop 400 may lack a unit or apparatus for phase separation of reactor effluent 206 or the external recirculation stream, RE. Accordingly, reactor effluent 206 may be recirculated to modular reactor 200 without any attempt to separate reactor effluent 206, or the external recirculation stream, within circulation loop 400. System 100′ having IL/HC separator 500 external to circulation loop 400 allows IL/HC separator 500 to be smaller than that for a system in which a separator may be used for phase separation of 100% of the withdrawn reactor effluent within a hydrocarbon recycle loop.
  • The hydrocarbon phase 502 from IL/HC separator 500 may be fed via a line 503 to fractionation unit 600. The hydrocarbon phase from IL/HC separator 500 may comprise alkylate components (product), as well as unreacted components of hydrocarbon feed 301, including isobutane. The alkylate components may comprise, e.g., C5-C11 alkanes, such as C7-C8 isoparaffins. The hydrocarbon phase from IL/HC separator 500 may be fractionated via fractionation unit 600 to provide one or more products 602 a-n and an isobutane fraction. In an embodiment, products 602 a-n may comprise alkylate, n-butane, and propane. In an embodiment, fractionation unit 600 may comprise one or more distillation columns.
  • At least a portion of the isobutane stream from fractionation unit 600 may be recycled via a line 604 to modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, the recycle isobutane may be premixed with at least one of an olefin feed stream 301 a and a make-up isobutane feed stream 301 b to provide a mixed hydrocarbon feed 301 for introduction into modular reactor 200. In an embodiment, modular reactor 200 may comprise a plurality of feed modules, and each feed module may separately receive hydrocarbon feed 301, e.g., via their respective feed conduit 304 (see, for example, FIG. 5). Although two inputs for hydrocarbon feed 301 to modular reactor 200 are shown in FIG. 7, other numbers and configurations are possible. In an embodiment, the number of feed modules per modular reactor 200 may be in the range from one (1) to 9, or from one (1) to five (5), or from one (1) to three (3).
  • The ionic liquid phase 403′ from IL/HC separator 500 may be recycled to circulation loop 400 via a line 505. Make-up (e.g., fresh) ionic liquid catalyst 403 may be combined with the recycled ionic liquid catalyst via a line 509. The combined fresh and recycled ionic liquid catalyst may be injected into the reactor effluent within circulation loop 400 to provide an external recirculation stream, RE, which may be cooled via heat exchanger 408. The cooled external recirculation stream may be recirculated to modular reactor 200 via circulation loop 400. In an embodiment, the ionic liquid catalyst may be added to system 100′ at a rate sufficient to maintain the overall ionic liquid catalyst volume in modular reactor 200 in the range from 0.5 to 50 vol %, or from 1 to 10 vol %, or from 2 to 6 vol %.
  • In an embodiment, the ionic liquid phase 403′ may be recycled to circulation loop 400 either directly or indirectly through a catalyst surge vessel (the latter not shown). In an embodiment, a portion of the ionic liquid phase 403′ from IL/HC separator 500 may be purged or withdrawn to other vessels (not shown), via a line 507, for ionic liquid catalyst regeneration, e.g., as described hereinbelow.
  • Feedstocks for Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Alkylation
  • In an embodiment, feedstocks for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation may comprise various olefin- and isoparaffin containing hydrocarbon streams in or from one or more of the following: a petroleum refinery, a gas-to-liquid conversion plant, a coal-to-liquid conversion plant, a naphtha cracker, a middle distillate cracker, a natural gas production unit, a LPG production unit, and a wax cracker, and the like.
  • Examples of olefin containing streams include FCC off-gas, coker gas, olefin metathesis unit off-gas, polyolefin gasoline unit off-gas, methanol to olefin unit off-gas, FCC light naphtha, coker light naphtha, Fischer-Tropsch unit condensate, and cracked naphtha. Some olefin containing feed streams may contain at least one olefin selected from ethylene, propylene, butylenes, pentenes, and up to C10 olefins, i.e., C2-C10 olefins, and mixtures thereof. Such olefin containing streams are further described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,572,943, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • Examples of isoparaffin containing streams include, but are not limited to, FCC naphtha, hydrocracker naphtha, coker naphtha, Fisher-Tropsch unit condensate, natural gas condensate, and cracked naphtha. Such streams may comprise at least one C4-C10 isoparaffin. In an embodiment, such streams may comprise a mixture of two or more isoparaffins. In a sub-embodiment, an isoparaffin feed to the alkylation reactor during an ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation process may comprise isobutane.
  • Paraffin Alkylation
