US20150030125A1 - Methods for Improving Processing Speed For Object Inspection - Google Patents

Methods for Improving Processing Speed For Object Inspection Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150030125A1
US20150030125A1 US14338435 US201414338435A US2015030125A1 US 20150030125 A1 US20150030125 A1 US 20150030125A1 US 14338435 US14338435 US 14338435 US 201414338435 A US201414338435 A US 201414338435A US 2015030125 A1 US2015030125 A1 US 2015030125A1
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Prior art keywords
image
data
object
scan
operator
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US14338435
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US9880314B2 (en )
Inventor
Andreas Pfander
Ronald James Hughes
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Rapiscan Systems Inc
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Rapiscan Systems Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS
    • G01V5/00Prospecting or detecting by the use of nuclear radiation, e.g. of natural or induced radioactivity
    • G01V5/0008Detecting hidden objects, e.g. weapons, explosives
    • G01V5/0016Active interrogation, i.e. using an external radiation source, e.g. using pulsed, continuous or cosmic rays
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N23/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00
    • G01N23/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material
    • G01N23/04Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material and forming images of the material
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01VGEOPHYSICS; GRAVITATIONAL MEASUREMENTS; DETECTING MASSES OR OBJECTS
    • G01V5/00Prospecting or detecting by the use of nuclear radiation, e.g. of natural or induced radioactivity
    • G01V5/0008Detecting hidden objects, e.g. weapons, explosives

Abstract

The present specification describes methods and systems for inspecting objects by means of penetrating radiation where objects are conveyed through the penetrating radiation and subsequent images of objects are reviewed by an operator. Specifically, the present specification describes a system that decouples the synchronization between cessation of image generation on the display and image acquisition through conveyance of the article. Further, the present specification discloses methods for compensating for image acquisition inefficiencies involving article separation by the queuing conveyor and the post-stop back belt process, resulting in throughput enhancement.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE
  • [0001]
    The present application relies upon, for priority, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/857,688, entitled “Methods for Improved Processing Speed for Object Inspection”, and filed on Jul. 23, 2013, and is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • FIELD
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to methods and systems for inspecting objects by means of penetrating radiation, where objects are conveyed through the penetrating radiation and subsequent images of objects are reviewed by an operator.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    X-ray scanning systems have been used for visually inspecting the contents of containers and the inside of enclosed objects quickly compared to the tedious process of manually opening and inspecting an object's contents. In many cases, this improved method of inspection expedites the process and saves time and money for the users of these scanning systems. In some applications, the speed of inspection is a critical parameter that is often a balance between inspection quality, cost, and throughput (or number of objects inspected per minute).
  • [0004]
    Operator efficiency can be measured as the ratio of image review time versus the total time spent at the operator control station. All tasks not directly supporting image review result in inefficiencies, thereby reducing throughput.
  • [0005]
    To avoid confusion it is necessary to isolate and associate the image with the suspect article. In current X-ray inspection systems, a queuing conveyor is associated with the main conveyor that transmits the object through the X-ray inspection system. The purpose of the queuing conveyor is to create a physical separation between articles. A physical separation between articles allows for photo-sensor logic to identify discrete articles. Since, the queuing conveyor runs at a slower speed compared to the main conveyor, the speed of the queuing conveyor dictates the throughput of the system.
  • [0006]
    Image operators must inspect complex images while the image is stationary; thus, the operator may have to stop additional images from being generated on-screen in order to inspect existing images more thoroughly. Currently, to stop the image, the operator invokes a belt stop process. When the belt stops no additional image data is acquired or collected. Current methods usually synchronize the conveyance of objects with the operator's commands to start and stop the images. Due to mechanical and electro-optical limitations of these systems, this synchronization creates delays as the system needs to perform a recovery procedure from each “stop-to-start” transition. This usually results in system latency. Typically, this involves reversing the conveyance mechanism sufficiently and then returning to a constant forward speed to allow the conveyance and electro-optical systems to return to the previous steady state conditions that determine critical inspection quality standards. Therefore, to ensure seamless image presentation, current systems conduct a back-belt process that requires the conveyor belt to reverse for 0.75 seconds before the belt goes forward and X-rays are generated again. This incurs a 1.5 second delay from the time the image operator presses the forward or resume button on the control panel and time that image data appears once again on the display.
