US20150180030A1 - High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries - Google Patents

High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries Download PDF

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US20150180030A1
US20150180030A1 US14415755 US201314415755A US2015180030A1 US 20150180030 A1 US20150180030 A1 US 20150180030A1 US 14415755 US14415755 US 14415755 US 201314415755 A US201314415755 A US 201314415755A US 2015180030 A1 US2015180030 A1 US 2015180030A1
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lithium
energy
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Zhonghua Lu
Kevin W Eberman
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3M Innovative Properties Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
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    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/48Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides
    • H01M4/50Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides of manganese
    • H01M4/505Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides of manganese of mixed oxides or hydroxides containing manganese for inserting or intercalating light metals, e.g. LiMn2O4 or LiMn2OxFy
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    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01GCOMPOUNDS CONTAINING METALS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C01D OR C01F
    • C01G53/00Compounds of nickel
    • C01G53/40Nickelates
    • C01G53/42Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2
    • C01G53/44Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2 containing manganese
    • C01G53/50Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2 containing manganese of the type [MnO2]n-, e.g. Li(NixMn1-x)O2, Li(MyNixMn1-x-y)O2
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    • C01GCOMPOUNDS CONTAINING METALS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C01D OR C01F
    • C01G53/00Compounds of nickel
    • C01G53/40Nickelates
    • C01G53/42Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2
    • C01G53/44Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2 containing manganese
    • C01G53/56Nickelates containing alkali metals, e.g. LiNiO2 containing manganese of the type [MnO3]2-, e.g. Li2[NixMn1-xO3], Li2[MyNixMn1-x-yO3
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    • H01M4/13Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte, e.g. for lithium-accumulators; Processes of manufacture thereof
    • H01M4/131Electrodes based on mixed oxides or hydroxides, or on mixtures of oxides or hydroxides, e.g. LiCoOx
    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/48Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides
    • H01M4/52Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides of nickel, cobalt or iron
    • H01M4/525Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic oxides or hydroxides of nickel, cobalt or iron of mixed oxides or hydroxides containing iron, cobalt or nickel for inserting or intercalating light metals, e.g. LiNiO2, LiCoO2 or LiCoOxFy
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    • H01M4/62Selection of inactive substances as ingredients for active masses, e.g. binders, fillers
    • H01M4/621Binders
    • H01M4/622Binders being polymers
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    • C01P2002/00Crystal-structural characteristics
    • C01P2002/70Crystal-structural characteristics defined by measured X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction data
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    • C01P2006/40Electric properties
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    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
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    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M2004/026Electrodes composed of or comprising active material characterised by the polarity
    • H01M2004/028Positive electrodes
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    • H01M4/62Selection of inactive substances as ingredients for active masses, e.g. binders, fillers
    • H01M4/624Electric conductive fillers
    • H01M4/625Carbon or graphite
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/54Manufacturing of lithium-ion, lead-acid or alkaline secondary batteries

Abstract

A lithium transition metal oxide composition. The composition has the formula Lia[LibNicMndCOe]02, where a≧0.9, b≧0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05≦c/d≦1.4, 0.05≦e≦0.30, 0.9≦(a+b)/M≦1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an 03 type structure.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 61/674,166, filed Jul. 20, 2012, and 61/787,046, filed Mar. 15, 2013, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
  • GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
  • [0002]
    The U.S. Government may have certain rights to this invention under the terms of Contract No. DE-EE0005499 granted by the Department of Energy.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0003]
    The present disclosure relates to compositions useful as cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0004]
    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to cathode compositions, particularly O3 type structured lithium transition metal oxides including nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and manganese (Mn).
  • [0005]
    In some embodiments, a lithium transition metal oxide composition is provided. The composition has the formula Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where a≧0.9, b≧0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05≦c/d≦1.4, 0.05≦e≦0.30, 0.9≦(a+b)/M≦1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.
  • [0006]
    In some embodiments, a lithium transition metal oxide composition is provided. The composition has the formula Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where a≧0.9, b≧0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 0.5≦c/d≦0.95, 0.0<e≦0.30, 1.1≦(a+b)/M≦1.4, and M=c+d+e. The composition has an O3 type structure.
  • [0007]
    In various embodiments, the O3 type structured lithium transition metal oxides deliver the highest volumetric energy at 1 C rate between 2.5-4.7V at 30° C.
  • [0008]
    The above summary of the present disclosure is not intended to describe each embodiment of the present disclosure. The details of one or more embodiments of the disclosure are also set forth in the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and from the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0009]
    FIG. 1 is a graph of composited energy at 1 C rate between 2.5-4.7V vs Li/Li+ at 30° C. vs. Co and Ni/Mn for the samples of Table 1.
  • [0010]
    FIGS. 2A-2C are cross section contour plots of composited volumetric energy at 1 C and Li/M values of 1.03, 1.115 and 1.2, respectively, vs. Co and Ni/Mn.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0011]
    As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an”, and “the” include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. As used in this specification and the appended embodiments, the term “or” is generally employed in its sense including “and/or” unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.
  • [0012]
    As used herein, the recitation of numerical ranges by endpoints includes all numbers subsumed within that range (e.g. 1 to 5 includes 1, 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.8, 4, and 5).
  • [0013]
    Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities or ingredients, measurement of properties and so forth used in the specification and embodiments are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the foregoing specification and attached listing of embodiments can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by those skilled in the art utilizing the teachings of the present disclosure. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claimed embodiments, each numerical parameter should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques.
  • [0014]
    High energy lithium ion batteries require higher volumetric energy electrode materials than conventional lithium ion batteries. With the introduction of metal alloy anode materials into batteries, because such anode materials have high reversible capacity (much higher than conventional graphite), cathode materials of commensurately high capacity are desirable.
  • [0015]
    In order to obtain a higher capacity from a cathode material, cycling the cathode to a wider electrochemical window is an approach. Conventional cathodes cycle well only to 4.3V vs. Li/Li+. Cathode compositions which could cycle well to 4.7V or higher vs. Li/Li+, however, would be particularly advantageous.
  • [0016]
    Surprisingly and advantageously, it was discovered that a layered 03 type cathode containing amounts of Ni, Co, and Mn in two distinct sets of ranges exhibit high volumetric energy. This discovery was particularly surprising in view of conventional teaching in the art regarding both high energy cathode materials (e.g., 4.7V) and low energy (e.g., 4.2V) cathode materials.
  • [0017]
    A wide range of layered Ni, Mn, and/or Co oxide materials are known, but none of such materials have shown utility at high-voltage, due to capacity fade, low rate-performance, or low density.
  • [0018]
    Regarding high energy cathode materials, two compositions lacking cobalt and having more manganese than nickel (Ni/Mn<1), have been observed as favorable: (i) Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (“2060”, Ni/Mn=0.3); and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.5]O2 (“5050”, Ni/Mn=1). Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 1346-1350. Each of these compositions, however, has drawbacks. For 2060, while high capacity has been demonstrated, it has been found to have low density and low rate-capability. For 5050, while good capacity retention has been shown, it has been found to have low rate-capability and low density, and thus low volumetric energy at useful rates. Given these drawbacks, it has been believed that a favorable high energy composition would not be found in the range 0.3<Ni/Mn<1.
  • [0019]
    Regarding lower energy cathode materials, LiCoO2 has been widely used in commercial lithium ion batteries. LiCoO2, however, cannot cycle well beyond 4.5V and has other drawbacks associated with Co dissolution. Other known low energy cathode materials include: (i) Li[Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05]O 2 (“NCA” , Ni/Mn=infinite), (ii) Li[Ni0.8Mn0.1Co0.1]O2 (“811”, Ni/Mn=8), (iii) Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (“111” Ni/Mn=1), (iv) Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (“532” Ni/Mn=1.66), and (v) Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2 (“442” Ni/Mn=1), each having a Ni/Mn ratio greater than 1. Each of these compositions has drawbacks. For NCA, capacity fade is rapid above 4.2V. For 811, capacity does not increase significantly above 4.2V. For 111, 532, and 442, the energy at high voltage is low, and each has been found to not cycle well at 4.7V vs. Li. Given these drawbacks, it has been believed that a favorable composition would not be found in the range 1<Ni/Mn<2.
  • [0020]
    Based on the performance of the aforementioned materials in high voltage applications, it is has been unclear whether a Ni, Mn, and/or Co oxide cathode material, which has utility at high voltage, could be developed.
  • [0021]
    In some embodiments, the lithium transition metal oxide compositions of the present disclosure may include Ni, Mn, and Co. The compositions may have the general formula: Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where a≧0.9, b≧0; c>0; d>0; e>0; and b+c+d+e=1.
  • [0022]
    In various embodiments, a lithium transition metal oxide composition has the formula Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where 1.05≦c/d≦1.4, 0.05≦e≦0.30, 0.9≦(a+b)/M≦1.06, and M=c+d+e. The composition may deliver composited volumetric energy higher than 2200 Wh/L within 2.5-4.7V vs. Li/Li+ at 30° C. using 1 C (C=200 mAh/g) rate discharge.
  • [0023]
    In some embodiments, a lithium transition metal oxide composition has the formula Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where 0.5≦c/d≦0.9, 0.0<e≦0.3, 1.1≦(a+b)/M≦1.4, and M=c+d+e. The composition may deliver composited volumetric energy higher than 2200 Wh/L within 2.5-4.7V vs. Li/Li+ at 30° C. using 1 C (C=200 mAh/g) rate discharge.
  • [0024]
    The compositions of the preceding embodiments may be in the form of a single phase having an O3 crystal structure. The compositions may not undergo a phase transformation to a spinel crystal structure when incorporated in a lithium-ion battery and cycled for at least 40 full charge-discharge cycles at 30° C. and a final capacity of greater than 130 mAh/g using a discharge current of 30 mA/g. The present disclosure also features lithium-ion batteries incorporating these compositions in combination with an anode and an electrolyte.
  • [0025]
    As used herein, the phrase“O3 type structure” refers to a lithium metal oxide composition having a crystal structure consisting of alternating layers of lithium atoms, transition metal atoms and oxygen atoms. Among these layered cathode materials, the transition metal atoms are located in octahedral sites between oxygen layers, making a MO2 sheet, and the MO2 sheets are separated by layers of the alkali metals such as Li. They are classified in this way: the structures of layered AxMO2 bronzes into groups (P2, O2, O6, P3, O3). The letter indicates the site coordination of the alkali metal A (prismatic (P) or octahedral (O)) and the number gives the number of MO2 sheets (M) transition metal) in the unit cell. The O3 type structure is generally described in Zhonghua Lu, R. A. Donaberger, and J. R. Dahn, Superlattice Ordering of Mn, Ni, and Co in Layered Alkali Transition Metal Oxides with P2, P3, and O3 Structures, Chem. Mater. 2000, 12, 3583-3590, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. As an example, α-NaFeO2 (R-3m) structure is an O3 type structure (super lattice ordering in the transition metal layers often reduces its symmetry group to C2/m). The terminology O3 structure is also frequently used referring to the layered oxygen structure found in LiCoO2.
  • [0026]
    The compositions of the present disclosure have the formulae set forth above. The formulae themselves reflect certain criteria that have been discovered and are useful for maximizing performance. First, the compositions adopt an O3 crystal structure featuring layers generally arranged in the sequence lithium-oxygen-metal-oxygen-lithium. This crystal structure is retained when the composition is incorporated in a lithium-ion battery and cycled for at least 40 full charge-discharge cycles at 30° C. and a final capacity of above 130 mAh/g using a discharge current of 30 mA/g, rather than transforming into a spinel-type crystal structure under these conditions.
  • [0027]
    The present disclosure further relates to methods of making the above-described cathode compositions. In various embodiments, the cathode compositions of the present disclosure may be synthesized by jet milling or by combining precursors of the metal elements (e.g., hydroxides, nitrates, and the like), followed by heating to generate the cathode composition. Heating may be conducted in air at temperatures of at least about 600° C. or at least 800° C. The ability to conduct the heating process in air may be desirable because it obviates the need and associated expense of maintaining an inert atmosphere.
  • [0028]
    In some embodiments, to make a cathode from the cathode compositions of the present disclosure, the cathode composition and selected additives such as binders (e.g., polymeric binders), conductive diluents (e.g., carbon), fillers, adhesion promoters, thickening agents for coating viscosity modification such as carboxymethylcellulose or other additives known by those skilled in the art can be mixed in a suitable coating solvent such as water or N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) to form a coating dispersion or coating mixture. The coating dispersion or coating mixture can be mixed thoroughly and then applied to a foil current collector by any appropriate coating technique such as knife coating, notched bar coating, dip coating, spray coating, electrospray coating, or gravure coating. The current collectors can be thin foils of conductive metals such as, for example, copper, aluminum, stainless steel, or nickel foil. The slurry can be coated onto the current collector foil and then allowed to dry in air followed by drying in a heated oven, typically at about 80° C. to about 300° C. for about an hour to remove all of the solvent.
  • [0029]
    The present disclosure further relates to lithium-ion batteries. In some embodiments, the cathode compositions of the present disclosure can be combined with an anode and an electrolyte to form a lithium-ion battery. Examples of suitable anodes include lithium metal, carbonaceous materials, silicon alloy compositions, and lithium alloy compositions. Exemplary carbonaceous materials can include synthetic graphites such as mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) (available from E-One Moli/Energy Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC), SLP30 (available from TimCal Ltd., Bodio Switzerland), natural graphites and hard carbons. Useful anode materials can also include alloy powders or thin films. Such alloys may include electrochemically active components such as silicon, tin, aluminum, gallium, indium, lead, bismuth, and zinc and may also comprise electrochemically inactive components such as iron, cobalt, transition metal silicides and transition metal aluminides.
  • [0030]
    The lithium-ion batteries of the present disclosure can contain an electrolyte. Representative electrolytes can be in the form of a solid, liquid or gel. Exemplary solid electrolytes include polymeric media such as polyethylene oxide, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, fluorine-containing copolymers, polyacrylonitrile, combinations thereof and other solid media that will be familiar to those skilled in the art. Examples of liquid electrolytes include ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl-methyl carbonate, butylene carbonate, vinylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, fluoropropylene carbonate, .gamma.-butylrolactone, methyl difluoroacetate, ethyl difluoroacetate, dimethoxyethane, diglyme (bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether), tetrahydrofuran, dioxolane, combinations thereof and other media that will be familiar to those skilled in the art. The electrolyte can be provided with a lithium electrolyte salt. The electrolyte can include other additives that will familiar to those skilled in the art.
  • [0031]
    In some embodiments, lithium-ion batteries of the present disclosure can be made by taking at least one each of a positive electrode and a negative electrode as described above and placing them in an electrolyte. A microporous separator, such as CELGARD 2400 microporous material, available from Celgard LLC, Charlotte, N.C., may be used to prevent the contact of the negative electrode directly with the positive electrode.
  • [0032]
    The operation of the present disclosure will be further described with regard to the following detailed examples. These examples are offered to further illustrate the various specific and preferred embodiments and techniques. It should be understood, however, that many variations and modifications may be made while remaining within the scope of the present disclosure.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0033]
    Designed experiments covering a broad compositional space were run utilizing the following factors: (i) [Li]/[M] ratio ([Li]=1+a; [M]=b+c+d); (ii) [Co]=d; and (iii) [Ni]/[Mn]=b/c. Sintering temperatures were included as a free process factor. Each composition may have a unique optimized sintering process. All samples were made utilizing the same process.
  • [0034]
    Sample Preparation:
  • [0035]
    2M MSO4 (M=Ni, Co and Mn—exact compositions are listed in Table 1) and 3.7M NaOH solution were used. First, adding 200 CC deionized (DI) water into 1000 mL beaker. While stirring the water inside the beaker, the MSO4 solution was pumped into the beaker at 2.5 mL/min. In order to keep the pH of about 9.9 inside the beaker, the NaOH solution was also pumped in. In this manner, the M(OH)2 was precipitated out. After two hours, the resulting precipitate was filtered, washed with 0.5M NaOH solution to reduce the sulfate impurities, then washed carefully several times using DI water, and dried at 110° C. for 10 hours to provide a dry metal hydroxide.
  • [0036]
    Aliquots (10 g) of the metal hydroxide were rigorously mixed in a mortar or blender with an appropriate amount of Li2CO3 to form [LiaNibMncCod]O2 (a≧0; b>0; c>0; d>0 and a+b+c+d=1). The mixed powders were dried in air at 750° C. for 4 hours then at required high temperature for required hours (as shown in Table 1) to form respective single phase layered lithium metal oxide materials having O3 crystal structure. X-ray patterns of samples were collected to confirm compositions having a single phase, O3 layered structure.
  • [0037]
    Lithium metal oxide material was dispersed in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) solvent (from Aldrich Chemical Co.) together with Super P conductive carbon black (from MMM Carbon, Belgium) and polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) (from Aldrich Chemical Co.) to form a cathode dispersion composed of 90 weight percent oxide, 5 weight percent Super P and 5 weight percent of PVDF. The dispersion was coated on aluminum foil using a stainless steel coating bar, and dried at 110° C. for 4 hours to form a composite cathode coating. The active cathode loading was about 8 mg/cm2. The cathode material was incorporated into 2325 coin cell half cells in a conventional manner with metallic lithium foil as the counter electrode. One layer of CELGARD 2325 microporous membrane (PP/PE/PP) (25 micron thickness, from Celgard, Charlotte, N.C.) was used to separate the cathode and Li foil. Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), 1M in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (1:2) was used as the electrolyte. The coin cells were cycled using a Maccor series 2000 Cell cycler (available from Maccor Inc. Tulsa, Okla., USA) at a temperature of 30° C. between 2.5 V and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+.
  • [0038]
    The true density of all the sintered oxides powders were obtained by Pentapyc 5200e automatic density analyzer (Quanta Chrome Instruments)
  • [0039]
    The composited volumetric energy of a composition, as used herein, is defined as 75% of the gravimetric energy (energy/active mass) times the true density (0.75 (gravimetric energy X true density)) (maintaining a porosity of 25% in the electrode).
  • [0040]
    Table 1 lists each sample composition and sintering condition as well as the measured true densities and electrochemical performances. (1 C=200 mAh/g). The energy retention (Energy vs cycle number) of each cathode for the first 40 cycles can be fitted with a linear line. The slope indicates the fading. The flatter curve indicates better fade and therefore higher slope.
  • [0041]
    For each composition (the same Ni/Mn and Co), the highest composited volumetric energy at 1 C rate among the sintering conditions and Li/M ratios was selected, and its composited volumetric energy at 1 C (from 4.7V to 2.5V at 30° C.) was plotted in a contour plot vs. Ni/Mn and Co using commercial Software Surfer 8 with Kriging Gridding method (from Golden Software, Inc) (shown in FIG. 1). Surprisingly, two sets of composition ranges were observed that deliver the highest volumetric energy at 1 C rate between 2.5-4.7V at 30° C.: (i) (Ni/Mn˜1.25; Co˜0.2); and (ii) (Ni/Mn˜0.7;Co˜0.05).
  • [0042]
    The experimental data was modeled using the commercial software MiniTab ver. 15 (from MiniTab Inc.) and the aforementioned observations were confirmed. FIG. 2 shows the predicted cross section contour plot of volumetric energy at 1C at Li/M=1.03, 1.115 and 1.2 respectively, vs. Co and Ni/Mn. From FIG. 2, it can be concluded that the maximum energy range shifts with the Li/M ratio. For cathode compositions with Ni/Mn<1, a higher Li/M ratio should be employed; while for those with Ni/Mn>1, Li/M approaches 1. This can also be observed directly in Table 1. The data indicates that there are two separate sets of composition ranges which provide the highest volumetric energy.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1
    Reversible
    1st Charge Capacity at
    Temperature True density Capacity Irriversible rate C/16
    Oxide ID Ni/Mn Co Li/M (° C.) Time(hrs) (g/cc) (mAh/g) capacity loss (mAh/g)
    NC02009D 0.7 0.05 1.165 900 12 4.50 265 0.17 219
    NC02009G 1.3 0.05 1.03 900 12 4.50 234 0.10 210
    NC02009B 0.7 0.2 1.142 900 12 4.57 263 0.17 219
    NC02009E 1.3 0.2 1.03 900 12 4.57 241 0.12 212
    NC02011D 0.7 0.05 1.165 980 5 4.47 257 0.17 213
    NC02011G 1.3 0.05 1.03 980 5 4.36 227 0.14 195
    NC02011B 0.7 0.2 1.142 980 5 4.42 265 0.18 215
    NC02011F 1.3 0.2 1.03 980 5 4.56 241 0.15 203
    NC02009C 0.7 0.05 1.2 900 12 4.50 272 0.16 228
    NC02009H 1.3 0.05 1.2 900 12 4.36 252 0.23 195
    NC02009A 0.7 0.2 1.2 900 12 4.43 273 0.19 221
    NC02009F 1.3 0.2 1.2 900 12 4.33 268 0.28 194
    NC02011C 0.7 0.05 1.2 980 5 4.41 269 0.18 222
    NC02011H 1.3 0.05 1.2 980 5 4.30 231 0.29 165
    NC02011A 0.7 0.2 1.2 980 5 4.51 272 0.22 212
    NC02011E 1.3 0.2 1.2 980 5 4.42 237 0.35 155
    NC02010C 1 0.125 1.115 940 7 4.41 254 0.16 213
    NC02010C 1 0.125 1.115 940 7 4.41 253 0.16 214
    NC02010A 0.4 0.125 1.37 940 7 4.33 296 0.17 247
    NC02010H 1.6 0.125 1.115 940 7 4.38 235 0.27 171
    NC02010G 1 0 1.101 940 7 4.43 244 0.13 212
    NC02010B 1 0.275 1.115 940 7 4.58 248 0.18 203
    NC02012A 1 0.125 1.115 860 18 4.45 255 0.16 215
    NC02012B 1 0.125 1.115 1020 3 4.43 246 0.23 189
    NC02010D 1 0.125 1 940 7 4.57 228 0.11 204
    NC02010F 1 0.125 1.285 940 7 4.33 280 0.33 188
    Gravimetric Composited Gravimetric Composited
    energy at Volumetric Reversivle energy at Volumetric
    Rate C/16 Energy at Capacity at Rate 1 C Energy at 1 C Slop
    Oxide ID (mWh/g) C/16 (Wh/L) 1 C (mAh/g) (mWh/g) (Wh/L) (Wh/L*cyc)
    NC02009D 841 2841 181 656 2218 −9.8
    NC02009G 820 2768 180 679 2291 −7.7
    NC02009B 845 2897 182 677 2320 −13.0
    NC02009E 837 2867 188 724 2483 −18.6
    NC02011D 820 2751 185 681 2285 −5.6
    NC02011G 765 2503 162 617 2018 −10.5
    NC02011B 836 2770 182 690 2285 −9.9
    NC02011F 799 2734 167 634 2171 −24.5
    NC02009C 869 2935 193 703 2373 −9.1
    NC02009H 757 2477 157 595 1945 −4.5
    NC02009A 846 2814 182 673 2238 −10.1
    NC02009F 756 2456 152 574 1863 −13.2
    NC02011C 852 2820 188 691 2289 −7.8
    NC02011H 639 2062 119 446 1438 −6.1
    NC02011A 820 2775 169 637 2158 −7.3
    NC02011E 604 1999 119 447 1481 −8.8
    NC02010C 830 2745 178 665 2198 −10.9
    NC02010C 831 2748 177 660 2182 −13.6
    NC02010A 906 2945 181 644 2092 −2.9
    NC02010H 661 2170 121 450 1479 −8.1
    NC02010G 823 2733 182 680 2258 −5.3
    NC02010B 797 2738 171 660 2267 −19.5
    NC02012A 831 2772 179 662 2211 −13.1
    NC02012B 741 2462 148 567 1883 −13.6
    NC02010D 800 2740 175 661 2266 −15.0
    NC02010F 722 2349 137 518 1683 −3.9
  • [0043]
    Reference throughout this specification to “one embodiment,” “certain embodiments,” “one or more embodiments” or “an embodiment,” whether or not including the term “exemplary” preceding the term “embodiment,” means that a particular feature, structure, material, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the numerous embodiments of the present disclosure. Thus, the appearances of the phrases such as “in one or more embodiments,” “in certain embodiments,” “in one embodiment” or “in an embodiment” in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment of the numerous embodiments of the present disclosure. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments.
  • [0044]
    While the specification has described in detail certain embodiments, it will be appreciated that those skilled in the art, upon attaining an understanding of the foregoing, may readily conceive of alterations to, variations of, and equivalents to these embodiments. Accordingly, it should be understood that this disclosure is not to be unduly limited to the illustrative embodiments set forth hereinabove.
  • [0045]
    Various exemplary embodiments have been described. These and other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (6)

  1. 1. A lithium transition metal oxide composition having the formula Lia[LibNicMndCoe]O2, where a≧0.9, b≧0, c>0, d>0, e>0, b+c+d+e=1, 1.05≦c/d≦1.4, 0.05≦e≦0.30, 1.03<(a+b)/M≦1.06, and M=c+d+e;
    wherein the composition has an 03 type structure.
  2. 2. A lithium transition metal oxide composition according to claim 1, where 1.1≦c/d ≦1.38 and 0.08≦e≦0.28.
  3. 3. A lithium transition metal oxide composition according to claim 2, where 1.2≦c/d≦1.35 and 0.10≦e≦0.25.
  4. 4. A lithium transition metal oxide composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the composition is in the form of a single phase.
  5. 5. A lithium transition metal oxide composition according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the composition delivers composited volumetric energy higher than 2200 Wh/L within 2.5-4.7V vs. Li/Li+ at 30° C. using 1 C (C=200 mAh/g) rate discharge.
  6. 6-12. (canceled)
US14415755 2012-07-20 2013-07-16 High voltage cathode compositions for lithium-ion batteries Abandoned US20150180030A1 (en)

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