US20150112336A1 - Bipolar forceps - Google Patents

Bipolar forceps Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150112336A1
US20150112336A1 US14/492,285 US201414492285A US2015112336A1 US 20150112336 A1 US20150112336 A1 US 20150112336A1 US 201414492285 A US201414492285 A US 201414492285A US 2015112336 A1 US2015112336 A1 US 2015112336A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
forceps
forceps arm
arm
range
conductor tip
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Pending
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US14/492,285
Inventor
Gregg D. Scheller
Brett D. Smith
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Kogent Surgical LLC
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Kogent Surgical LLC
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Priority to US201361893265P priority Critical
Application filed by Kogent Surgical LLC filed Critical Kogent Surgical LLC
Priority to US14/492,285 priority patent/US20150112336A1/en
Assigned to Kogent Surgical, LLC reassignment Kogent Surgical, LLC ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SCHELLER, GREGG D, SMITH, BRETT D
Publication of US20150112336A1 publication Critical patent/US20150112336A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/28Surgical forceps
    • A61B17/2812Surgical forceps with a single pivotal connection
    • A61B17/282Jaws
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/1442Probes having pivoting end effectors, e.g. forceps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00053Mechanical features of the instrument of device
    • A61B2018/00059Material properties
    • A61B2018/00071Electrical conductivity
    • A61B2018/00077Electrical conductivity high, i.e. electrically conducting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00053Mechanical features of the instrument of device
    • A61B2018/00059Material properties
    • A61B2018/00089Thermal conductivity
    • A61B2018/00101Thermal conductivity low, i.e. thermally insulating
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00053Mechanical features of the instrument of device
    • A61B2018/00107Coatings on the energy applicator
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00315Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body for treatment of particular body parts
    • A61B2018/00345Vascular system
    • A61B2018/00404Blood vessels other than those in or around the heart
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B2018/00315Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body for treatment of particular body parts
    • A61B2018/00434Neural system
    • A61B2018/00446Brain
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/1206Generators therefor
    • A61B2018/1246Generators therefor characterised by the output polarity
    • A61B2018/126Generators therefor characterised by the output polarity bipolar
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/1442Probes having pivoting end effectors, e.g. forceps
    • A61B2018/1462Tweezers

Abstract

A bipolar forceps may include a first forceps arm having a first forceps arm aperture, a first forceps jaw, and a first forceps arm conductor tip; a second forceps arm having a second forceps arm aperture, a second forceps jaw, and a second forceps arm conductor tip; and an input conductor isolation mechanism having a first forceps arm housing and a second forceps arm housing. The first forceps arm conductor tip may be configured to conduct current only at a medial portion of the first forceps arm. Illustratively, the second forceps arm conductor tip may be configured to conduct current only at a medial portion of the second forceps arm.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/893,265, filed Oct. 20, 2013.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present disclosure relates to a medical device, and, more particularly, to a surgical instrument.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • A variety of complete surgical procedures and portions of surgical procedures may be performed with bipolar forceps, e.g., bipolar forceps are commonly used in dermatological, gynecological, cardiac, plastic, ocular, spinal, maxillofacial, orthopedic, urological, and general surgical procedures. Bipolar forceps are also used in neurosurgical procedures; however, the use of bipolar forceps in neurosurgical procedures presents unique risks to patients because unintentional damage to brain tissue may cause devastates ing postsurgical effects. For example, unintentional damage to a patient's brain tissue may cause major deficits in the patient's intelligence, memory, personality, and movement. Most unintentional damage to brain tissue is caused by unintended thermal and current spread, e.g., a surgeon may intend to apply current to a target tissue but an application of current to the target tissue allows current and heat to spread to non-target tissues surrounding the target tissue. Accordingly, there is a need for a bipolar forceps configured to reduce unintended thermal and current spread during electrosurgical procedures.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Illustratively, a bipolar forceps may comprise a first forceps arm having a first forceps arm aperture, a first forceps jaw, and a first forceps arm conductor tip; a second forceps arm having a second forceps arm aperture, a second forceps jaw, and a second forceps arm conductor tip; and an input conductor isolation mechanism having a first forceps arm housing and a second forceps arm housing. In one or more embodiments, the first forceps arm conductor tip may be configured to conduct current only at a medial portion of the first forceps arm. Illustratively, the second forceps arm conductor tip may be configured to conduct current only at a medial portion of the second forceps arm. In one or more embodiments, the first forceps arm may be disposed in the first forceps arm housing and the second forceps arm may be disposed in the second forceps arm housing. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of the forceps arms may be configured to close the forceps jaws. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of the forceps arms may be configured to open the forceps jaws.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The above and further advantages of the present invention may be better understood by referring to the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals indicate identical or functionally similar elements:
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a side view of a forceps arm;
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating an exploded view of a bipolar forceps assembly;
  • FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, and 3E are schematic diagrams illustrating a gradual closing of a bipolar forceps;
  • FIGS. 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, and 4E are schematic diagrams illustrating a gradual opening of a bipolar forceps;
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B, and 5C are schematic diagrams illustrating a uniform compression of a vessel;
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating a limitation of current spread;
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating conductor tips with coated distal ends;
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram illustrating conductor tips with exposed distal ends.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AN ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENT
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a side view of a forceps arm 100. Illustratively, a forceps arm 100 may comprise an input conductor housing 103, a forceps arm aperture 105, a conductor tip 110, a forceps arm superior incline angle 120, a forceps arm inferior decline angle 125, a forceps arm superior decline angle 130, a forceps arm inferior incline angle 135, a socket interface 140, a forceps arm grip 150, a forceps jaw 160, and a forceps jaw taper interface 170. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may be may be manufactured from any suitable material, e.g., polymers, metals, metal alloys, etc., or from any combination of suitable materials. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from an electrically conductive material, e.g., metal, graphite, conductive polymers, etc. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from an electrically conductive metal, e.g., silver, copper, gold, aluminum, etc. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from an electrically conductive metal alloy, e.g., a silver alloy, a copper alloy, a gold alloy, an aluminum alloy, stainless steel, etc.
