US20150052253A1 - Multi-server fractional subdomain dns protocol - Google Patents

Multi-server fractional subdomain dns protocol Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150052253A1
US20150052253A1 US14/493,278 US201414493278A US2015052253A1 US 20150052253 A1 US20150052253 A1 US 20150052253A1 US 201414493278 A US201414493278 A US 201414493278A US 2015052253 A1 US2015052253 A1 US 2015052253A1
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Prior art keywords
electronic
fractional
server
subdomain
url
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US14/493,278
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Michael W. Johnson
Ryo Koyama
Michael J.S. Smith
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WEAVED Inc
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WEAVED Inc
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Priority to US14/493,278 priority Critical patent/US20150052253A1/en
Assigned to WEAVED, INC. reassignment WEAVED, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: JOHNSON, MICHAEL W., KOYAMA, RYO, SMITH, MICHAEL J.S.
Publication of US20150052253A1 publication Critical patent/US20150052253A1/en
Priority claimed from US15/202,489 external-priority patent/US20160315824A1/en
Priority claimed from US15/613,281 external-priority patent/US10637724B2/en
Priority claimed from US15/663,110 external-priority patent/US20180262388A1/en
Priority claimed from US16/236,082 external-priority patent/US11336511B2/en
Priority claimed from US16/459,403 external-priority patent/US11184224B2/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L61/00Network arrangements, protocols or services for addressing or naming
    • H04L61/45Network directories; Name-to-address mapping
    • H04L61/4505Network directories; Name-to-address mapping using standardised directories; using standardised directory access protocols
    • H04L61/4511Network directories; Name-to-address mapping using standardised directories; using standardised directory access protocols using domain name system [DNS]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic control in data switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control; Resource allocation
    • H04L61/2007
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L2101/00Indexing scheme associated with group H04L61/00
    • H04L2101/30Types of network names
    • H04L2101/345Types of network names containing wildcard characters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L61/00Network arrangements, protocols or services for addressing or naming
    • H04L61/50Address allocation
    • H04L61/5007Internet protocol [IP] addresses
    • H04L61/5014Internet protocol [IP] addresses using dynamic host configuration protocol [DHCP] or bootstrap protocol [BOOTP]
    • H04L61/6068
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/08Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network
    • H04L63/0823Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network using certificates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/16Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer
    • H04L63/166Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer at the transport layer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L67/00Network arrangements or protocols for supporting network services or applications
    • H04L67/01Protocols
    • H04L67/02Protocols based on web technology, e.g. hypertext transfer protocol [HTTP]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S40/00Systems for electrical power generation, transmission, distribution or end-user application management characterised by the use of communication or information technologies, or communication or information technology specific aspects supporting them
    • Y04S40/20Information technology specific aspects, e.g. CAD, simulation, modelling, system security

Abstract

The present disclosure provides a detailed description of techniques used in methods, systems, and computer program products for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. The disclosure addresses the problem of cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet. More specifically, some claims are directed to approaches for rapidly adding device subdomains while minimizing the deployment of digital security certificates by observing a fractional subdomain specification and translation protocol, which claims advance the technical fields related to cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet, as well as advancing peripheral technical fields. Some claims improve the functioning of multiple systems within the disclosed environments.

Description

    FIELD
  • This disclosure relates to the field of Internet networking and more particularly to techniques for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. Embodiments of the present disclosure generally relate to improvements to computing devices and, more specifically, to efficient use of CPUs in various devices.
  • BACKGROUND
  • As increasingly more devices (e.g., servers, computers, phones, equipment, appliances, etc.) are connected to the Internet, the need to connect them in a meaningful, fast, secure, and cost-effective way becomes increasingly difficult. Specific scalability challenges related to Domain Name System (DNS) capability and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate deployment are evident.
  • The function of the DNS, carried out by one or more DNS servers, is to associate various information with Internet domain names. More specifically, it translates more easily memorized domain names (e.g., www.example.com) to their associated numerical IP addresses (e.g., IPv4 or IPv6 addresses) needed for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. DNS servers resolve (e.g., translate to an IP address) a domain name (e.g., www.example.com) in a hierarchical manner, looking first at the top level domain or TLD (e.g., “.com”), then the domain name (e.g., “example”), and then the sub domain (e.g., “www”). More sub domains (e.g., a second sub domain, a third sub domain) can be included in the URL (e.g., m.www.example.com), limited by a maximum of 123 levels, and a maximum of 253 characters for the entire domain name.
  • An SSL certificate is a digital certificate that authenticates the identity of a web site, application, or device and encrypts exchanged information (e.g., 256-bit encryption) using SSL technology. SSL certificates can secure a single domain name with a single domain certificate (e.g., www.example.com), secure multiple domain names with a multi-name certificate (e.g., both www.example.com and mail.example.com), and secure multiple subdomains of a domain with a wildcard certificate, for example, (e.g., *.example.com). There is an annual cost (e.g., USD$150-$300) and setup resources required (e.g., for generating the CSR, private key, renewal, etc.) when deploying wildcard certificates.
  • Legacy DNS capability in consideration of SSL certificate limitations presents challenges to secure and cost-effective Internet device scalability. In particular, the handling of wildcards in both the DNS and SSL certificates impacts scalability. For example, legacy DNS capability (e.g., as outlined in Network Working Group RFC 4592, and RFC 1034 sections 4.3.2 and 4.3.3) will only accept wildcards in the left-most subdomain (e.g., *.example.com). To have multiple subdomains translate to two different servers (e.g., servers s1 and s2 to manage resource loading), multiple wildcard DNS records unique to each server (e.g., *.s1.example.com and *.s2.example.com) are required. Likewise, a wildcard SSL certificate can only serve one subdomain level (e.g., *.s1.example.com), so a separate certificate for each server would be required, given the aforementioned DNS addressing limitation. The restrictions of these legacy protocols and systems therefore limit the scaling of devices on the Internet (e.g., adding servers, subdomains, etc.) in a secure and cost-effective manner (e.g., minimizing the deployment of SSL certificates, managing server loading).
  • What is needed is a technique or techniques that address the problem of cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet. More specifically, what is needed is a technique or techniques for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol.
  • None of the aforementioned legacy approaches achieve the capabilities of the herein-disclosed techniques for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. Therefore, there is a need for improvements.
  • SUMMARY
  • The present disclosure provides an improved method, system, and computer program product suited to address the aforementioned issues with legacy approaches. More specifically, the present disclosure provides a detailed description of techniques used in methods, systems, and computer program products for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. The claimed embodiments address the problem of cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet. More specifically, some claims are directed to approaches for rapidly adding device subdomains while minimizing the deployment of digital security certificates by observing a fractional subdomain specification and translation protocol, which claims advance the technical fields related to cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet, as well as advancing peripheral technical fields. Some claims improve the functioning of multiple systems within the disclosed environments.
  • Further details of aspects, objectives, and advantages of the disclosure are described below and in the detailed description, drawings, and claims. Both the foregoing general description of the background and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory, and are not intended to be limiting as to the scope of the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • So that the features of various embodiments of the present disclosure can be understood, a more detailed description, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to various embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the accompanying drawings illustrate only embodiments and are therefore not to be considered limiting of the scope of the various embodiments of the disclosure, for the embodiment(s) may admit to other effective embodiments. The following detailed description makes reference to the accompanying drawings that are now briefly described.
  • The drawings described below are for illustration purposes only. The drawings are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure. While one or more of the various embodiments of the disclosure is susceptible to various modifications, combinations, and alternative forms, various embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the accompanying drawings and detailed description are not intended to limit the embodiment(s) to the particular form disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, combinations, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the various embodiments of the present disclosure as defined by the relevant claims.
  • FIG. 1 is an environment that exemplifies the need for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol.
  • FIG. 2 depicts a protocol for DNS processing of multi-server fractional subdomains, according to some embodiments.
  • FIG. 3 represents a flow chart of a method for processing of multi-server fractional subdomains, according to one embodiment.
  • FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a system for implementing all or portions of any of the embodiments described herein, according to some embodiments.
  • FIG. 5 depicts a block diagram of an instance of a computer system suitable for implementing embodiments of the present disclosure, and/or for use in the herein-described environments.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION Glossary
  • In this description a device (e.g., a mobile device, electronic system, machine, and/or any type of apparatus, system, mote, that may be mobile, fixed, wearable, portable, integrated, cloud-based, distributed and/or any combination of these and which may be formed, manufactured, operated, etc. in any fashion, manner, location(s) etc.) may be used as an example. It should be understood, however, that one or more of the embodiments described herein and/or in one or more specifications incorporated by reference may be applied to any device(s) or similar object(s) e.g., consumer devices, phones, phone systems, cell phones, cellular phones, mobile phone, smart phone, internet phones, wireless phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), remote communication devices, wireless devices, music players, video players, media players, multimedia players, video recorders, VCRs, DVRs, book readers, voice recorders, voice controlled systems, voice controllers, cameras, social interaction devices, radios, TVs, watches, personal communication devices, electronic wallets, electronic currency, smart cards, smart credit cards, electronic money, electronic coins, electronic tokens, smart jewelry, electronic passports, electronic identification systems, biometric sensors, biometric systems, biometric devices, smart pens, smart rings, personal computers, tablets, laptop computers, scanners, printers, computers, web servers, media servers, multimedia servers, file servers, datacenter servers, database servers, database appliances, cloud servers, cloud devices, cloud appliances, embedded systems, embedded devices, electronic glasses, electronic goggles, electronic screens, displays, wearable displays, projectors, picture frames, touch screens, computer appliances, kitchen appliances, home appliances, home theater systems, audio systems, home control appliances, home control systems, irrigation systems, sprinkler systems, garage door systems, garage door controls, remote controls, remote control systems, thermostats, heating systems, air conditioning systems, ventilation systems, climate control systems, climate monitoring systems, industrial control systems, transportation systems and controls, industrial process and control systems, industrial controller systems, machine-to-machine systems, aviation systems, locomotive systems, power control systems, power controllers, lighting control, lights, lighting systems, solar system controllers, solar panels, vehicle and other engines, engine controllers, motors, motor controllers, navigation controls, navigation systems, navigation displays, sensors, sensor systems, transducers, transducer systems, computer input devices, device controllers, touchpads, mouse, pointer, joystick, keyboards, game controllers, haptic devices, game consoles, game boxes, network devices, routers, switches, TiVO, AppleTV, GoogleTV, internet TV boxes, internet systems, internet devices, set-top boxes, cable boxes, modems, cable modems, PCs, tablets, media boxes, streaming devices, entertainment centers, entertainment systems, aircraft entertainment systems, hotel entertainment systems, car and vehicle entertainment systems, GPS devices, GPS systems, automobile and other motor vehicle systems, truck systems, vehicle control systems, vehicle sensors, aircraft systems, automation systems, home automation systems, industrial automation systems, reservation systems, check-in terminals, ticket collection systems, admission systems, payment devices, payment systems, banking machines, cash points, ATMs, vending machines, vending systems, point of sale devices, coin-operated devices, token operated devices, gas (petrol) pumps, ticket machines, toll systems, barcode scanners, credit card scanners, travel token systems, travel card systems, RFID devices, electronic labels, electronic tags, tracking systems, electronic stickers, electronic price tags, near field communication (NFC) devices, wireless operated devices, wireless receivers, wireless transmitters, sensor devices, motes, sales terminals, checkout terminals, electronic toys, toy systems, gaming systems, information appliances, information and other kiosks, sales displays, sales devices, electronic menus, coupon systems, shop displays, street displays, electronic advertising systems, traffic control systems, traffic signs, parking systems, parking garage devices, elevators and elevator systems, building systems, mailboxes, electronic signs, video cameras, security systems, surveillance systems, electronic locks, electronic keys, electronic key fobs, access devices, access controls, electronic actuators, safety systems, smoke detectors, fire control systems, fire detection systems, locking devices, electronic safes, electronic doors, music devices, storage devices, back-up devices, USB keys, portable disks, exercise machines, sports equipment, medical devices, medical systems, personal medical devices, wearable medical devices, portable medical devices, mobile medical devices, blood pressure sensors, heart rate monitors, blood sugar monitors, vital sign monitors, ultrasound devices, medical imagers, drug delivery systems, drug monitoring systems, patient monitoring systems, medical records systems, industrial monitoring systems, robots, robotic devices, home robots, industrial robots, electric tools, power tools, construction equipment, electronic jewelry, wearable devices, wearable electronic devices, wearable cameras, wearable video cameras, wearable systems, electronic dispensing systems, handheld computing devices, handheld electronic devices, electronic clothing, combinations of these and/or any other devices, multi-function devices, multi-purpose devices, combination devices, cooperating devices, and the like, etc.
  • The devices may support (e.g., include, comprise, contain, implement, execute, be part of, be operable to execute, display, source, provide, store, etc.) one or more applications and/or functions e.g., search applications, contacts and/or friends applications, social interaction applications, social media applications, messaging applications, telephone applications, video conferencing applications, e-mail applications, voicemail applications, communications applications, voice recognition applications, instant messaging (IM) applications, texting applications, blog and/or blogging applications, photographic applications (e.g., catalog, management, upload, editing, etc.), shopping, advertising, sales, purchasing, selling, vending, ticketing, payment, digital camera applications, digital video camera applications, web browsing and browser applications, digital music player applications, digital video player applications, cloud applications, office productivity applications, database applications, cataloging applications, inventory control, medical applications, electronic book and newspaper applications, travel applications, dictionary and other reference work applications, language translation, spreadsheet applications, word processing applications, presentation applications, business applications, finance applications, accounting applications, publishing applications, web authoring applications, multimedia editing, computer-aided design (CAD), manufacturing applications, home automation and control, backup and/or storage applications, help and/or manuals, banking applications, stock trading applications, calendar applications, voice driven applications, map applications, consumer entertainment applications, games, other applications and/or combinations of these and/or multiple instances (e.g., versions, copies, etc.) of these and/or other applications, and the like etc.
  • The devices may include (e.g., comprise, be capable of including, have features to include, have attachments, communicate with, be linked to, be coupled with, operable to be coupled with, be connected to, be operable to connect to, etc.) one or more devices (e.g., there may be a hierarchy of devices, nested devices, etc.). The devices may operate, function, run, etc. as separate components, working in cooperation, as a cooperative hive, as a confederation of devices, as a federation, as a collection of devices, as a cluster, as a multi-function device, with sockets, ports, connectivity, etc. for extra, additional, add-on, optional, etc. devices and/or components, attached devices (e.g., direct attach, network attached, remote attach, cloud attach, add on, plug in, etc.), upgrade components, helper devices, acceleration devices, support devices, engines, expansion devices and/or modules, combinations of these and/or other components, hardware, software, firmware, devices, and the like etc.
  • The devices may have (e.g., comprise, include, execute, perform, capable of being programmed to perform, etc.) one or more device functions (e.g., telephone, video conferencing, e-mail, instant messaging, blogging, digital photography, digital video, web browsing, digital music playing, social interaction, shopping, searching, banking, combinations of these and/or other functions, and the like etc.). Instructions, help, guides, manuals, procedures, algorithms, processes, methods, techniques, etc. for performing and/or helping to perform etc. the device functions etc. may be included in a computer readable storage medium, computer readable memory medium, or other computer program product configured for execution, for example, by one or more processors.
  • The devices may include one or more processors (e.g., central processing units (CPUs), multicore CPUs, homogeneous CPUs, heterogeneous CPUs, graphics processing units (GPUs), computing arrays, CPU arrays, microprocessors, controllers, microcontrollers, engines, accelerators, compute arrays, programmable logic, DSP, combinations of these and the like etc.). Devices and/or processors etc. may include, contain, comprise, etc. one or more operating systems (OSs). Processors may use one or more machine or system architectures (e.g., ARM, Intel, x86, hybrids, emulators, other architectures, combinations of these, and the like etc.).
  • Processor architectures may use one or more privilege levels. For example, the x86 architecture may include four hardware resource privilege levels or rings. The OS kernel, for example, may run in privilege level 0 or ring 0 with complete control over the machine or system. In the Linux OS, for example, ring 0 may be kernel space, and user mode may run in ring 3.
  • A multi-core processor (multicore processor, multicore CPU, etc.) may be a single computing component (e.g., a single chip, a single logical component, a single physical component, a single package, an integrated circuit, a multi-chip package, combinations of these and the like, etc.). A multicore processor may include (e.g., comprise, contain, etc.) two or more central processing units, etc. called cores. The cores may be independent, relatively independent and/or connected, coupled, integrated, logically connected etc. in any way. The cores, for example, may be the units that read and execute program instructions. The instructions may be ordinary CPU instructions such as add, move data, and branch, but the multiple cores may run multiple instructions at the same time, increasing overall speed, for example, for programs amenable to parallel computing. Manufacturers may typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or onto multiple dies in a single chip package, but any implementation, construction, assembly, manufacture, packaging method and/or process, etc. is possible.
  • The devices may use one or more virtualization methods. Virtualization, in computing, refers to the act of creating (e.g., simulating, emulating, etc.) a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including but not limited to a virtual computer hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, computer network resources and the like.
  • For example, a hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) may be a virtualization method and may allow (e.g., permit, implement, etc.) hardware virtualization. A hypervisor may run (e.g., execute, operate, control, etc.) one or more operating systems (e.g., guest OSs, etc.) simultaneously (e.g., concurrently, at the same time, at nearly the same time, in a time multiplexed fashion, etc.), each may run on its own virtual machine (VM) on a host machine and/or host hardware (e.g., device, combination of devices, combinations of devices with other computer(s), etc.). A hypervisor, for example, may run at a higher level than a supervisor.
  • Multiple instances of OSs may share virtualized hardware resources. A hypervisor, for example, may present a virtual platform, architecture, design, etc. to a guest OS and may monitor the execution of one or more guest OSs. A Type 1 hypervisor (also type I, native, or bare metal hypervisor, etc.) may run directly on the host hardware to control the hardware and monitor guest OSs. A guest OS thus may run at a level above (e.g., logically above, etc.) a hypervisor. Examples of Type 1 hypervisors may include VMware ESXi, Citrix XenServer, Microsoft Hyper-V, etc. A Type 2 hypervisor (also type II, or hosted hypervisor) may run within a conventional OS (e.g., Linux, Windows, Apple iOS, etc.). A Type 2 hypervisor may run at a second level (e.g., logical level, etc.) above the hardware. Guest OSs may run at a third level above a Type 2 hypervisor. Examples of Type 2 hypervisors may include VMware Server, Linux KVM, VirtualBox, etc. A hypervisor thus may run one or more other hypervisors with their associated VMs. In some cases, virtualization and nested virtualization may be part of an OS. For example, Microsoft Windows 7 may run Windows XP in a VM. For example, the IBM turtles project, part of the Linux KVM hypervisor, may run multiple hypervisors (e.g., KVM and VMware, etc.) and operating systems (e.g., Linux and Windows, etc.). The term embedded hypervisor may refer to a form of hypervisor that may allow, for example, one or more applications to run above the embedded hypervisor without an OS.
  • The term hardware virtualization may refer to virtualization of machines, devices, computers, operating systems, combinations of these, etc. that may hide the physical aspects of a computer system and instead present (e.g., show, manifest, demonstrate, etc.) an abstract system (e.g., view, aspect, appearance, etc.). For example, x86 hardware virtualization may allow one or more OSs to share x86 processor resources in a secure, protected, safe, etc. manner. Initial versions of x86 hardware virtualization were implemented using software techniques to overcome the lack of processor virtualization support. Manufacturers (e.g., Intel, AMD, etc.) later added (e.g., in later generations, etc.) processor virtualization support to x86 processors, thus simplifying later versions of x86 virtualization software, etc. Continued addition of hardware virtualization features to x86 and other (e.g., ARM) processors has resulted in continued improvements (e.g., in speed, in performance, etc.) of hardware virtualization. Other virtualization methods, such as memory virtualization, I/O virtualization (IOV), etc. may be performed by a chipset, integrated with a CPU, and/or by other hardware components, etc. For example, an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) may enable guest VMs to access peripheral devices (e.g., network adapters, graphics cards, storage controllers, etc.) e.g., using DMA, interrupt remapping, etc. For example, PCI-SIG IOV may use a set of general (e.g., non-x86 specific) PCI Express (PCI-E) based native hardware I/O virtualization techniques. For example, one such technique may be Address Translation Services (ATSs) that may support native IOV across PCI-E using address translation. For example, Single Root IOV (SR-IOV) may support native IOV in single root complex PCI-E topologies. For example, Multi-Root IOV (MR-IOV) may support native IOV by expanding SR-IOV to provide multiple root complexes that may, for example, share a common PCI-E hierarchy. In SR-IOV, for example, a host VMM may configure supported devices to create and allocate virtual shadows of configuration spaces (e.g., shadow devices, etc.) so that VM guests may, for example, configure, access, etc. one or more shadow device resources.
  • The devices (e.g., device software, device firmware, device applications, OSs, combinations of these, etc.) may use one or more programs (e.g., source code, programming languages, binary code, machine code, applications, apps, functions, etc.). The programs, etc. may use (e.g., require, employ, etc.) one or more code translation techniques (e.g., process, algorithms, etc.) to translate from one form of code to another form of code, e.g., to translate from source code (e.g., readable text, abstract representations, high-level representations, graphical representations, etc.) to machine code (e.g., machine language, executable code, binary code, native code, low-level representations, etc.). For example, a compiler may translate (e.g., compile, transform, etc.) source code into object code (e.g., compiled code, etc.). For example, a linker may translate object code into machine code (e.g., linked code, loadable code, etc.). Machine code may be executed by a CPU etc. at runtime. Computer programming languages (e.g., high-level programming languages, source code, abstract representations, etc.) may be interpreted or compiled. Interpreted code may be translated (e.g., interpreted, by an interpreter, etc.), for example, to machine code during execution (e.g., at runtime, continuously, etc.). Compiled code may be translated (compiled, by a compiler, etc.), for example, to machine code once (e.g., statically, at one time, etc.) before execution. An interpreter may be classified into one or more of the following types: type 1 interpreters may, for example, execute source code directly; type 2 interpreters may, for example, compile or translate source code into an intermediate representation (e.g., intermediate code, intermediate language, temporary form, etc.) and may execute the intermediate code; type 3 interpreters may execute stored precompiled code generated by a compiler that may, for example, be part of the interpreter. For example, languages such as Lisp, etc. may use a type 1 interpreter; languages such as Perl, Python, etc. may use a type 2 interpreter; languages such as Pascal, Java, etc. may use a type 3 interpreter: Some languages, such as Smalltalk, BASIC, etc. may, for example, combine facets, features, properties, etc. of interpreters of type 2 and interpreters of type 3. There may not always, for example, be a clear distinction between interpreters and compilers. For example, interpreters may also perform some translation. For example, some programming languages may be both compiled and interpreted or may include features of both. For example, a compiler may translate source code into an intermediate form (e.g., bytecode, portable code, p-code, intermediate code, etc.), that may then be passed to an interpreter. The terms interpreted language or compiled language applied to, describing, classifying, etc. a programming language (e.g., C++ is a compiled programming language, etc.) may thus refer to an example (e.g., canonical, accepted, standard, theoretical, etc.) implementation of a programming language that may use an interpreter, compiler, etc. Thus a high-level computer programming language, for example, may be an abstract, ideal, theoretical, etc. representation that may be independent of a particular, specific, fixed, etc. implementation (e.g., independent of a compiled, interpreted version, etc.).
  • The devices (e.g., device software, device firmware, device applications, OSs, etc.) may use one or more alternative code forms, representations, etc. For example, a device may use bytecode that may be executed by an interpreter or that may be compiled. Bytecode may take any form. Bytecode may, for example, be based on (e.g., be similar to, use, etc.) hardware instructions and/or use hardware instructions in machine code. Bytecode design (e.g., format, architecture, syntax, appearance, semantics, etc.) may be based on a machine architecture (e.g., virtual stack machine, virtual register machine, etc.). Parts, portions, etc. of bytecode may be stored in files (e.g., modules, similar to object modules, etc.). Parts, portions, modules, etc. of bytecode may be dynamically loaded during execution. Intermediate code (e.g., bytecode, etc.) may be used to simplify and/or improve the performance, etc. of interpretation. Bytecode may be used, for example, in order to reduce hardware dependence, OS dependence, other dependencies, etc. by allowing the same bytecode to run on different platforms (e.g., architectures, etc.). Bytecode may be directly executed on a VM (e.g., using an interpreter, etc.). Bytecode may be translated (e.g., compiled, etc.) to machine code, e.g., to improve performance, etc. Bytecode may include compact numeric codes, constants, references, numeric addresses, etc. that may encode the result of translation, parsing, semantic analysis, etc. of the types, scopes, nesting depths, etc. of program objects, constructs, structures, etc. The use of bytecode may, for example, allow improved performance over the direct interpretation of source code. Bytecode may be executed, for example, by parsing and executing bytecode instructions, e.g., one instruction at a time. A bytecode interpreter may be portable (e.g., independent of device, machine architecture, computer system, computing platform, etc.).
  • The devices (e.g., device applications, OSs, etc.) may use one or more VMs. For example, a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) may use Java bytecode as intermediate code. Java bytecode may correspond, for example, to the instruction set of a stack-oriented architecture. For example, Oracle's JVM is called HotSpot. Examples of clean-room Java implementations may include Kaffe, IBM J9, and Dalvik. A software library (library) may be a collection of related object code. A class may be a unit of code. The Java Classloader may be part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) that may, for example, dynamically load Java classes into the JVM. Java libraries may be packaged in Jar files. Libraries may include objects of different types. One type of object in a Jar file may be a Java class. The class loader may locate libraries, read library contents, and load classes included within the libraries. Loading may, for example, be performed on demand, when the class is required by a program. Java may make use of external libraries (e.g., libraries written and provided by a third party, etc.). When a JVM is started, one or more of the following class loaders may be used: 1. bootstrap class loader; 2. extensions class loader; 3. system class loader. The bootstrap class loader, which may be part of the core JVM for example, may be written in native code and may load the core Java libraries. The extensions class loader may, for example, load code in the extensions directories. The system class loader may, for example, load code on the java.class.path stored in the system CLASSPATH variable. By default, all user classes may, for example, be loaded by the default system class loader that may be replaced by a user-defined ClassLoader. The Java Class Library may be a set of dynamically loadable libraries that Java applications may call at runtime. Because the Java Platform may be independent of any OS, the Java Platform may provide a set of standard class libraries that may, for example, include reusable functions commonly found in an OS. The Java Class Library may be almost entirely written in Java, except, for example, for some parts that may need direct access to hardware, OS functions, etc. (e.g., for I/O, graphics, etc.). The Java classes that may provide access to these functions may, for example, use native interface wrappers, code fragments, etc. to access the API of the OS. Almost all of the Java Class Library may, for example, be stored in a Java archive file rt.jar, which may be provided with JRE and JDK distributions, for example.
  • The devices (e.g., device applications, OSs, etc.) may use one or more alternative code translation methods. For example, some code translation systems, e.g., dynamic translators, just-in-time (JIT) compilers, etc. may translate bytecode into machine language (e.g., native code, etc.) on demand, as required, etc. at runtime. Thus, for example, source code may be compiled and stored as machine independent code. The machine independent code may be linked at run time and may, for example, be executed by an interpreter, compiler for JIT systems, etc. This type of translation, for example, may reduce portability, but may not reduce the portability of the bytecode itself. For example, programs may be stored in bytecode that may then be compiled using a JIT compiler that may translate bytecode to machine code. This may add a delay before a program runs and may, for example, improve execution speed relative to the direct interpretation of source code. Translation may, for example, be performed in one or more phases. For example, a first phase may compile source code to bytecode, and a second phase may translate the bytecode to a VM. There may be different VMs for different languages, representations, etc. (e.g., for Java, Python, PHP, Forth, Tcl, etc.). For example, Dalvik bytecode designed for the Android platform, for example, may be executed by the Dalvik VM. For example, the Dalvik VM may use special representations (e.g., DEX, etc.) for storing applications. For example, the Dalvik VM may use its own instruction set (e.g., based on a register-based architecture rather than stack-based architecture, etc.) rather than standard JVM bytecode, etc. Other implementations may be used. For example, the implementation of Perl, Ruby, etc. may use an abstract syntax tree (AST) representation that may be derived from the source code. For example, ActionScript (an object-oriented language that may be a superset of JavaScript, a scripting language) may execute in an ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) that may be part of Flash Player and Adobe Integrated Runtime (AIR). ActionScript code, for example, may be transformed into bytecode by a compiler. ActionScript compilers may be used, for example, in Adobe Flash Professional and in Adobe Flash Builder and may be available as part of the Adobe Flex SDK. A JVM may contain both and interpreter and JIT compiler and switch from interpretation to compilation for frequently executed code. One form of JIT compiler may, for example, represent a hybrid approach between interpreted and compiled code, and translation may occur continuously (e.g., as with interpreted code), but caching of translated code may be used e.g., to increase speed, performance, etc. JIT compilation may also offer advantages over static compiled code, e.g., the use late-bound data types, the ability to use and enforce security constraints, etc. JIT compilation may, for example, combine bytecode compilation and dynamic compilation. JIT compilation may, for example, convert code at runtime prior to executing it natively e.g., by converting bytecode into native machine code. Several runtime environments, (e.g., Microsoft .NET Framework, some implementations of Java, etc.) may, for example, use, employ, depend on, etc. JIT compilers. This specification may avoid the use of the term native machine code to avoid confusion with the terms machine code and native code.
  • The devices (e.g., device applications, OSs, etc.) may use one or more methods of emulation, simulation, etc. For example, binary translation may refer to the emulation of a first instruction set by a second instruction set, e.g., using code translation. For example, instructions may be translated from a source instruction set to a target instruction set. In some cases, such as instruction set simulation, the target instruction set may be the same as the source instruction set, and may, for example, provide testing features, debugging features, instruction trace, conditional breakpoints, hot spot detection, etc. Binary translation may be further divided into static binary translation and dynamic binary translation. Static binary translation may, for example, convert the code of an executable file to code that may run on a target architecture without, for example, having to run the code first. In dynamic binary translation, for example, the code may be run before conversion. In some cases conversion may not be direct since not all the code may be discoverable (e.g., reachable, etc.) by the translator. For example, parts of executable code may only be reached through indirect branches, with values, state, etc. needed for translation that may be known only at run-time. Dynamic binary translation may parse (e.g., process, read, etc.) a short sequence of code, may translate that code, and may cache the result of the translation. Other code may be translated as the code is discovered and/or when it is possible to be discovered. Branch instructions may point to already translated code and/or saved and/or cached (e.g., using memorization, etc.). Dynamic binary translation may differ from emulation and may eliminate the loop formed by the emulator reading, decoding, executing etc. Binary translation may, for example, add a potential disadvantage of requiring additional translation overhead. The additional translation overhead may be reduced, ameliorated, etc. as translated code is repeated, executed multiple times, etc. For example, dynamic translators (e.g., Sun/Oracle HotSpot, etc.) may use dynamic recompilation, etc. to monitor translated code and aggressively (e.g., continuously, repeatedly, in an optimized fashion, etc.) optimize code that may be frequently executed, repeatedly executed, etc. This and other optimization techniques may be similar to that of a JIT compiler, and such compilers may be viewed as performing dynamic translation from a virtual instruction set (e.g., using bytecode, etc.) to a physical instruction set.
  • The term virtualization may refer to the creation (e.g., generation, design, etc.) of a virtual version (e.g., abstract version, apparent version, appearance of, illusion rather than actual, non-tangible object, etc.) of something (e.g., an object, tangible object, etc.) that may be real (e.g., tangible, non-abstract, physical, actual, etc.). For example, virtualization may apply to a device, mobile device, computer system, machine, server, hardware platform, platform, PC, tablet, operating system (OS), storage device, network resource, software, firmware, combinations of these and/or other objects, etc. For example, a VM may provide, present, etc. a virtual version of a real machine and may run (e.g., execute, etc.) a host OS, other software, etc. A VMM may be software (e.g., monitor, controller, supervisor, etc.) that may allow one or more VMs to run (e.g., be multiplexed, etc.) on one real machine. A hypervisor may be similar to a VMM. A hypervisor, for example, may be higher in functional hierarchy (e.g., logically, etc.) than a supervisor and may, for example, manage multiple supervisors (e.g., kernels, etc.). A domain (also logical domain, etc.) may run in (e.g., execute on, be loaded to, be joined with, etc.) a VM. The relationship between VMs and domains, for example, may be similar to that between programs and processes (or threads, etc.) in an OS. A VM may be a persistent (e.g., non-volatile, stored, permanent, etc.) entity that may reside (e.g., be stored, etc.) on disk and/or other storage, loaded into memory, etc. (e.g., and be analogous to a program, application, software, etc.). Each domain may have a domain identifier (also domain ID) that may be a unique identifier for a domain, and may be analogous (e.g., equivalent, etc.), for example, to a process ID in an OS. The term live migration may be a technique that may move a running (e.g., executing, live, operational, functional, etc.) VM to another physical host (e.g., machine, system, device, etc.), without stopping (e.g., halting, terminating, etc.) the VM and/or stopping any services, processes, threads, etc. that may be running on the VM.
  • Different types of hardware virtualization may include:
      • 1. Full virtualization: Complete or almost complete simulation of actual hardware to allow software, which may include a guest operating system, to run unmodified. A VM may be (e.g., appear to be, etc.) identical (e.g., equivalent to, etc.) to the underlying hardware in full virtualization.
      • 2. Partial virtualization: Some but not all of the target environment may be simulated. Some guest programs, therefore, may need modifications to run in this type of virtual environment.
      • 3. Paravirtualization: A hardware environment is not necessarily simulated; however, the guest programs may be executed in their own isolated domains, as if they are running on a separate system. Guest programs may need to be specifically modified to run in this type of environment. A VM may differ (e.g., in appearance, in functionality, in behavior, etc.) from the underlying (e.g., native, real, etc.) hardware in paravirtualization.
  • There may be other differences between these different types of hardware virtualization environments. Full virtualization may not require modifications (e.g., changes, alterations, etc.) to the host OS and may abstract (e.g., virtualize, hide, obscure, etc.) underlying hardware. Paravirtualization may also require modifications to the host OS in order to run in a VM. In full virtualization, for example: privileged instructions and/or other system operations etc. may be handled by the hypervisor with other instructions running on native hardware. In paravirtualization, for example, code may be modified, e.g., at compile-time, run-time, etc. For example, in paravirtualization privileged instructions may be removed, modified, etc. and, for example, replaced with calls to a hypervisor, e.g., using APIs, hypercalls, etc. For example, Xen may be an example of an OS that may use paravirtualization, but may preserve binary compatibility for user-space applications, etc.
  • Virtualization may be applied to an entire OS and/or parts of an OS. For example, a kernel may be a main (e.g., basic, essential, key, etc.) software component of an OS. A kernel may form a bridge (e.g., link, coupling, layer, conduit, etc.) between applications (e.g., software, programs, etc.) and underlying hardware, firmware, software, etc. A kernel may, for example, manage, control, etc. one or more (including all) system resources e.g., CPUs, processors, I/O devices, interrupt controllers, timers, etc. A kernel may, for example, provide a low-level abstraction layer for the system resources that applications may control, manage, etc. A kernel running, for example, at the highest hardware privilege level may make system resources available to user-space applications through inter-process communication (IPC) mechanisms, system calls, etc. A microkernel may, for example, be a smaller (e.g., smaller than a kernel, etc.) OS software component. In a microkernel the majority of the kernel code may be implemented, for example, in a set of kernel servers (also just servers) that may communicate through a small kernel, using a small amount of code running in system (e.g., kernel) space and the majority of code in user space. A microkernel may, for example, consist of a simple (e.g., relative to a kernel, etc.) abstraction over (e.g., logically above, etc.) underlying hardware, with a set of primitives, system calls, other code, etc. that may implement basic (e.g., minimal, key, etc.) OS services (e.g., memory management, multitasking, IPC, etc.). Other OS services, (e.g., networking, storage drivers, high-level functions, etc.) may be implemented, for example, in one or more kernel servers. An exokernel may, for example, be similar to a microkernel but may provide a more hardware-like interface, e.g., more direct interface, etc. For example, an exokernel may be similar to a paravirtualizing VMM (e.g., Xen, etc.), but an exokernel may be designed as a distinct and separate OS structure, rather than to run multiple conventional OSs. A nanokernel may, for example, delegate (e.g., assign, etc.) virtually all services (e.g., including interrupt controllers, timers, etc.), for example to device drivers. The term operating system-level virtualization (also OS virtualization, container, virtual private server (VPS), virtual environment (VE), jail, etc.) may refer to a server virtualization technique. In OS virtualization, for example, the kernel of an OS may allow (e.g., permit, enable, implement, etc.) one or more isolated user-space instances or containers. For example, a container may appear to be a real server from the view of a user. For example, a container may be based on standard Linux chroot techniques. In addition to isolation, a kernel may control (e.g., limit, stop, regulate, manage, prevent, etc.) interaction between containers.
  • Virtualization may be applied to one or more hardware components. For example, VMs may include one or more virtual components. The hardware components and/or virtual components may be inside (e.g., included within, part of, etc.) or outside (e.g., connected to, external to, etc.) a CPU, may be part of or include parts of a memory system and/or subsystem, or may be any part or parts of a system, device, or may be any combinations of such parts and the like, etc. A memory page (also virtual page, or just page) may, for example, be a contiguous block of virtual memory of fixed-length that may be the smallest unit used for (e.g., granularity of, etc.) memory allocation performed by the OS, e.g., for a program, etc. A page table may be a data structure, hardware component, etc. used, for example, by a virtual memory system in an OS to store the mapping from virtual addresses to physical addresses. A memory management unit (MMU) may, for example, store a cache of memory mappings from the OS page table in a translation lookaside buffer (TLB). A shadow page table may be a component that is used, for example, by a technique to abstract memory layout from a VM OS. For example, one or more shadow page tables may be used in a VMM to provide an abstraction of (e.g., an appearance of, a view of, etc.) contiguous physical memory. A CPU may include one or more CPU components, circuit, blocks, etc. that may include one or more of the following, but not limited to the following: caches, TLBs, MMUs, page tables, etc. at one or more levels (e.g., L1, L2, L3, etc.). A CPU may include one or more shadow copies of one or more CPU components etc. One or more shadow page tables may be used, for example, during live migration. One or more virtual devices may include one or more physical system hardware components (e.g., CPU, memory, I/O devices, etc.) that may be virtualized (e.g., abstracted, etc.) by, for example, a hypervisor and presented to one or more domains. In this description the term virtual device, for example, may also apply to virtualization of a device (and/or part(s), portion(s) of a device, etc.) such as a mobile phone or other mobile device, electronic system, appliance, etc. A virtual device may, for example, also apply to (e.g., correspond to, represent, be equivalent to, etc.) virtualization of a collection, set, group, etc. of devices and/or other hardware components, etc.
  • Virtualization may be applied to I/O hardware, one or more I/O devices (e.g., storage devices, cameras, graphics cards, input devices, printers, network interface cards, etc.), I/O device resources, etc. For example, an IOMMU may be a MMU that connects one or more I/O devices on one or more I/O buses to the memory system. The IOMMU may, for example, map (e.g., translate, etc.) I/O device virtual addresses (e.g., device addresses, I/O addresses, etc.) to physical addresses. The IOMMU may also include memory protection (e.g., preventing and/or controlling unauthorized access to I/O devices, I/O device resources, etc.), one or more memory protection tables, etc. The IOMMU may, for example, also allow (e.g., control, manage, etc.) direct memory access (DMA) and allow (e.g., enable, etc.) one or more VMs etc. to access DMA hardware.
  • Virtualization may be applied to software (e.g., applications, programs, etc.). For example, the term application virtualization may refer to techniques that may provide one or more application features. For example, application virtualization may isolate (e.g., protect, separate, divide, insulate, etc.) applications from the underlying OS and/or from other applications. Application virtualization may, for example, enable (e.g., allow, permit, etc.) applications to be copied (e.g., streamed, transferred, pulled, pushed, sent, distributed, etc.) from a source (e.g., centralized location, control center, datacenter server, cloud server, home PC, manufacturer, distributor, licensor, etc.) to one or more target devices (e.g., user devices, mobile devices, client device, etc.). For example, application virtualization may allow (e.g., permit, enable, etc.) the creation of an isolated (e.g., a protected, a safe, an insulated, etc.) environment on a target device. A virtualized application may not necessarily be installed in a conventional (e.g., usual, normal, etc.) manner. For example, a virtualized application (e.g., files, configuration, settings, etc.) may be copied (e.g., streamed, distributed, etc.) to a target (e.g., destination, etc.) device rather than being installed, etc. The execution of a virtualized application at run time may, for example, be controlled by an application virtualization layer. A virtualized application may, for example, appear to interface directly with the OS, but may actually interface with the virtualization environment. For example, the virtualization environment may proxy (e.g., intercept, forward, manage, control, etc.) one or more (including all) OS requests. The term application streaming may refer, for example, to virtualized application techniques that may use pieces (e.g., parts, portions, etc.) of one or more applications (e.g., code, data, settings, etc.) that may be copied (e.g., streamed, transferred, downloaded, uploaded, moved, pushed, pulled, etc.) to a target device. A software collection (e.g., set, distribution, distro, bundle, package, etc.) may, for example, be a set of software components built, assembled, configured, and ready for use, execution, installation, etc. Applications may be streamed, for example, as one or more collections. Application streaming may, for example, be performed on demand (e.g., as required, etc.) instead of copying or installing an entire application before startup. In some cases a streamed application may, for example, require the installation of a lightweight application on a target device. A streamed application and/or application collections may, for example, be delivered using one or more networking protocols (e.g., HTTP, HTTPS, CIFS, SMB, RTSP, etc.). The term desktop virtualization (also virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI), etc.) may refer, for example, to an application that may be hosted in a VM (or blade PC, appliance, etc.) and that may also include an OS. VDI techniques may, for example, include control of (e.g., management infrastructure for, automated creation of, etc.) one or more virtual desktops. The term session virtualization may refer, for example, to techniques that may use application streaming to deliver applications to one or more hosting servers (e.g., in a remote datacenter, cloud server, cloud service, etc.). The application may then, for example, execute on the hosting server(s). A user may then, for example, connect to (e.g., login, access, etc.) the application, hosting server(s), etc. The user and/or user device may, for example, send input (e.g., mouse-click, keystroke, mouse or other pointer location, audio, video, location, sensor data, control data, combinations of these and/or other data, information, user input, etc.) to the application, e.g., on the hosting server(s), etc. The hosting server(s) may, for example, respond by sending output (e.g., screen updates, text, video, audio, signals, code, data, information, etc.) to the user device. A sandbox may, for example, isolate (e.g., insulate, separate, divide, etc.) one or more applications, programs, software, etc. For example, an OS may place an application (e.g., code, preferences, configuration, data, etc.) in a sandbox (e.g., at install time, at boot, or any time). A sandbox may, for example, include controls that may limit the application access (e.g., to files, preferences, network, hardware, firmware, other applications, etc.). As part of the sandbox process, technique, etc. an OS may, for example, install one or more applications in one or more separate sandbox directories (e.g., repositories, storage locations, etc.) that may store the application, application data, configuration data, settings, preferences, files, and/or other information, etc.
  • Devices may, for example, be protected from accidental faults (e.g., programming errors, bugs, data corruption, hardware faults, network faults, link faults, etc.) or malicious (e.g., deliberate, etc.) attacks (e.g., virus, malware, denial of service attacks, root kits, etc.) by various security, safety, protection mechanisms etc. For example, CPUs etc. may include one or more protection rings (or just rings, also hierarchical protection domains, domains, privilege levels, etc.). A protection ring may, for example, include one or more hierarchical levels (e.g., logical layers, etc.) of privilege (e.g., access rights, permissions, gating, etc.). For example, an OS may run (e.g., execute, operate, etc.) in a protection ring. Different protection rings may provide different levels of access (e.g., for programs, applications, etc.) to resources (e.g., hardware, memory, etc.). Rings may be arranged in a hierarchy ranging from the most privileged ring (e.g., most trusted ring, highest ring, inner ring, etc.) to the least privileged ring (e.g., least trusted ring, lowest ring, outer ring, etc.). For example, ring 0 may be a ring that may interact most directly with the real hardware (e.g., CPU, memory, I/O devices, etc.). For example, in a machine without virtualization, ring 0 may contain the OS, kernel, etc.; ring 1 and ring 2 may contain device drivers, etc.; ring 3 may contain user applications, programs, etc. For example, ring 1 may correspond to kernel space (e.g., kernel mode, master mode, supervisor mode, privileged mode, supervisor state, etc.). For example, ring 3 may correspond to user space (e.g., user mode, user state, slave mode, problem state, etc.). There is no fundamental restriction to the use of rings and, in general, any ring may correspond to any type of space, etc.
  • One or more gates (e.g., hardware gates, controls, call instructions, other hardware and/or software techniques, etc.) may be logically located (e.g., placed, situated, etc.) between rings to control (e.g., gate, secure, manage, etc.) communication, access, resources, transition, etc. between rings e.g., gate the access of an outer ring to resources of an inner ring, etc. For example, there may be gates or call instructions that may transfer control (e.g., may transition, exchange, etc.) to defined entry points in lower-level rings. For example, gating communication or transitions between rings may prevent programs in a first ring from misusing resources of programs in a second ring. For example, software running in ring 3 may be gated from controlling hardware that may only be controlled by device drivers running in ring 1. For example, software running in ring 3 may be required to request access to network resources that may be gated to software running in ring 1.
  • One or more coupled devices may form a collection, federation, confederation, assembly, set, group, cluster, etc. of devices. A collection of devices may perform operations, processing, computation, functions, etc. in a distributed fashion, manner, etc. In a collection etc. of devices that may perform distributed processing, it may be important to control the order of execution, how updates are made to files and/or databases, and/or other aspects of collective computation, etc. One or more models, frameworks, etc. may describe, define, etc. the use of operations etc. and may use a set of definitions, rules, syntax, semantics, etc. using the concepts of transactions, tasks, composable tasks, noncomposable tasks, etc.
  • For example, a bank account transfer operation (e.g., a type of transaction, etc.) might be decomposed (e.g., broken, separated, etc.) into the following steps: withdraw funds from a first account one and deposit funds into a second account.
  • The transfer operation may be atomic. For example, if either step one fails or step two fails (or a computer crashes between step one and step two, etc.) the entire transfer operation should fail. There should be no possibility (e.g., state, etc.) that the funds are withdrawn from the first account but not deposited into the second account.
  • The transfer operation may be consistent. For example, after the transfer operation succeeds, any other subsequent transaction should see the results of the transfer operation.
  • The transfer operation may be isolated. For example, if another transaction tries to simultaneously perform an operation on either the first or second accounts, what they do to those accounts should not affect the outcome of the transfer option.
  • The transfer operation may be durable. For example, after the transfer operation succeeds, if a computer should fail etc., there may be a record that the transfer took place.
  • The terms tasks, transactions, composable, noncomposable, etc. may have different meanings in different contexts (e.g., with different uses, in different applications, etc.). One set of frameworks (e.g., systems, applications, etc.) that may be used, for example, for transaction processing, database processing, etc. may be languages (e.g., computer languages, programming languages, etc.) such as structured transaction definition language (STDL), structured query language (SQL), etc.
  • For example, a transaction may be a set of operations, actions, etc. to files, databases, etc. that must take place as a set, group, etc. For example, operations may include read, write, add, delete, etc. All the operations in the set must complete or all operations may be reversed. Reversing the effects of a set of operations may roll back the transaction. If the transaction completes, the transaction may be committed. After a transaction is committed, the results of the set of operations may be available to other transactions.
  • For example, a task may be a procedure that may control execution flow, delimit or demarcate transactions, handle exceptions, and may call procedures to perform, for example, processing functions, computation, access files, access databases (e.g., processing procedures) or obtain input, provide output (e.g., presentation procedures).
  • For example, a composable task may execute within a transaction. For example, a noncomposable task may demarcate (e.g., delimit, set the boundaries for, etc.) the beginning and end of a transaction. A composable task may execute within a transaction started by a noncomposable task. Therefore, the composable task may always be part of another task's work. Calling a composable task may be similar to calling a processing procedure, e.g., based on a call and return model. Execution of the calling task may continue only when the called task completes. Control may pass to the called task (possibly with parameters, etc.), and then control may return to the calling task. The composable task may always be part of another task's transaction. A noncomposable task may call a composable task and both tasks may be located on different devices. In this case, their transaction may be a distributed transaction. There may be no logical distinction between a distributed and nondistributed transaction.
  • Transactions may compose. For example, the process of composition may take separate transactions and add them together to create a larger single transaction. A composable system, for example, may be a system whose component parts do not interfere with each other.
  • For example, a distributed car reservation system may access remote databases by calling composable tasks in remote task servers. For example, a reservation task at a rental site may call a task at the central site to store customer data in the central site rental database. The reservation task may call another task at the central site to store reservation data in the central site rental database and the history database.
  • The use of composable tasks may enable a library of common functions to be implemented as tasks. For example, applications may require similar processing steps, operations, etc. to be performed at multiple stages, points, etc. For example, applications may require one or more tasks to perform the same processing function. Using a library, for example, common functions may be called from multiple points within a task or from different tasks.
  • A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where a known resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. A URL consists of the following: the scheme name (also called protocol, e.g., http, https, etc.), colon (“:”), domain name (or IP address), a port number, and the path of the resource to be fetched. The syntax of a URL is scheme://domain:port/path.
  • The HTTP is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
  • The HTTPS is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) and is a combination of the HTTP with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide encrypted communication and secure identification.
  • A session is a sequence of network request-response transactions.
  • An IP address is a binary number assigned to a device on an IP network, e.g., 172.16.254.1 (32-bit dot-decimal notation for IPv4) or 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (128-bit IPv6).
  • A domain name consists of one or more concatenated labels delimited by dots (periods), e.g., en.wikipedia.org. The domain name en.wikipedia.org includes labels en (the leaf domain), wikipedia (the second-level domain) and org (the top-level domain).
  • A hostname is a domain name that has at least one IP address. A hostname is used to identify a device (e.g., in an IP network, on the World Wide Web, in an e-mail header, etc.). Note that all hostnames are domain names, but not all domain names are hostnames. For example, both en.wikipedia.org and wikipedia.org are hostnames if they both have IP addresses assigned to them. The domain name xyz.wikipedia.org is not a hostname if it does not have an IP address, but aa.xyz.wikipedia.org is a hostname if it does have an IP address.
  • A domain name that consists of one or more parts, the labels that are concatenated and delimited by dots, such as example.com, represents a hierarchy. The right-most label conveys the top-level domain; for example, the domain name www.example.com belongs to the top-level domain com. The hierarchy of domains descends from the right to the left label in the name; each label to the left specifies a subdivision, or subdomain of the domain to the right. For example, the label example specifies a node example.com as a subdomain of the com domain, and www is a label to create www.example.com, a subdomain of example.com.
  • The DHCP is the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (described in RFC 1531 and RFC 2131) and is an automatic configuration protocol for IP networks. When a DHCP-configured device (DHCP client) connects to a network, the DHCP client sends a broadcast query requesting an IP address from a DHCP server that maintains a pool of IP addresses. The DHCP server assigns the DHCP client an IP address and lease (the length of time the IP address is valid).
  • A Media Access Control address (MAC address, also Ethernet hardware address (EHA), hardware address, physical address) is a unique identifier (e.g., 00-B0-D0-86-BB-F7) assigned to a network interface (e.g., address of a Network Interface Card (NIC), etc.) for communications on a physical network (e.g., Ethernet).
  • A trusted path (and thus trusted user, and/or trusted device, etc.) is a mechanism that provides confidence that a user is communicating with what the user intended to communicate with, ensuring that attackers cannot intercept or modify the information being communicated.
  • A proxy server (also proxy) is a server that acts as an intermediary (e.g., gateway, go-between, helper, relay, etc.) for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting a service (e.g., file, connection, web page, or other resource, etc.) available from a different server, the origin server. The proxy server provides the resource by connecting to the origin server and requesting the service on behalf of the client. A proxy server may alter the client request or the server response.
  • A forward proxy located in an internal network receives requests from users inside an internal network and forwards the requests to the Internet outside the internal network. A forward proxy typically acts a gateway for a client browser (e.g., user, client, etc.) on an internal network and sends HTTP requests on behalf of the client browser to the Internet. The forward proxy protects the internal network by hiding the client IP address by using the forward proxy IP address. The external HTTP server on the Internet sees requests originating from the forward proxy, rather than the client.
  • A reverse proxy (also origin-side proxy, server-side proxy) located in an internal network receives requests from Internet users outside the internal network and forwards the requests to origin servers in the internal network. Users connect to the reverse proxy and may not be aware of the internal network. A reverse proxy on an internal network typically acts as a gateway to an HTTP server on the internal network by acting as the final IP address for requests from clients that are outside the internal network. A firewall is typically used with the reverse proxy to ensure that only the reverse proxy can access the HTTP servers behind the reverse proxy. The external client sees the reverse proxy as the HTTP server.
  • An open proxy forwards requests to and from anywhere on the Internet.
  • In network computing, the term de-militarized zone (DMZ, also perimeter network), is used to describe a network (e.g., physical network, logical subnetwork, etc.) exposed to a larger untrusted network (e.g., Internet, cloud, etc.). A DMZ may, for example, expose external services (e.g., of an organization, company, device, etc.). One function of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to a local area network (LAN). In the event of an external attack, the attacker only has access to resources (e.g., equipment, server(s), router(s), etc.) in the DMZ.
  • In the HTTP protocol a redirect is a response (containing header, status code, message body, etc.) to a request (e.g., GET, etc.) that directs a client (e.g., browser, etc.) to go to another location (e.g., site, URL, etc.)
  • A localhost (as described for example in RFC 2606) is the hostname given to the address of the loopback interface (also virtual loopback interface, loopback network interface, loopback device, network loopback) i.e., this computer. For example, directing a browser on a computer running an HTTP server to a loopback address (e.g., http://localhost, http://127.0.0.1, etc.) may display the web site of the computer (assuming a web server is running on the computer and is properly configured). Using a loopback address allows connection to any locally hosted network service (e.g., computer game server, or other inter-process communications, etc.).
  • The localhost hostname corresponds to an IPv4 address in the 127.0.0.0/8 net block i.e., 127.0.0.1 (for IPv4, see RFC 3330) or ::1 (for IPv6, see RFC 3513). The most common IP address for the loopback interface is 127.0.0.1 for IPv4, but any address in the range 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 maps to the loopback device. The routing table of an operating system (OS) may contain an entry so that traffic (e.g., packet, network traffic, IP datagram, etc.) with destination IP address set to a loopback address (the loopback destination address) is routed internally to the loopback interface. In the TCP/IP stack of an OS the loopback interface is typically contained in software (and not connected to any network hardware).
  • An Internet socket (also network socket or just socket) is an endpoint of a bidirectional inter-process communication (IPC) flow across a network (e.g., IP-based computer network such as the Internet, etc.). The term socket is also used for the API for the TCP/IP protocol stack. Sockets provide the mechanism to deliver incoming data packets to a process (e.g., application, program, application process, thread, etc.), based on a combination of local (also source) IP address, local port number, remote (also destination) IP address, and remote port number. Each socket is mapped by the OS to a process. A socket address is the combination of an IP address and a port number.
  • Communication between server and client (which are types of endpoints) may use a socket. Communicating local and remote sockets are socket pairs. A socket pair is described by a unique 4-tuple (e.g., four numbers, four sets of numbers, etc.) of source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, destination port number, i.e., local and remote socket addresses. For TCP, each socket pair is assigned a unique socket number. For UDP, each local socket address is assigned a unique socket number.
  • A computer program may be described using one or more function calls (e.g., macros, subroutines, routines, processes, etc.) written as function_name( ), where function_name is the name of the function. The process (e.g., a computer program, etc.) by which a local server establishes a TCP socket may include (but is not limited to) the following steps and functions:
      • 1. socket( ) creates a new local socket.
      • 2. bind( ) associates (binds) e.g., links, ties, etc. the local socket with a local socket address i.e., a local port number and IP address (the socket and port are thus bound to a software application running on the server).
      • 3. listen( ) causes a bound local socket to enter the listen state.
  • A remote client then establishes connections with the following steps:
      • 1. socket( ) creates a new remote socket.
      • 2. connect( ) assigns a free local port number to the remote socket and attempts to establishes a new connection with the local server.
  • The local server then establishes the new connection with the following step:
      • 1. accept( ) accepts the request to create a new connection from the remote client.
  • Client and server may now communicate using send( ) and receive( ).
  • An abstraction of the architecture of the World Wide Web is REpresentational State Transfer (REST). The REST architectural style was developed by W3C Technical Architecture Group (TAG) in parallel with HTTP 1.1, based on the existing design of HTTP 1.0 The World Wide Web represents the largest implementation of a system conforming to the REST architectural style. A REST architectural style may consist of a set of constraints applied to components, connectors, and data elements, e.g., within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. REST may be used to describe desired web architecture, to identify existing problems, to compare alternative solutions and to ensure that protocol extensions do not violate the core constraints of the web. The REST architectural style may also be applied to the development of web services as an alternative to other distributed-computing specifications such as SOAP.
  • The REST architectural style describes six constraints: (1) Uniform Interface. The uniform interface constraint defines the interface between clients and servers. It simplifies and decouples the architecture, which enables each part to evolve independently. The uniform interface that any REST services must provide is fundamental to its design. The four principles of the uniform interface are: (1.1) Resource-Based. Individual resources are identified in requests using URIs as resource identifiers. The resources themselves are conceptually separate from the representations that are returned to the client. For example, the server does not send its database, but rather, some HTML, XML or JSON that represents some database records expressed, for instance, in Finnish and encoded in UTF-8, depending on the details of the request and the server implementation.
  • Manipulation of Resources Through Representations
  • When a client holds a representation of a resource, including any metadata attached, it has enough information to modify or delete the resource on the server, provided it has permission to do so. (1.3) Self-descriptive Messages. Each message includes enough information to describe how to process the message. For example, which parser to invoke may be specified by an Internet media type (previously known as a MIME type). Responses also explicitly indicate their cache-ability. (1.4) Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State (HATEOAS). Clients deliver state via body contents, query-string parameters, request headers and the requested URI (the resource name). Services deliver state to clients via body content, response codes, and response headers. This is technically referred-to as hypermedia (or hyperlinks within hypertext). HATEOAS also means that, where necessary, links are contained in the returned body (or headers) to supply the URI for retrieval of the object itself or related objects. (2) Stateless. The necessary state to handle the request is contained within the request itself, whether as part of the URI, query-string parameters, body, or headers. The URI uniquely identifies the resource and the body contains the state (or state change) of that resource. Then, after the server completes processing, the appropriate state, or the piece(s) of state that matter, are communicated back to the client via headers, status and response body. A container provides the concept of “session” that maintains state across multiple HTTP requests. In REST, the client must include all information for the server to fulfill the request, resending state as necessary if that state must span multiple requests. Statelessness enables greater scalability since the server does not have to maintain, update, or communicate that session state. Additionally, load balancers do not have to deal with session affinity for stateless systems. State, or application state, is that which the server cares about to fulfill a request—data necessary for the current session or request. A resource, or resource state, is the data that defines the resource representation—the data stored in the database, for instance. Application state may be data that could vary by client, and per request. Resource state, on the other hand, is constant across every client who requests it. (3) Cacheable. Clients may cache responses. Responses must therefore, implicitly or explicitly, define themselves as cacheable, or not, to prevent clients reusing stale or inappropriate data in response to further requests. Well-managed caching partially or completely eliminates some client-server interactions, further improving scalability and performance. (4) Client-Server. The uniform interface separates clients from servers. This separation of concerns means that, for example, clients are not concerned with data storage, which remains internal to each server, so that the portability of client code is improved. Servers are not concerned with the user interface or user state, so that servers can be simpler and more scalable. Servers and clients may also be replaced and developed independently, as long as the interface is not altered. (5) Layered System. A client cannot ordinarily tell whether it is connected directly to the end server, or to an intermediary along the way. Intermediary servers may improve system scalability by enabling load-balancing and by providing shared caches. Layers may also enforce security policies. (6) Code on Demand (optional). Servers are able to temporarily extend or customize the functionality of a client by transferring logic to the client that the client can execute. Examples of this may include compiled components such as Java applets and client-side scripts such as JavaScript. Complying with these constraints, and thus conforming to the REST architectural style, will enable any kind of distributed hypermedia system to have desirable emergent properties, such as performance, scalability, simplicity, modifiability, visibility, portability, and reliability. The only optional constraint of REST architecture is code on demand. If a service violates any other constraint, it cannot strictly be referred to as RESTful.
  • In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) specifies how software components should interact with each other. In addition to accessing databases or computer hardware, such as hard disk drives or video cards, an API may be used to simplify the programming of graphical user interface components. An API may be provided in the form of a library that includes specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, and variables. In other cases, notably for SOAP and REST services, an API may be provided as a specification of remote calls exposed to the API consumers. An API specification may take many forms, including an International Standard such as POSIX, vendor documentation such as the Microsoft Windows API, the libraries of a programming language, e.g., Standard Template Library in C++ or Java API. Web APIs may also be a component of the web fabric. An API may differ from an application binary interface (ABI) in that an API may be source code based while an ABI may be a binary interface. For instance POSIX may be an API, while the Linux Standard Base may be an ABI.
  • Overview
  • Typically in DNS, servers resolve to one or more domain names (also sometimes just names), and these domain names consist of a top level domain or TLD (i.e., including suffixes such as .com .net, etc.), a label (also sometimes just domain name) or second-level domain (i.e., using labels or names such as yoics, weaved, google and the like, etc.), and a sub domain (i.e., using prefixes such as www, mail), to form a complete domain name of www.weaved.com or mail.google.com, etc.
  • SSL certificates come in several types of flavors, including, for example, single name certificates (i.e., for single names such as www.weaved.com, etc.), multi-name certificates (i.e., such as for www.weaved.com and mail.weaved.com, etc.), and wildcard certificates (i.e., such as for *.weaved.com, etc.). In this example, *.weaved.com”, uses an asterisk character to serve as a wildcard character, however other characters or character sequences can serve as a wildcard character.
  • Since the DNS system is setup to handle only zones that are subdomain based, there is no easy way to be flexible in subdomain naming. For example, in the legacy DNS architecture, one cannot establish (e.g., using a DNS record) “*1.weaved.com” and “*2.weaved.com” to refer to different machines. Instead, the legacy DNS architecture limits the options to using *.p1.weaved.com to address one machine with any subdomain, and *.p2.weaved.com to address a different machine.
  • Further, an SSL wildcard certificate can only refer to one level (i.e., only valid for *.weaved.com and not *.p1.weaved.com). In the latter case an additional certificate would be required to refer to *.p1.weaved.com. Wildcard certificates are expensive and generating a CSR, private key, and certificate for each server also presents an even more expensive management problem.
  • An improved system and technique would be able to specify *p1.weaved.com to refer to one machine and *p2.weaved.com to refer to another machine, where any matching name (e.g., aap1.weaved.com, abp1.weaved.com, etc.) would resolve to one machine. Thus, in one embodiment, only one certificate is needed to service all machines, thus reducing cost and complexity of deploying to a server farm, etc.
  • Thus, in one embodiment a fractional subdomain, as described above, splits a subdomain into a server/IP/address identifier and a wildcard resource (e.g., www.p1.weaved.com, having resource=www, and server=p1). One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that in some embodiments this technique can be combined with other techniques. For example, in one embodiment, a fractional subdomain may be combined with a random subdomain naming method to provide unlimited keyed resources per machine using the same certificate.
  • Further details regarding a general approach to random subdomain naming methods are described in U.S. application Ser. No. 13/918,773, titled “NETWORKING SYSTEMS” (DocketID YOICP003) filed Jun. 14, 2013, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • In one embodiment, a DNS server serves these name resolutions by chopping off the machine identifier or by employing a mask or wildcard match of the subdomain name to use for DNS resolution. In this case, if a valid subdomain of *p1 is specified, the DNS server can be configured to use the wildcard semantic of the “*” character so as to match to the p1 part to resolve a domain/subdomain name irrespective of the portion matched by the “*” character.
  • Thus, legacy DNS capability in consideration of SSL certificate limitations presents challenges to secure and cost-effective Internet device scalability. In particular, the handling of wildcards in both the DNS and SSL certificates impacts scalability. For example, legacy DNS capability will only accept wildcards in the left-most subdomain (e.g., *.example.com). In legacy DNS systems, to have multiple subdomains translate to two different servers (e.g., servers s1 and s2 to manage resource loading), multiple wildcard DNS records unique to each server (e.g., *.s1.example.com and *.s2.example.com) are required. Likewise, in legacy DNS systems, a wildcard SSL certificate can only serve one subdomain level (e.g., *.s1.example.com), so a separate certificate for each server is required, given the aforementioned DNS addressing limitation. The restrictions of these legacy protocols and systems therefore limit the scaling of devices on the Internet (e.g., adding servers, subdomains, etc.) in a secure and cost-effective manner (e.g., minimizing the deployment of SSL certificates, managing server loading).
  • The present disclosure provides an improved method, system, and computer program product suited to address the aforementioned issues with legacy approaches. More specifically, the present disclosure provides a detailed description of techniques used in methods, systems, and computer program products for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. The claimed embodiments address the problem of cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet. More specifically, some claims are directed to approaches for rapidly adding device subdomains while minimizing the deployment of digital security certificates by observing a fractional subdomain specification and translation protocol, which claims advance the technical fields related to cost-effectively scaling the number of devices securely connected to the Internet, as well as advancing peripheral technical fields. Some claims improve the functioning of multiple systems within the disclosed environments.
  • In one embodiment, the present disclosure describes methods, systems, and computer program products that enable a DNS server to receive a URL query (e.g., “d1s1.xyz.com”, for target device “d1” served by host server “s1”) and parse the fractional subdomain (e.g., “d1s1”) into different portions (e.g., target device portion “d1” and target host server portion “s1”). In one embodiment, the DNS server can further be enabled to generate a parsed wildcard URL (e.g., “*s1.xyz.com”) to synthesize an IP address response from a resource record. In one embodiment, this allows the network provider to rapidly add or scale devices and subdomains used to identify those devices, while also managing host server resource loading and SSL certificate deployment.
  • Conventions and Terms
  • Some of the terms used in this description are defined below for easy reference. The presented terms and their respective definitions are not rigidly restricted to these definitions—a term may be further defined by the term's use within this disclosure. The term “exemplary” is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs. Rather, use of the word exemplary is intended to present concepts in a concrete fashion. As used in this application and the appended claims, the term “or” is intended to mean an inclusive “or” rather than an exclusive “or”. That is, unless specified otherwise, or is clear from the context, “X employs A or B” is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A, X employs B, or X employs both A and B, then “X employs A or B” is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. The articles “a” and “an” as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean “one or more” unless specified otherwise or is clear from the context to be directed to a singular form.
  • If any definitions (e.g., figure reference signs, specialized terms, examples, data, information, definitions, conventions, glossary, etc.) from any related material (e.g., parent application, other related application, material incorporated by reference, material cited, extrinsic reference, etc.) conflict with this application (e.g., abstract, description, summary, claims, etc.) for any purpose (e.g., prosecution, claim support, claim interpretation, claim construction, etc.), then the definitions in this application shall apply.
  • This section may include terms and definitions that may be applicable to all embodiments described in this specification and/or described in specifications incorporated by reference. Terms that may be special to the field of the various embodiments of the disclosure or specific to this description may, in some circumstances, be defined in this description. Further, the first use of such terms (which may include the definition of that term) may be highlighted in italics just for the convenience of the reader. Similarly, some terms may be capitalized, again just for the convenience of the reader. It should be noted that such use of italics and/or capitalization and/or use of other conventions, styles, formats, etc. by itself, should not be construed as somehow limiting such terms beyond any given definition, and/or to any specific embodiments disclosed herein, etc.
  • The terms that are explained, described, defined, etc. here and other related terms in the fields of systems design may have different meanings depending, for example, on their use, context, etc. For example, task may carry a generic or general meaning encompassing, for example, the notion of work to be done, etc. or may have a very specific meaning particular to a computer language construct (e.g., in STDL or similar). For example, the term transaction may be used in a very general sense or as a very specific term in a computer program or computer language, etc. Where confusion may arise over these and other related terms, further clarification may be given at their point of use herein.
  • Reference is now made in detail to certain embodiments. The disclosed embodiments are not intended to be limiting of the claims.
  • Descriptions of Exemplary Embodiments
  • FIG. 1 is an environment 100 that exemplifies the need for a multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol. As an option, one or more instances of environment 100 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in the context of the architecture and functionality of the embodiments described herein. Also, environment 100 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in any desired environment.
  • As shown in FIG. 1, environment 1-100 comprises various computing systems interconnected by a network 1-108. Network 1-108 can comprise any combination of a wide area network (WAN), local area network (LAN), wireless network, wireless LAN (WLAN), or any similar means for enabling communication of computing systems. Network 1-108 can also collectively be referred to as the Internet. Environment 1-100 specifically comprises a representative domain name system (e.g., DNS server 1-111), a representative first host server 1-112, a representative second host server 1-113, a representative instance of a user device 1-110, a representative first target device 1-114, a representative second target device 1-115, and a variety of types and instances of devices 1-110, 1-113, and 1-114 (e.g., a router 1-101, a laptop 1-102, a web camera 1-103, a mobile phone 1-104, a tablet 1-105, a desktop 1-106, and a storage device 1-107). User device 1-110 and target devices 1-114 and 1-115 can represent any type of device as described in this disclosure. A protocol 1-120 depicts operations and communications on and among user device 1-110, DNS server 1-111, first host server 1-112, second host server 1-113, first target device 1-114, and second target device 1-115. Specifically, protocol 1-120 represents the key activities required in legacy DNS and SSL protocols and systems to establish secure connections with first target device 1-114 and second target device 1-115 through multiple separate servers, first host server 1-112 and second host server 1-113, respectively.
  • In protocol 1-120, a user at user device 1-110 causes (e.g., by clicking a link, entering a URL, etc.) user device 1-110 to request the location of URL “d1.s1.xyz.com” (e.g., first target device 1-114) from DNS server 1-111. DNS server 1-111 will parse the URL octets and apply the resource records on DNS server 1-111 and any associated DNS or name servers to map the requested URL to a wildcard location “*.s1.xyz.com” and synthesize and return the IP address of “1.1.1.1” to user device 1-110. User device 1-110 communicates with the computing system at IP address “1.1.1.1” or first host server 1-112 to request an SSL connection. First host server 1-112 selects and serves the wildcard certificate associated with “*.s1.xyz.com” based on the initial URL request. User device 1-110 verifies the certificate allowing first host server 1-112 to perform various subsequent operations (not shown) to establish a secure connection between user device 1-110 and first target device 1-114.
  • The user at user device 1-110 can then request the location of URL “d2.s2.xyz.com” (e.g., second target device 1-115) from DNS server 1-111. DNS server 1-111 will parse the URL octets and apply the resource records on DNS server 1-111 and any associated DNS or name servers to map the requested URL to a wildcard location “*.s2.xyz.com” and synthesize and return the IP address of “2.2.2.2” to user device 1-110. User device 1-110 communicates with the computing system at IP address “2.2.2.2” or second host server 1-113 to request an SSL connection. Second host server 1-113 selects and serves the wildcard certificate associated with “*.s2.xyz.com” based on the initial URL request. User device 1-110 verifies the certificate allowing second host server 1-113 to perform various subsequent operations (not shown) to establish a secure connection between user device 1-110 and second target device 1-115.
  • Protocol 1-120 reveals that in order to connect to target devices served by separate host servers, legacy DNS and SSL protocols and systems require separate SSL certificates for each host server. This restriction limits the scaling of devices on the Internet (e.g., adding servers, subdomains, etc.) in a secure and cost-effective manner (e.g., minimizing the deployment of SSL certificates, managing server loading, etc.).
  • FIG. 2 depicts a protocol 1-200 for DNS processing of multi-server fractional subdomains, in one embodiment. As an option, one or more instances of protocol 1-200 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in the context of the architecture and functionality of the embodiments described herein. Also, protocol 1-200 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in any desired environment.
  • As shown in FIG. 2, protocol 1-200 depicts operations and communications on and among a user device 1-210, a fractional DNS server 1-211, a first host server 1-212, a first target device 1-214, a second host server 1-213, and a second target device 1-215. Components 1-210 through 1-215 are similar to components 1-110 through 1-115 of environment 1-100, although fractional DNS server 1-211 is capable of processing multi-server fractional subdomains as described herein. Specifically, protocol 1-200 represents the key activities required in DNS and SSL protocols and systems using multi-server fractional subdomains to establish secure connections with first target device 1-114 and second target device 1-115 through multiple separate servers, such as first host server 1-112 and second host server 1-113, respectively. The example shown in protocol 1-200 can represent the scaling of devices on the Internet (e.g., adding servers, subdomains, etc.) in a secure and cost-effective manner (e.g., minimizing the deployment of SSL certificates, managing server loading, etc.).
  • Specifically, in protocol 1-200, a user at user device 1-210 causes (e.g., by clicking a link, entering a URL, etc.) user device 1-210 to request the location of URL “d1s1.xyz.com” (e.g., first target device 1-214) from fractional DNS server 1-211. Fractional DNS server 1-211 responds by first parsing the URL octets to determine the TLD, domain and subdomain(s). Fractional DNS server 1-211 then parses subdomain “d1s1”, distinguishing between the target host server portion (e.g., “s1”) and the target device portion (e.g., “d1”) of the subdomain. Fractional DNS server 1-211 algorithms and resource records direct fractional DNS server 1-211 to map the requested URL to a wildcard location “*s1.xyz.com” and synthesize and return the IP address of “1.1.1.1” to user device 1-210. Parsing the fractional subdomain and generating and synthesizing from the multi-server wildcard format shown comprise, in part, the multi-server fractional subdomain processing capability 1-220 1 of the present disclosure. User device 1-210 communicates with the computing system at IP address “1.1.1.1” or first host server 1-212 to request an SSL connection. First host server 1-212 selects and serves the wildcard certificate associated with “*.xyz.com” based on the initial URL request. User device 1-210 verifies the certificate allowing first host server 1-212 to perform various subsequent operations (not shown) to establish a secure connection between user device 1-210 and first target device 1-214.
  • The user at user device 1-210 can then request the location of URL “d2s2.xyz.com” (e.g., second target device 1-215) from fractional DNS server 1-211. Fractional DNS server 1-211 responds by first parsing the URL octets to determine the TLD, domain, and subdomain(s). Fractional DNS server 1-211 then parses subdomain “d2s2”, distinguishing between the target host server portion (e.g., “s2”) and the target device portion (e.g., “d2”) of the subdomain. Fractional DNS server 1-211 algorithms and resource records direct fractional DNS server 1-211 to map the requested URL to a wildcard location “*s2.xyz.com” and synthesize and return the IP address of “2.2.2.2” to user device 1-210. Parsing the fractional subdomain and generating and synthesizing from the multi-server wildcard format shown comprise, in part, the multi-server fractional subdomain processing capability 1-220 2 of the present disclosure. User device 1-210 communicates with the computing system at IP address “2.2.2.2” or second host server 1-213 to request an SSL connection. Second host server 1-213 selects and serves the wildcard certificate associated with “*.xyz.com” based on the initial URL request. User device 1-210 verifies the certificate allowing second host server 1-213 to perform various subsequent operations (not shown) to establish a secure connection between user device 1-210 and second target device 1-215.
  • Protocol 1-200 reveals that a DNS server capable of processing multi-server fractional subdomains as described herein (e.g., fractional DNS server 1-211) allows the scaling of devices on the Internet (e.g., adding servers, subdomains, etc.) in a secure and cost-effective manner (e.g., minimizing the deployment of SSL certificates, managing server loading, etc.). Specifically, protocol 1-200 allows a user to securely connect to multiple devices served through multiple host servers with a single SSL certificate (or reduced number of SSL certificates relative to legacy systems). This allows the network provider to rapidly add or scale devices and subdomains used to identify those devices (e.g., using a random subdomain generator) while also managing host server resource loading and SSL certificate deployment.
  • FIG. 3 represents a flow chart of a method 1-300 for processing of multi-server fractional subdomains. As an option, one or more instances of method 1-300 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in the context of the architecture and functionality of the embodiments described herein. Also, method 1-300 or any aspect thereof may be implemented in any desired environment. Specifically, method 1-300 can be executed on a computing system similar to fractional DNS server 1-211 described herein, independently or in conjunction with other components and systems (e.g., software programs, databases, file servers, name servers, storage devices, cache storage, etc.).
  • As shown in FIG. 3, method 1-300 will first receive a URL query for “d1s1.xyz.com” (e.g., for target device “d1” served by host server “s1”). Method 1-300 will then parse the URL octets against the “.” delimiter to distinguish a TLD of “com”, a domain of “xyz” and subdomain of “d1s1”. Method 1-300 will then parse the fractional subdomain “d1s1” into a target device portion “d1” and target host server portion “s1”. The fractional subdomain parsing step can be implemented by establishing certain subdomain structure rules and various parsing techniques (e.g., TOKEN: {<DEVICE: “d” ([“0”-“9”])+>|<SERVER: “s” ([“0”-“9”])+>}). Method 1-300 will then generate a multi-server wildcard URL “*s1.xyz.com” that includes the target host server portion and accepts any target device portion. The multi-server wildcard format “*s1.xyz.com” is not allowed in legacy DNS protocols and systems but is enabled by method 1-300 and the multi-server fractional subdomain DNS protocol described herein. Method 1-300 will then synthesize the IP address for “*s1.xyz.com” from a fractional resource record (RR). Method 1-300 will then return the synthesized IP address “1.1.1.1” to the original requestor for further communications and operations (e.g., as shown in protocol 1-200 of FIG. 2).
  • Method 1-300 generally serves to parse a URL fractional subdomain to enable secure connections to multiple devices served through multiple host servers with a single SSL certificate (e.g., or reduced number of SSL certificates relative to legacy systems). Specifically, by parsing the fractional subdomain “d1s1” and by generating and synthesizing the IP address from the multi-server wildcard format “*s1.xyz.com”, method 1-300 allows both a specific host server “s1” resource to be identified, and a more broad wildcard SSL certificate (e.g., associated with *.xyz.com) to be used. This allows the network provider to rapidly add or scale devices and subdomains used to identify those devices (e.g., using a random subdomain generator) while also managing host server resource loading and SSL certificate deployment.
  • It may thus be seen from the examples provided above that the improvements to devices (e.g., as shown in the contexts of the figures included in this specification, for example) may be used in various applications, contexts, environments, etc. The applications, uses, etc. of these improvements, etc. may not be limited to those described above but may be used, for example, in combination. For example, one or more applications etc. used in the contexts, for example, in one or more figures may be used in combination with one or more applications etc. used in the contexts of, for example, one or more other figures and/or one or more applications, etc. described in any specifications incorporated by reference.
  • Additional Embodiments of the Disclosure Additional Practical Application Examples
  • FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a system 1-400 for implementing all or portions of any of the embodiments described herein. FIG. 4 depicts a block diagram of a system to perform certain functions of a computer system. As an option, the present system 1-400 may be implemented in the context of the architecture and functionality of the embodiments described herein. Of course, however, the system 1-400 or any operation therein may be carried out in any desired environment.
  • As shown, system 1-400 comprises at least one processor and at least one memory, the memory serving to store program instructions corresponding to the operations of the system. An operation can be implemented in whole or in part using program instructions accessible by a module. The modules are connected to a communication path 1-405, and any operation can communicate with other operations over communication path 1-405. The modules of the system can, individually or in combination, perform method operations within system 1-400. Any operations performed within system 1-400 may be performed in any order unless as may be specified in the claims. The embodiment of FIG. 4 implements a portion of a computer system, shown as system 1-400, comprising a computer processor to execute a set of program code instructions (see module 1-410) and modules for accessing memory to hold program code instructions to perform: receiving a first URL containing a fractional subdomain portion in a fractional subdomain position (see module 1-420); parsing the fractional subdomain portion into a plurality of tokens comprising at least a first token and a second token (see module 1-430); generating a second URL comprising at least one wildcard character in the fractional subdomain position and at least one of the plurality of tokens in the fractional subdomain position (see module 1-440); and matching the second URL to a third URL associated to at least one resource (see module 1-450).
  • System Architecture Overview Additional System Architecture Examples
  • FIG. 5 depicts a block diagram of an instance of a computer system 1-500 suitable for implementing embodiments of the present disclosure. Computer system 1-500 includes a bus 1-506 or other communication mechanism for communicating information, which interconnects subsystems and devices such as a processor 1-507, a system memory (e.g., main memory 1-508, or an area of random access memory RAM), a static storage device (e.g., ROM 1-509), a storage device 1-510 (e.g., magnetic or optical), a data interface 1-533, a communication interface 1-514 (e.g., modem or Ethernet card), a display 1-511 (e.g., CRT or LCD), input devices 1-512 (e.g., keyboard, cursor control), and an external data repository 1-531.
  • According to one embodiment of the disclosure, computer system 1-500 performs specific operations by processor 1-507 executing one or more sequences of one or more instructions contained in system memory. Such instructions may be read into system memory from another computer readable/usable medium such as a static storage device or a disk drive. In alternative embodiments, hard-wired circuitry may be used in place of or in combination with software instructions to implement the disclosure. Thus, embodiments of the disclosure are not limited to any specific combination of hardware circuitry and/or software. In one embodiment, the term “logic” shall mean any combination of software or hardware that is used to implement all or part of the disclosure.
  • The term “computer readable medium” or “computer usable medium” as used herein refers to any medium that participates in providing instructions to processor 1-507 for execution. Such a medium may take many forms including, but not limited to, non-volatile media and volatile media. Non-volatile media includes, for example, optical or magnetic disks such as disk drives or tape drives. Volatile media includes dynamic memory such as a RAM memory.
  • Common forms of computer readable media includes, for example, floppy disk, flexible disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, or any other magnetic medium; CD-ROM or any other optical medium; punch cards, paper tape, or any other physical medium with patterns of holes; RAM, PROM, EPROM, FLASH-EPROM, or any other memory chip or cartridge, or any other non-transitory medium from which a computer can read data.
  • In an embodiment of the disclosure, execution of the sequences of instructions to practice the disclosure is performed by a single instance of the computer system 1-500. According to certain embodiments of the disclosure, two or more instances of computer system 1-500 coupled by a communications link 1-515 (e.g., LAN, PTSN, or wireless network) may perform the sequence of instructions required to practice the disclosure in coordination with one another.
  • Computer system 1-500 may transmit and receive messages, data, and instructions including programs (e.g., application code), through communications link 1-515 and communication interface 1-514. Received program code may be executed by processor 1-507 as it is received and/or stored in storage device 1-510 or any other non-volatile storage for later execution. Computer system 1-500 may communicate through a data interface 1-533 to a database 1-532 on an external data repository 1-531. Data items in database 1-532 can be accessed using a primary key (e.g., a relational database primary key). A module as used herein can be implemented using any mix of any portions of the system memory and any extent of hard-wired circuitry including hard-wired circuitry embodied as a processor 1-507. Some embodiments include one or more special-purpose hardware components (e.g., power control, logic, sensors, etc.).
  • General
  • It should be noted that, one or more aspects of the various embodiments of the present disclosure may be included in an article of manufacture (e.g., one or more computer program products) having, for instance, computer usable media. The media has embodied therein, for instance, computer readable program code for providing and facilitating the capabilities of the various embodiments of the present disclosure. The article of manufacture can be included as a part of a computer system or sold separately.
  • Additionally, one or more aspects of the various embodiments of the present disclosure may be designed using computer readable program code for providing and/or facilitating the capabilities of the various embodiments or configurations of embodiments of the present disclosure.
  • Additionally, one or more aspects of the various embodiments of the present disclosure may use computer readable program code for providing and facilitating the capabilities of the various embodiments or configurations of embodiments of the present disclosure and that may be included as a part of a computer system and/or memory system and/or sold separately.
  • Additionally, at least one program storage device readable by a machine, tangibly embodying at least one program of instructions executable by the machine to perform the capabilities of the various embodiments of the present disclosure can be provided.
  • The diagrams depicted herein are just examples. There may be many variations to these diagrams or the steps (or operations) described therein without departing from the spirit of the various embodiments of the disclosure. For instance, the steps may be performed in a differing order, or steps may be added, deleted or modified.
  • In various optional embodiments, the features, capabilities, techniques, and/or technology, etc. of the memory and/or storage devices, networks, mobile devices, peripherals, hardware, and/or software, etc. disclosed in the following applications may or may not be incorporated into any of the embodiments disclosed herein.
  • References in this specification and/or references in specifications incorporated by reference to “one embodiment” may mean that particular aspects, architectures, functions, features, structures, characteristics, etc. of an embodiment that may be described in connection with the embodiment may be included in at least one implementation. Thus references to “in one embodiment” may not necessarily refer to the same embodiment. The particular aspects etc. may be included in forms other than the particular embodiment described and/or illustrated and all such forms may be encompassed within the scope and claims of the present application.
  • References in this specification and/or references in specifications incorporated by reference to “for example” may mean that particular aspects, architectures, functions, features, structures, characteristics, etc. described in connection with the embodiment or example may be included in at least one implementation. Thus references to an “example” may not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, example, etc. The particular aspects etc. may be included in forms other than the particular embodiment or example described and/or illustrated and all such forms may be encompassed within the scope and claims of the present application.
  • This specification and/or specifications incorporated by reference may refer to a list of alternatives. For example, a first reference such as “A (e.g., B, C, D, E, etc.)” may refer to a list of alternatives to A including (but not limited to) B, C, D, E. A second reference to “A etc.” may then be equivalent to the first reference to “A (e.g., B, C, D, E, etc.).” Thus, a reference to “A etc.” may be interpreted to mean “A (e.g., B, C, D, E, etc.).”
  • While various embodiments have been described above, it should be understood that they have been presented by way of example only, and not limitation. Thus, the breadth and scope of a preferred embodiment should not be limited by any of the above-described exemplary embodiments, but should be defined only in accordance with the following claims and their equivalents.

Claims (20)

What is claimed is:
1. A method comprising:
receiving, over a network, a first URL containing a fractional subdomain portion in a fractional subdomain position;
parsing the fractional subdomain portion into a plurality of tokens comprising at least a first token and a second token;
generating a data structure to contain a second URL, wherein the second URL comprises at least one wildcard character in the fractional subdomain position and at least one of the plurality of tokens in the fractional subdomain position; and
matching the second URL to a third URL associated to at least one resource.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising sending an IP address based at least in part on the third URL.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a sub domain position.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a second sub domain position.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the wildcard character is an asterisk.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the wildcard character comprises a character sequence.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the resource comprises at least one of, cellular phones, mobile phone, smart phone, internet phone, a wireless phone, a personal digital assistant device, a remote communication device, a wireless device, a music player, a video player, a media player, a multimedia player, a video recorder, a VCR, a DVR, a book reader, a voice recorder, a voice controlled system, a voice controller, a camera, a social interaction device, a radio, a TV, a watch, a personal communication device, an electronic wallet, an electronic currency, smart card, a smart credit card, an electronic money device, an electronic coin, an electronic token, an instance of smart jewelry, an electronic passport, an electronic identification system, a biometric sensor, a biometric system, a biometric device, a smart pen, a smart ring, a personal computer, a tablet, a laptop computer, a scanner, a printer, a computer, a web server, a media server, a multimedia server, a file server, a datacenter server, a database server, a database appliance, a cloud server, a cloud device, a cloud appliance, an embedded system, an embedded device, electronic eye glasses, an electronic goggle, an electronic screen, a display, a wearable display, a projector, a picture frame, a touch screen, a computer appliance, a kitchen appliance, a home appliance, a home theater system, an audio system, a home control appliance, a home control system, an irrigation system, a sprinkler system, a garage door system, a garage door control, a remote control, a remote control system, a thermostat, a heating system, an air conditioning system, a ventilation system, a climate control system, a climate monitoring system, an industrial control system, a transportation systems and control, an industrial process and control system, an industrial controller system, a machine-to-machine system, an aviation system, a locomotive system, a power control system, a power controller, a lighting control, light, a lighting system, a solar system controller, a solar panel, a vehicle and other engine, an engine controller, a motor, a motor controller, a navigation control, a navigation system, a navigation display, a sensor, a sensor system, a transducer, a transducer system, a computer input device, a device controller, a touchpad, a mouse, pointer, joystick, keyboard, a game controller, a haptic device, a game console, a game box, a network device, a router, a switch, a TiVO, an AppleTV device, a GoogleTV device, an internet TV box, an internet system, an internet device, a set-top box, a cable box, a modem, a cable modem, a PC, a tablet, a media box, a streaming device, an entertainment center, an entertainment system, an aircraft entertainment system, a hotel entertainment system, a car and vehicle entertainment system, a GPS device, a GPS system, an automobile and other motor vehicle system, a truck system, a vehicle control system, a vehicle sensor, an aircraft system, a automation system, a home automation system, an industrial automation system, a reservation system, a check-in terminal, a ticket collection system, an admission system, a payment device, a payment system, a banking machine, a cash point, a ATM, a vending machine, a vending system, a point of sale device, a coin-operated device, a token operated device, a gas (petrol) pump, a ticket machine, a toll system, a barcode scanner, a credit card scanner, a travel token system, a travel card system, a RFID device, an electronic label, an electronic tag, a tracking system, an electronic sticker, an electronic price tag, a near field communication (NFC) device, a wireless operated device, a wireless receiver, a wireless transmitter, a sensor device, a mote, a sales terminal, a checkout terminal, an electronic toy, a toy system, a gaming system, an information appliance, an information kiosk, a sales display, a sales device, an electronic menu, a coupon system, a shop display, a street display, an electronic advertising system, a traffic control system, a traffic sign, a parking system, a parking garage device, a elevators and elevator system, a building system, a mailbox, an electronic sign, a video camera, a security system, a surveillance system, an electronic lock, an electronic key, an electronic key fob, a access device, a access control, an electronic actuator, a safety system, a smoke detector, a fire control system, a fire detection system, a locking device, an electronic safe, an electronic door, a music device, a storage device, a back-up device, a USB key, a portable disk, an exercise machine, a sports equipment, medical device, a medical system, a personal medical device, a wearable medical device, a portable medical device, a mobile medical device, a blood pressure sensor, a heart rate monitor, a blood sugar monitor, a vital sign monitor, a ultrasound device, a medical imager, a drug delivery system, a drug monitoring system, a patient monitoring system, a medical records system, an industrial monitoring system, a robot, a robotic device, a home robot, an industrial robot, an electric tool, a power tool, a construction equipment, electronic jewelry, a wearable device, a wearable electronic device, a wearable camera, a wearable video camera, a wearable system, an electronic dispensing system, and a handheld computing device.
8. A computer program product, embodied in a non-transitory computer readable medium, the computer readable medium having stored thereon a sequence of instructions which, when executed by a processor causes the processor to execute a process, the process comprising:
receiving a first URL containing a fractional subdomain portion in a fractional subdomain position;
parsing the fractional subdomain portion into a plurality of tokens comprising at least a first token and a second token;
generating a second URL comprising at least one wildcard character in the fractional subdomain position and at least one of the plurality of tokens in the fractional subdomain position; and
matching the second URL to a third URL associated to at least one resource.
9. The computer program product of claim 8, further comprising instructions for sending an IP address based at least in part on the third URL.
10. The computer program product of claim 8, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a sub domain position.
11. The computer program product of claim 8, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a second sub domain position.
12. The computer program product of claim 8, wherein the wildcard character is an asterisk.
13. The computer program product of claim 8, wherein the wildcard character comprises a character sequence.
14. The computer program product of claim 8, wherein the resource comprises at least one of, cellular phones, mobile phone, smart phone, internet phone, a wireless phone, a personal digital assistant device, a remote communication device, a wireless device, a music player, a video player, a media player, a multimedia player, a video recorder, a VCR, a DVR, a book reader, a voice recorder, a voice controlled system, a voice controller, a camera, a social interaction device, a radio, a TV, a watch, a personal communication device, an electronic wallet, an electronic currency, smart card, a smart credit card, an electronic money device, an electronic coin, an electronic token, an instance of smart jewelry, an electronic passport, an electronic identification system, a biometric sensor, a biometric system, a biometric device, a smart pen, a smart ring, a personal computer, a tablet, a laptop computer, a scanner, a printer, a computer, a web server, a media server, a multimedia server, a file server, a datacenter server, a database server, a database appliance, a cloud server, a cloud device, a cloud appliance, an embedded system, an embedded device, electronic eye glasses, an electronic goggle, an electronic screen, a display, a wearable display, a projector, a picture frame, a touch screen, a computer appliance, a kitchen appliance, a home appliance, a home theater system, an audio system, a home control appliance, a home control system, an irrigation system, a sprinkler system, a garage door system, a garage door control, a remote control, a remote control system, a thermostat, a heating system, an air conditioning system, a ventilation system, a climate control system, a climate monitoring system, an industrial control system, a transportation systems and control, an industrial process and control system, an industrial controller system, a machine-to-machine system, an aviation system, a locomotive system, a power control system, a power controller, a lighting control, light, a lighting system, a solar system controller, a solar panel, a vehicle and other engine, an engine controller, a motor, a motor controller, a navigation control, a navigation system, a navigation display, a sensor, a sensor system, a transducer, a transducer system, a computer input device, a device controller, a touchpad, a mouse, pointer, joystick, keyboard, a game controller, a haptic device, a game console, a game box, a network device, a router, a switch, a TiVO, an AppleTV device, a GoogleTV device, an internet TV box, an internet system, an internet device, a set-top box, a cable box, a modem, a cable modem, a PC, a tablet, a media box, a streaming device, an entertainment center, an entertainment system, an aircraft entertainment system, a hotel entertainment system, a car and vehicle entertainment system, a GPS device, a GPS system, an automobile and other motor vehicle system, a truck system, a vehicle control system, a vehicle sensor, an aircraft system, a automation system, a home automation system, an industrial automation system, a reservation system, a check-in terminal, a ticket collection system, an admission system, a payment device, a payment system, a banking machine, a cash point, a ATM, a vending machine, a vending system, a point of sale device, a coin-operated device, a token operated device, a gas (petrol) pump, a ticket machine, a toll system, a barcode scanner, a credit card scanner, a travel token system, a travel card system, a RFID device, an electronic label, an electronic tag, a tracking system, an electronic sticker, an electronic price tag, a near field communication (NFC) device, a wireless operated device, a wireless receiver, a wireless transmitter, a sensor device, a mote, a sales terminal, a checkout terminal, an electronic toy, a toy system, a gaming system, an information appliance, an information kiosk, a sales display, a sales device, an electronic menu, a coupon system, a shop display, a street display, an electronic advertising system, a traffic control system, a traffic sign, a parking system, a parking garage device, a elevators and elevator system, a building system, a mailbox, an electronic sign, a video camera, a security system, a surveillance system, an electronic lock, an electronic key, an electronic key fob, a access device, a access control, an electronic actuator, a safety system, a smoke detector, a fire control system, a fire detection system, a locking device, an electronic safe, an electronic door, a music device, a storage device, a back-up device, a USB key, a portable disk, an exercise machine, a sports equipment, medical device, a medical system, a personal medical device, a wearable medical device, a portable medical device, a mobile medical device, a blood pressure sensor, a heart rate monitor, a blood sugar monitor, a vital sign monitor, a ultrasound device, a medical imager, a drug delivery system, a drug monitoring system, a patient monitoring system, a medical records system, an industrial monitoring system, a robot, a robotic device, a home robot, an industrial robot, an electric tool, a power tool, a construction equipment, electronic jewelry, a wearable device, a wearable electronic device, a wearable camera, a wearable video camera, a wearable system, an electronic dispensing system, and a handheld computing device.
15. A system comprising:
one or more servers, at least one of the one or more server comprising a network interface unit and a processor, wherein the network interface unit is configured to receive a first URL containing a fractional subdomain portion in a fractional subdomain position, and wherein the processor is configured to store the fractional subdomain portion;
a parsing module to parse the fractional subdomain portion into a plurality of tokens comprising at least a first token and a second token;
a generating module to generate a second URL, wherein the second URL comprises at least one wildcard character in the fractional subdomain position and at least one of the plurality of tokens in the fractional subdomain position; and
a lookup module to match the second URL to a resource, wherein the lookup module includes at least one resource record associating a third URL to at least one resource, and the match is constituted when the second URL covers the third URL.
16. The system of claim 15, further comprising sending an IP address based at least in part on the third URL.
17. The system of claim 15, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a sub domain position.
18. The system of claim 15, wherein the fractional subdomain position is a second sub domain position.
19. The system of claim 15, wherein the wildcard character is an asterisk.
20. The system of claim 15, wherein the wildcard character comprises a character sequence.
US14/493,278 2014-09-22 2014-09-22 Multi-server fractional subdomain dns protocol Abandoned US20150052253A1 (en)

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US14/493,278 US20150052253A1 (en) 2014-09-22 2014-09-22 Multi-server fractional subdomain dns protocol
US15/202,489 US20160315824A1 (en) 2006-09-25 2016-07-05 Networking systems
US15/613,281 US10637724B2 (en) 2006-09-25 2017-06-05 Managing network connected devices
US15/663,110 US20180262388A1 (en) 2006-09-25 2017-07-28 Remote device deployment
US16/236,082 US11336511B2 (en) 2006-09-25 2018-12-28 Managing network connected devices
US16/459,403 US11184224B2 (en) 2006-09-25 2019-07-01 System, method and compute program product for accessing a device on a network
US17/720,190 US20220247624A1 (en) 2006-09-25 2022-04-13 Managing network connected devices

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US13/865,910 Continuation-In-Part US9253031B2 (en) 2006-09-25 2013-04-18 System, method and computer program product for identifying, configuring and accessing a device on a network
US13/918,773 Continuation-In-Part US20130339509A1 (en) 2012-06-15 2013-06-14 Networking systems
US14/499,362 Continuation-In-Part US20150052258A1 (en) 2014-09-29 2014-09-29 Direct map proxy system and protocol
US14/534,155 Continuation-In-Part US20150088982A1 (en) 2006-09-25 2014-11-05 Load balanced inter-device messaging
US14/956,386 Continuation-In-Part US9712486B2 (en) 2006-09-25 2015-12-01 Techniques for the deployment and management of network connected devices

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US14/499,362 Continuation-In-Part US20150052258A1 (en) 2014-09-29 2014-09-29 Direct map proxy system and protocol
US14/520,389 Continuation-In-Part US20160344745A1 (en) 2006-09-25 2014-10-22 Method and protocol for secure device deployment using a partially-encrypted provisioning file

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