  • [0007]
    What is therefore needed is a system that decouples the synchronization between cessation of image generation on the display and image acquisition through conveyance of the article. Also needed are methods for compensating for image acquisition inefficiencies involving article separation by the queuing conveyor and the post-stop back belt process, so that throughput is enhanced.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0008]
    The present invention provides a method of inspecting an object translated forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein the object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object. The method can include stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of an object while the operator is examining said scan image data; stopping the scan process after the buffer time Bt is over; storing the acquired additional image data in a buffer memory until the scan process is started again; and displaying the buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  • [0009]
    The present invention also provides a method of inspecting an object translated forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein the object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device, such that the scan image initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object. The method can include stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor to collect additional image data of at least one queued object while the operator is examining said scan image data; storing said acquired additional image data of the at least one queued object in a memory until scrolling of scan image data is started again; and displaying said additional image data of the at least one queued object on a viewing device upon restarting scrolling of scan image data.
  • [0010]
    The present invention further provides an X-ray inspection system for scanning an object being moved forward there through on a conveyor and displaying scan image data of the object on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object. The X-ray inspection system is operable in accordance with a method comprising: stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of an object while the operator is examining said scan image data; stopping the scan process after the buffer time Bt is over; storing said acquired additional image data in a buffer memory until the scan process is started again; and displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  • [0011]
    The present invention further provides an X-ray inspection system for scanning an object being moved forward there through on a conveyor and displaying scan image data of the object on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object. The X-ray inspection system can be operated in accordance with a method comprising: stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor to collect additional image data of at least one queued object while the operator is examining said scan image data; storing said acquired additional image data of the at least one queued object in a memory until scrolling of scan image data is started again; and displaying said additional image data of the at least one queued object on a viewing device upon restarting the scrolling of scan image data.
  • [0012]
    The present invention still further provides a method of inspecting at least one object being moved forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein a first object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the first object. The method can comprise: stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data of said first object; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of a second object while the operator is examining said scan image data of said first object; stopping the scan process after collecting image data of said second object; storing said acquired additional image data of a second object in a memory until the scan process is started again; and displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  • [0013]
    The present invention still further provides a method of inspecting at least one object being moved forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein a first object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the first object. The method can include: stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data of said first object; asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of a second object while the operator is examining said scan image data of said first object; storing said acquired additional image data of a second object in a memory until the scrolling of scan image data is started again; repeating the steps of collecting additional image data and storing said acquired data for third through nth objects until the buffer time Bt is over; and displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting scrolling of scan image data.
  • [0014]
    The following embodiments and aspects of the invention are described and illustrated in conjunction with systems, tools and methods, which are meant to be exemplary and illustrative, not limiting in scope.
  • [0015]
    In some embodiments, the present specification is directed towards methods and/or systems for improving the speed of the inspection process with little or no impact to cost and inspection quality.
  • [0016]
    An X-ray inspection system may scan objects being conveyed through the system and subsequently, an operator may view, on a viewing device such as a monitor, generated images of the conveyed object.
  • [0017]
    The aforementioned and other embodiments of the present invention shall be described in greater depth in the drawings and detailed description provided below.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0018]
    These and other features and advantages of the present invention will be appreciated, as they become better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
  • [0019]
    FIG. 1A is a perspective view of an exemplary X-ray baggage inspection system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 1B is a top view of the X-ray baggage inspection system of FIG. 1A;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 2A is a top view of an X-ray baggage inspection system being operated using a conventional method;
  • [0022]
    FIG. 2B is a schematic timeline diagram showing throughput of the X-ray baggage inspection system of FIG. 2A when operated using a conventional method;
  • [0023]
    FIG. 3A is a top view of an X-ray baggage inspection system when operated to generate the throughput in accordance with the improved method of the present specification;
  • [0024]
    FIG. 3B is a schematic timeline diagram showing improved throughput of the X-ray baggage inspection system when operated in accordance with one embodiment of the method of the present specification;
  • [0025]
    FIG. 4 is a table illustrating enhancements in throughput, when improved methods of the present invention are applied to X-ray baggage inspection systems, in accordance with one embodiment; and
  • [0026]
    FIG. 5 is a schematic timeline diagram showing improved throughput of the X-ray baggage inspection system when operated in accordance with one embodiment of the method of the present specification.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0027]
    In some applications, the speed of inspection is a critical parameter that is often a balance between inspection quality, cost, and throughput (also defined as the number of objects inspected per minute). In accordance with some embodiments described in the present specification, methods and/or systems are provided to improve the speed of the inspection process with little or no impact to cost and inspection quality.