  • In an embodiment, the alkylation of a mixture of hydrocarbons may be performed in a modular reactor vessel under conditions known to produce alkylate gasoline. The modular reactor may be referred to herein as an alkylation reactor, and the modular reactor may comprise at least one alkylation zone. The alkylation conditions in the alkylation reactor are selected to provide the desired product yields and quality. The alkylation reaction in the alkylation reactor is generally carried out in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, in a batch system, a semi-batch system, or a continuous system. The catalyst volume in the alkylation reactor may be in the range of 0.5 to 50 vol %, or from 1 to 20 vol %, or from 2 to 6 vol %. In an embodiment, vigorous mixing can be attained by using one or more mixing devices per reactor, e.g., as described hereinabove, to provide contact between the hydrocarbon reactants and ionic liquid catalyst over a large surface area per unit volume of the reactor. The alkylation reaction temperature can be in the range from −40° C. to 150° C., such as −20° C. to 100° C., or −15° C. to 50° C. The alkylation pressure can be in the range from atmospheric pressure to 8000 kPa. In an embodiment the alkylation pressure is maintained at a level at least sufficient to keep the reactants in the liquid phase. The residence time of reactants in the reactor can be in the range of a second to 60 hours.
  • In one embodiment, the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin in the alkylation reactor can vary over a broad range. Generally the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin is in the range of from 0.5:1 to 100:1. For example, in different embodiments the molar ratio of isoparaffin to olefin is from 1:1 to 50:1, from 1.1:1 to 10:1, or from 1.1:1 to 20:1. Lower isoparaffin to olefin molar ratios will tend to produce a higher yield of higher molecular weight alkylate products, and thus can be selected when operating the alkylation reactor in a distillate mode, such as described in U.S. Patent Publication No. US20110230692A1.
  • Other Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes
  • Systems comprising a modular reactor as disclosed herein can be used for other hydrocarbon conversion processes using an acidic ionic liquid catalyst. Some examples of the hydrocarbon conversion processes include isomerization of C4-C8 paraffin where normal paraffins are converted to isoparaffins, oligomerization of C3-C30 olefins to produce higher molecular weight olefins, isomerization of C3-C30 olefins to shift the location of the double bond in the molecule (double bond isomerization) or shift the back-bone of the olefin molecules (skeletal isomerization), cracking of high molecular weight olefins and paraffins to low molecular paraffins and olefins, and alkylation of olefins with aromatics to form alkylaromatics.
  • Ionic Liquid Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes
  • In an embodiment, a catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion processes may be a chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst comprised of at least two components which form a complex. A first component of the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst can comprise a Lewis Acid selected from components such as Lewis Acidic compounds of Group 13 metals, including aluminum halides, alkyl aluminum halides, gallium halides, and alkyl gallium halides, indium halides, and alkyl indium halides (see International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), version 3, October 2005, for Group 13 metals of the periodic table). Other Lewis Acidic compounds, in addition to those of Group 13 metals, can also be used. In one embodiment the first component is aluminum halide or alkyl aluminum halide. For example, aluminum trichloride can be the first component of the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst.
  • A second component comprising the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst is an organic salt or mixture of salts. These salts can be characterized by the general formula Q+A wherein Q+ is an ammonium, phosphonium, boronium, iodonium, or sulfonium cation and A is a negatively charged ion such as Cl, Br, ClO4 , NO3 , BF4 , BCl4 , PF6 , SbF6 , AlCl4 , TaF6 , CuCl2 , FeCl3 , HSO3 , RSO3 (wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms), SO3CF3 , and 3-sulfurtrioxyphenyl. In one embodiment, the second component is selected from those having quaternary ammonium or phosphonium halides containing one or more alkyl moieties having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, such as, for example, trimethylamine hydrochloride, methyltributylammonium halide, trialkylphosphonium hydrochloride, tetraalkylphosphonium chlorides, methyltrialkylphosphonium halide or substituted heterocyclic ammonium halide compounds, such as hydrocarbyl substituted pyridinium halide compounds, for example, 1-butylpyridinium halide, benzylpyridinium halide, or hydrocarbyl substituted imidazolium halides, such as for example, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride.
  • In one embodiment the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst is selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl substituted pyridinium chloroaluminate, hydrocarbyl substituted imidazolium chloroaluminate, quaternary amine chloroaluminate, trialkyl amine hydrogen chloride chloroaluminate, alkyl pyridine hydrogen chloride chloroaluminate, and mixtures thereof. For example, the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst can be an acidic haloaluminate ionic liquid, such as an alkyl substituted pyridinium chloroaluminate or an alkyl substituted imidazolium chloroaluminate of the general formulas A and B, respectively.
  • Figure US20160001255A1-20160107-C00001
  • In the formulas A and B, R, R1, R2, and R3 are H, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl or hexyl group, and X is a chloroaluminate. In the formulas A and B, R, R1, R2, and R3 may or may not be the same. In one embodiment the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst is N-butylpyridinium chloroaluminate. Examples of highly acidic chloroaluminates are Al2Cl7 and Al3Cl10 .
  • In another embodiment the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst can have the general formula RR′R″NH+ Al2Cl7 wherein R, R′, and R″ are alkyl groups containing from 1 to 12 carbons, and where R, R′, and R″ may or may not be the same.
  • In another embodiment the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst can have the general formula RR′R″R′″P+ Al2Cl7 wherein R, R′, R″ and R′″ are alkyl groups containing from 1 to 12 carbons, and where R, R′, R″ and R′″ may or may not be the same.
  • The presence of the first component should give the chloride-containing ionic liquid a Lewis or Franklin acidic character. Generally, the greater the mole ratio of the first component to the second component, the greater is the acidity of the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst. The molar ratio of the first component (metal halide) to the second component (quaternary amine or quaternary phosphorus) is in the range of 2:1 to 1.1:1.
  • In one embodiment, the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst is mixed in the alkylation reactor with a hydrogen halide and/or an organic halide. The hydrogen halide or organic halide can boost the overall acidity and change the selectivity of the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst. The organic halide can be an alkyl halide. The alkyl halides that can be used include alkyl bromides, alkyl chlorides, alkyl iodides, and mixtures thereof. A variety of alkyl halides can be used. Alkyl halide derivatives of the isoparaffins or the olefins that comprise the feed streams in the alkylation process are good choices. Such alkyl halides include, but are not limited to, isopentyl halides, isobutyl halides, butyl halides (e.g., 1-butyl halide or 2-butyl halide), propyl halides and ethyl halides. Other alkyl chlorides or halides having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms can be also used. The alkyl halides can be used alone or in combination or with hydrogen halide. The alkyl halide or hydrogen halide is fed to the unit by injecting the alkyl halide or hydrogen halide to the hydrocarbon feed, or to the ionic liquid catalyst or to the alkylation reactor directly. The amount of HCl or alkyl chloride usage, the location of the injection and the injection method may affect the amount of organic chloride side-product formation. The use of alkyl halides to promote hydrocarbon conversion by chloride-containing ionic liquid catalysts is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 7,495,144 and in U.S. Patent Publication No. 20100298620A1.
  • It is believed that the alkyl halide decomposes under hydrocarbon conversion conditions to liberate Bronsted acids or hydrogen halides, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) or hydrobromic acid (HBr). These Bronsted acids or hydrogen halides promote the hydrocarbon conversion reaction. In one embodiment the halide in the hydrogen halide or alkyl halide is chloride. In one embodiment the alkyl halide is an alkyl chloride, for example t-butyl chloride. Hydrogen chloride and/or an alkyl chloride can be used advantageously, for example, when the chloride-containing ionic liquid catalyst is a chloroaluminate.
  • Ionic Liquid Catalyst Regeneration
  • As a result of use, ionic liquid catalysts become deactivated, i.e. lose activity, and may eventually need to be replaced. However, ionic liquid catalysts are expensive and replacement adds significantly to operating expenses. Thus it is desirable to regenerate the ionic liquid catalyst on-line and reuse in the alkylation process. The regeneration of acidic ionic liquid catalysts is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 7,651,970, U.S. Pat. No. 7,674,739, U.S. Pat. No. 7,691,771, U.S. Pat. No. 7,732,363, and U.S. Pat. No. 7,732,364.
  • Alkylation processes utilizing an ionic liquid catalyst form by-products known as conjunct polymers. These conjunct polymers are highly unsaturated molecules and deactivate the ionic liquid catalyst by forming complexes with the ionic liquid catalyst. A portion of used ionic liquid catalyst from the alkylation reactor is sent to the regenerator reactor which removes the conjunct polymer from the ionic liquid catalyst and recovers the activity of the ionic liquid catalyst. The regeneration reactor contains metal components that saturates the conjunct polymers and releases the saturated polymer molecules from the ionic liquid catalyst. The regeneration can be performed either in a stirred reactor or a fixed bed reactor. For ease of operation, a fixed bed reactor is preferred even though the fixed bed regenerator reactor is more susceptible to plugging from coking, deposits of corrosion products and decomposition products derived from feed contaminants. A guard bed vessel containing adsorbent material with appropriate pore size may be added before the regeneration reactor to minimize contaminants going into the regeneration reactor.
  • Product Separation and Finishing
  • The hydrocarbon effluent product from the reactor containing ionic liquid catalyst and hydrogen halide co-catalyst may contain trace amounts of hydrogen halides or organic halides or inorganic halides. When aluminum chloride containing catalyst is used, then trace amounts of HCl, organic chlorides and inorganic chlorides may be present in the reactor effluent. HCl and organic chlorides are preferred to be captured and recycled to the alkylation reactor. Inorganic chlorides such as corrosion products or decomposition product may be captured with a filter.