  • In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having an electrical conductivity in a range of 30.0×106 to 40.0×106 Siemens per meter at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having an electrical conductivity of 35.5×106 Siemens per meter at a temperature of 20.0° C. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 30.0×106 Siemens per meter or greater than 40.0×106 Siemens per meter at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having a thermal conductivity in a range of 180.0 to 250.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having a thermal conductivity of 204.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having a thermal conductivity of less than 180.0 Watts per meter Kelvin or greater than 250.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having an electrical conductivity in a range of 30.0×106 to 40.0×106 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity in a range of 180.0 to 250.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., forceps arm 100 may be manufactured from a material having an electrical conductivity of 35.5×106 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of 204.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may have a density in a range of 0.025 to 0.045 pounds per cubic inch, e.g., forceps arm 100 may have a density of 0.036 pounds per cubic inch. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may have a density less than 0.025 pounds per cubic inch or greater than 0.045 pounds per cubic inch. For example, forceps arm 100 may have a density of 0.0975 pounds per cubic inch. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may have a mass in a range of 0.01 to 0.025 pounds, e.g., forceps arm 100 may have a mass of 0.017 pounds. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may have a mass less than 0.01 pounds or greater than 0.025 pounds. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may have a volume in a range of 0.12 to 0.23 cubic inches, e.g., forceps arm 100 may have a volume of 0.177 cubic inches. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may have a volume less than 0.12 cubic inches or greater than 0.23 cubic inches. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a stiffness of forceps arm 100. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to increase a flexibility of forceps arm 100.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a mass of forceps arm 100. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a mass of forceps arm 100 by an avoided mass in a range of 0.005 to 0.012 pounds, e.g., forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a mass of forceps arm 100 by an avoided mass of 0.00975 pounds. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a mass of forceps arm 100 by an avoided mass less than 0.005 pounds or greater than 0.012 pounds. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture area in a range of 0.3 to 0.65 square inches, e.g., forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture area of 0.485 square inches. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture area less than 0.3 square inches or greater than 0.65 square inches. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture perimeter length in a range of 4.0 to 7.0 inches, e.g., forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture perimeter length of 5.43 inches. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may have an aperture perimeter length less than 4.0 inches or greater than 7.0 inches.
  • In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to decrease a thermal conductivity of forceps arm grip 150. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to decrease an electrical conductivity of forceps arm grip 150. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to decrease a thermal conductivity and to decrease an electrical conductivity of forceps arm grip 150. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a probability that forceps arm grip 150 may reach a temperature of 48.89° C. during a surgical procedure. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a probability that forceps arm grip 150 may reach a temperature of 48.89° C. during a surgical procedure, e.g., by decreasing a thermal conductivity of forceps arm grip 150. Illustratively, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a probability that forceps arm grip 150 may reach a temperature of 48.89° C. during a surgical procedure, e.g., by decreasing an electrical conductivity of forceps arm grip 150. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm aperture 105 may be configured to reduce a probability that forceps arm grip 150 may reach a temperature of 48.89° C. during a surgical procedure, e.g., by decreasing a thermal conductivity and an electrical conductivity of forceps arm grip 150.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may have a surface area in a range of 4.5 to 7.5 square inches, e.g., forceps arm 100 may have a surface area of 6.045 square inches. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may have a surface area less than 4.5 square inches or greater than 7.5 square inches. Illustratively, conductor tip 110 may be configured to prevent tissue from sticking to conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, conductor tip 110 may comprise a evenly polished material configured to prevent tissue sticking. Illustratively, conductor tip 110 may have a length in a range of 0.22 to 0.3 inches, e.g., conductor tip 110 may have a length of 0.26 inches. In one or more embodiments, conductor tip 110 may have a length less than 0.22 inches or greater than 0.3 inches. Illustratively, conductor tip 110 may have a width in a range of 0.03 to 0.05 inches, e.g., conductor tip 110 may have a width of 0.04 inches. In one or more embodiments, conductor tip 110 may have a width less than 0.03 inches or greater than 0.05 inches. Illustratively, a geometry of forceps jaw 160 may comprise a tapered portion, e.g., a tapered portion from forceps jaw taper interface 170 to forceps arm distal end 101. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaw 160 may comprise a tapered portion having a tapered angle in a range of 3.0 to 4.5 degrees, e.g., forceps jaw 160 may comprise a tampered portion having a tapered angle of 3.72 degrees. Illustratively, forceps jaw 160 may comprise a tapered portion having a tapered angle of less than 3.0 degrees or greater than 4.5 degrees.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a modulus of elasticity in a range of 9.0×106 to 11.0×106 pounds per square inch, e.g., forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a modulus of elasticity of 10.0×106 pounds per square inch. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a modulus of elasticity less than 9.0×106 pounds per square inch or greater than 11.0×106 pounds per square inch. Illustratively, forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a shear modulus in a range of 3.5×106 to 4.5×106 pounds per square inch, e.g., forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a shear modulus of 3.77×106 pounds per square inch. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm 100 may comprise a material having a shear modulus less than 3.5×106 pounds per square inch or greater than 4.5×106 pounds per square inch.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm superior incline angle 120 may comprise any angle greater than 90.0 degrees. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm superior incline angle 120 may comprise any angle in a range of 150.0 to 170.0 degrees, e.g., forceps arm superior incline angle 120 may comprise a 160.31 degree angle. Illustratively, forceps arm superior incline angle 120 may comprise an angle less than 150.0 degrees or greater than 170.0 degrees. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise any angle greater than 90.0 degrees. Illustratively, forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise any angle in a range of 140.0 to 160.0 degrees, e.g., forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise a 149.56 degree angle. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise an angle less than 140.0 degrees or greater than 160.0 degrees. Illustratively, forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise any angle less than forceps arm superior incline angle 120, e.g., forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise an angle in a range of 5.0 to 15.0 degrees less than forceps arm superior incline angle 120. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior decline angle 125 may comprise an angle less than 5.0 degrees or greater than 15.0 degrees less than forceps arm superior incline angle 120.
