US20150284829A1 - Fine-grained high carbide cast iron alloys - Google Patents

Fine-grained high carbide cast iron alloys Download PDF

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US20150284829A1
US20150284829A1 US14/679,307 US201514679307A US2015284829A1 US 20150284829 A1 US20150284829 A1 US 20150284829A1 US 201514679307 A US201514679307 A US 201514679307A US 2015284829 A1 US2015284829 A1 US 2015284829A1
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Justin Lee Cheney
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Scoperta Inc
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/06Cast-iron alloys containing chromium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D25/00Special casting characterised by the nature of the product
    • B22D25/06Special casting characterised by the nature of the product by its physical properties
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/30Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 1550 degrees C
    • B23K35/3053Fe as the principal constituent
    • B23K35/308Fe as the principal constituent with Cr as next major constituent
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K35/00Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
    • B23K35/22Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterised by the composition or nature of the material
    • B23K35/24Selection of soldering or welding materials proper
    • B23K35/30Selection of soldering or welding materials proper with the principal constituent melting at less than 1550 degrees C
    • B23K35/3053Fe as the principal constituent
    • B23K35/308Fe as the principal constituent with Cr as next major constituent
    • B23K35/3086Fe as the principal constituent with Cr as next major constituent containing Ni or Mn
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C30/00Alloys containing less than 50% by weight of each constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/08Making cast-iron alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/06Cast-iron alloys containing chromium
    • C22C37/08Cast-iron alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C37/00Cast-iron alloys
    • C22C37/10Cast-iron alloys containing aluminium or silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D2211/00Microstructure comprising significant phases
    • C21D2211/004Dispersions; Precipitations
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/02Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy
    • C22C33/0257Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements
    • C22C33/0278Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements with at least one alloying element having a minimum content above 5%
    • C22C33/0285Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements with at least one alloying element having a minimum content above 5% with Cr, Co, or Ni having a minimum content higher than 5%
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/02Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy
    • C22C33/0257Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements
    • C22C33/0278Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements with at least one alloying element having a minimum content above 5%
    • C22C33/0292Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy characterised by the range of the alloying elements with at least one alloying element having a minimum content above 5% with more than 5% preformed carbides, nitrides or borides

Abstract

Embodiments of alloys having high, fine-grained carbide content, and methods of manufacturing such alloys. The alloys can be determined through the use of thermodynamic, microstructural, and compositional criterial in order to create a high strength and high toughness alloy. In some embodiments, the alloys can be used as a wear resistant component.

Description

    INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE TO ANY PRIORITY APPLICATIONS
  • Any and all applications for which a foreign or domestic priority claim is identified in the Application Data Sheet as filed with the present application are hereby incorporated by reference under 37 CFR 1.57.
  • BACKGROUND
  • 1. Field
  • The disclosure relates generally to cast iron alloys used in wear-prone environments and which are resistant to wear.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art
  • The alloy family known as chromium white irons or chromium white cast irons can refer to alloys containing Fe, C, and Cr which can form eutectic chromium carbides. For example, alloys having chromium levels in the range from 15-30 wt. % (or about 15 to about 30 wt. %) and having carbon levels in the range of 1-3 wt. % (or about 1 to about 3 wt. %) can form such chromium white irons. For chromium white irons, formation of primary chromium carbides is typically avoided which can occur as either Cr or C content is increased. For many applications, particularly those which require a minimum level of toughness, it can be advantageous for the alloy system to be in the hypoeutectic region of the Fe—C phase field (i.e., the C level is below the eutectic point in the alloy system). Exceeding the C eutectic level in these systems can create Cr7C3 carbide precipitates which are long, rod-like, and can be very embrittling to the material. Further, the addition of chromium can shift the eutectic point to more iron-rich compositions. Therefore, as Cr is added for various benefits (such as corrosion resistance), the amount of carbon which can be added before the alloy enters the hypereutectic regime drops. For example, an Fe-5Cr type alloy has a eutectic point over ˜4% C while an Fe-25Cr alloy has a eutectic point at around 3.3% C.
  • Chromium white irons are generally very useful for applications where resistance to abrasion is advantageous. The relatively high content of chromium carbides in the microstructure are very hard and thus contribute to the abrasion resistance of the material. In part, the volume fraction of carbides in the alloy can dictate the wear resistance of the material, e.g., increased carbide contents can create increased wear resistance. In some applications, the carbon beyond the eutectic point can be increased to increase the total carbide fraction. However, this is done at the expense of toughness.
  • International Patent No. WO 84/04760, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, describes a mechanism for producing both tough and wear resistant high chromium hypereutectic white irons. WO 84/04760 teaches that a minimum amount of primary M7C3 carbides are required to achieve the tough and wear resistant high chromium hypereutectic white irons, and it is discussed that refinement of the microstructure and increased toughness can be achieved through process control. International filing WO 85/01962, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, also teaches improved toughness through microstructural control, utilizing super-cooling (or process control) and boron to produce globular shaped carbides. U.S. Pat. No. 6,669,790, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, teaches that primary chromium carbides must be completely eliminated. To achieve this, vanadium, titanium, and niobium primary carbides are used to increase the total carbide content while maintaining toughness.
  • SUMMARY
  • In some embodiments, computational metallurgy can be used to explore alloy compositional ranges where the total carbide content can be increased without introducing coarse carbide structures known to embrittle the material. When considering the Fe—Cr—C system, the thermodynamic limit for hypoeutectic carbide volume fraction can be 35-40% (or about 35-about 40%). This disclosure describes embodiments of alloys which can meet a set of thermodynamic criteria which can exceed the 40% (or about 40%) carbide content limit, but may not introduce the formation of hypereutectic M7C3, M23C6 or generally any Fe,Cr-rich type carbides. The result is a microstructure which can have a very high level, >40% mole fraction (or >about 40% mole fraction) as defined by thermodynamic models, of fine-grained carbides. As such, this new class of materials can be defined as fine-grained high carbide content cast irons. The utility of such a material can be an increased wear resistance, while maintaining similar levels of toughness to hypoeutectic cast irons.
  • Disclosed herein are embodiments of an article of manufacture which can contain in at least a portion of its structure a component comprising Fe, Cr, and C in which the total carbide and/or boride content in the microstructure exceeds 40 volume %, and the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 50 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy further can further comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, W: 0-9 wt %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise Mn: 0-1 wt %, Mo: 0-1 wt %, Si: 0-1%, Ti: 0-0.5%, V: 0-3 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy further can further comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, W: 4.37-9 wt %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 45 volume %. In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 50 volume %.
  • In some embodiments, the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 25 micrometers in their longest dimension. In some embodiments, the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 5 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • In some embodiments, the article can be produced via the casting process. In some embodiments, the article can be utilized as a wear resistant component. In some embodiments, the article can be used as a sleeve or layer in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries
  • Further disclosed herein is an article of manufacture which can comprise Fe, Cr, and C in which the total carbide and/or boride content in the microstructure exceeds 40 volume %, and the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 50 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • Further disclosed herein is an article of manufacture which can contain at least a portion of a component comprising Fe, Cr, and C in which the total carbide and/or boride content in the microstructure exceeds 0.4 mole fraction, and the total volume of segregated carbides is less than 0.05 mole fraction, whereas a segregated carbide is defined as Fe or Cr-rich boride or carbide, Fe+Cr>50 wt. %, which is thermodynamically stable at a temperature above the temperature at which austenite is thermodynamically stable.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, W: 0-9 wt %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise Mn: 0-1 wt %, Mo: 0-1 wt %, Si: 0-1%, Ti: 0-0.5%, V: 0-3 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, W: 4.37-9 wt %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.45 mole fraction. In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.50 mole fraction.
  • In some embodiments, the article can be produced via the casting process. In some embodiments, the article can be utilized as a wear resistant component. In some embodiments, the article can be used as a sleeve or layer in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries
  • Also disclosed herein is a method of forming a component which can contain in at least a portion of its structure a component comprising Fe, Cr, and C in which the total carbide and/or boride content in the microstructure exceeds 40 volume %, and the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 50 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, W: 0-9 wt %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise Mn: 0-1 wt %, Mo: 0-1 wt %, Si: 0-1%, Ti: 0-0.5%, V: 0-3 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, W: 4.37-9 wt %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.45 mole fraction. In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.50 mole fraction.
  • In some embodiments, the article can be produced via the casting process. In some embodiments, the article can be utilized as a wear resistant component. In some embodiments, the article can be used as a sleeve or layer in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries.
  • Disclosed herein are embodiments of an article of manufacture comprising an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C, wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 40 volume %, and wherein a grain size of all carbides and borides is less than or equal to 50 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be an iron based alloy and can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. % and Cr: 10-34 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, and W: 0-9 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can further comprise Mn: 0-1 wt. %, Mo: 0-1 wt. %, Si: 0-1 wt. %, Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %, and V: 0-3 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %. Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, and W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and boride content can exceed 45 volume %. In some embodiments, the total carbide and boride content can exceed 50 volume %.
  • In some embodiments, the grain size of all carbides and borides may not exceed 25 micrometers in their longest dimension. In some embodiments, the grain size of all carbides and borides may not exceed 5 micrometers in their longest dimension.
  • In some embodiments, the article of manufacture can comprise a sleeve or layer for use in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries. Also disclosed herein are embodiments of a wear resistant component comprising embodiments of the disclosed article of manufacture.
  • Also disclosed are embodiments of an article of manufacture comprising an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C, wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 0.4 mole fraction, and wherein a total volume of segregated carbides is less than 0.05 mole fraction, segregated carbides being defined as Fe or Cr-rich boride or carbide meeting the equation: Fe+Cr>50 wt. %, wherein the segregated carbides are thermodynamically stable at a temperature above a temperature at which austenite of the alloy is thermodynamically stable.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be an iron based alloy and can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, and Cr: 10-34 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, and W: 0-9 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise Mn: 0-1 wt. %, Mo: 0-1 wt. %, Si: 0-1 wt. %, Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %, and V: 0-3 wt. %.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, and W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.45 mole fraction. In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.50 mole fraction. In some embodiments, the article of manufacture can comprise a sleeve or layer used in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries. Also disclosed herein are embodiments of a wear resistant component which can comprise embodiments of the disclosed article of manufacture.
  • Also disclosed herein are embodiments of a method of forming a component comprising providing an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C, wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 40 volume %. and wherein a grain size of all carbides and borides is less than or equal to 50 micrometers in their longest dimension, and forming a component from the alloy.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be an iron-based alloy and can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, and Cr: 10-34 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %, Cr: 10-28 wt. %, Nb: 0-5 wt. %, W: 0-9 wt. %, Mn: 0-1 wt. %, Mo: 0-1 wt. %, Si: 0-1 wt. %, Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %, and V: 0-3 wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can comprise C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %, Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %, Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %, and W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
  • In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.45 mole fraction. In some embodiments, the total carbide and/or boride content can exceed 0.50 mole fraction.
  • In some embodiments, the method can comprise forming the component via a casting process. In some embodiments, the method can comprise forming the component into a sleeve or layer.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a solidification diagram of an embodiment of, in wt. %, Fe: bal, Cr: 25%, C:3.6%.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a solidification diagram of an embodiment of, in weight %, Fe: 17%, C:3.6%, Nb 5%, W 5%.
  • FIGS. 3A-B illustrate an SEM micrograph of embodiments of alloy X22 at 1,000× magnification (FIG. 3A) and 5,000× magnification (FIG. 3B).
  • FIG. 4 illustrates an SEM micrograph of embodiments of alloy X24 at 1,000× magnification.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Disclosed herein is an alloy material, such as an alloy containing Fe, C and Cr, having high carbide contents, as well as a method of increasing carbide content in an alloy. Generally as either Cr or C is increased, the alloy is pushed towards increased amounts of primary, or eutectic, chromium carbide fractions, so embodiments of the disclosed alloys may fall within the group known as chromium white irons. In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can be “iron based,” indicating that they have a composition that is predominantly iron, e.g., at least 50 wt. % iron. Also disclosed herein are different criteria that can be used for producing a high carbide content alloy. Thermodynamic, microstructural, and compositional criteria could be used to produce such an alloy. In some embodiments, only one of the criterial can be used to form the alloy, and in some embodiments multiple criteria can be used to form the alloy.
  • Thermodynamic Criteria:
  • In some embodiments, an alloy can be described fully by thermodynamic models. Two thermodynamic criteria can be used to define fine-grained high carbide content cast irons as are described herein: 1) the maximum mole fraction of the carbide or boride content in the material formed during cooling from a liquid state, and 2) the mole fraction of Fe,Cr-rich type carbides formed prior to the initial formation of the austenitic or ferritic matrix.
  • Fe,Cr-rich type carbides are defined as those where the Fe+Cr weight percent exceeds 50% (or exceeds about 50%). An example solidification diagram is shown in FIG. 1 that demonstrates embodiments of the thermodynamic criteria described in this disclosure. As shown in FIG. 1, three phases can exist in the temperature range shown, Liquid, FCC_A1 (austenite), and M7C3. The maximum mole fraction of carbide as shown on this plot can be 45% (or about 45%). The mole fraction of M7C3 type carbide which forms prior to the formation of the austenite can be 9% (or about 9%), and thus can be defined as segregated carbides. FIG. 1 shows an example within the Fe—Cr—C system where the total carbide content in the system may not exceed 40% (or about 40%) without introducing undesirable segregated M7C3 type carbides. FIG. 2 shows an example of an alloy system which can possess a high total carbide content (50-55% mole fraction or about 50 to about 55% mole fraction) that may not have any Fe,Cr-rich type carbide phase which forms above the liquidus temperature of the austenite. As will be described, the alloy shown as an example in FIG. 2 can possess the disclosed thermodynamic criteria.
  • The first thermodynamic criterion (the maximum mole fraction of the carbide or boride content in the material formed during cooling from a liquid state) can be used as an indicator for the wear resistance of the material. The criterion will be abbreviated as carbide-max. Generally, increased carbide or boride contents can lead to increased wear resistance and can be desirable. The maximum mole fraction of the carbide or boride content can be calculated by evaluating the phase fractions of thermodynamically stable phases as a function of temperature over a range from room temperature to a temperature where the alloy is thermodynamically 100% liquid. The maximum content of carbides or borides at any one temperature is defined as carbide-max. Carbide-max, however, can be the sum of all types of carbide or boride phases at that temperature. In some embodiments, the carbide-max can be at least 41% (or at least about 41%) mole fraction. In some embodiments, carbide-max can be at least 45% (or at least about 45%) mole fraction. In some embodiments, carbide-max can be at least 50% (or at least about 50%) mole fraction.
  • The second thermodynamic criterion (the mole fraction of Fe,Cr-rich type carbides formed prior to the initial formation of the austenitic or ferritic matrix) can be used as an indicator for the toughness of the material. The criterion will be abbreviated as segregated carbide fraction. Generally, an increased mole fraction of segregated carbides can decrease the toughness of the material and can be undesirable. The segregated carbide fraction is calculated by 1) identifying the highest temperature at which an iron matrix phase (austenite or ferrite) exists; and 2) calculating the total mole fraction of M7C3 type carbides at 5K higher. In some embodiments, the segregated carbide content can be below 5% (or below about 5%). In some embodiments, the segregated carbide content can be 0% (or about 0%).
  • Further, in some embodiments, it may be advantageous for the alloy to have an increased resistance to corrosion. In such embodiments, an additional thermodynamic criterion can be utilized. This third criterion can be the chromium content in the Fe-based matrix phase, whether austenite or ferrite, at 1300K (or about 1300K). This criterion is thereby designated the matrix chromium content. This value has been selected as it can be similar to the value measured in casting experiments for several candidate alloys. In some embodiments, the matrix chromium content can be above 5 weight % (or above about 5 weight %). In some embodiments, the matrix chromium content can be above 9 weight % (or above about 9 weight %). In some embodiments, the matrix chromium content can be above 12 weight % (or above about 12 weight %).
  • Table 1 below contains a list of some, but not all, alloys which can meet the thermodynamic criteria.
  • TABLE 1 Alloys Which Meet Thermodynamic Criteria Cr in Total Primary No C Cr Fe Mn Mo Nb Ni Si Ti V W Matrix Carbide CrC M1 3.4 15 69.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.0% 53.7% 0.0% M2 3.4 15 67.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 9 4.9% 56.9% 0.6% M3 3.4 16 68.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.3% 53.8% 0.0% M4 3.4 16 66.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 9 5.2% 57.4% 4.1% M5 3.4 17 67.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.7% 54.1% 0.0% M6 3.4 18 66.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 6.1% 54.6% 1.6% M7 3.4 19 65.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 6.5% 55.1% 4.5% M8 3.4 20 64.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 6.9% 55.7% 5.0% M9 3.5 15 69.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.8% 55.0% 0.0% M10 3.5 15 67.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 9 4.7% 58.8% 4.0% M11 3.5 16 68.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.1% 55.1% 0.0% M12 3.5 17 67.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.5% 55.3% 1.8% M13 3.5 18 66.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.8% 55.6% 2.6% M14 3.5 20 66.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 6.7% 50.5% 1.3% M15 3.6 15 69.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.6% 56.3% 0.8% M16 3.6 15 67.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 9 4.6% 60.7% 5.0% M17 3.6 16 68.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.9% 56.3% 1.8% M18 3.6 17 69.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.2% 50.1% 0.5% M19 3.6 17 67.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 5.3% 56.4% 2.6% M20 3.6 18 68.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.6% 50.5% 1.0% M21 3.6 19 67.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 6.0% 50.9% 2.4% M22 3.6 20 66.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 6.4% 51.5% 3.8% M23 3.7 15 71.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 4.4% 50.8% 0.0% M24 3.7 15 69.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.5% 57.7% 1.4% M25 3.7 16 70.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 4.7% 50.9% 1.2% M26 3.7 16 68.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.8% 57.6% 2.2% M27 3.7 17 69.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.0% 51.2% 1.8% M28 3.7 18 68.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.4% 51.5% 3.4% M29 3.7 19 67.3 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.8% 51.9% 3.8% M30 3.8 15 71.2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 4.3% 52.1% 1.6% M31 3.8 15 69.2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 4.3% 59.2% 2.7% M32 3.8 16 70.2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 4.5% 52.1% 2.5% M33 3.8 17 69.2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 4.9% 52.3% 3.1% M34 3.8 18 68.2 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5.2% 52.6% 4.7% M35 3.4 21 65.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 7.4% 50.4% 1.1% M36 3.4 22 64.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 7.9% 51.1% 2.4% M37 3.4 23 63.6 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 8.4% 52.0% 4.8% M38 3.5 21 65.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 7.1% 51.2% 2.6% M39 3.5 22 64.5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 7.6% 51.9% 3.8% M40 3.6 21 65.4 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 6.8% 52.1% 4.0% M41 3 21 64 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 8.5% 51.1% 1.0% M42 3 21 62 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 9 8.4% 52.4% 4.9% M43 3 22 63 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 9.0% 51.5% 1.2% M44 3 23 62 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7 9.6% 51.8% 3.5% M45 3 24 63 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 10.1% 50.9% 0.9% M46 3 25 62 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 10.7% 51.2% 2.9% M47 3 26 61 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 11.3% 51.5% 4.8% M48 3 10 82 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 3.1% 100.0% 0.0% M49 3 10 81 1 1 0.5 2 1 0.5 0 0 3.0% 100.0% 0.0% M50 3 10 80 1 1 0.5 3 1 0.5 0 0 2.9% 100.0% 0.0% M51 3.5 10 80.5 1 1 0.5 2 1 0.5 0 0 2.6% 100.0% 0.0% M52 3.5 10 79.5 1 1 0.5 3 1 0.5 0 0 2.5% 100.0% 0.0% M53 3.5 11 80.5 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 2.9% 100.0% 0.0% M54 3.5 11 78.5 1 1 0.5 3 1 0.5 0 0 2.7% 100.0% 1.3% M55 3.5 11 77.5 1 1 0.5 4 1 0.5 0 0 2.6% 100.0% 1.6% M56 3.5 12 79.5 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 3.1% 100.0% 1.4% M57 3.5 12 78.5 1 1 0.5 2 1 0.5 0 0 3.0% 100.0% 1.8% M58 3.5 12 77.5 1 1 0.5 3 1 0.5 0 0 2.9% 100.0% 2.8% M59 3.5 13 78.5 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 0 0 3.4% 100.0% 2.8% M60 2.5 23 62.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 8.3% 50.2% 2.5% M61 2.5 24 61.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 8.9% 50.4% 5.0% M62 2.5 25 61.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 9.5% 50.2% 4.8% M63 2.5 27 60.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 10.9% 50.1% 4.6% M64 2.5 28 59.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 11.6% 50.2% 4.9% M65 2.6 23 67.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 8.6% 50.1% 0.9% M66 2.6 23 66.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8.5% 50.7% 4.1% M67 2.6 23 65.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 8.3% 51.0% 3.5% M68 2.6 23 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 8.1% 50.9% 3.1% M69 2.6 23 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 8.0% 50.5% 2.8% M70 2.6 23 63.4 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 8 8.6% 50.0% 2.8% M71 2.6 23 62.4 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 8 8.5% 50.2% 2.8% M72 2.6 24 66.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 9.0% 50.4% 3.2% M73 2.6 24 65.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 8.8% 50.7% 2.8% M74 2.6 24 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 8.8% 51.3% 3.8% M75 2.6 24 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 8.7% 50.3% 2.6% M76 2.6 24 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 8.6% 51.5% 3.5% M77 2.6 24 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 8.7% 50.1% 0.5% M78 2.6 24 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 8.5% 51.7% 3.4% M79 2.6 25 66.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 9.6% 50.1% 2.0% M80 2.6 25 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 9.4% 50.9% 3.0% M81 2.6 25 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 9.2% 51.2% 2.9% M82 2.6 25 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 9.1% 51.4% 3.0% M83 2.6 25 62.4 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 7 9.8% 50.1% 4.7% M84 2.6 25 61.4 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 7 9.8% 50.2% 4.8% M85 2.6 26 65.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 10.1% 50.3% 4.1% M86 2.6 26 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 9.9% 50.6% 4.1% M87 2.6 26 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 9.8% 50.9% 2.1% M88 2.6 26 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 9.7% 51.2% 2.3% M89 2.6 27 65.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 10.6% 50.0% 2.5% M90 2.6 27 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 10.5% 50.3% 2.8% M91 2.6 27 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 10.5% 50.9% 4.2% M92 2.6 27 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 10.4% 50.6% 0.9% M93 2.6 27 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 10.4% 51.1% 4.4% M94 2.6 27 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 10.4% 50.9% 1.3% M95 2.6 27 61.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 10.4% 51.4% 4.6% M96 2.6 27 60.4 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 6 11.1% 50.2% 4.5% M97 2.6 28 64.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 11.2% 50.3% 4.5% M98 2.6 28 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 11.1% 50.6% 4.9% M99 2.6 28 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 11.0% 50.3% 1.5% M100 2.6 28 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 11.0% 50.8% 3.1% M101 2.6 28 62.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 11.0% 50.6% 0.0% M102 2.6 28 61.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 11.0% 51.1% 3.6% M103 2.6 28 60.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 11.1% 51.6% 4.9% M104 2.6 28 59.4 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 6 11.8% 50.4% 4.8%
  • Microstructural Criteria:
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by the microstructural features it possesses. Similar to the concepts described as the thermodynamic criteria, it can be advantageous to have a high fraction of carbides (40% volume fraction or higher, or about 40% volume fraction or higher) to increase hardness and wear resistance. For example, embodiments of the disclosed alloys can have a hardness between 55-70 HRC (or between about 50 and about 70 HRC). In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can have a hardness between 60-65 HRC (or between about 60 and about 65 HRC). In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can have high abrasion resistance as classified by ASTM 65 testing of at least below 0.2 grams lost (or below about 0.2 grams lost). In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can have high abrasion resistance as classified by ASTM 65 testing of at least below 0.15 grams lost (or below about 0.15 grams lost). In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can have high abrasion resistance as classified by ASTM 65 testing of at least below 0.2 grams lost (or below about 0.2 grams lost). However, it can be also advantageous for these carbides to be relatively fine-grained in order for the structure to maintain a minimum toughness.
  • In some embodiments, the measured volume fraction of the carbides or borides in the alloy can exceed 40 volume % (or exceed about 40 volume %). In some embodiments, the measured volume fraction of the carbides can exceed 45 volume % (or exceed about 45 volume %). In some embodiments, the measured volume fraction in the alloy can exceed 50 volume % (or exceed about 50 volume %).
  • In some embodiments, the grain size of any carbides and borides present in the microstructure may not exceed 50 micrometers (or exceed about 50 micrometers) in their longest dimension. In some embodiments, the grain of any carbides and borides present in the microstructure may not exceed 25 micrometers (or exceed about 25 micrometers) in their longest dimension. In some embodiments, the grain of any carbides and borides present in the microstructure may not exceed 5 micrometers (or exceed about 5 micrometers) in their longest dimension. In some embodiments, all carbides and borides are below the above listed parameters. In some embodiments, substantially all carbides and borides are below the above listed parameters. In some embodiments, 90%, 95%, 98%, or 99% of all carbides and borides are below the above listed parameters.
  • An example of a candidate microstructure which meets the above specified criteria is alloy X22 as shown in FIGS. 3A-B. The SEM micrograph shows a material with a very high fraction of carbides with a fine-grain size. Two types of carbide dominate the microstructure, niobium carbide (301) and chromium carbide (302). Generally, in alloys with excess carbide content, commonly done through increasing the carbon above the eutectic point, the chromium carbide can become coarse. However, as demonstrated in this example, the chromium carbides remain fine on the order of 10μ×1-2μ in dimension.
  • As previously mentioned, the formation of a high fraction of fine-grained chromium carbides is not an inherent feature of this alloy system as demonstrated by the micrograph shown in FIG. 4. The X24 alloy has a relatively similar composition to X22, however the microstructure possesses larger chromium carbides (401) on the order of 50-150 μm known to reduce toughness. This example is provided to illustrate the fact that simple alloying additions of carbide forming elements such as Nb, Ti, W, Mo, V, W, and/or Ta are not sufficient to produce the microstructural features described in this disclosure. Rather, relatively small compositional spaces exist within the greater region defined as cast irons, and computational modeling is the only effective mechanism to effectively identify this space.
  • Based on scanning electron microscopy the alloy compositions which possessed the defined microstructural criteria include X21 and X22.
  • TABLE 2 Experimental Alloy Chemistries Produced in Ingot Form Alloys B C Cr Cu Fe M n Mo Nb Ni Si Ti V W X1 0.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 63.8 2.0 3.0 0.0 2.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 X2 0.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 61.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 X3 0.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 60.3 2.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 X4 0.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 55.8 2.0 3.0 4.0 2.5 1.5 4.0 0.0 0.0 X5 1.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 58.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 X6 0.5 2.0 24.0 1.2 61.3 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 X7 2.0 1.0 24.0 1.2 59.3 2.0 3.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 X8 0.0 1.5 24.0 1.2 60.3 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 X9 0.5 1.5 24.0 1.2 61.3 2.0 3.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 X10 1.0 1.0 24.0 1.2 61.8 2.0 3.0 0.5 2.5 1.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 X11 1.5 1.0 24.0 1.2 61.3 2.0 3.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 X12 0.0 3.0 24.0 1.2 59.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 X13 0.0 3.0 25.0 1.2 58.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 X14 0.0 2.0 24.0 1.2 59.3 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.0 2.0 X15 0.0 2.5 27.0 1.2 52.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.0 5.0 X16 0.0 2.5 24.0 1.2 58.8 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.5 2.0 0.0 X17 0.0 3.0 24.0 1.2 55.3 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 0.5 5.0 0.0 X18 0.0 3.4 20.0 0.0 66.6 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X19 0.0 3.6 20.0 0.0 66.4 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X20 0.0 3.8 20.0 0.0 66.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X21 0.0 3.8 15.0 0.0 71.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X22 0.0 2.6 28.0 0.0 59.4 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X23 0.0 2.2 24.0 0.0 59.8 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.0 X24 0.0 3.4 34.0 0.0 52.6 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X25 0.0 3.8 31.0 0.0 55.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 X26 0.0 3.8 32.0 0.0 48.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 X27 0.0 3.8 32.0 0.0 44.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.0
  • TABLE 3 Measured Alloy Chemistries, via Glow Discharge Spectrometry, for Selected Experimental Ingots Alloys B C Cr Cu Fe Mn Mo Nb Ni Si Ti V W X1 0.00 2.29 22.20 1.41 67.8 1.59 0.64 2.52 1.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 X2 0.00 2.37 19.40 1.32 65.9 1.66 2.48 2.38 3.06 1.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 X3 0.00 2.09 22.70 1.23 62.9 1.52 2.62 2.08 3.03 1.31 0.53 0.00 0.00 X4 0.00 1.96 21.10 1.13 55.6 1.37 12.60 1.98 2.94 0.94 0.39 0.00 0.00 X5 0.56 1.97 23.30 1.21 60.3 1.57 3.03 1.57 3.25 1.21 2.06 0.00 0.00 X6 0.28 2.13 22.00 1.27 65.2 1.58 1.33 1.73 3.04 1.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 X7 0.00 2.13 22.50 1.09 59.5 1.21 3.13 2.70 3.28 1.14 3.31 0.00 0.00 X8 1.08 1.08 23.40 1.21 61.2 1.55 2.85 1.24 3.25 1.28 1.87 0.00 0.00 X9 0.00 1.50 22.80 1.10 62.7 1.57 2.84 1.41 2.95 1.20 1.94 0.00 0.00 X10 0.30 1.56 22.40 1.15 63.6 1.62 3.14 1.19 2.89 1.22 0.94 0.00 0.00 X11 0.57 0.99 23.10 1.17 63.4 1.77 3.02 0.47 2.90 1.18 1.39 0.00 0.00 X12 0.84 1.00 22.70 1.21 63.6 1.78 2.70 1.31 3.05 1.25 0.51 0.00 0.00 X13 0.00 3.24 22.10 1.29 62.8 1.37 2.19 1.57 3.15 1.36 0.97 0.00 0.00 X14 0.00 2.96 22.90 1.21 59.7 1.34 5.27 1.44 3.02 1.10 1.03 0.00 0.00 X15 0.00 2.44 21.60 1.19 62.2 1.51 3.11 1.60 2.74 1.28 0.47 0.00 1.81 X16 0.00 3.89 23.50 1.14 57.1 1.38 2.62 1.60 3.17 1.45 0.44 0.00 3.75 X17 0.00 2.64 22.50 1.20 61.5 1.43 2.66 1.54 2.96 1.32 0.51 1.74 0.00 X18 0.00 3.00 22.90 1.27 57.6 1.40 3.37 1.52 3.04 1.27 0.54 4.11 0.00 X19 0.00 4.35 16.20 0.00 69.3 0.73 0.00 3.77 0.30 0.77 0.00 0.00 4.55 X20 0.00 4.32 14.90 0.00 69.3 0.68 0.00 5.21 0.28 0.75 0.00 0.00 4.57 X21 0.00 4.65 16.40 0.00 68.2 0.76 0.00 4.56 0.28 0.81 0.00 0.00 4.34 X22 0.00 4.02 12.70 0.00 73.4 0.73 0.00 3.83 0.24 0.70 0.00 0.00 4.39 X23 0.00 3.13 25.00 0.00 61.5 0.58 0.00 4.47 0.30 0.64 0.00 0.00 4.3 X24 0.00 2.42 21.20 0.00 60.7 0.52 0.00 4.77 0.36 0.52 0.00 0.00 9.49 X25 0.00 3.86 29.10 0.00 56.3 0.65 0.00 4.71 0.35 0.75 0.00 0.00 4.27
  • Metal Alloy Composition
  • In some embodiments, the disclosed alloys can be iron based alloys having both chromium and carbon in order to form eutectic chromium carbides. In some embodiments, chromium can be from 10-34 (or about 10 to about 34) wt. % and carbon can be form 2.2-4.02 (or about 2.2 to about 4.02) wt. %. In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by a composition in weight percent comprising the following elemental ranges which can meet certain thermodynamic criteria, and which are can be at least partially based on the compositions presented in Table 1 discussed above:
      • 1. Fe, C: 2.5-3.8%, Cr: 10-28%, Mn: 0-1%, Mo: 0-1%, Nb: 0-5%, Si: 0-1%, Ti:0-0.5%, V: 0-3%, W: 0-9%; or Fe, C: about 2.5-about 3.8%, Cr: about 10-about 28%, Mn: about 0-about 1%, Mo: about 0-about 1%, Nb: about 0-about 5%, Si: about 0-about 1%, Ti: about 0-about 0.5%, V: about 0-about 3%, W: about 0-about 9%;
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by a composition in weight percent comprising the following elemental ranges which have been produced and evaluated experimentally, and which are at least partially based on the compositions presented in Table 2 and Table 3:
      • 2. Fe, B: 0-2%, C: 1-3.8%, Cr: 15-34%, Cu:0-1.2%, Mn: 0-2%, Mo: 0-3%, Nb: 0.5-5%, Si: 0-1.5%, Ni:0-2.5%, Ti:0-4%, V: 0-5%, W: 0-15%; or Fe, B: about 0-about 2%, C: about 1-about 3.8%, Cr: about 15-about 34%, Cu: about 0-about 1.2%, Mn: about 0-about 2%, Mo: about 0-about 3%, Nb: about 0.5-about 5%, Si: about 0-about 1.5%, Ni: about 0-about 2.5%, Ti: about 0-about 4%, V: about 0-about 5%, W: about 0-about 15%
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by a composition in weight percent comprising the following elemental ranges which have been produced and evaluated experimentally and which can meet certain microstructural criteria, and which are at least partially based on the compositions presented in Table 2 and Table 3 above:
      • 3. Fe, C: 2.2-4.02%, Cr: 12.7-34%, Mn: 0-0.73%, Nb: 3.83-5%, Ni:0-0.3%, Si:0-0.7%, W: 4.37-9%; or Fe, C: about 2.2-about 4.02%, Cr: about 12.7-about 34%, Mn: about 0-about 0.73%, Nb: about 3.83-about 5%, Ni: about 0-about 0.3%, Si: about 0-about 0.7%, W: about 4.37-about 9%.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by a composition in weight percent comprising the following elemental ranges as defined through glow discharge spectrometer readings, which have been produced and evaluated experimentally and which can meet certain microstructural criteria, and which are at least partially based on the compositions presented in Table 3 above:
      • 4. Fe, C: 3.1-4.02%, Cr: 12.7-25%, Mn: 0.58-0.73%, Nb: 3.83-4.5%, Ni:0.24-0.3%, Si:0.64-0.7%, W: 4.37-9%; or Fe, C: about 3.1-about 4.02%, Cr: about 12.7-about 25%, Mn: about 0.58-about 0.73%, Nb: about 3.83-about 4.5%, Ni: about 0.24-about 0.3%, Si: about 0.64-about 0.7%, W: about 4.37-about 9%.
  • In some embodiments, the alloy can be described by specific compositions in weight percent comprising the following elements, which have been produced and evaluated experimentally and which can meet certain microstructural criteria, and which are at least partially based on the nominal and measured experimental compositions:
      • 5. Fe, C:2.2, Cr:24, Nb: 5, W: 9; or Fe, C: about 2.2, Cr: about 24, Nb: about 5, W: about 9
      • 6. Fe, C:3.4, Cr:34, Nb: 5, W: 5; or Fe, C: about 3.5, Cr: about 34, Nb: about 5, W: about 5
      • 7. Fe, C:4, Cr:12.7, Mn:0.7, Nb: 3.8, Ni: 2.4, Si:0.7, W: 4.4; or Fe, C: about 4, Cr: about 12.7, Mn: about 0.7, Nb: about 3.8, Ni: about 2.4, Si: about 0.7, W: about 4.4
      • 8. Fe, C:3.1, Cr:25, Mn:0.6, Nb: 4.5, Ni: 0.3, Si:0.6, W: 4.4; or Fe, C: about 3.1, Cr: about 25, Mn: about 0.6, Nb: about 4.5, Ni: about 0.3, Si: about 0.6, W: about 4.4
  • In some embodiments, the Fe compositions listed above can be the balance of the alloy material. In some embodiments, minor impurities can also be found within the composition.
  • As an example of embodiments of the above alloys, increased carbide content can be advantageous because a high fraction of primary (Nb, Ti, V) carbides can effectively increase the liquidus temperature of an alloy and decreases fluidity, which can improve casting processes.
  • Applications and Processes for Use
  • Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be used in a variety of applications and industries. Some non-limiting examples of applications of use include:
  • Surface mining applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: wear resistant sleeves and/or wear resistant hardfacing for slurry pipelines, mud pump components including pump housing or impeller or hardfacing for mud pump components, ore feed chute components including chute blocks or hardfacing of chute blocks, separation screens including but not limited to rotary breaker screens, banana screens, shaker screens, liners for autogenous grinding mills and semi-autogenous grinding mills, ground engaging tools and hardfacing for ground engaging tools, wear plate for buckets and dumptruck liners, heel blocks and hardfacing for heel blocks on mining shovels, grader blades and hardfacing for grader blades, stacker reclaimers, siazer crushers, general wear packages for mining components, and other communition components.
  • Downstream oil and gas applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: downhole casing and downhole casing, drill pipe and coatings for drill pipe including hardbanding, mud management components, mud motors, fracking pump sleeves, fracking impellers, fracking blender pumps, stop collars, drill bits and drill bit components, directional drilling equipment and coatings for directional drilling equipment including stabilizers and centralizers, blow out preventers and coatings for blow out preventers and blow out preventer components including the shear rams, oil country tubular goods, and coatings for oil country tubular goods.
  • Upstream oil and gas applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: process vessels and coating for process vessels including steam generation equipment, amine vessels, distillation towers, cyclones, catalytic crackers, general refinery piping, corrosion under insulation protection, sulfur recovery units, convection hoods, sour stripper lines, scrubbers, hydrocarbon drums, and other refinery equipment and vessels.
  • Pulp and paper applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in following components and coatings for the following components: rolls used in paper machines including yankee dryers and other dryers, calendar rolls, machine rolls, press rolls, digesters, pulp mixers, pulpers, pumps, boilers, shredders, tissue machines, roll and bale handling machines, doctor blades, evaporators, pulp mills, head boxes, wire parts, press parts, M.G. cylinders, pope reels, winders, vacuum pumps, deflakers, and other pulp and paper equipment,
  • Power generation applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: boiler tubes, precipitators, fireboxes, turbines, generators, cooling towers, condensers, chutes and troughs, augers, bag houses, ducts, ID fans, coal piping, and other power generation components.
  • Agriculture applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: chutes, base cutter blades, troughs, primary fan blades, secondary fan blades, augers, and other agricultural applications.
  • Construction applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: cement chutes, cement piping, bag houses, mixing equipment, and other construction applications
  • Machine element applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: shaft journals, paper rolls, gear boxes, drive rollers, impellers, general reclamation and dimensional restoration applications, and other machine element applications
  • Steel applications: Embodiments of the disclosed alloys can be included in the following components and coatings for the following components: cold rolling mills, hot rolling mills, wire rod mills, galvanizing lines, continue pickling lines, continuous casting rolls and other steel mill rolls, and other steel applications.
  • Further, embodiments of the alloys described can be produced and or deposited in a variety of techniques effectively. Some non-limiting examples of processes include:
  • Thermal spray process, including those using a wire feedstock such as twin wire arc, spray, high velocity arc spray, combustion spray and those using a powder feedstock such as high velocity oxygen fuel, high velocity air spray, plasma spray, detonation gun spray, and cold spray. Wire feedstock can be in the form of a metal core wire, solid wire, or flux core wire. Powder feedstock can be either a single homogenous alloy or a combination of multiple alloy powder which result in the desired chemistry when melted together.
  • Welding processes, including those using a wire feedstock including but not limited to metal inert gas (MIG) welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, arc welding, submerged arc welding, open arc welding, bulk welding, laser cladding, and those using a powder feedstock including but not limited to laser cladding and plasma transferred arc welding. Wire feedstock can be in the form of a metal core wire, solid wire, or flux core wire. Powder feedstock can be either a single homogenous alloy or a combination of multiple alloy powder which result in the desired chemistry when melted together.
  • Casting processes, including processes typical to producing cast iron including but not limited to sand casting, permanent mold casting, chill casting, investment casting, lost foam casting, die casting, centrifugal casting, glass casting, slip casting and process typical to producing wrought steel products including continuous casting processes.
  • Post processing techniques, including but not limited to rolling, forging, surface treatments such as carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, heat treatments including but not limited to austenitizing, normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, tempering, aging, quenching, cryogenic treatments, flame hardening, induction hardening, differential hardening, case hardening, decarburization, machining, grinding, cold working, work hardening, and welding.
  • From the foregoing description, it will be appreciated that an inventive material and methods of manufacturing are disclosed. While several components, techniques and aspects have been described with a certain degree of particularity, it is manifest that many changes can be made in the specific designs, constructions and methodology herein above described without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure.
  • Certain features that are described in this disclosure in the context of separate implementations can also be implemented in combination in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation can also be implemented in multiple implementations separately or in any suitable subcombination. Moreover, although features may be described above as acting in certain combinations, one or more features from a claimed combination can, in some cases, be excised from the combination, and the combination may be claimed as any subcombination or variation of any subcombination.
  • Moreover, while methods may be depicted in the drawings or described in the specification in a particular order, such methods need not be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, and that all methods need not be performed, to achieve desirable results. Other methods that are not depicted or described can be incorporated in the example methods and processes. For example, one or more additional methods can be performed before, after, simultaneously, or between any of the described methods. Further, the methods may be rearranged or reordered in other implementations. Also, the separation of various system components in the implementations described above should not be understood as requiring such separation in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described components and systems can generally be integrated together in a single product or packaged into multiple products. Additionally, other implementations are within the scope of this disclosure.
  • Conditional language, such as “can,” “could,” “might,” or “may,” unless specifically stated otherwise, or otherwise understood within the context as used, is generally intended to convey that certain embodiments include or do not include, certain features, elements, and/or steps. Thus, such conditional language is not generally intended to imply that features, elements, and/or steps are in any way required for one or more embodiments.
  • Conjunctive language such as the phrase “at least one of X, Y, and Z,” unless specifically stated otherwise, is otherwise understood with the context as used in general to convey that an item, term, etc. may be either X, Y, or Z. Thus, such conjunctive language is not generally intended to imply that certain embodiments require the presence of at least one of X, at least one of Y, and at least one of Z.
  • Language of degree used herein, such as the terms “approximately,” “about,” “generally,” and “substantially” as used herein represent a value, amount, or characteristic close to the stated value, amount, or characteristic that still performs a desired function or achieves a desired result. For example, the terms “approximately”, “about”, “generally,” and “substantially” may refer to an amount that is within less than or equal to 10% of, within less than or equal to 5% of, within less than or equal to 1% of, within less than or equal to 0.1% of, and within less than or equal to 0.01% of the stated amount.
  • Some embodiments have been described in connection with the accompanying drawings. The figures are drawn to scale, but such scale should not be limiting, since dimensions and proportions other than what are shown are contemplated and are within the scope of the disclosed inventions. Distances, angles, etc. are merely illustrative and do not necessarily bear an exact relationship to actual dimensions and layout of the devices illustrated. Components can be added, removed, and/or rearranged. Further, the disclosure herein of any particular feature, aspect, method, property, characteristic, quality, attribute, element, or the like in connection with various embodiments can be used in all other embodiments set forth herein. Additionally, it will be recognized that any methods described herein may be practiced using any device suitable for performing the recited steps.
  • While a number of embodiments and variations thereof have been described in detail, other modifications and methods of using the same will be apparent to those of skill in the art. Accordingly, it should be understood that various applications, modifications, materials, and substitutions can be made of equivalents without departing from the unique and inventive disclosure herein or the scope of the claims.

Claims (28)

What is claimed is:
1. An article of manufacture comprising:
an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C;
wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 40 volume %; and
wherein a grain size of all carbides and borides is less than or equal to 50 micrometers in their longest dimension.
2. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the alloy is an iron based alloy and comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %; and
Cr: 10-34 wt. %.
3. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %;
Cr: 10-28 wt. %;
Nb: 0-5 wt. %; and
W: 0-9 wt. %.
4. The article of manufacture of claim 3, wherein the alloy further comprises:
Mn: 0-1 wt. %;
Mo: 0-1 wt. %;
Si: 0-1 wt. %;
Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %; and
V: 0-3 wt. %.
5. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %;
Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %;
Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %; and
W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
6. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the total carbide and boride content exceeds 45 volume %.
7. The article of manufacture of claim 6, wherein the total carbide and boride content exceeds 50 volume %.
8. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 25 micrometers in their longest dimension.
9. The article of manufacture of claim 8, wherein the grain size of all carbides and borides does not exceed 5 micrometers in their longest dimension.
10. The article of manufacture of claim 1, wherein the article of manufacture comprises a sleeve or layer for use in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries.
11. A wear resistant component comprising the article of manufacture of claim 1.
12. An article of manufacture comprising:
an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C;
wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 0.4 mole fraction; and
wherein a total volume of segregated carbides is less than 0.05 mole fraction, segregated carbides being defined as Fe or Cr-rich boride or carbide meeting the equation: Fe+Cr>50 wt. %, wherein the segregated carbides are thermodynamically stable at a temperature above a temperature at which austenite of the alloy is thermodynamically stable.
13. The article of manufacture of claim 12, wherein the alloy is an iron based alloy and comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %; and
Cr: 10-34 wt. %.
14. The article of manufacture of claim 12, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %;
Cr: 10-28 wt. %;
Nb: 0-5 wt. %; and
W: 0-9 wt. %.
15. The article of manufacture of claim 13, wherein the alloy further comprises:
Mn: 0-1 wt. %;
Mo: 0-1 wt. %;
Si: 0-1 wt. %;
Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %; and
V: 0-3 wt. %.
16. The article of manufacture of claim 12, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %;
Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %;
Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %; and
W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
17. The article of manufacture of claim 12, wherein the total carbide and/or boride content exceeds 0.45 mole fraction.
18. The article of manufacture of claim 17, wherein the total carbide and/or boride content exceeds 0.50 mole fraction.
19. The article of manufacture of claim 12, wherein the article of manufacture comprises a sleeve or layer used in pipelines designed to carry abrasive slurries.
20. A wear resistant component comprising the article of manufacture of claim 12.
21. A method of forming a component comprising:
providing an alloy comprising Fe, Cr, and C;
wherein a total carbide and boride content in a microstructure of the alloy exceeds 40 volume %; and
wherein a grain size of all carbides and borides is less than or equal to 50 micrometers in their longest dimension; and
forming a component from the alloy.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein the alloy is an iron-based alloy and comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %; and
Cr: 10-34 wt. %.
23. The method of claim 21, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.5-3.8 wt. %;
Cr: 10-28 wt. %;
Nb: 0-5 wt. %;
W: 0-9 wt. %;
Mn: 0-1 wt. %;
Mo: 0-1 wt. %;
Si: 0-1 wt. %;
Ti: 0-0.5 wt. %; and
V: 0-3 wt. %.
24. The method of claim 21, wherein the alloy comprises:
C: 2.2-4.02 wt. %;
Cr: 12.7-34 wt. %;
Nb: 3.8-5 wt. %; and
W: 4.37-9 wt. %.
25. The method of claim 21, wherein the total carbide and/or boride content exceeds 0.45 mole fraction.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein the total carbide and/or boride content exceeds 0.50 mole fraction.
27. The method of claim 21, wherein forming the component comprises forming the component via a casting process.
28. The method of claim 21, wherein forming the component comprises forming the component into a sleeve or layer.
US14/679,307 2014-04-07 2015-04-06 Fine-grained high carbide cast iron alloys Abandoned US20150284829A1 (en)

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