  • The separated hydrocarbon product may still contain trace amounts of HCl, organic chlorides and inorganic chlorides. Removal of HCl and inorganic chlorides from the product are typically done by caustic washing. Chloride selective adsorbent may be used to capture the residual chlorides. Organic chloride may be converted to HCl and organic hydrocarbon by hydrogenation, cracking or hot caustic treating. Treating of products for chloride reduction is taught, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,538,256, U.S. Pat. No. 7,955,498, and U.S. Pat. No. 8,327,004.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1
  • N-butylpyridinium chloroaluminate (C5H5NC4H9Al2Cl7) ionic liquid catalyst (1:2 molar ratio of N-butyl pyridinium chloride and AlCl3) was used to produce alkylate shown in Example 2. The acidic ionic liquid catalyst had aluminum chloride as a metal halide component. The catalyst had the following elemental composition.
  • Wt % Al 12.4 Wt % Cl 56.5 Wt % C 24.6 Wt % H 3.2 Wt % N 3.3
  • Example 2
  • The acidic ionic liquid catalyst described in Example 1 was used to alkylate C3-C4 olefins with isobutane in a process unit. The alkylation was performed in a static mixer reactor system containing three mixer modules and two feed modules arranged in the sequence shown in FIG. 2. Each feed module had three spargers for hydrocarbon feed introduction. An 18:1 molar ratio of isobutane to total olefin mixture was fed to the reactor via the two feed modules. Reactor effluent was withdrawn from the base of the reactor and recirculated to the top of the reactor via a circulation loop containing the recycle flow). The relative rate of the recycle flow to the fresh hydrocarbon feed was 17:1. The pressure drop across the reactor was 50 psi. The acidic ionic liquid catalyst was fed to the circulation loop to occupy 7 vol % in the reactor. A small amount of anhydrous n-butyl chloride corresponding to 120:1 molar ratio of olefin to n-butyl chloride was added to the acidic ionic liquid catalyst in the reactor. The average residence time of the combined feeds (isobutane/olefin mixture and catalyst) in the reactor and loop was about four minutes. The outlet pressure was maintained at 190 psig and the reactor temperature was maintained at 35° C. (95° F.) using external cooling. The reactor effluent was separated with a coalescing separator into a hydrocarbon phase and an acidic ionic liquid catalyst phase.
  • The bulk of the separated ionic liquid catalyst was recycled back to the alkylation reactor through the circulation loop. A portion of the separated acidic ionic liquid catalyst phase was sent to a catalyst regeneration unit to maintain the conjunct polymer level in the alkylation catalyst in the range from 3 to 5 wt %.
  • The hydrocarbon phase was then sent to a series of three distillation columns to separate C5 +, n-butane, C3 offgas and isobutene recycle streams. The C5 + alkylate stream was analyzed using D86 laboratory distillation. Research and Motor Octane numbers were measured with an engine test. ASTM D86 distillation of the C5 + stream showed the initial boiling point of 102° F. (39 degree Celsius), T50 boiling point of 213° F. (101 degree Celsius), T90 boiling point of 346° F. (174 degree Celsius) and the end boiling point of 433° F. (223 degree Celsius). The resulting C5 stream was an alkylate gasoline having a 89 RON and 89 MON. These results indicate that the in-line mixer reactor can produce high quality alkylate gasoline that can be readily blended to the refinery gasoline pool.
  • For the purposes of this specification and appended claims, unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities, percentages or proportions, and other numerical values used in the specification and claims, are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Furthermore, all ranges disclosed herein are inclusive of the endpoints and are independently combinable. Whenever a numerical range with a lower limit and an upper limit are disclosed, any number falling within the range is also specifically disclosed.
  • Any term, abbreviation or shorthand not defined is understood to have the ordinary meaning used by a person skilled in the art at the time the application is filed. The singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the,” include plural references unless expressly and unequivocally limited to one instance.
  • All of the publications, patents and patent applications cited in this application are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety to the same extent as if the disclosure of each individual publication, patent application or patent was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • The drawings are representational and may not be drawn to scale. Modifications of the exemplary embodiments disclosed above may be apparent to those skilled in the art in light of this disclosure. Accordingly, the invention is to be construed as including all structure and methods that fall within the scope of the appended claims. Unless otherwise specified, the recitation of a genus of elements, materials or other components, from which an individual component or mixture of components can be selected, is intended to include all possible sub-generic combinations of the listed components and mixtures thereof.

Claims (35)

What is claimed is:
1. A system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system comprising:
a modular reactor comprising a plurality of static mixer modules and one or more feed modules, wherein:
said static mixer modules are arranged in series,
each said static mixer module and each said feed module is vertically aligned,
said static mixer modules are arranged alternately with said feed modules such that each feed module is disposed between two of said static mixer modules, and
each said static mixer module is arranged coaxially with each said feed module.
2. The system according to claim 1, wherein the number of said static mixer modules is n, and the number of said feed modules is (n−1).
3. The system according to claim 2, wherein the number of said static mixer modules, n, is in the range from two (2) to 10.
4. The system according to claim 1, wherein:
each said static mixer module is in contact with at least one of said feed modules, and
each said feed module is in contact with two of said static mixer modules.
5. The system according to claim 1, wherein:
each said static mixer module and each said feed module has a circular cross-section, and
each said static mixer module and each said feed module has the same internal diameter.
6. The system according to claim 1, wherein each said static mixer module occupies essentially the entire cross-sectional area of the modular reactor.
7. The system according to claim 1, further comprising a feed supply line, wherein:
each said feed module includes a feed conduit,
each said feed conduit is in fluid communication with the feed supply line, and
the system is configured for delivering hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor via each said feed module.
8. The system according to claim 1, wherein each said feed module comprises a sparger.
9. (canceled)
10. The system according to claim 1, wherein:
each said static mixer module has a static mixer module proximal end and a static mixer module distal end, and
each said static mixer module comprises a static mixer module proximal flange at the static mixer module proximal end and a static mixer module distal flange at the static mixer module distal end,
each said feed module has a feed module proximal end and a feed module distal end,
each said feed module comprises a feed module proximal flange at the feed module proximal end and a feed module distal flange at the feed module distal end,
the static mixer module distal flange is configured for coupling to the feed module proximal flange, and
the feed module distal flange is configured for coupling to the static mixer module proximal flange.
11. The system according to claim 1, further comprising:
a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor, the modular reactor having a base and a top, the circulation loop having a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor, and the circulation loop further having a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor, the system configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the modular reactor via the first loop end into the circulation loop, and the system further configured for delivering a recirculation stream to the top of the modular reactor via the second loop end, wherein the circulation loop comprises:
an ionic liquid catalyst inlet configured for adding fresh ionic liquid catalyst to withdrawn reactor effluent to provide the recirculation stream, and
a heat exchanger configured for cooling the recirculation stream.
12. The system according to claim 1, additionally comprising:
a feed supply line in fluid communication with each said feed module.
13. The system according to claim 12, wherein:
each said feed module includes a feed conduit,
each said feed conduit is in fluid communication with the feed supply line, and
the system is configured for delivering hydrocarbon feed to the modular reactor via each said feed module.
14. The system according to claim 12, wherein:
each said static mixer module is in fluid communication with, and in contact with, at least one of said feed modules, and
each said feed module is in fluid communication with, and reversibly affixed to, two of said static mixer modules.
15. The system according to claim 12, wherein:
each said feed module comprises a sparger.
16. The system according to claim 13, further comprising:
a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor, the modular reactor having a base and a top, the circulation loop having a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor, and the circulation loop further having a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor, the system configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the modular reactor via the first loop end into the circulation loop, wherein the circulation loop comprises:
an ionic liquid catalyst inlet configured for adding fresh ionic liquid catalyst to withdrawn reactor effluent to provide a recirculation stream, and
a heat exchanger configured for cooling the recirculation stream.
17. The system according to claim 16, wherein:
the plurality of static mixer modules comprise a first static mixer module and at least a second static mixer module disposed downstream from the first static mixer module,
the first static mixer module is in fluid communication with the second loop end for receiving the recirculation stream from the circulation loop,
the first static mixer module is configured for mixing the recirculation stream, and
the second static mixer module is configured for mixing the hydrocarbon feed with the recirculation stream.
18. A system for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, the system comprising:
a modular reactor having a base and a top; and
a circulation loop in fluid communication with the modular reactor, the circulation loop having a first loop end coupled to the base of the modular reactor, the system configured for withdrawing reactor effluent from the base of the modular reactor into the circulation loop, the circulation loop further having a second loop end coupled to the top of the modular reactor, and the system further configured for delivering a recirculation stream to the top of the modular reactor; wherein the modular reactor comprises:
a first static mixer,
a first feed module comprising a sparger, disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first static mixer, and
a second static mixer disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the first feed module, wherein the first static mixer is coaxial with the first feed module and the second static mixer.
19. The system according to claim 18, wherein the modular reactor further comprises:
a second feed module disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the second static mixer, and
a third static mixer disposed downstream from, and in fluid communication with, the second feed module, wherein:
the first feed module is reversibly affixed to, and in contact with, each of the first static mixer and the second static mixer,
the first static mixer is coaxial with the second feed module and the third static mixer, and
the second feed module is reversibly affixed to, and in contact with, each of the second static mixer and the third static mixer.
20. The system according to claim 19, wherein:
the first feed module is configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed between the first static mixer and the second static mixer, and
the second feed module is configured for distributing hydrocarbon feed between the second static mixer and the third static mixer.
21. A process for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion, comprising:
a) withdrawing reactor effluent from a modular reactor, the reactor effluent comprising unreacted hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon feed;
b) adding ionic liquid catalyst to the reactor effluent to provide a recirculation stream;
c) introducing the recirculation stream into a first static mixer module of the modular reactor;
d) via the first static mixer module, mixing the recirculation stream to provide an ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion comprising the ionic liquid catalyst and the unreacted hydrocarbons;
e) via a first feed module, distributing the hydrocarbon feed at an elevation between the first static mixer module and at least a second static mixer module disposed downstream from the first static mixer module; and
f) via at least the second static mixer module, mixing the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion.
22. The process according to claim 21, wherein step d) comprises contacting the unreacted hydrocarbons with the ionic liquid catalyst in the first static mixer module under alkylation conditions to provide an alkylate product.
23. The process according to claim 22, wherein step f) comprises contacting the hydrocarbon feed with the ionic liquid catalyst in at least the second static mixer module under alkylation conditions to provide an additional amount of the alkylate product.
24. The process according to claim 21, wherein each of the first static mixer module and the second static mixer module comprises a static mixer that is a helical type- or a plate type-static mixer that produces high turbulence and good radial mixing.
25. The process according to claim 21, wherein:
the first feed module is disposed downstream from the first static mixer module,
the second static mixer module is disposed downstream from the first feed module, and
the first feed module is coaxial with both the first static mixer module and the second static mixer module.
26. The process according to claim 21, wherein the first feed module comprises a sparger.
27. The process according to claim 23, wherein:
the ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion comprises paraffin alkylation,
the hydrocarbon feed comprises at least one C2-C10 olefin and at least one C4-C10 isoparaffin,
the ionic liquid catalyst comprises a chloroaluminate ionic liquid, and
the alkylation conditions comprise a temperature in the range from −40° C. to 150° C., and a pressure in the range from atmospheric pressure to 8000 kPa.
28. The process according to claim 21, wherein the ionic liquid/hydrocarbon emulsion comprises droplets of the ionic liquid catalyst having a diameter in the range from 1-1000 microns by choosing a combination of a static mixer element and a liquid linear velocity.
29. The process according to claim 21, wherein the ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion is selected from the group consisting of: paraffin alkylation, paraffin isomerization, olefin oligomerization, cracking of olefins or paraffins, and aromatic alkylation.
30. The process according to claim 21, further comprising:
g) adding at least one of a co-catalyst and a catalyst promoter to the modular reactor, wherein the co-catalyst comprises an alkyl chloride and the catalyst promoter comprises HCl.
31. The process according to claim 21, wherein step b) comprises maintaining the overall ionic liquid catalyst volume in the modular reactor in the range from 0.5 to 50 vol %.
32. The system according to claim 1, wherein said static mixer modules comprise helical type- or plate type-static mixers that produce high turbulence and good radial mixing.
33. The system according to claim 12, wherein said static mixer modules comprise helical type- or plate type-static mixers that produce high turbulence and good radial mixing.
34. The system according to claim 18, wherein the first static mixer or the second static mixer is a helical type- or a plate type-static mixer that produces high turbulence and good radial mixing.
35. The system according to claim 21, wherein the first static mixer module or the second static mixer module comprise helical type- or plate type-static mixers that produce high turbulence and good radial mixing.
US14/323,262 2014-07-03 2014-07-03 Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer Abandoned US20160001255A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/323,262 US20160001255A1 (en) 2014-07-03 2014-07-03 Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/323,262 US20160001255A1 (en) 2014-07-03 2014-07-03 Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer
PCT/US2015/017281 WO2016003498A1 (en) 2014-07-03 2015-02-24 Reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer
US15/456,863 US10173194B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-03-13 Systems for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on a modular reactor

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/456,863 Division US10173194B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-03-13 Systems for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on a modular reactor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20160001255A1 true US20160001255A1 (en) 2016-01-07

Family

ID=52630504

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/323,262 Abandoned US20160001255A1 (en) 2014-07-03 2014-07-03 Novel reactor for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on motionless mixer
US15/456,863 Active 2034-07-19 US10173194B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-03-13 Systems for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on a modular reactor

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/456,863 Active 2034-07-19 US10173194B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-03-13 Systems for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation based on a modular reactor

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (2) US20160001255A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2016003498A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2017127925A1 (en) * 2016-01-26 2017-08-03 Michael Ransom Apparatus for mixing fluids, including fluids containing solids
WO2019008454A1 (en) * 2017-07-03 2019-01-10 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Natural gas liquid upgrading by ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10486131B2 (en) 2017-10-26 2019-11-26 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Integrated reactor system for ionic liquid-catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080142413A1 (en) * 2006-12-13 2008-06-19 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Alkylation process using an alkyl halide promoted ionic liquid catalyst
US20090171133A1 (en) * 2007-12-28 2009-07-02 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Ionic liquid catalyst alkylation using a loop reactor
US20120178982A1 (en) * 2009-08-06 2012-07-12 Zhichang Liu Process for preparing an alkylate

Family Cites Families (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2869844A (en) * 1956-04-16 1959-01-20 Shell Dev Treating liquid with gas
US3834682A (en) * 1972-06-19 1974-09-10 American Hospital Supply Corp Mixing column for medical humidifier and method of humidifying inhalable gases
US4466741A (en) * 1982-01-16 1984-08-21 Hisao Kojima Mixing element and motionless mixer
US4965298A (en) 1988-08-16 1990-10-23 Marathon Oil Company Preparation and cooling of aqueous polymer solution
DE69126328T2 (en) 1990-07-25 1997-09-04 Mobil Oil Corp Extinguishing process in the reactor for the catalytic hydration of olefins to display ethers
SE9203842L (en) * 1992-12-21 1994-06-22 Alfa Laval Food Eng Ab Static mixer
FR2745820B1 (en) * 1996-03-08 1998-04-17 Inst Francais Du Petrole Conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons in the presence of a liquid phase
US6232515B1 (en) * 1997-07-28 2001-05-15 Uop Llc Production of ethyl aromatics by passing portions of transalkylation effluent to a multi-bed alkylation zone
US20030154271A1 (en) 2001-10-05 2003-08-14 Baldwin Duane Mark Storage area network methods and apparatus with centralized management
CN1203032C (en) 2002-11-12 2005-05-25 石油大学(北京) Preparing method for alkylate agent using compound ion as catalyst
DE102004008755A1 (en) 2004-02-23 2005-09-08 Hilti Ag Static mixer and its use
WO2005084795A1 (en) 2004-03-02 2005-09-15 Velocys, Inc. Microchannel polymerization reactor
JP5156375B2 (en) * 2004-07-01 2013-03-06 ビーエーエスエフ ソシエタス・ヨーロピアBasf Se Production of acrolein or acrylic acid or mixtures thereof from propane
US7651970B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2010-01-26 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Regeneration of ionic liquid catalyst by hydrogenation using a metal or metal alloy catalyst
US7732363B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2010-06-08 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Regeneration of acidic catalysts
US7691771B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2010-04-06 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Regeneration of ionic liquid catalyst by hydrogenation using a supported catalyst
US7572943B2 (en) 2005-12-20 2009-08-11 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Alkylation of oligomers to make superior lubricant or fuel blendstock
US7495144B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2009-02-24 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Alkylation process using an alkyl halide promoted ionic liquid catalyst
US7674739B2 (en) 2006-04-21 2010-03-09 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Regeneration of ionic liquid catalyst using a metal in the absence of added hydrogen
GB0619835D0 (en) * 2006-10-06 2006-11-15 Univ Bath Apparatus and process for use in three-phase catalytic reactions
US20080139858A1 (en) * 2006-12-11 2008-06-12 Exxonmobil Research And Engineering Company HF alkylation process
US7538256B2 (en) 2006-12-12 2009-05-26 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. Reduction of organic halides in alkylate gasoline
US7956230B2 (en) 2007-12-21 2011-06-07 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Reduction of organic halide contamination in hydrocarbon products
US7732364B2 (en) 2007-12-28 2010-06-08 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Process for ionic liquid catalyst regeneration
US8183425B2 (en) 2007-12-28 2012-05-22 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Ionic liquid catalyst alkylation using split reactant streams
US8198499B2 (en) 2007-12-28 2012-06-12 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation process employing nozzles and system implementing such process
US8865080B2 (en) 2008-06-09 2014-10-21 Renewable Energy Group, Inc. Devices, processes and methods for the production of lower alkyl esters
US7955498B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2011-06-07 Chevron, U.S.A. Inc. Reduction of organic halide contamination in hydrocarbon products
US8674159B2 (en) 2009-05-19 2014-03-18 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Hydroconversion process with alkyl halide comprising at least 55 wt% halide
EP2462090B1 (en) 2009-08-06 2017-06-28 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Method for revamping an hf or sulphuric acid alkylation unit
AU2010280718B8 (en) 2009-08-06 2014-03-13 Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Method for revamping an HF or sulphuric acid alkylation unit
US8895794B2 (en) 2010-03-17 2014-11-25 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Process for producing high quality gasoline blending components in two modes
US20110282114A1 (en) 2010-05-14 2011-11-17 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Method of feeding reactants in a process for the production of alkylate gasoline
US9382558B2 (en) 2011-07-27 2016-07-05 Unitel Technologies, Inc. Fatty acids from phytoplankton
CN203648116U (en) * 2013-12-03 2014-06-18 惠州市利而安化工有限公司 Methylal rectifying tower with solvent addition port