  • [0028]
    An X-ray inspection system may scan objects being conveyed through the system and subsequently, an operator may view, on a viewing device such as a monitor, generated images of the conveyed object.
  • [0029]
    In other embodiments of the present specification, the process of the operator stopping the images for further visual inspection is decoupled from the process of object conveyance and data collection for subsequent image projection. The conveyance and data collection may continue in a forward direction even after the operator has generated a stop command for the image inspection process. The images scrolling on the viewing platform, however, may stop immediately to allow the operator to perform a more thorough visual inspection. The continuation of conveyance and data collection may offer a variety of recovery processes that reduce or eliminate the typical delays of current embodiments.
  • [0030]
    The X-ray system includes a source for generating an incident beam of penetrating radiation and a plurality of detector elements that collect the radiation as it passes through the object(s) under inspection. The levels of collected radiation present information about the contents of the object including but not limited to density, material properties, size, volume and many other characteristics of the object and its contents. This information is collected via a plurality of methods including but not limited to scintillation materials of singular or multiple absorption characteristics, photodiodes—singular or stacked, analog to digital converters, and computer elements.
  • [0031]
    This information is processed via a plurality of mathematical processes to extract many characteristics of the object being scanned and for generating images of the object for subsequent display on a viewing platform. This allows the operator to distinguish the contents of an object and determine whether the object requires further review or manual inspection.
  • [0032]
    In one embodiment of the present invention, the process of the operator stopping the images for inspection is decoupled from the process of object conveyance and data collection for subsequent image projection.
  • [0033]
    In one embodiment, the conveyance and data collection continues in a forward direction even after the operator has generated a stop command for the image inspection process. The images scrolling on the viewing platform stop immediately to allow the operator to perform a more thorough inspection. The continuation of conveyance and data collection offers a variety of recovery processes that reduce or eliminate the typical delays of current embodiments.
  • [0034]
    Therefore, in an embodiment, upon initiation of stopping an image the system continues to run the conveyor belt and acquire additional image data for a minimum of 1.5 seconds. The acquired image data is stored in memory until the image operator presses the forward or resume button on the control panel, at which time buffered data is displayed without delay. The newly acquired image data is displayed immediately and permits seamless scrolling. Since the image operator invests an average of a minimum of 1.5 seconds in conducting image review, there is an immediate efficiency improvement of 1.5 seconds per stopped image.
  • [0035]
    In another embodiment, as described in the present specification, the data collection continues forward just enough to allow the system recovery time to become zero. After the operator stops scrolling of scan images, to freeze a particular image for detailed inspection, the conveyance and data collection continues forward for an appropriate amount of time. Thereafter the system discontinues radiating the object, reverses the belt and awaits the operator's start command. Upon the operator's start comments, the already collected data lines or images begin to scroll on the viewing station while the system achieves the steady state parameters it needs for quality inspection. The operator perceives a zero delay since the image scrolling stops and starts immediately with the operator's commands.
  • [0036]
    In another embodiment, the conveyance and data collection continues for a longer period, limited only by certain system variables that can be manipulated in system designs. The conveyance limits are such that the object under inspection does not escape the operator's control by exiting the system prior to completing the inspection process. Examples of system design elements that extend the duration of conveyance and data collection during the operator's inspection process are extended conveyors, shrouded exit conveyors, and similar system design elements. In this embodiment, the extra data collection can be displayed immediately upon the operator's start command or managed by intelligent software algorithms to display the data in a variety of methods including but not limited to, a fast scroll of data to catch up to the live data acquisition, displaying a portion of the acquired data based on each object, presenting object images only when the entire object is scanned, and having stopped images always for the operator's inspection with minimal or no time wasted in scrolling.
  • [0037]
    The present specification is directed towards multiple embodiments. The following disclosure is provided in order to enable a person having ordinary skill in the art to practice the invention. Language used in this specification should not be interpreted as a general disavowal of any one specific embodiment or used to limit the claims beyond the meaning of the terms used therein. The general principles defined herein may be applied to other embodiments and applications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Also, the terminology and phraseology used is for the purpose of describing exemplary embodiments and should not be considered limiting. Thus, the present invention is to be accorded the widest scope encompassing numerous alternatives, modifications and equivalents consistent with the principles and features disclosed. For purpose of clarity, details relating to technical material that is known in the technical fields related to the invention have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure the present invention.
  • [0038]
    One of ordinary skill in the art should appreciate that the features described in the present application can operate on any computing platform including, but not limited to: a laptop or tablet computer; personal computer; personal data assistant; cell phone; server; embedded processor; digital signal processor (DSP) chip or specialized imaging device capable of executing programmatic instructions or code.
  • [0039]
    It should further be appreciated that the platform provides the functions described in the present application by executing a plurality of programmatic instructions, which are stored in one or more non-volatile memories, using one or more processors and presents and/or receives data through transceivers in data communication with one or more wired or wireless networks.
  • [0040]
    It should further be appreciated that each device has wireless and wired receivers and transmitters capable of sending and transmitting data, at least one processor capable of processing programmatic instructions, memory capable of storing programmatic instructions, and software comprised of a plurality of programmatic instructions for performing the processes described herein. Additionally, the programmatic code can be compiled (either pre-compiled or compiled “just-in-time”) into a single application executing on a single computer, or distributed among several different computers operating locally or remotely to each other.
  • [0041]
    FIGS. 1A and 1B show, respectively, in accordance with an embodiment, skewed perspective and top views of an X-ray baggage inspection system. Referring to FIGS. 1A and 1B simultaneously, in X-ray inspection system 100A, 100B, objects 105A, 105B, such as baggage, are translated on a conveyor 115A, 115B through a baggage scanning enclosure 110A, 110B. The enclosure 110A, 110B comprises an X-ray source and a plurality of detector elements. The X-ray source irradiates the conveyed objects 105A, 105B with penetrating radiation 120 while the detector elements collect the radiation transmitted through the objects 105A, 105B. The levels of collected radiation are processed using a computer to generate and store, if required, scan images of the conveyed objects 105A, 105B. The scanned images are presented onto a viewing device, such as a monitor 125, for an operator to review/examine the images. Subsequently, if the operator desires to physically inspect contents of a scanned object, based on the operator's review of the corresponding scanned images, the operator can do so by having the conveyor 115A, 115B stop at an appropriate time to enable accessing the scanned object through an access area 130A, 130B. An exemplary implementation of the X-ray baggage inspection system 100A, 100B is the Rapiscan® 620DV system, which is a dual-view, multi-energy system, and is described at the following website: http://www.rapiscansystems.com/en/products/bpi/productsrapiscan620dv, which is a product that is manufactured and sold by the Applicant of the present specification.
  • [0042]
    As known to persons of ordinary skill in the art, an operator may have to stop scrolling scanned images on a monitor to inspect them more thoroughly. In conventional X-ray inspection systems, the scrolling of the scanned image on the monitor is synchronous with conveyance of the corresponding scanned object through the inspection system. Due to mechanical and electro-optical limitations of these prior art inspection systems, this synchronization creates delays as the system needs to perform a recovery procedure from each “stop-to-start” transition. Typically, this involves reversing the conveyance mechanism sufficiently and then returning to a constant forward speed to allow the conveyance and electro-optical systems to return to the previous steady state conditions that determine critical inspection quality standards, such as, but not limited to image quality and any other latency issues.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 2A shows a top view of an X-ray baggage inspection system 200 that is fully queued up with objects/baggage 205, 206 and 207 on conveyor 215 and wherein scrolling of a scanned image on monitor 225 is synchronous with conveyance of a corresponding scanned object/baggage, in accordance with a conventional method of operation of the inspection system 200. During operation, baggage 205 is conveyed through the scanning enclosure 210 to synchronously generate corresponding scanned image of baggage 205 on the monitor 225. At step 201, once the baggage 205 has moved just ahead of the last X-ray scanning beam 220 (so that a complete scan image of the baggage 205 has been generated), an operator stops the conveyor 215 to simultaneously stop the synchronous scrolling of the scanned image on the monitor 225 and enable the operator to review/examine the now stationary scanned image of the baggage 205.
  • [0044]
    After examining the scanned image of the baggage 205, if the operator decides to physically inspect the baggage 205 he must typically restart the conveyor 215 and wait for the baggage 205 to reach the access area 230. As discussed earlier, this “stop-to-start” transition causes time delay (latency) due the system recovery procedure. Step 202 shows this situation where the operator has restarted the conveyor 215 so that the baggage 205 is now being conveyed towards the access area 230. However, as a result of synchronization or coupling of the movement of the conveyor 215 with the generation and scrolling of the scanned image (on the monitor 225) of the next queued-up baggage 206, the operator is now burdened with an additional pending task of examining the scanned image of baggage 206 which is being presented on the monitor 225 while baggage 205 is still on its way to reach the access area 230.
  • [0045]
    Thus, at step 203, by the time the baggage 205 eventually reaches the access area 230, as a result of synchronicity of the movement of the conveyor 215 with the generation and scrolling of the scanned image (on the monitor 225) of the queued-up baggage 206, 207 the operator now has additional pending tasks of with reference to the scanned images of baggage 206, 207 as well as physical inspection of the baggage 205 that has now reached the access area 230.
  • [0046]
    Therefore, the overall screening time and as a result, the throughput of such conventional X-ray inspection systems is typically a summation of at least an object scan data collection time ‘St’, operator review time of the presented scanned image including the operator's time to inspect and decide on the threat level of the scanned object ‘Dt’ and the inspection system recovery time ‘Rt’ from a “stop-to-start” transition.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 2B shows an overall throughput calculation when the inspection system 200 of FIG. 2A is operated in accordance with the conventional method, wherein scrolling of a scanned image on monitor 225 is synchronous with conveyance of a corresponding scanned object through the inspection system 200. Referring to FIG. 2B, in accordance with an embodiment, the scale 235 shows time constituents involved in the overall screening/inspection operation and therefore the throughput of the inspection system when three (205B, 206B, 208B) out of four objects 205B, 206B, 207B and 208B are also being physically inspected by the operator, besides reviewing their scan images. The throughput calculation assumes that the object scan data collection time St, for an average 2.5 foot long object/baggage, is approximately 4 seconds, operator review/decision time of the presented scanned image Dt is on an average about 5 seconds while the inspection system recovery time Rt from a “stop-to-start” transition is approximately 2.5 seconds. Correspondingly, scale 240 shows the total time being spent in scanning the four objects when the scrolling of the scanned images for three out of the four objects is stopped by the operator. As a result, the system takes a total of about 39 seconds to scan four queued objects with the scrolling of the scanned images for three of them being required to be stopped for examination/review by the operator. Times t205, t206, t208 include examination/review of the scanned images of the objects 205B, 206B and 208B by the operator. The scrolling of the scanned image of the scanned object 207B is not stopped by the operator for review/examination. Therefore, the throughput of system is about 370 objects per hour.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 3A shows a top view of an X-ray baggage inspection system 300 that is fully queued up with objects/baggage 305, 306 and 307 on conveyor 315 and is being operated in accordance with the improved method that enables higher throughput with continuous scan image data collection, as described below with reference to FIGS. 3B and 3C. Referring to FIG. 3A, during operation, baggage 305 is conveyed through the scanning enclosure 310 to generate corresponding scanned image of baggage 305 on the monitor 325. At step 301, once the baggage 305 has moved just ahead of the last X-ray scanning beam 320 (so that a complete scan image of the baggage 305 has been generated), an operator stops the scrolling of the scanned image on the monitor 325 to enable the operator to review/examine the now stationary scanned image of the baggage 305. However, in accordance with the improved method of operation of the present invention, the stopping of the scrolling of the scanned image of the object 305 does not result in a synchronous stopping of the conveyor 315. In fact, the conveyor continues to move forward and collect and store scan image data of the subsequent queued object 306 while the operator examines/reviews the scanned image of the object 305.
  • [0049]
    As shown in step 302, if the operator continues to examine/review the scanned image of the object 305, other objects continue to be scanned and scan data is stored in buffer memory 350 for subsequent display to the operator. In one embodiment, objects in the queue continue to be scanned until a decision regarding the benignity of the object 305 is made by the operator or until the object 305 reaches the access area 330 or. Therefore, the object 305 gets closer and closer to the access area 330 such that if the operator decides to physically inspect the contents of the object 305 little or no time is spent waiting for the object 305 to reach the access area 330. In one embodiment, the conveyor continues to move forward and queued objects are scanned for a buffer time, Bt, after which the scan process is stopped until the operator restarts it. In one embodiment, buffer time, Bt is a fraction of the system recovery time Rt from a “stop-to-start” transition.
  • [0050]
    At step 303, when the object 305 has reached the access area 330 the stored scan image data of the queued object 306 is immediately available for review/examination by the operator, the object 306 is already on its way to the access area 330 and also the scanned image data of the subsequent object 307 is collected and stored in the buffer memory 350.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 3B shows an overall throughput calculation when the system 100, described in FIGS. 1A and 1B, is operated in accordance with an improved method, described above with reference to FIG. 3A, that enables high throughput by minimizing or eliminating the inspection system recovery time Rt as perceived by the operator and resulting from the “stop-to-start” transitions (delayed image stop or stop delay). Referring to FIG. 3B, in accordance with an embodiment, the scale 335 shows time constituents involved in the overall screening/inspection operation and therefore the throughput of the inspection system, when scrolling of the scanned images for three out of four queued up objects 355, 356, 357 and 358 is stopped for review/examination by the operator. In accordance with an example, it is assumed that the object scan data collection time St, for an average 2.5 foot long object/baggage, is approximately 4 seconds, operator review time of the presented scanned image Dt is on an average about 5 seconds while the inspection system recovery time Rt from a “stop-to-start” transition is approximately 2.5 seconds.
  • [0052]
    By way of example, during operation, when the operator is presented with the scanned image of object 355 the operator stops the scrolling of the scanned image for examination/review. However, in accordance with the improved method, stopping of the scrolling of the scanned image of object 355 does not result in an immediate synchronized stopping of the conveyor. In fact, the conveyor is enabled to continue to move for a buffer period of time Bt thereby enabling collection of buffer scan data, equivalent to the time Bt, of the next queued up object 356 while the operator is examining the stationary scanned image of object 355. In other words the conveyor is asynchronous or decoupled with the scrolling of the scanned image for a period of time that is a function of the buffer time Bt which in turn is a function of the system recovery time Rt. In one embodiment, the buffer time Bt is a fraction of the inspection system recovery time Rt. In one embodiment the buffer time Bt is approximately 40 to 60%, and preferably 50% of the system recovery time Rt. In one embodiment the buffer time Bt is approximately 1.5 seconds. After moving forward for a buffer time Bt, scanning of objects is stopped. Therefore, the conveyor reverses and moves backwards and waits for the operator to finish examining the scanned image of the object 355. Therefore, after finishing examination, when the operator restarts the system, he is immediately presented with scrolling of scanned image representing buffer scan data of object 356 equivalent to the buffer time Bt. While buffer scan data is presented to the operator the conveyor moves forward and starts generating live scan image of the remaining portion of the object 356. Therefore, in effect, the improved method of the present invention enables the operator to perceive zero system recovery time Rt.
  • [0053]
    Accordingly, the scale 340 shows the total time being spent in scanning the four objects such that the scrolling of the scanned images of three out of the four objects is stopped by the operator. As a result, the system takes a total of about 31 seconds to scan four queued objects, with the scrolling of the scanned images of three of them being required to be stopped for examination/review by the operator. Times t355, t356, t358 include examination/review of the scanned images of the objects 355, 356 and 358 by the operator. The scrolling of the scanned image of the scanned object 357 is not stopped by the operator for review/examination. Therefore, the improved throughput of system is about 465 objects per hour.
  • [0054]
    In one embodiment, the concept of delayed image stop is further expanded to take advantage of the additional 3.5 seconds (after the buffer time Bt is over) spent in inspecting the stationary image. Additional articles continue to be scanned while the image display is halted. In one embodiment, the system automatically monitors the position of the article to ensure it does not exit the system without proper disposition by the image operator. In one embodiment, when the system is restarted, the acquired image data is immediately displayed to the image operator in a splash mode, where images are presented as discrete images, as opposed to a scrolling mode. In one embodiment, the scrolling display begins automatically to ensure seamless information presentation.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 4 is a table illustrating enhancements in throughput, when improved methods of the present invention are applied to X-ray baggage inspection systems. These throughput enhancements are based on a theoretical model with average bag lengths and average image review times, with throughput being measured in bags per hour (BPH). Referring to FIG. 4, there is an 18% improvement in the image separation process 401, using the methods of the present invention. When the conveyor is kept moving for a buffer time Bt, while the operator stops scrolling of images to review a particular image, the improvement in throughput during stop-delay 402 is about 10%. When the conveyor is kept moving for the entire length of time while the operator stops scrolling of images to review a particular image, the improvement in throughput during stop-delay 403 is about 13%. It has been seen that up to 485 seconds (8 minutes) of image acquisition time could be recovered by queuing article images in the buffer during image review, resulting in a 13% improvement for stopped images under ideal circumstances.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 5 shows an overall throughput calculation when the system is operated in accordance with another improved method that enables higher throughput with continuous scan image data collection. In accordance with an embodiment, the scale 536 shows time constituents involved in the overall screening/inspection operation and therefore the throughput of the system when scrolling of the scanned images of three out of four queued up objects 555, 566, 557 and 558 is stopped for review/examination by the operator. In accordance with an example, it is assumed that the object scan data collection time St, for an average 2.5 foot long object/baggage, is approximately 4 seconds and the operator review time of the presented scanned image Dt is on an average about 5 seconds. The present method of operation completely eliminates the system recovery time Rt since the conveyor is enabled to move continuously for scan data collection without any real “stop-to-start” transitions.
  • [0057]
    During operation, when the operator is presented with the scanned image of object 555 he stops the scrolling of the scanned image for examination/review. However, in accordance with the improved method, stopping of the scrolling of the scanned image of object 555 does not result in an immediate synchronized stopping of the conveyor. In fact, the conveyor is enabled to continue to move forward so that scan data collection of the subsequent queued up objects continues unabated and stored/buffered in an electronic memory. In accordance with an embodiment, the scan data collection continues and the conveyor also continues to move for at least a time period equivalent to the operator's average decision/review time Dt. In one embodiment, the scan data collection and the conveyor stop only when the object 555 approaches the access area 330 (shown in FIG. 3A) if the operator decides to physically inspect the contents of the object 555. At the end of the operator review/decision time Dt when the operator restarts the system he is immediately presented with scrolling of scanned image representing buffered/stored scan data of the subsequently queued up object 556. In one embodiment, the operator is presented with the entire buffered/stored scan image of the object 556 while in another embodiment the currently displaying scan image of the object 555 is moved in accelerated scrolling or fast-forward mode to display the buffered/stored scan image of the object 556.
  • [0058]
    Accordingly, the scale 541 shows the total time being spent in scanning the four objects such that the scrolling of the scanned images of three out of the four objects is stopped by the operator for review/examination. As a result, the system takes a total of about 18 seconds to scan four queued objects with the scrolling of the scanned images of three of them being required to be stopped for examination/review by the operator. Times t555, t556, t558 include both data acquisition time and examination/review time of the scanned images of the objects 555, 556 and 558 by the operator, and thus overlap due to the simultaneous nature of examination/review of one object and data acquisition of a subsequent object. In one embodiment, examination/review time is always 5 seconds. The scrolling of the scanned image of the scanned object 557 is not stopped by the operator for review/examination. Therefore, the improved throughput of system is up to about 800 objects per hour. It should be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the methods of the present specification can be employed with any inspection system in which an object under inspection is translated as images are collected. Thus, the inspection system of the present invention is not limited to a baggage screening system, but rather, may also be used with a cargo inspection system, aircraft and other vehicle inspection system, etc. In addition, the methods of the present specification may be used with an inspection system regardless of size or overall footprint. Further, it should be noted herein that the conveying mechanism can be any mechanism for translating an object through an inspection volume, including, but not limited to a conveyor belt; a tractor/trailer; a vehicle towing mechanism; a line; a cable; a movable platform; and the like.
  • [0059]
    The above examples are merely illustrative of the many applications of the system of present invention. Although only a few embodiments of the present invention have been described herein, it should be understood that the present invention might be embodied in many other specific forms without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. Therefore, the present examples and embodiments are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention may be modified within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (20)

    We claim:
  1. 1. A method of inspecting an object translated forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein the object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object, the method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of an object while the operator is examining said scan image data;
    stopping the scan process after the buffer time Bt is over;
    storing the acquired additional image data in a buffer memory until the scan process is started again; and
    displaying the buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said buffer time Bt is 50% of a system recovery time Rt.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1, wherein said buffer time Bt is approximately 1.5 seconds.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein said X-ray inspection system is a baggage inspection system.
  5. 5. A method of inspecting an object translated forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein the object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device, such that the scan image initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object, the method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor to collect additional image data of at least one queued object while the operator is examining said scan image data;
    storing said acquired additional image data of the at least one queued object in a memory until scrolling of scan image data is started again; and
    displaying said additional image data of the at least one queued object on a viewing device upon restarting scrolling of scan image data.
  6. 6. The method of claim 5, wherein said forward movement of the conveyor is for a time period of approximately 1.5 seconds.
  7. 7. The method of claim 5, wherein said X-ray inspection system is a baggage inspection system.
  8. 8. An X-ray inspection system for scanning an object being moved forward there through on a conveyor and displaying scan image data of the object on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object, the X-ray inspection system being operated in accordance with a method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of an object while the operator is examining said scan image data;
    stopping the scan process after the buffer time Bt is over;
    storing said acquired additional image data in a buffer memory until the scan process is started again; and
    displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  9. 9. The system of claim 7, wherein said buffer time Bt is 50% of a system recovery time Rt.
  10. 10. The system of claim 7, wherein said buffer time Bt is approximately 1.5 seconds.
  11. 11. The system of claim 7, wherein said X-ray inspection system is a baggage inspection system.
  12. 12. An X-ray inspection system for scanning an object being moved forward there through on a conveyor and displaying scan image data of the object on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the object, the X-ray inspection system being operated in accordance with a method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor to collect additional image data of at least one queued object while the operator is examining said scan image data;
    storing said acquired additional image data of the at least one queued object in a memory until scrolling of scan image data is started again; and
    displaying said additional image data of the at least one queued object on a viewing device upon restarting the scrolling of scan image data.
  13. 13. The system of claim 12, wherein said X-ray inspection system is a baggage inspection system.
  14. 14. The system of claim 12 wherein the forward movement of the conveyor is for a time period of approximately 1.5 seconds.
  15. 15. A method of inspecting at least one object being moved forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein a first object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the first object, the method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data of said first object;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of a second object while the operator is examining said scan image data of said first object;
    stopping the scan process after collecting image data of said second object;
    storing said acquired additional image data of a second object in a memory until the scan process is started again; and
    displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting the scan process.
  16. 16. The system of claim 15 wherein the forward movement of the conveyor is for a time period of approximately 1.5 seconds.
  17. 17. A method of inspecting at least one object being moved forward on a conveyor through an X-ray inspection system wherein a first object is scanned with penetrating radiation to generate scan image data for display on a viewing device such that the scan image data initially scrolls in synchronization with the movement of the first object, the method comprising:
    stopping scrolling of the scan image data on the viewing device by an operator to examine said scan image data of said first object;
    asynchronously continuing the forward movement of the conveyor for a buffer time Bt to collect additional image data of a second object while the operator is examining said scan image data of said first object;
    storing said acquired additional image data of a second object in a memory until the scrolling of scan image data is started again;
    repeating the steps of collecting additional image data and storing said acquired data for third through nth objects until the buffer time Bt is over; and
    displaying said buffered image data on a viewing device upon restarting scrolling of scan image data.
  18. 18. The method of claim 17, wherein the buffer time Bt is equivalent to an operator's average decision review time Dt
  19. 19. The method of claim 17, wherein the buffer time Bt is approximately 5 seconds.
  20. 20. The method of claim 17, wherein the forward movement of the conveyor continues until the said first object reaches an access area where it can be physically accessed.
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