  • Illustratively, forceps arm superior decline angle 130 may comprise any angle less than 90.0 degrees. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm superior decline angle 130 may comprise any angle in a range of 5.0 to 15.0 degrees, e.g., forceps arm superior decline angle 130 may comprise an 11.3 degree angle. Illustratively, forceps arm superior decline angle 130 may comprise an angle less than 5.0 degrees or greater than 15.0 degrees. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise any angle less than 90.0 degrees. Illustratively, forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise any angle in a range of 15.0 to 30.0 degrees, e.g., forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise a 23.08 degree angle. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise an angle less than 15.0 degrees or greater than 30.0 degrees. Illustratively, forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise any angle greater than forceps arm superior decline angle 130, e.g., forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise an angle in a range of 5.0 to 15.0 degrees greater than forceps arm superior decline angle 130. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm inferior incline angle 135 may comprise an angle less than 5.0 degrees or greater than 15.0 degrees greater than forceps arm superior decline angle 130.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram illustrating an exploded view of a bipolar forceps assembly 200. In one or more embodiments, a bipolar forceps assembly 200 may comprise a pair of forceps arms 100, an input conductor isolation mechanism 210, a bipolar cord 220, a bipolar cord separation control 230, and an electrosurgical generator adaptor 240. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a high electrical resistivity, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with an electrical insulator material. In one or more embodiments, input conductor housings 103 and conductor tips 110 may not be coated with a material, e.g., input conductor housings 103 and conductor tips 110 may comprise electrical leads. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a thermoplastic material, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with nylon. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a fluoropolymer, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with polyvinylidene fluoride. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of 1.0×10−12 Siemens per meter at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a thermal conductivity of 0.25 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C., e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of 1.0×10−12 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of 0.25 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material wherein a coating thickness of the material is in a range of 0.005 to 0.008 inches, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material wherein a coating thickness of the material is 0.0065 inches. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material wherein a coating thickness of the material is less than 0.005 inches or greater than 0.008 inches. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. wherein a coating thickness of the material is in a range of 0.005 to 0.008 inches, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of 1.0×10−12 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of 0.25 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. wherein a coating thickness of the material is 0.0065 inches. Illustratively, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a material mass in a range of 0.0015 to 0.0025 pounds, e.g., a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a material mass of 0.0021 pounds. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each forceps arm 100 may be coated with a material having a material mass less than 0.0015 pounds or greater than 0.0025 pounds.
  • Illustratively, input conductor isolation mechanism 210 may comprise a first forceps arm housing 215 and a second forceps arm housing 215. In one or more embodiments, input conductor isolation mechanism 210 may be configured to separate a first bipolar input conductor and a second bipolar input conductor, e.g., input conductor isolation mechanism 210 comprise a material with an electrical resistivity greater than 1×1016 ohm meters. Illustratively, input conductor isolation mechanism 210 may comprise a material with an electrical resistivity less than or equal to 1×1016 ohm meters. In one or more embodiments, input conductor isolation mechanism 210 may comprise an interface between bipolar cord 220 and forceps arms 100. Illustratively, a first bipolar input conductor and a second bipolar input conductor may be disposed within bipolar cord 220, e.g., bipolar cord 220 may be configured to separate the first bipolar input conductor and the second bipolar input conductor. In one or more embodiments, a first bipolar input conductor may be electrically connected to first forceps arm 100, e.g., the first bipolar input conductor may be disposed within input conductor housing 103. Illustratively, a second bipolar input conductor may be electrically connected to second forceps arm 100, e.g., the second bipolar input conductor may be disposed within input conductor housing 103. In one or more embodiments, a portion of first forceps arm 100 may be disposed within first forceps arm housing 215, e.g., first forceps arm proximal end 102 may be disposed within first forceps arm housing 215. Illustratively, first forceps arm 100 may be fixed within first forceps arm housing 215, e.g., by an adhesive or any suitable fixation means. In one or more embodiments, a first bipolar input conductor may be disposed within first forceps arm housing 215, e.g., the first bipolar input conductor may be electrically connected to first forceps arm 100. Illustratively, a first bipolar input conductor may be fixed within first forceps arm housing 215 wherein the first bipolar input conductor is electrically connected to first forceps arm 100. In one or more embodiments, a portion of second forceps arm 100 may be disposed within second forceps arm housing 215, e.g., second forceps arm proximal end 102 may be disposed within second forceps arm housing 215. Illustratively, second forceps arm 100 may be fixed within second forceps arm housing 215, e.g., by an adhesive or any suitable fixation means. In one or more embodiments, a second bipolar input conductor may be disposed within second forceps arm housing 215, e.g., the second bipolar input conductor may be electrically connected to second forceps arm 100. Illustratively, a second bipolar input conductor may be fixed within second forceps arm housing 215 wherein the second bipolar input conductor is electrically connected to second forceps arm 100.
  • In one or more embodiments, electrosurgical generator adaptor 240 may comprise a first electrosurgical generator interface 245 and a second electrosurgical generator interface 245. Illustratively, first electrosurgical generator interface 245 and second electrosurgical generator interface 245 may be configured to connect to an electrosurgical generator. In one or more embodiments, connecting first electrosurgical generator interface 245 and second electrosurgical generator interface 245 to an electrosurgical generator may be configured to electrically connect a first bipolar input conductor to a first electrosurgical generator output and to electrically connect a second bipolar input conductor to a second electrosurgical generator output. Illustratively, connecting a first bipolar input conductor to a first electrosurgical generator output may be configured to electrically connect first forceps arm 100 to the first electrosurgical generator output. In one or more embodiments, connecting a second bipolar input conductor to a second electrosurgical generator output may be configured to electrically connect second forceps arm 100 to the second electrosurgical generator output.
  • Illustratively, forceps arms 100 may be fixed within forceps arm housings 215 wherein forceps arm proximal ends 102 are fixed within input conductor isolation mechanism 210 and forceps arm distal ends 101 are separated by a maximum conductor tip 110 separation distance. In one or more embodiments, a surgeon may decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101, e.g., by applying a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100. Illustratively, a surgeon may decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101, e.g., until first forceps arm distal end 101 contacts second forceps arm distal end 101. In one or more embodiments, a contact between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101 may be configured to electrically connect conductor tips 110. Illustratively, an electrical connection of conductor tips 110 may be configured to close an electrical circuit. In one or more embodiments, a surgeon may increase a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101, e.g., by reducing a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100. Illustratively, increasing a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101 may be configured to separate conductor tips 110. In one or more embodiments, a separation of conductor tips 110 may be configured to open an electrical circuit.
  • Illustratively, forceps arms 100 may be configured to reduce unintended thermal spread during a surgical procedure, e.g., forceps arms 100 may be configured to reduce unintended current spread during a surgical procedure. In one or more embodiments, a portion of conductor tips 110 may be coated with a material having a high electrical resistivity, e.g., a portion of conductor tips 110 may be coated with an electrical insulator material. Illustratively, a portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, a distal portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. Illustratively, an inferior portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, a superior portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. Illustratively, a lateral portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. In one or more embodiments, a portion of each conductor tip 110 may be coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. wherein a medial portion of each conductor tip 110 is the only portion of each conductor tip 110 that is not coated with a material having an electrical conductivity of less than 1.0×10−8 Siemens per meter and a thermal conductivity of less than 1.0 Watts per meter Kelvin at a temperature of 20.0° C. For example, a mask may be disposed over a medial portion of conductor tips 110 during a forceps arm 100 coating process wherein the mask prevents the medial portion of conductor tips 110 from being coated. Illustratively, conductor tips 110 may be completely coated during a forceps arm 100 coating process wherein a coating is later removed from a medial portion of conductor tips 110.
  • FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, and 3E are schematic diagrams illustrating a gradual closing of a bipolar forceps. FIG. 3A illustrates forceps jaws in an open orientation 300. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300, e.g., when forceps arm distal ends 101 are separated by a maximum conductor tip 110 separation distance. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance in a range of 0.5 to 0.7 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300, e.g., forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance of 0.625 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300. Illustratively, forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance less than 0.5 inches or greater than 0.7 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300, e.g., when no force is applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100.
  • FIG. 3B illustrates forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in an open orientation 300 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.05 to 0.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101, e.g., an application of a force having a magnitude of 0.2 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.05 pounds or greater than 0.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101. Illustratively, a decrease of a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101 may be configured to decrease a distance between conductor tips 110. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.05 to 0.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in an open orientation 300 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.05 pounds or greater than 0.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in an open orientation 300 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. In one or more embodiments, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio in a range of 1.36 to 8.19, e.g., an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio of 5.46. Illustratively, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio less than 1.36 or greater than 8.19.
  • In one or more embodiments, a surgeon may dispose a tissue between a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., a surgeon may dispose a tumor tissue between a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, disposing a tissue between a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to electrically connect the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and the second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., the tissue may electrically connect the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, electrically connecting a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to apply an electrical current to a tissue. Illustratively, applying an electrical current to a tissue may be configured to coagulate the tissue, cauterize the tissue, ablate the tissue, etc. In one or more embodiments, electrically connecting a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to seal a vessel, induce hemostasis, etc.
  • FIG. 3C illustrates forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101. Illustratively, a decrease of a distance between first forceps arm distal end 101 and second forceps arm distal end 101 may be configured to cause first forceps arm distal end 101 to contact second forceps arm distal end 101. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.35 to 0.7 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to cause first forceps arm distal end 101 to contact second forceps arm distal end 101, e.g., an application of a force having a magnitude of 0.5 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to cause first forceps arm distal end 101 to contact second forceps arm distal end 101. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.35 pounds or greater than 0.7 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to cause first forceps arm distal end 101 to contact second forceps arm distal end 101. In one or more embodiment, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.35 to 0.7 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.35 pounds or greater than 0.7 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. In one or more embodiments, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio in a range of 9.56 to 19.11, e.g., an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio of 13.65. Illustratively, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio less than 9.56 or greater than 19.11.
  • In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., when first forceps arm distal end 101 contacts second forceps arm distal end 101 and no other portion of first forceps arm 100 contacts second forceps arm 100. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a distal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 and no other portion of first forceps arm 100 contacts second forceps arm 100. In one or more embodiments, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area in a range of 0.0005 to 0.002 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area of 0.0016 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. Illustratively, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area of less than 0.0005 square inches or greater than 0.002 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance in a range of 0.005 to 0.015 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance of 0.01 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance less than 0.005 inches or greater than 0.015 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320.
  • Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps jaw 160 contacts a distal end of a second forceps jaw 160 and no other portion of first forceps arm 100 contacts second forceps arm 100. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first separation distance 350, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first separation distance 350 in a range of 0.05 to 0.15 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first separation distance 350 of 0.1 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first separation distance 350 less than 0.05 inches or greater than 0.15 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320.
  • Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a distal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a contact between a distal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a distal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to electrically connect the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., when a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 is electrically connected to a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, an electrical connection of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to cause an electrical current to flow from the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 into the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, an electrical connection of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to cause an electrical current to flow from the second forceps arm conductor tip 110 into the first forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, electrically connecting a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to increase a temperature of forceps arm distal ends 101, e.g., a surgeon may contact a tissue with forceps arm distal ends 101 to cauterize the tissue, coagulate the tissue, etc.
  • FIG. 3D illustrates forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to flex forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320, e.g., an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.8 to 1.4 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., an application of a force having a magnitude of 1.1 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.8 pounds or greater than 1.4 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.8 to 1.4 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 0.8 pounds or greater than 1.4 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first closed orientation 320 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. In one or more embodiments, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio in a range of 21.84 to 38.22, e.g., an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio of 30.03. Illustratively, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio less than 21.84 or greater than 38.22.
  • In one or more embodiments, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area in a range of 0.001 to 0.005 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area of 0.0025 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. Illustratively, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area less than 0.001 square inches or greater than 0.005 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance in a range of 0.001 to 0.0049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance of 0.0025 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 by a distance less than 0.001 inches or greater than 0.0049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330.
  • Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps jaw 160 contacts a distal end of a second forceps jaw 160. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second separation distance 360, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second separation distance 360 in a range of 0.01 to 0.049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second separation distance 360 of 0.03 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second separation distance 360 less than 0.01 inches or greater than 0.049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330.
  • Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., when a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a contact between a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to electrically connect the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330, e.g., when a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 is electrically connected to a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, an electrical connection of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to cause an electrical current to flow from the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 into the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, an electrical connection of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to cause an electrical current to flow from the second forceps arm conductor tip 110 into the first forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, electrically connecting a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be configured to increase a temperature of forceps arm conductor tips 110, e.g., a surgeon may contact a tissue with forceps arm conductor tips 110 to cauterize the tissue, coagulate the tissue, etc.
  • FIG. 3E illustrates forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to decrease a distance between a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 until a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may contact a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. Illustratively, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a maximum contact area, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. In one or more embodiments, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area in a range of 0.01 to 0.015 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340, e.g., first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area of 0.0125 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. Illustratively, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110 may have a contact area less than 0.01 square inches or greater than 0.015 square inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340.
  • In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps jaw 160 and second forceps jaw 160. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contract area between first forceps jaw 160 and second forceps jaw 160. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually increase a contact area between first forceps jaw 160 and second forceps jaw 160 until a proximal end of first forceps jaw 160 contacts a proximal end of second forceps jaw 160. Illustratively, a proximal end of first forceps jaw 160 may contact a proximal end of second forceps jaw 160, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. In one or more embodiments, first forceps jaw 160 and second forceps jaw 160 may have a maximum contact area, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. Illustratively, an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 1.5 to 3.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340, e.g., an application of a force having a magnitude of 2.5 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force having a magnitude less than 1.5 pounds or greater than 3.3 pounds to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second closed orientation 330 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340. Illustratively, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio in a range of 40.95 to 90.10, e.g., an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio of 68.26. In one or more embodiments, an amount of force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 configured to close forceps jaws 160 to forceps jaws in a fully closed orientation 340 and a total mass of a bipolar forceps may have a force applied to total mass ratio less than 40.95 or greater than 90.10.
  • FIGS. 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, and 4E are schematic diagrams illustrating a gradual opening of a bipolar forceps. FIG. 4A illustrates forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400, e.g., when a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a distal end of a second forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a proximal end of the first forceps arm conductor tip 110 contacts a proximal end of the second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400, e.g., when a first forceps jaw 160 contacts a second forceps jaw 160. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400, e.g., when a distal end of a first forceps jaw 160 contacts a distal end of a second forceps jaw 160 and a proximal end of the first forceps jaw 160 contacts a proximal end of the second forceps jaw 160. Illustratively, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 when a force having a magnitude greater than 1.5 pounds is applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100, e.g., forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 when a force having a magnitude of 2.5 pounds is applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 when a force less than or equal to 1.5 pounds is applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100.
  • FIG. 4B illustrates forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 to forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to separate proximal ends of forceps jaws 160. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to increase a distance between a proximal end of first forceps jaw 160 and a proximal end of second forceps jaw 160. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first partially closed separation distance 460, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first partially closed separation distance 460 in a range of 0.01 to 0.049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first partially closed separation distance 460 of 0.03 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a first partially closed separation distance 460 less than 0.01 inches or greater than 0.049 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to separate proximal ends of forceps arm conductor tips 110. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to increase a separation distance between a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to reduce a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to spread a tissue, dissect a tissue, etc. Illustratively, a surgeon may insert forceps arm distal ends 101 into a tissue, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400. In one or more embodiments, the surgeon may reduce a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 and gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 to forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. Illustratively, gradually opening forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a closed orientation 400 to forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410 may be configured to spread the tissue, dissect the tissue, etc.
  • FIG. 4C illustrates forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410 to forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to separate proximal ends of forceps jaws 160. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to increase a distance between a proximal end of first forceps jaw 160 and a proximal end of second forceps jaw 160. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second partially closed separation distance 450, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. Illustratively, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second partially closed separation distance 450 in a range of 0.05 to 0.15 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420, e.g., a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second partially closed separation distance 450 of 0.1 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. In one or more embodiments, a proximal end of a first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a proximal end of a second forceps jaw 160 by a second partially closed separation distance 450 less than 0.05 inches or greater than 0.15 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to separate proximal ends of forceps arm conductor tips 110. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to increase a separation distance between a proximal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and a proximal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to reduce a contact area between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to spread a tissue, dissect a tissue, etc. Illustratively, a surgeon may insert forceps arm distal ends 101 into a tissue, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410. In one or more embodiments, the surgeon may reduce a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 and gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410 to forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. Illustratively, gradually opening forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a first partially closed orientation 410 to forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420 may be configured to spread the tissue, dissect the tissue, etc.
  • FIG. 4D illustrates forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420 to forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. In one or more embodiments, a distal end of first forceps jaw 160 may be separated from a distal end of second forceps jaw 160, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. Illustratively, a distal end of first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be separated from a distal end of second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to electrically disconnect first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110. Illustratively, first forceps arm conductor tip 110 may be electrically disconnected from second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. In one or more embodiments, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to spread a tissue, dissect a tissue, etc. Illustratively, a surgeon may insert forceps arm distal ends 101 into a tissue, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420. In one or more embodiments, the surgeon may reduce a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 and gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420 to forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430. Illustratively, gradually opening forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a second partially closed orientation 420 to forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430 may be configured to spread the tissue, dissect the tissue, etc.
  • FIG. 4E illustrates forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440. Illustratively, a reduction of a force applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually open forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in a partially open orientation 430 to forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440. In one or more embodiments, forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance in a range of 0.5 to 0.7 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440, e.g., forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance of 0.625 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440. Illustratively, forceps arm distal ends 101 may be separated by a distance less than 0.5 inches or greater than 0.7 inches when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may comprise forceps jaws in a fully open orientation 440, e.g., when no force is applied to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100.
  • FIGS. 5A, 5B, and 5C are schematic diagrams illustrating a uniform compression of a vessel 560. In one or more embodiments, vessel 560 may comprise a blood vessel of an arteriovenous malformation. FIG. 5A illustrates an uncompressed vessel 500. Illustratively, vessel 560 may comprise an uncompressed vessel 500, e.g., when vessel 560 has a natural geometry. In one or more embodiments, vessel 560 may comprise an uncompressed vessel, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. Illustratively, a surgeon may dispose vessel 560 between first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when forceps jaws 160 comprise forceps jaws in an open orientation 300. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to gradually close forceps jaws 160 from forceps jaws in an open orientation 300 to forceps jaws in a partially closed orientation 310. Illustratively, vessel 560 may electrically connect first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when vessel 560 comprises an uncompressed vessel 500. In one or more embodiments, a surgeon may identify an orientation of forceps jaws 160 wherein conductor tips 110 initially contact vessel 560. Illustratively, a geometry of forceps arms 100 may be configured to allow a surgeon to visually identify an orientation of forceps jaws 160 wherein conductor tips 110 initially contact vessel 560. In one or more embodiments, a mass of forceps arms 100 may be configured to allow a surgeon to tactilely identify an orientation of forceps jaws 160 wherein conductor tips 110 initially contact vessel 560. Illustratively, a geometry of forceps arms 100 and a mass of forceps arms 100 may be configured to allow a surgeon to both visually and tactilely identify an orientation of forceps jaws 160 wherein conductor tips 110 initially contact vessel 560.
  • FIG. 5B illustrates a partially compressed vessel 510. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to uniformly compress vessel 560 from an uncompressed vessel 500 to a partially compressed vessel 510. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to uniformly increase a contact area between vessel 560 and forceps arm conductor tips 110. Illustratively, vessel 560 may electrically connect first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when vessel 560 comprises a partially compressed vessel 510. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to compress vessel 560 wherein vessel 560 maintains a symmetrical geometry with respect to a medial axis of vessel 560. Illustratively, vessel 560 may have a symmetrical geometry with respect to a medial axis of vessel 560 when vessel 560 comprises a partially compressed vessel 510. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may be configured to compress vessel 560 wherein no portion of vessel 560 is compressed substantially more than another portion of vessel 560, e.g., forceps jaws 160 may be configured to evenly compress vessel 560 without pinching a first portion of vessel 560 or bulging a second portion of vessel 560. Illustratively, vessel 560 may be evenly compressed when vessel 560 comprises a partially compressed vessel 510.
  • FIG. 5C illustrates a fully compressed vessel 520. Illustratively, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to uniformly compress vessel 560 from a partially compressed vessel 510 to a fully compressed vessel 520. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to uniformly increase a contact area between vessel 560 and forceps arm conductor tips 110. Illustratively, vessel 560 may electrically connect first forceps arm conductor tip 110 and second forceps arm conductor tip 110, e.g., when vessel 560 comprises a fully compressed vessel 520. In one or more embodiments, a surgeon may uniformly cauterize vessel 560, e.g., when vessel 560 comprises a fully compressed vessel 520. Illustratively, a surgeon may uniformly achieve hemostasis of vessel 560, e.g., when vessel 560 comprises a fully compressed vessel 520. In one or more embodiments, an application of a force to a lateral portion of forceps arms 100 may be configured to compress vessel 560 wherein vessel 560 maintains a symmetrical geometry with respect to a medial axis of vessel 560. Illustratively, vessel 560 may have a symmetrical geometry with respect to a medial axis of vessel 560 when vessel 560 comprises a fully compressed vessel 520. In one or more embodiments, forceps jaws 160 may be configured to compress vessel 560 wherein no portion of vessel 560 is compressed substantially more than another portion of vessel 560, e.g., forceps jaws 160 may be configured to evenly compress vessel 560 without pinching a first portion of vessel 560 or bulging a second portion of vessel 560. Illustratively, vessel 560 may be evenly compressed when vessel 560 comprises a fully compressed vessel 520.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating a limitation of current spread 600. Illustratively, a limitation of current spread 600 may comprise a conduction zone 601 configured to facilitate movement of ions and electrons. In one or more embodiments, conduction zone 601 may be disposed between first conductor tip 110 and second conductor tip 110, e.g., conduction zone 601 may be disposed between an electrically conductive portion of first conductor tip 110 and an electrically conductive portion of second conductor tip 110. Illustratively, conduction zone 601 may be disposed between a medial portion of first conductor tip 110 and a medial portion of second conductor tip 110, e.g., conduction zone 601 may be disposed between a medial surface of first conductor tip 110 and a medial surface of second conductor tip 110. In one or more embodiments, a portion of first conductor tip 110 may be configured to reduce electrodiffusion outside of conduction zone 601, e.g., a lateral portion of first conductor tip 110 may be configured to reduce electrodiffusion outside of conduction zone 601. Illustratively, a portion of second conductor tip 110 may be configured to reduce electrodiffusion outside of conduction zone 601, e.g., a lateral portion of second conductor tip 110 may be configured to reduce electrodiffusion outside of conduction zone 601.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating conductor tips with coated distal ends 700. Illustratively, conductor tips 110 may comprise conductor tips with coated distal ends 700 when a distal portion, a lateral portion, an inferior portion, and a superior portion of each conductor tip 110 is fully coated. In one or more embodiments, each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area in a range of 0.006 to 0.017 square inches, e.g., each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area of 0.012 square inches. Illustratively, each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area less than 0.006 square inches or greater than 0.017 square inches. In one or more embodiments, a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be in a range of 165.0 to 475.0, e.g., a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be 263.0. Illustratively, a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be less than 165.0 or greater than 475.0. Illustratively, each conductor tip 110 may reduce an amount of electrically conductive surface area in a range of 0.024 to 0.036 square inches, e.g., each conductor tip 110 may reduce an amount of electrically conductive surface by 0.029 square inches.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram illustrating conductor tips with exposed distal ends 800. Illustratively, conductor tips 110 may comprise conductor tips with exposed distal ends 800 when a lateral portion, an inferior portion, and a superior portion of each conductor tip 110 is fully coated. In one or more embodiments, each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area in a range of 0.013 to 0.024 square inches, e.g., each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area of 0.0185 square inches. Illustratively, each conductor tip 110 may have an electrically conducting surface area less than 0.013 square inches or greater than 0.024 square inches. In one or more embodiments, a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be in a range of 115.0 to 240.0, e.g., a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be 165.0. Illustratively, a ratio of a total surface area of each forceps arm 100 to an electrically conductive surface area of each forceps arm 100 may be less than 115.0 or greater than 240.0. Illustratively, each conductor tip 110 may reduce an amount of electrically conductive surface area in a range of 0.008 to 0.036 square inches, e.g., each conductor tip 110 may reduce an amount of electrically conductive surface by 0.022 square inches.
  • The foregoing description has been directed to particular embodiments of this invention. It will be apparent; however, that other variations and modifications may be made to the described embodiments, with the attainment of some or all of their advantages. Specifically, it should be noted that the principles of the present invention may be implemented in any system. Furthermore, while this description has been written in terms of a surgical instrument, the teachings of the present invention are equally suitable to any systems where the functionality may be employed. Therefore, it is the object of the appended claims to cover all such variations and modifications as come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. An instrument comprising:
a first forceps arm having a first forceps arm distal end and a first forceps arm proximal end;
a first forceps jaw of the first forceps arm having a first forceps jaw distal end and a first forceps jaw proximal end;
a first conductor tip of the first forceps arm having a first conductor tip distal end and a first conductor tip proximal end, the first conductor tip having an electrically conductive surface area in a range of 0.006 to 0.017 square inches;
a first input conductor housing of the first forceps arm;
a first coating of an electrical insulator material over at least a portion of the first forceps arm, the first coating of the electrical insulator material having a coating thickness in a range of 0.005 to 0.008 inches;
a second forceps arm having a second forceps arm distal end and a second forceps arm proximal end;
a second forceps jaw of the second forceps arm having a second forceps jaw distal end and a second forceps jaw proximal end;
a second conductor tip of the second forceps arm having a second conductor tip distal end and a second conductor tip proximal end, the second conductor tip having an electrically conductive surface area in a range of 0.006 to 0.017 square inches;
a second input conductor housing of the second forceps arm;
a second coating of an electrical insulator material over at least a portion of the second forceps arm, the second coating of the electrical insulator material having a coating thickness in a range of 0.005 to 0.008 inches; and
an input conductor isolation mechanism configured to electrically isolate the first input conductor housing of the first forceps arm and the second input conductor housing of the second forceps arm wherein the first forceps arm proximal end is disposed in the input conductor isolation mechanism and the second forceps arm proximal end is disposed in the input conductor isolation mechanism.
2. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the first forceps arm has a mass in a range of 0.01 to 0.025 pounds.
3. The instrument of claim 1 further comprising:
a forceps arm aperture of the first forceps arm, the forceps arm aperture having an aperture perimeter length in a range of 4.0 to 7.0 inches.
4. The instrument of claim 1 wherein a ratio of a surface area of the first forceps arm to the electrically conductive surface area of the first conductor tip is in a range of 165.0 to 475.0.
5. The instrument of claim 1 further comprising:
a forceps arm superior incline angle of the first forceps arm, the forceps arm superior incline angle in a range of 150.0 to 170.0 degrees.
6. The instrument of claim 5 further comprising:
a forceps arm inferior decline angle of the first forceps arm, the forceps arm inferior decline angle in a range of 140.0 to 160.0 degrees.
7. The instrument of claim 6 further comprising:
a forceps arm superior decline angle of the first forceps arm, the forceps arm superior decline angle in a range of 5.0 to 15.0 degrees.
8. The instrument of claim 7 further comprising:
a forceps arm inferior incline angle of the first forceps arm, the forceps arm inferior incline angle in a range of 15.0 to 30.0 degrees.
9. The instrument of claim 1 wherein an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 0.35 to 0.70 pounds to a lateral portion of the first forceps arm and the second forceps arm is configured to cause the first forceps arm distal end to contact the second forceps arm distal end.
10. The instrument of claim 9 wherein an application of a force having a magnitude of 0.50 pounds to the lateral portion of the first forceps arm and the second forceps arm is configured to cause the first forceps arm distal end to contact the second forceps arm distal end.
11. The instrument of claim 1 wherein an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 1.5 to 3.3 pounds to a lateral portion of the first forceps arm and the second forceps arm is configured to close the first forceps jaw and the second forceps jaw wherein the first forceps jaw distal end contacts the second forceps jaw distal end and the first forceps jaw proximal end contacts the second forceps jaw proximal end.
12. The instrument of claim 11 wherein an application of a force having a magnitude in a range of 2.5 pounds to the lateral portion of the first forceps arm and the second forceps arm is configured to close the first forceps jaw and the second forceps jaw wherein the first forceps jaw distal end contacts the second forceps jaw distal end and the first forceps jaw proximal end contacts the second forceps jaw proximal end.
13. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the first forceps arm has an electrical conductivity in a range of 30.0×106 to 40.0×106 Siemens per meter.
14. The instrument of claim 13 wherein the first forceps arm has thermal conductivity in a range of 180.0 to 250.0 Watts per meter Kelvin.
15. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the first forceps arm has a volume in a range of 0.12 to 0.23 cubic inches.
16. The instrument of claim 15 wherein the first forceps arm has a density in a range of 0.025 to 0.045 pounds per cubic inch.
17. The instrument of claim 16 wherein the first forceps arm has a modulus of elasticity in a range of 9.0×106 to 11.0×106 pounds per square inch.
18. The instrument of claim 17 wherein the first forceps arm has a shear modulus in a range of 3.5×106 to 4.5×106 pounds per square inch.
19. A method comprising:
disposing a vessel in between a first conductor tip and a second conductor tip of a bipolar forceps;
creating a conduction zone of the vessel configured to facilitate movement of ions and electrons wherein the conduction zone is disposed between an electrically conductive portion of the first conductor tip and an electrically conductive portion of the second conductor tip; and
reducing electrodiffusion outside of the conduction zone.
20. The method of claim 19 further comprising:
cauterizing the vessel wherein the cauterization is uniform; and
achieving a hemostasis of the vessel wherein the hemostasis is uniform.
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