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080142413A1 (en) * 2006-12-13 2008-06-19 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Alkylation process using an alkyl halide promoted ionic liquid catalyst
US20090171133A1 (en) * 2007-12-28 2009-07-02 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Ionic liquid catalyst alkylation using a loop reactor
US20120178982A1 (en) * 2009-08-06 2012-07-12 Zhichang Liu Process for preparing an alkylate

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"Static Mixer" Wikipedia, Wayback Machine, 2012 *

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2017127925A1 (en) * 2016-01-26 2017-08-03 Michael Ransom Apparatus for mixing fluids, including fluids containing solids
WO2019008454A1 (en) * 2017-07-03 2019-01-10 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Natural gas liquid upgrading by ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation
US10301233B2 (en) 2017-07-03 2019-05-28 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Natural gas liquid upgrading by ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation
US10633304B2 (en) 2017-07-03 2020-04-28 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Natural gas liquid upgrading by ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2016003498A1 (en) 2016-01-07
US20170197195A1 (en) 2017-07-13
US10173194B2 (en) 2019-01-08

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN102666445B (en) A process for making products with low hydrogen halide
CN101622214B (en) Alkylation process using an alkyl halide promoted ionic liquid catalyst
CN100379710C (en) Paraffin alkylation
AU2007230776C1 (en) Alkylation process using an alkyl halide promoted ionic liquid catalyst
US8070939B2 (en) Process for measuring and adjusting halide in a reactor
US4393259A (en) Process for conversion of propane or butane to gasoline
TWI449683B (en) Gasoline blending composition prepared by the integrated alkylation process using ionic liquid catalysts
US8461408B2 (en) System and process for alkylation
US8536392B2 (en) Series catalyst beds
AU2007333132B2 (en) Reduction of organic halides in alkylate gasoline
US20050119423A1 (en) Method and system to add high shear to improve an ionic liquid catalyzed chemical reaction
CN100582065C (en) Pulse flow reaction
US20120178982A1 (en) Process for preparing an alkylate
KR20130122723A (en) Startup procedures for ionic liquid catalyzed hydrocarbon conversion processes
CN104487407B (en) Alkylation process with recyle of hydrogen and recovery of hydrogen chloride
US20040133056A1 (en) Method for manufacturing alkylate oil with composite ionic liquid used as catalyst
AU2010280693B2 (en) Process for preparing an alkylate
AU2010280708B2 (en) Process for preparing an alkylate
CA2848180C (en) Conversion of sulfuric acid alkylation units for ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation processes
US9254450B2 (en) Alkylation process unit comprising a fractionation unit for separating hydrogen gas and hydrogen chloride
WO2014074991A1 (en) Process for recycling oligomerate to oligomerization
CN103781747B (en) The integrated approach of butane isomerization and ionic liquid catalyzed alkylation
Liu et al. Alkylation of isobutane/isobutene using Brønsted–Lewis acidic ionic liquids as catalysts
KR101472147B1 (en) Isomerization of Butene In The Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Alkylation of Light Isoparaffins and Olefins
US7988747B2 (en) Production of low sulphur alkylate gasoline fuel

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CHEVRON U.S.A. INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LUO, HUPING;ETCHELLS, ARTHUR WILLIAM, III;MOHR, DONALD HENRY;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20140618 TO 20140629;REEL/FRAME:033239/0291

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION