US20150330054A1 - Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method - Google Patents

Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20150330054A1
US20150330054A1 US14/279,858 US201414279858A US2015330054A1 US 20150330054 A1 US20150330054 A1 US 20150330054A1 US 201414279858 A US201414279858 A US 201414279858A US 2015330054 A1 US2015330054 A1 US 2015330054A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
plurality
surface
sensing unit
laser rangefinders
distance
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US14/279,858
Inventor
Nikolay V. Khatuntsev
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Topcon Positioning Systems Inc
Original Assignee
Topcon Positioning Systems Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Topcon Positioning Systems Inc filed Critical Topcon Positioning Systems Inc
Priority to US14/279,858 priority Critical patent/US20150330054A1/en
Assigned to TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: KHATUNTSEV, NIKOLAY V.
Publication of US20150330054A1 publication Critical patent/US20150330054A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02FDREDGING; SOIL-SHIFTING
    • E02F3/00Dredgers; Soil-shifting machines
    • E02F3/04Dredgers; Soil-shifting machines mechanically-driven
    • E02F3/76Graders, bulldozers, or the like with scraper plates or ploughshare-like elements; Levelling scarifying devices
    • E02F3/80Component parts
    • E02F3/84Drives or control devices therefor, e.g. hydraulic drive systems
    • E02F3/844Drives or control devices therefor, e.g. hydraulic drive systems for positioning the blade, e.g. hydraulically
    • E02F3/847Drives or control devices therefor, e.g. hydraulic drive systems for positioning the blade, e.g. hydraulically using electromagnetic, optical or acoustic beams to determine the blade position, e.g. laser beams
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C19/00Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving
    • E01C19/004Devices for guiding or controlling the machines along a predetermined path
    • E01C19/006Devices for guiding or controlling the machines along a predetermined path by laser or ultrasound
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C23/00Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces
    • E01C23/01Devices or auxiliary means for setting-out or checking the configuration of new surfacing, e.g. templates, screed or reference line supports; Applications of apparatus for measuring, indicating, or recording the surface configuration of existing surfacing, e.g. profilographs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01PMEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT
    • G01P3/00Measuring linear or angular speed; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds
    • G01P3/36Devices characterised by the use of optical means, e.g. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light
    • G01P3/38Devices characterised by the use of optical means, e.g. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light using photographic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/86Combinations of lidar systems with systems other than lidar, radar or sonar, e.g. with direction finders
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S17/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. lidar systems
    • G01S17/87Combinations of systems using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/4808Evaluating distance, position or velocity data
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/497Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS
    • G01V8/00Prospecting or detecting by optical means
    • G01V8/10Detecting, e.g. by using light barriers
    • G01V8/20Detecting, e.g. by using light barriers using multiple transmitters or receivers

Abstract

A method and a system for determining horizontal velocity of a construction vehicle and a distance from a range sensing apparatus to a surface is provided. In an embodiment, a plurality of video images of the surface generated by a video camera is received, an angular velocity is calculated by video processing, a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface is measured, and linear horizontal velocity is calculated from angular velocity and distances.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to range sensing and more particularly to optical range sensing in road finishing applications. In construction using asphalt and concrete materials (e.g., road finishing, paving, etc.) various systems and methods for sensing the distance to a surface (e.g., a road) have been used.
  • Contacting and non-contacting systems have been used. Contacting systems suffer in that they are prone to damage and breakage. Prior non-contacting systems are not accurate enough. These systems generally employ an ultrasonic sensing unit to measure the distance from the construction vehicle or sensing unit to the road surface. In some sensing units more than one heterogeneous sensor is used to measure distances to the surface from the sensing unit. These measured distances are averaged to determine an approximate distance between the sensing unit and the surface.
  • In some cases, these sensing units or construction vehicles include a temperature sensor. An example of a commonly used temperature sensor is a U-shaped metal attachment to the sensing apparatus that extends toward the road surface. The attachment is used to measure known distance and thus determine speed of sound at current temperature.
  • The prior range sensing units often provide inaccurate measurements and/or inconsistent sensing because the construction vehicle and/or the sensors and sensing unit may be too close or too far away from the road surface. That is, the sensors may not be in their optimal performance range. Also, ultrasonic distance measurement is prone to give a false reading if there is an obstacle in the ultrasonic beam. It may be not clear what object reflected echo it is measuring (target or obstacle). Accordingly, improved systems and methods for range sensing are needed.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention generally provides methods and apparatus for determining a distance from a sensing unit of a construction vehicle to a surface. In one embodiment of the present disclosure, a method for determining the distance includes measuring a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface, weighting the measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface using a weighting factor, and determining a weighted average distance from the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface based on weighted the measured distances.
  • In other embodiment of the present disclosure, a method for determining the distance includes measuring a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface, weighting the measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface using a weighting factor, and providing weighted measured distances to a user without averaging the distances.
  • In an embodiment, the method for determining the distance from a sensing unit of a construction vehicle to a surface also includes transmitting measured distance information to a processor, and determining a two-dimensional velocity and offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle using at least one video camera. In an embodiment, a sensing unit for determining the distance to a surface includes a plurality of laser rangefinders and at least one video camera. The sensing unit includes a housing in which the plurality of laser rangefinders and at least one video camera are installed. The apparatus also includes a memory storing computer program instructions to determine the distance from the sensing unit to the surface. The apparatus also has a processor communicatively coupled with the memory and configured to execute the computer program instructions to calculate a distance to the surface based at least in part on distances measured by the plurality of laser rangefinders.
  • These and other advantages of the invention will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art by reference to the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 depicts a side schematic view of a sensing unit according to embodiments of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 depicts a distance measuring system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 3 depicts a method for optical sensing.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present invention generally provides for a system and method for improved range sensing in a construction environment. More specifically, the present invention provides more accurate distance determination. In one embodiment, distance determination is achieved using a plurality of laser rangefinders and a video camera in a single sensing unit physically attached to the construction equipment. In another embodiment, distance determination is achieved using plurality of laser rangefinders and a video camera in multiple sensing units that are part of a single measuring system.
  • In an embodiment, a plurality of laser rangefinders in a sensing unit is used to determine a distance from the sensing unit to a surface. The laser rangefinders are configured in a single housing or structural module, so as to enable more accurate determination of the distance to be measured. Sensing unit sends current distance to the control unit in essentially real-time. If the sensing unit is equipped with a video camera, the sensing unit also sends current velocity to a control unit and transmits real-time visual images to an operator display via the control unit. Operator can steer construction vehicle based on the real-time video to keep tracking curb or other line targets.
  • In one embodiment a plurality of laser rangefinders (e.g., one sensing unit is installed on the left side of the paver and second one is installed at the right side of the construction vehicle) are used in order to more accurately determine the distance between the sensing unit and the surface. Velocity measurements and distances between the surface and the plurality of rangefinders and velocity measurements assist in controlling the construction vehicle. Displaying on a display real-time visual images captured by one or more video cameras assist operator to control and direct the construction vehicle. Operator can see targets on both sides simultaneously. In such an embodiment, the plurality of laser rangefinders are used to accurately determine this distance through the means of optical emission and reception whereby each laser rangefinder has an influence on a determined distance. That is, a mathematical calculation may be performed based on data obtained by each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to weight the distance between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders in the sensing unit and the surface which results in determining the distance between the sensing unit and the surface with higher accuracy than the calculation of the distance between the sensing unit and the surface based on data obtained by a single laser rangefinder.
  • In an embodiment, in addition to the plurality of laser rangefinders, at least one video camera is included in (e.g., integrated into and/or coupled with) the sensing unit to generate a plurality of images of the surface for the purpose of determining a two-dimensional velocity and offset in determining a distance to the road surface. Specifically, the video camera is used for two purposes. First is to capture real-time visual images to be propagated to the operator's display, so operator can track its target and steer machine accordingly. The target could be a curb, an edge of previous layer of asphalt, something else.
  • Second purpose is to determine velocity of horizontal movement. Visual images or frames with constant rate are processed by a processor. The processor compares two consecutive visual images or frames and determines two dimensional offsets in pixels. It is possible to calculate relative (angular) velocity in pixels per seconds based on the knowledge of the frame rate. Using the distance from laser rangefinder it is possible to convert angular velocity to linear velocity in horizontal plane. For illustration purposes, the present disclosure provides an example of the sensing unit containing a single video camera. However, it is to be understood that the sensing unit may be equipped with a plurality of video cameras.
  • FIG. 1 depicts an exemplary sensing unit 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. Specifically, FIG. 1 shows a side schematic view of a sensing unit 100 which includes a housing 102, which encloses a plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b to measure a distance between the sensing unit 100 and a surface 110. In one embodiment, each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b is a time of flight laser rangefinder. In other embodiment, each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b is a phase difference laser rangefinder. In yet other embodiment, the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b is a combination of time of flight laser rangefinders and phase difference laser rangefinders.
  • Housing 102 also includes a video camera 106. It is to be understood that positional configuration of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b within the housing 102 or the sensing unit 100 may vary. It is also to be understood that the number of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b within the housing 102 of the sensing unit 100 may vary.
  • The video camera 106 is mounted on or at least partially enclosed within the housing 102 of the sensing unit 100 and is directed downward to determine a two-dimensional velocity of the construction vehicle and an offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle. Each image generated by the video camera 106 may have points of laser reflection. The distance to the surface can be determined by triangulation method based on known relative position and distance between laser optical axis and video camera and the pixel offset of laser reflection. It is to be understood that positioning of the video camera 106 relative to the sensing unit 100 may vary as to accommodate various types of construction vehicles. It is to be understood that although FIG. 1 depicts a single video camera 106, sensing unit 100 can include more than one video camera 106.
  • FIG. 2 depicts a distance measuring system 200 according to an embodiment. The measuring system 200 contains a processor 202, the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b, video camera 106, an input-output module 210, a memory 204, and storage device 206, and network interface 208. In one embodiment, processor 202 is physically attached to or installed within a housing of the sensing unit 100. In one other embodiment, processor 202 is located remotely from the sensing unit 100 and/or from the construction vehicle while being configured to communicate with the sensing unit 100 and with the construction vehicle.
  • Memory 204 (e.g., random-access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM) with firmware, and the like) contains computer program instruction to be executed by processor 202 to cause the processor 202 perform a method of measuring distance between the sensing unit 100 and the surface 110 as described herein. Storage 206 stores data gathered by the sensing unit 100 and a distance information calculated by processor 202.
  • The processor 202 controls the overall operation of the sensing unit 100 by executing computer program instructions which define such operation. For example, processor 202 executes computer program instructions to measure the distance between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b and the surface 110, to weight measured distances, and to determine calculated weighted average distance to the surface. Processor 202 also controls operation of the video camera 106 to assist an operator of the construction vehicle in determining a position of the construction vehicle or a part of the construction vehicle (e.g., paving equipment) respective to the surface 110.
  • The computer program instructions are stored in the storage device 209 (e.g., computer-readable medium storage device, magnetic disk, database, etc.) and loaded into memory 204 (from a ROM device to a RAM device or from a LAN adapter to a RAM device) when execution of the computer program instructions by the processor 202 is desired. It is to be understood that the computer program instructions may be stored in a compressed, uncompiled and/or encrypted format. The computer program instructions furthermore may include program elements that may be generally useful, such as an operating system, a database management system and device drivers for allowing the processor 202 to interface with other components and devices of the measuring system 200.
  • Execution of sequences of the computer program instructions causes the measuring system 200 to perform one or more of the method steps described herein, such as those described below with respect to method 300. In alternative embodiments, hard-wired circuitry or integrated circuits may be used in place of, or in combination with, software instructions for implementation of the processes described in the present disclosure. Thus, embodiments of the present invention are not limited to any specific combination of hardware, firmware, and/or software. However, it would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the invention as described herein could be implemented in many different ways using a wide range of programming techniques as well as general purpose hardware sub-systems or dedicated controllers.
  • In an embodiment, measuring system 200 is a stand-alone sensing unit 100 physically attached to the construction vehicle such that it is capable of measuring the distance between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b and the surface 110, calculating weighted distances between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b and the surface 110, calculating the weighted average distance to the surface 110, and transmitting calculated weighted average distance information to a user (e.g., operator of the construction vehicle or automated vehicle control system). Such information may be recorded by the processor 202, stored in storage unit 206, and displayed to users via input-output module 210 in real time. That is, the measuring system 200 may collect and/or send the calculated weighted average distance information to the construction vehicle operator for use during construction operations. In an embodiment, sensing unit 100 of the measuring system 200 may be removable, angleable, and/or otherwise positionable to provide accurate distance information.
  • In an embodiment, the measuring system 200 includes network interface 208 for communicating with other devices and/or systems via a network (e.g., a Controller Area Network (CAN)). For example, network interface 208 supports data exchange and data transmission between components (two or more sensing units 100) of the measuring system 200. Network interface 208 also supports data exchange and data transmission between multiple measuring systems installed on separate construction vehicles.
  • One skilled in the art will recognize that an implementation of an actual measuring system could contain other components as well, and that the controller of FIG. 2 is a high level representation of some of the components of such a measuring system for illustrative purposes.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates the method steps of a method 300 of distance determination using the measuring system 200. The method 300 begins at step 302. In an embodiment, the method 300 may begin upon the sensing unit 100 being set in a certain position respective to the construction vehicle or upon activation of the measuring system by an automated measurement system controlling the construction vehicle or by a human operator of the construction vehicle.
  • At step 304, a distance between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b of the sensing unit 100 and the surface 110 is measured. Specifically, as illustrated in FIG. 1, laser rangefinder 104 a measures a distance D1 between laser rangefinder 104 a and surface 110. Laser rangefinder 104 b measures a distance D2 between laser rangefinder 104 b and surface 110. Because the surface 110 is practically never strictly horizontal, distances D1 and D2 may differ between them.
  • In step 306, each of distances D1 and D2 is weighted. It is to be understood that laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b may be more or less accurate under certain conditions. In the context of the present disclosure, external factors (e.g., temperature, humidity, fog, precipitation, lighting, vibration of the construction vehicle, vibration of the sensing unit 100, etc.) may affect accuracy of measurement devices. Accordingly, it is preferable to weight the distance between each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b and the surface 110 by applying pre-determined weighting factor for each distance D1 and D2 depending on the nature and the number of factors affecting accuracy of each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b.
  • For example, positioning of each of the plurality of laser rangefinder 104 a and 104 b (e.g., laser rangefinder 104 a may be located closer to an outer edge of the sensing unit 102 while laser rangefinder 104 b may located farther away from the outer edge of the sensing unit 102) may affect accuracy of distance measurement for each laser rangefinder due to difference in natural lighting/shading (angle of light reflection off the surface 110), difference in air temperature around each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b, difference in a vibration rate for different parts of the sensing unit 100, etc. Therefore, the distance measurements conducted by each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b is weighted with the weighting factor that corresponds to each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b. It is to be understood that the weighting factor may be predetermined for each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b based on pre-manufacturing calculations and modeling, post-manufacturing field testing, and calculations performed based on the number of conditions identified during prior distance measurements. It is also to be understood that weighting factors can be dynamically and continuously re-assessed in real-time, under the number of conditions potentially affecting accuracy of each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b, during the operation of the construction vehicle.
  • At step 308, a weighted average distance between the sensing unit 102 and the surface 110 is determined. In an embodiment, the weighted average distance between the sensing unit 102 and the surface 110 is determined using a formula:
  • D WA = w 1 D 1 + w 2 D 2 + + w n D n n ;
  • where w1, w2, and wn are weighting factors for laser rangefinders 104 a, 104 b, and 104 n, respectively; D1, D2, and Dn are distances between laser rangefinders 104 a, 104 b, and 104 n (not shown) and the surface 110, respectively; n is a number of laser rangefinders used to measure the distance to the surface 110. It is to be understood that the weighted average distance to the surface 110 can be calculated in various other ways.
  • Upon determining the weighted average distance to surface 110 at step 308, method 300 may return control to step 304. That is, as the construction vehicle continues to travel upon its path, a new distance is measured by each of the plurality of laser rangefinders 104 a and 104 b and the steps of method 300 are repeated. It is to be noted that method 300 is repeated continually in real-time to provide continuous updates of the distance to the surface for use in construction operations. In step 310, the method 300 ends.
  • In other embodiment of the present disclosure, method 300 of FIG. 3 may be implemented without a step of averaging the distances between the sensing unit 103 and surface 110. For example, for the purposes of ensuring that surface 110 is paved in accordance with provided specifications, at step 308, each of weighted distances D1 and D2 is transmitted to the construction vehicle controls directing the construction vehicle to apply a paving material to surface 110 in accordance with provided specifications.
  • The foregoing description discloses only particular embodiments of the invention; modifications of the above disclosed methods and apparatus which fall within the scope of the invention will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. For instance, it will be understood that, though discussed primarily as a stand-alone unit with one set of inside sensors and one set of outside sensors, any number and/or type of sensors in any suitable arrangement may be used with a corresponding weighting and/or calculating algorithm. Similarly, other components may perform the functions of methods 500 and 700 even when not explicitly discussed.
  • The foregoing Detailed Description is to be understood as being in every respect illustrative and exemplary, but not restrictive, and the scope of the invention disclosed herein is not to be determined from the Detailed Description, but rather from the claims as interpreted according to the full breadth permitted by the patent laws. It is to be understood that the embodiments shown and described herein are only illustrative of the principles of the present invention and that various modifications may be implemented by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Those skilled in the art could implement various other feature combinations without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.

Claims (25)

1. A sensing unit to determine a horizontal velocity of a construction vehicle and a distance from the construction vehicle to a surface, the sensing unit comprising:
a plurality of laser rangefinders; and
a video camera.
2. The sensing unit of claim 1 further comprising:
a memory communicatively coupled with a processor and storing computer program instructions to determine the distance from the construction vehicle to the surface.
3. The sensing unit of claim 1, the sensing unit further comprising:
a housing in which the plurality of laser rangefinders and the at least one video camera are mounted.
4. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein in operation each of the plurality of laser rangefinders and the at least one video camera are directed to the surface.
5. The sensing unit of claim 4, wherein in operation each of the plurality of laser rangefinders is directed in a direction perpendicular to a direction of travel of the construction vehicle.
6. The sensing unit of claim 4, wherein in operation each of the plurality of laser rangefinders is directed in a direction parallel to a direction of travel of the construction vehicle.
7. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein in operation the at least one video camera is directed downward to acquire a plurality of images of the surface to determine a two-dimensional velocity of the construction vehicle.
8. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein the at least one video camera is directed downward to acquire a plurality of images of the surface determine an offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle.
9. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of laser rangefinders is a time of flight laser rangefinder.
10. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of laser rangefinders is a phase difference laser rangefinder.
11. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein at least one of the plurality of laser rangefinders is the time of flight laser rangefinder and at least one other of the plurality of laser rangefinders is the phase difference laser rangefinder.
12. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein the processor is coupled to the sensing unit.
13. The sensing unit of claim 1, wherein the processor is coupled to the construction vehicle and is remote from the construction vehicle.
14. A method for determining a distance from a sensing unit of a construction vehicle to a surface comprising:
receive a plurality of video images of the surface, the plurality of video images generated by a video camera;
measuring a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface;
weighting the measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface using at least one weighting factor corresponding to each of the plurality of laser rangefinders; and
determining a weighted average distance from the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface based on weighted measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface.
15. The method of claim 14, further comprising:
transmitting measured distance information to a processor; and
storing the measured distance information in a memory.
16. The method of claim 14, further comprising:
determining a two-dimensional velocity of the construction vehicle using the video camera.
17. The method of claim 14, further comprising:
determining an offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle using the video camera.
18. A storage device storing computer program instructions for controlling a sensing unit of a construction vehicle to measure a distance from the sensing unit to a surface, which, when executed on a processor, cause the processor to perform operations comprising:
receiving a plurality of video images of the surface, the plurality of video images generated by a video camera;
measuring a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface;
weighting measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface using at least one weighting factor corresponding to each of the plurality of laser rangefinders; and
determining a weighted average distance from the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface based on weighted measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface.
19. The storage device of 18, the operations further comprising:
transmitting a measured distance information to a processor; and
storing the measured distance information in a memory.
20. The storage device of 18, the operations further comprising:
determining a two-dimensional velocity of the construction vehicle using the at least one video camera.
21. The storage device of claim 18, the operations further comprising:
determining an offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle using the at least one video camera.
22. An apparatus for determining a distance from a sensing unit of a construction vehicle to a surface comprising:
a processor; and
a memory communicatively coupled with the processor and storing computer program instructions which when executed by the processor, cause the processor to perform operations comprising:
receiving a plurality of video images of the surface, the plurality of video images generated by a video camera;
measuring a distance from each of a plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface;
weighting measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface using at least one weighting factor corresponding to each of the plurality of laser rangefinders; and
determining a weighted average distance from the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface based on weighted measured distance from each of the plurality of laser rangefinders to the surface.
23. The apparatus of claim 22, the operations further comprising:
transmitting a measured distance information to a processor; and
storing the measured distance information in a memory.
24. The apparatus of claim 22, the operations further comprising:
determining a two-dimensional velocity of the construction vehicle using the at least one video camera.
25. The apparatus of claim 22, the operations further comprising:
determining an offset of a directional trajectory of the construction vehicle using the at least one video camera.
US14/279,858 2014-05-16 2014-05-16 Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method Abandoned US20150330054A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/279,858 US20150330054A1 (en) 2014-05-16 2014-05-16 Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US14/279,858 US20150330054A1 (en) 2014-05-16 2014-05-16 Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method
PCT/US2015/028993 WO2015175247A2 (en) 2014-05-16 2015-05-04 Optical sensing a distance from a range sensing apparatus and method

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20150330054A1 true US20150330054A1 (en) 2015-11-19

Family

ID=53267592

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US14/279,858 Abandoned US20150330054A1 (en) 2014-05-16 2014-05-16 Optical Sensing a Distance from a Range Sensing Apparatus and Method

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US20150330054A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2015175247A2 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20180295660A1 (en) * 2015-05-07 2018-10-11 Lg Electronics Inc. Method and apparatus for sending and receiving data on bluetooth

Citations (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3873226A (en) * 1973-07-11 1975-03-25 Laserplane Corp Laser beam control system for road paving machines
US4853777A (en) * 1987-07-07 1989-08-01 Ashland Oil, Inc. Method for evaluating smooth surfaces
US5549412A (en) * 1995-05-24 1996-08-27 Blaw-Knox Construction Equipment Corporation Position referencing, measuring and paving method and apparatus for a profiler and paver
US5633705A (en) * 1994-05-26 1997-05-27 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Obstacle detecting system for a motor vehicle
US6016455A (en) * 1997-11-10 2000-01-18 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Automatic control system for construction machinery
US6130706A (en) * 1998-03-25 2000-10-10 Lucent Technologies Inc. Process for determining vehicle dynamics
US6171018B1 (en) * 1997-11-10 2001-01-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Automatic control system for construction machinery
US20030137710A1 (en) * 2002-01-21 2003-07-24 Hirofumi Nishikiuchi Tandem scanning optical device
US20030222196A1 (en) * 2002-05-31 2003-12-04 Optical Physics Company System for measuring wavefront tilt in optical systems and method of calibrating wavefront sensors
US20040068896A1 (en) * 2000-12-07 2004-04-15 Willibald Sehr Laser-height adjustment device for a construction machine
US6873406B1 (en) * 2002-01-11 2005-03-29 Opti-Logic Corporation Tilt-compensated laser rangefinder
US20060045620A1 (en) * 2004-08-31 2006-03-02 Olson Dale M Paving machine output monitoring system
US20060272167A1 (en) * 2005-06-07 2006-12-07 Asia Optical Co., Inc. Laser level with temperature control device and temperature control method thereof
US20070010925A1 (en) * 2003-09-02 2007-01-11 Komatsu Ltd. Construction target indicator device
US20080210881A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2008-09-04 Qinetiq Limited Laser Measurement Device and Method
US20080212838A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2008-09-04 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Methods and apparatus for 3D surface imaging using active wave-front sampling
US20090086199A1 (en) * 2007-09-28 2009-04-02 The Boeing Company Method involving a pointing instrument and a target object
US20090174809A1 (en) * 2007-12-26 2009-07-09 Denso Corporation Exposure control apparatus and exposure control program for vehicle-mounted electronic camera
US20100019125A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2010-01-28 Mario Antonio Stefani System and method for laser calibration
US20100121540A1 (en) * 2008-11-12 2010-05-13 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Industrial machine
US20100188649A1 (en) * 2009-01-23 2010-07-29 Scott Prahl Distance measurement device and method of use thereof
US20100222958A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-02 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Vehicle driving operation support apparatus/process and restraint control
US20110137498A1 (en) * 2008-12-03 2011-06-09 Satoshi Suzuki Unmanned aircraft and aerial surveillance system for unmanned aircraft
US20110262004A1 (en) * 2008-07-23 2011-10-27 Daifuku Co., Ltd. Learning Device and Learning Method for Article Transport Facility
US20120306847A1 (en) * 2011-05-31 2012-12-06 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Online environment mapping
US20130060105A1 (en) * 2011-09-06 2013-03-07 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Orthogonally Redundant Sensor Systems and Methods
US20130200207A1 (en) * 2012-02-03 2013-08-08 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Air-to-Surface Surveillance and/or Weapons System and Method for Air-Based Inspection and/or Engagement of Objects on Land or Sea
US20140005932A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-02 Southwest Research Institute Location And Motion Estimation Using Ground Imaging Sensor
US20140368832A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2014-12-18 Hexagon Technology Center Gmbh Interferometric determination of distance change with laser diode, high bandwidth detection and fast signal processing
US20150009329A1 (en) * 2011-10-18 2015-01-08 Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. Device for monitoring surroundings of machinery
US9004811B2 (en) * 2012-02-24 2015-04-14 Caterpillar Paving Products Inc. Systems and methods for aiming asphalt material feed sensors
US20150170367A1 (en) * 2012-10-02 2015-06-18 Google Inc. Identification of relative distance of objects in images

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1865465A1 (en) * 2006-06-08 2007-12-12 Viktor Kalman Device and process for determining vehicle dynamics
US7911881B2 (en) * 2007-04-20 2011-03-22 Tsd Integrated Controls, Llc Method and apparatus for ultrasonic sensing
US8284250B2 (en) * 2009-01-16 2012-10-09 Microsoft Corporation Determining trigger rate for a digital camera
US9970180B2 (en) * 2011-03-14 2018-05-15 Caterpillar Trimble Control Technologies Llc System for machine control
WO2013012335A1 (en) * 2011-07-21 2013-01-24 Ziv Attar Imaging device for motion detection of objects in a scene, and method for motion detection of objects in a scene
US20130304331A1 (en) * 2012-05-10 2013-11-14 Caterpillar, Inc. Display-Based Control for Motor Grader

Patent Citations (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3873226A (en) * 1973-07-11 1975-03-25 Laserplane Corp Laser beam control system for road paving machines
US4853777A (en) * 1987-07-07 1989-08-01 Ashland Oil, Inc. Method for evaluating smooth surfaces
US5633705A (en) * 1994-05-26 1997-05-27 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Obstacle detecting system for a motor vehicle
US5549412A (en) * 1995-05-24 1996-08-27 Blaw-Knox Construction Equipment Corporation Position referencing, measuring and paving method and apparatus for a profiler and paver
US6171018B1 (en) * 1997-11-10 2001-01-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Automatic control system for construction machinery
US6016455A (en) * 1997-11-10 2000-01-18 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Automatic control system for construction machinery
US6130706A (en) * 1998-03-25 2000-10-10 Lucent Technologies Inc. Process for determining vehicle dynamics
US20040068896A1 (en) * 2000-12-07 2004-04-15 Willibald Sehr Laser-height adjustment device for a construction machine
US6873406B1 (en) * 2002-01-11 2005-03-29 Opti-Logic Corporation Tilt-compensated laser rangefinder
US20030137710A1 (en) * 2002-01-21 2003-07-24 Hirofumi Nishikiuchi Tandem scanning optical device
US20030222196A1 (en) * 2002-05-31 2003-12-04 Optical Physics Company System for measuring wavefront tilt in optical systems and method of calibrating wavefront sensors
US20070010925A1 (en) * 2003-09-02 2007-01-11 Komatsu Ltd. Construction target indicator device
US20060045620A1 (en) * 2004-08-31 2006-03-02 Olson Dale M Paving machine output monitoring system
US20100019125A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2010-01-28 Mario Antonio Stefani System and method for laser calibration
US20060272167A1 (en) * 2005-06-07 2006-12-07 Asia Optical Co., Inc. Laser level with temperature control device and temperature control method thereof
US20080210881A1 (en) * 2005-07-29 2008-09-04 Qinetiq Limited Laser Measurement Device and Method
US20080212838A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2008-09-04 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Methods and apparatus for 3D surface imaging using active wave-front sampling
US20090086199A1 (en) * 2007-09-28 2009-04-02 The Boeing Company Method involving a pointing instrument and a target object
US20090174809A1 (en) * 2007-12-26 2009-07-09 Denso Corporation Exposure control apparatus and exposure control program for vehicle-mounted electronic camera
US20110262004A1 (en) * 2008-07-23 2011-10-27 Daifuku Co., Ltd. Learning Device and Learning Method for Article Transport Facility
US20100121540A1 (en) * 2008-11-12 2010-05-13 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Industrial machine
US20110137498A1 (en) * 2008-12-03 2011-06-09 Satoshi Suzuki Unmanned aircraft and aerial surveillance system for unmanned aircraft
US20100188649A1 (en) * 2009-01-23 2010-07-29 Scott Prahl Distance measurement device and method of use thereof
US20100222958A1 (en) * 2009-02-27 2010-09-02 Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. Vehicle driving operation support apparatus/process and restraint control
US20120306847A1 (en) * 2011-05-31 2012-12-06 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Online environment mapping
US20130060105A1 (en) * 2011-09-06 2013-03-07 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Orthogonally Redundant Sensor Systems and Methods
US20150009329A1 (en) * 2011-10-18 2015-01-08 Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. Device for monitoring surroundings of machinery
US20130200207A1 (en) * 2012-02-03 2013-08-08 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Air-to-Surface Surveillance and/or Weapons System and Method for Air-Based Inspection and/or Engagement of Objects on Land or Sea
US9004811B2 (en) * 2012-02-24 2015-04-14 Caterpillar Paving Products Inc. Systems and methods for aiming asphalt material feed sensors
US20140005932A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-02 Southwest Research Institute Location And Motion Estimation Using Ground Imaging Sensor
US20150170367A1 (en) * 2012-10-02 2015-06-18 Google Inc. Identification of relative distance of objects in images
US20140368832A1 (en) * 2013-06-18 2014-12-18 Hexagon Technology Center Gmbh Interferometric determination of distance change with laser diode, high bandwidth detection and fast signal processing

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20180295660A1 (en) * 2015-05-07 2018-10-11 Lg Electronics Inc. Method and apparatus for sending and receiving data on bluetooth

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2015175247A2 (en) 2015-11-19
WO2015175247A3 (en) 2016-01-28

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US9175975B2 (en) Systems and methods for navigation
US9134339B2 (en) Directed registration of three-dimensional scan measurements using a sensor unit
CN104380137B (en) Come the method for indirect distance measuring and hand-held distance-measuring equipment by the angle-determining function that image assists
US9188981B2 (en) Vehicle system, a vehicle and a method for autonomous road irregularity avoidance
US9255989B2 (en) Tracking on-road vehicles with sensors of different modalities
US20150134181A1 (en) Position estimation and vehicle control in autonomous multi-vehicle convoys
EP2765388B1 (en) Mobile field controller for measuring and remote control
US8355118B2 (en) Laser scanner, laser scanner measuring system, calibration method for laser scanner measuring system and target for calibration
US10054671B2 (en) On-vehicle radar apparatus capable of recognizing radar sensor mounting angle
US9898821B2 (en) Determination of object data by template-based UAV control
US9251587B2 (en) Motion estimation utilizing range detection-enhanced visual odometry
CA2328227C (en) Method of tracking and sensing position of objects
US8224030B2 (en) Position measuring method and position measuring instrument
EP3081902A1 (en) Method and apparatus for correcting aircraft state in real time
US8775063B2 (en) System and method of lane path estimation using sensor fusion
US8970401B2 (en) Using image sensor and tracking filter time-to-go to avoid mid-air collisions
US9199643B1 (en) Sensor odometry and application in crash avoidance vehicle
EP2187166B1 (en) Industrial Machine
US9283967B2 (en) Accurate curvature estimation algorithm for path planning of autonomous driving vehicle
CN109074069A (en) Autonomous vehicle with improved vision-based detection ability
US9863775B2 (en) Vehicle localization system
US10198004B2 (en) Method and apparatus for obtaining range image with UAV, and UAV
EP2137352B1 (en) Method and apparatus for ultrasonic sensing
US7552539B2 (en) Method and apparatus for machine element control
US8055445B2 (en) Probabilistic lane assignment method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KHATUNTSEV, NIKOLAY V.;REEL/FRAME:032914/0465

Effective date: 20140514

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION