US20150013255A1 - Hybrid cementitious buildings for a multi-level habitat - Google Patents

Hybrid cementitious buildings for a multi-level habitat Download PDF

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Publication number
US20150013255A1
US20150013255A1 US14/206,572 US201414206572A US2015013255A1 US 20150013255 A1 US20150013255 A1 US 20150013255A1 US 201414206572 A US201414206572 A US 201414206572A US 2015013255 A1 US2015013255 A1 US 2015013255A1
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precast
aac
building
rebar
concrete
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US14/206,572
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Christopher M. Hunt
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Christopher M. Hunt
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • E04B1/043Connections specially adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/20Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/383Connection of concrete parts using adhesive materials, e.g. mortar or glue
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/88Curtain walls
    • E04B2/90Curtain walls comprising panels directly attached to the structure
    • E04B2/94Concrete panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/04Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or slabs of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. asbestos cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/02Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units
    • E04B5/14Load-carrying floor structures formed substantially of prefabricated units with beams or girders laid in two directions
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B5/00Floors; Floor construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted therefor
    • E04B5/16Load-carrying floor structures wholly or partly cast or similarly formed in situ
    • E04B5/32Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements
    • E04B5/36Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor
    • E04B5/38Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element
    • E04B5/40Floor structures wholly cast in situ with or without form units or reinforcements with form units as part of the floor with slab-shaped form units acting simultaneously as reinforcement; Form slabs with reinforcements extending laterally outside the element with metal form-slabs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B7/00Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation
    • E04B7/20Roofs consisting of self-supporting slabs, e.g. able to be loaded
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/20Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of concrete or other stone-like material, e.g. with reinforcements or tensioning members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/30Columns; Pillars; Struts
    • E04C3/34Columns; Pillars; Struts of concrete other stone-like material, with or without permanent form elements, with or without internal or external reinforcement, e.g. metal coverings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C5/00Reinforcing elements, e.g. for concrete; Auxiliary elements therefor
    • E04C5/08Members specially adapted to be used in prestressed constructions
    • E04C5/12Anchoring devices
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C5/00Reinforcing elements, e.g. for concrete; Auxiliary elements therefor
    • E04C5/16Auxiliary parts for reinforcements, e.g. connectors, spacers, stirrups
    • E04C5/162Connectors or means for connecting parts for reinforcements
    • E04C5/163Connectors or means for connecting parts for reinforcements the reinforcements running in one single direction
    • E04C5/165Coaxial connection by means of sleeves
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/17Ventilation of roof coverings not otherwise provided for
    • E04D13/174Ventilation of roof coverings not otherwise provided for on the ridge of the roof

Abstract

Cementitious construction system that employs beams with utility voids, special screws coordinated with AAC anchoring inserts, and interlocking fastening systems that make possible a precast building requiring no welding and having all the structural advantages of a poured in place structure but which is constructed in less time and cost than existing precast systems.

Description

  • This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. 119 of provisional patent application 61/785,140 filed Mar. 14, 2013.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to methods of manufacturing and construction, and specifically to commercial construction using cementitious materials. In this specific application precast/pre-stress concrete and autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) to construct habitable multi-level buildings via the synergism of uniquely designed precast concrete support columns and beams, AAC beams, AAC floor panels and/or steel decking, sheer walls and exterior AAC panels with methodologies required to fasten the components.
  • One of the wisest people in history. King Solomon, is recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible as having constructed a temple for God by manufacturing individual dimensional material off site and then transporting members to the site where they were assembled. Despite this extensive history, the present invention overcomes the negatives and inadequacies of current methodologies inherent in precast systems that are disqualifying precast/pre-stressed concrete as the primary structural system in habitable multistory buildings. While precast is used for exterior facing, almost all habitable multi story buildings are currently being either constructed out of steel for speed or poured at site concrete for cost effectiveness. Precast on a whole is currently used more specifically for parking decks and highway bridges and the like.
  • The problems with current alternatives to precast are that steel is expensive and has a negative environmental impact in manufacturing and poured at site concrete is labor intensive and time consuming due to forms and shoring required.
  • Prior art for precast, such as Piggins U.S. Pat. No. 1,380,324, May, 1921 are elementary first attempts of precast units being transformed into monolithic structures by pouring finishing concrete which are not economically practical in application. There are some prior art composite steel and precast systems such as Fisher, et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,704,181 Jan. 6, 1998, that shows steel columns and beams with precast floor panels, but it is basically a standard steel support system with heavy and difficult to manufacture and transport precast floors. Other systems such as Perrin U.S. Pat. No. 5,867,964, Feb. 9, 1999 rely on complicated and exacting fastening and interlocking mechanisms.
  • While the concept of reinforcing and joining precast pieces by employing steel bars that extend beyond one piece and are inserted into another is common practice in field and prior art as in Simanjuntak U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,712, Sep. 22, 1998. These systems require welding and/or cumbersome precast floor slabs. Wetton U.S. Pat. No. 5,161,340, Nov. 10, 1992 and Simenoff U.S. Pat. No. 5,123,220, Jun. 23, 1992 are typical examples of precast concrete structures that require many plates, fasteners, etc. and require exact placement in the field. Simpler methods of securing precast pieces together, like having rebar pass through corrugated sleeves arid then sleeves filled with grout to secure, have problems of: no guiding system to center the rebar in the sleeve so that the rebar will not rest directly against the wall of the sleeve that causes an inferior bond, time consuming requirement of pre-marking pieces so workers can know correct positioning that introduces element of human error, maintaining correct alignment and position without concern of subsequent movement, the fundamental problem of employing metal sleeve that is corrugated so that grout can bind rebar since concrete does not adhere to a smooth metal surface sleeve and all the construction problems of crane positioning and securing sleeves to form precast pieces, that crane and labor costs can exceed savings in a precast system. There are alternatives to corrugated sleeve systems, such as splice systems, but they tend to be expensive, do not align easily and still require excessive crane and labor time.
  • In constructing a multistory building, prior art typically places columns in a pattern at approximately 20′ by 35′ on center with the negative consequence of the more columns a building has the greater the material use and the less flexible the floor plan.
  • Prior art solid structural beams being placed on columns has problem in attempting to get as much concrete in as compact a space as possible; hence openings in beams are detrimental to structural strength. The prior art requires mechanical sprinkler systems and air ducts suspended below structural beams with the negative consequences of adding height and volume to each floor. This additional height necessitates additional structural components and exterior surface area, as well as interior air space that must be heated and cooled. All these factors not only add to construction costs, but also to operational costs for owners.
  • Prior art and current methodologies for poured in place system require extensive forming and support systems that must stay in place while concrete cures. These shoring systems are incredibly labor intensive and cause great delay by prohibiting all other trades from beginning work until they are removed. These shoring systems also have negative environmental impact due to large amount of lumber wasted and the requirement for steel.
  • Precast has negatives in manufacturing requiring forming multiple welding plates and then constructing at site that causes crane delays as pieces are positioned and then held in place by several workers while being welded. Precast pieces simply positioned in grouted precast seats lack ability to become a truly monolithic reinforced structure.
  • Current poured floor systems and prior art construct an approximate 10,000 square foot floor area per level in an industry accepted average construction rate of a seven-day cycle. This includes set up and pouring concrete floors, but does not include long term curing that requires the cost and labor of additional shoring, etc. Alternative decking floor systems never realized the reinforcing attribute of decking due to deficit of generous hole space left around weld bolts, etc., allowing movement in decking and so prevent decking from actualizing its potential to be a diaphragm without reinforcing concrete.
  • In regards to prior art flooring systems, an example is U.S. Pat. No. 5,507,124 Tadros, et al. Apr. 16, 1996 which shows a concrete framing system requiring bolts, reinforcing wires being placed and then poured concrete to secure, also columns pass through openings in beams and beams rest on fastening devices on columns. This and all other systems are environmentally unfriendly requiring a lot of lumber waste and cause a dangerous and dirty environment for workers and a liability for owners.
  • To overcome poured in place flooring, precast floor systems have been proposed but they have not proven practical due to manufacturing, transportation and installation difficulties associated with such heavy and bulky pieces of precast.
  • In regard to precast, and specifically prestressed, there is a great need in casting methodology for improvement in reusable parts and lessening time consuming and labor intensive set tip.
  • Smaller cementitious block buildings require bond/ring beams that are poured in place requiring labor and material costs. Until teachings of present invention there have been no alternatives to bond/ring beam.
  • Stairways are an instrumental part of commercial buildings and usually are steel framing welded together at site and then poured with concrete which require labor intensive, skilled workers.
  • When buildings are constructed higher than seven stories, they must add sheer walls, transforming building from a precast structure to a sheer wall structure. Sheer walls have many manufacturing and construction problems when precast systems are employed, similar in nature to problems of precast beams and columns, as well as downtime of the crane while waiting for shear walls to be welded in place. When sheer walls are formed and poured at site they require a large amount of labor and time.
  • Most commercial multi-story buildings of prior art also have problems with very low R-factor insulating exterior wall systems that are nothing more than architecturally finished concrete slabs. They are labor and time intensive due to requiring precast welding plates, additional insulation and interior wall build out and finish. Prior art AAC exterior wall panels required post autoclaving for architectural relief, work that is difficult on large pieces and causes unusable waste and required labor intensive and time consuming fastening systems.
  • Exterior panels of AAC currently also have architectural deficit in design having to either be coated with stucco or, to achieve a higher quality finish, have tiles of marble, granite, or the like fixed to surface. There was no architecturally aesthetic product that supplied the water proofing and vapor permeability AAC requires between either a plain common stucco or completely new solid surface material to architecturally finish the exterior AAC panels.
  • Prior art of manufacturing and installing the exterior AAC wall panels is to individually lay them on floor and position them inside structural columns with the result of difficulty of manufactured uniform exterior finish. To accomplish a uniform exterior finish by suspending exterior panels to the exterior race of a building frame requires complicated and time consuming methods of individually installing each panel that does not overcome difficulty of being drawn tight together.
  • Therefore, there is no prior art that feasibly employs the cost effectiveness and precision of precast concrete with advantages of strength and speed of steel systems, while simultaneously reducing building volume and that is simple and quickly constructed to make a monolithic structure.
  • Accordingly, several objects and advantages of the present invention are:
      • a) a primary objective of the present invention is the synergy of improved methods of manufacture and construction for a multi-story commercial building using precast concrete and AAC that increases building quality while simultaneously reducing construction time, material, labor and operational costs.
      • b) to provide a superior and simplified method of joining precast structural components by employing a male knob seat with rebar and female runnel channel, without use of inferior corrugated metal sleeves, for joining the precast pieces together so a superiorly adhered monolithic framework results without use of welding nor mechanical fasteners, making it possible to rapidly and safely place an entire floor level without pre-marking, aligning and securing pieces.
      • c) to provide a method of manufacturing the precast structural members by use of forms and re-usable components that save time, material and increase quality and precision of precasting.
      • d) to provide two methods of constructing floors: A) poured floors and/or B) AAC floor panels, both flooring systems allow all trades to begin work immediately as no shoring is required.
  • Further advantages include:
      • a) The steel pan poured system actualizes inherit moment capacity of the corrugated steel pan for concrete floor system by fastening it securely to support structure by unique screws with duplex heads that fit snuggly in factory punched holes in pan, or that are capable of drilling through meta pan, thereby allowing multiple floors to be constructed without delay.
      • b) The AAC floor panel method using auger screws to quickly and easily secure AAC floor panels in hybrid prestressed beams with AAC mounting inserts so in almost the same time only steel decking is installed an entire floor system is installed providing finished ceiling for lower level. The AAC has great compaction strength so its placement in top area of beam is well suited, and AAC has added advantage being lightweight. After panels are installed simple cosmetic top coat of colored and/or stained concrete is added with the result being health conscious finished floor that does not contribute to “sick building” syndrome as does carpet.
      • c) Provide a construction system that eliminates obtrusive shoring so work, such as mechanical installation, can begin immediately while any required concrete is still curing.
      • d) Provide a minimum 10% reduction in building's height by lessening dead space between ceiling and finished floor by employing unique precast and AAC beams that allow mechanical works to be installed through structural beams, that provide numerous advantages, not limited to: lessening utility demands, reducing expensive exterior surface, providing zoned heating and air conditioning for greater efficiency and operational savings, lessening material use, reduction in height and weight of building reduces construction costs dramatically.
      • e) Provide an AAC floor panel system in that the sprinkler system has cost effective CPVC piping instead of expensive steel pipes embedded into key joints in panels and covered with floor finished concrete with sprinkler heads going through AAC panel and into lower level. This allows for a finished ceiling for lower level without the expense and labor of an acoustical ceiling.
      • f) Provide a means of quickly and easily attaching AAC exterior panels directly to columns without welding by employing AAC inserts and Auger screws.
      • g) Provide a means of quickly and easily attaching a large architecturally finished AAC exterior panel directly to columns by an interlocking system that pulls panel tight against structure and holds it in place so crane can release panel while it is being grouted and/or welded. Large panel can be a monolithic composition of several smaller AAC panels.
      • h) Provide a water proof and structurally superior AAC panel by the use of adding a substance such as Aquafin Integramix additive to AAC mixture with the unanticipated result of being stronger and water proof right from factory. Coloring agents can be added that will give these light weight and highly insulating panels a finished surface.
      • i) Provide an exterior panel that also acts as form for concrete pour on decking and additionally when panels have reinforcing tied into floor system the pour further reinforces building.
      • j) Provide a means of manufacturing AAC panels that have a finished architectural relief on the exterior face produced during normal cutting stage by use of AAC planer molder that allows for recycling of uncured, preautoclaved, “green” AAC.
      • k) Provide a superior performing and aesthetic architectural finish for AAC exterior panels for a more aesthetic and architecturally classier gloss finish than the standard stucco finish while maintaining AAC's required waterproof and vapor permeability surface.
      • l) Provide a stair system for commercial use that greatly reduces construction labor, time and material costs while improving fire rating of stairway.
      • m) Provide a shear wall that is easily constructed on site using precast pieces that employ a reinforcing knob and funnel sleeve system and then as stairways are located in shear wall, mount stairway system to sheer walls.
      • n) Provide a special welding plate that simply clips members of precast concrete, such as shear walls, together and frees the crane to leave members in place and do other work while members are fastened by grouting or welding, etc.
      • o) Provide a means of fastening precast members together by means of a screw with special threads and the omission of threads in the mid-section of the shaft that pulls members tightly together without risk of stripping the screw out of the AAC.
      • p) Provide a means of permanently fastening precast members together by the simplified means of a self-locking clip and other sleeve systems with the result of a monolithic structure with all the structural advantages poured in place and being quicker than precast and steel construction.
      • q) Provide a means of eliminating bond/ring beams in buildings by employing unique fastening process to attach the floor and/or roof support members to the walls and actualizing the diaphragm of the floor system.
      • r) Provide a means of permanently fastening precast members together by means of an internal void formed in the precast member that replaces current steel coupling sleeves.
  • Other advantages are to provide a much cleaner, safer working environment for construction workers, to improve building quality while reducing labor costs, materials, and weight of structure, to provide savings in interest costs for construction loans and simultaneously a quicker realization of income from tenants by reducing construction time and costs, to reduce operational costs for owner by providing a substantial savings in utilities by increasing R-values of exterior walls and to provide a more environmentally friendly habitat.
  • This invention also helps the environment for it uses precast concrete and AAC so that no lumber is used and wasted for shoring, etc. AAC is known as an environmentally friendly material as some factories have been recognized as “Green Factories.” Given the current rising costs of utilities and concerns of global warming, these are considerable advantages that the present invention makes economically feasible.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention includes methods of manufacturing and constructing a multi-story building comprising uniquely designed columns, beams, a flooring system, an exterior wall system, a stairway and means of securing the components.
  • On the first level, precast columns with the top surface having knobs with reinforcing rods protruding from their center are placed and secured to the foundation. Primary and secondary structural beams with funnel shaped sleeves on the underside ends corresponding to protruding reinforcing rods and knolls in the column are placed on columns with reinforcing rods passing through corresponding funnel shaped sleeves in the beams without the use of welding or mechanical fasteners.
  • The next level of columns have funnel shaped sleeves on the bottom corresponding to protruding rebar and knobs placed on top of the primary and secondary structural beams. Columns are then plumbed and the whole assembly is then grouted. This column and beam assembly is facilitated by knob-funnel design in precast pieces so that rebar is guided into the sleeves by funnel shaped sleeves in the beams and the beams are forced into proper position and aligned by knobs with the rebar centered in the sleeve for optimum grouting. The advantage is that the crane only has to lower and place the beams into the general area of the rebar protruding from the columns as the funnel design in sleeves will align beam and correct any bent rebar, etc., and the knobs correctly position, align and temporarily hold pieces together. Supporting columns are set and the rebar passes through beam's sleeves so there is no way beams are going to fall off the column and hurt anyone. It would take an earthquake just to move the beam off the column knob seat as the entire weight of the beam is pressing down on seat that has interlocking overlap that prevents movement. Optionally, a dab of grout can be placed on knob seat just before beam is lowered onto it for extra securing. After the first level of beams are set and the next level's columns are positioned and plumbed, it is only then that the system is grouted with the result being all pieces become monolithic without welding or the use of fasteners.
  • The primary, secondary, cross and AAC beams are then placed on columns or into precast seats or joist hanger that are secured in indentations so no measuring is required. Workers simply put it into position and then grout joints. The beams can be permanently attached to each other employing either of this present inventions two teaching: one a self-locking mechanism and the other a self-locking clip fastener.
  • Then the decking is attached to beams using a fastening system that employs actualized moment potential of decking, or instead, AAC panels are used employing system that provides moment via R-screws being used to secure AAC floor panels into composite pre-stressed/AAC beams. Both systems are installed in an area not directly under where the next row of beams and columns are being set. The previous floor's deck is poured after subsequent level floor's decking is installed so decking acts as a safety net and prevent injury if a precast piece were accidentally dropped. Mechanics can be working in areas with or without decking poured, but preferably after decking has been poured. In an AAC floor panel system, all sprinkler, electrical, etc., are placed before topcoat is poured.
  • The three levels of assembly are thereby coordinated so that it is now possible to continue construction for as many floors as are desired uninterrupted. It is also possible for precast system to be built several levels in advance of pouring decking. The present invention's system makes it possible to construct and pour 10,000 square feet of area in three days instead of standard seven days with much less labor and material.
  • The exterior perimeter columns can be either a composite of precast concrete with AAC inserts that are cast into the column or precast with receiving voids and steel created by a special mold. The AAC exterior panels are then aligned to precast column's AAC inserts and simply screwed onto columns employing an auger screw. AAC receptor inserts provide placement for workers, extra insulation to prohibit temperature transfer from fastening mechanism and facilitate installation in a much quicker manner than welding, and horizontal rebar placement using prior art is not possible. The panels can simply be hung onto columns and grouted. The column's shear strength is maintained as grouted AAC inserts or voids do not interfere with tension cables or reinforcing.
  • Both floor systems require a concrete finish pour, but unlike prior art, the present invention installs exterior panels before the floor is poured and the panels act as a form for final pour and can be integrated into floor thereby compounding the strength of the building.
  • The exterior panels are minimum R-30 as compared to minimal R-value for standard precast concrete. Exterior panels have architectural features uniquely manufactured into them at factory during cutting stage of production. AAC recycling planer/molder for adding architectural relief to exterior panels facilitates ecological recycling with advantages in time and labor savings as compared to procedures currently used on post autoclaved, cured AAC. Exterior panels employ a unique coating specialized for AAC that is water proof, vapor permeable and has aesthetic qualities far superior to simple stucco.
  • The stairway is basically precast and requires no welding to construct, only simple grouting and optional screwing to set.
  • When buildings go higher than seven stories, the structural requirements mandate sheet walls to be employed for additional reinforcing, and by employing the knob and tunnel sleeve system coordinated with clips and grout fasteners the corners and wall sections are joined quickly and permanently so that the crane has no down time holding pieces in place as required in prior art.
  • Several alternative fastening systems are presented for securing and/or attaching building components together that are quick and easy and yield the strength and advantages of welding but are simply grouted instead of the extra time, labor and cost welding requires.
  • Floor and roof joists/beams are secured to walls employing unique system that eliminates need for bond/ring beam by employing the diaphragm of floor or roof, thereby enabling a building to be constructed unimpeded.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a partially exploded perspective view of invention in a typical commercial multi-story building representing various stages of construction, from start to completion, in accordance with the teachings of this invention.
  • FIGS. 2 and 2A show precast vertical columns and horizontal precast beams construction system.
  • FIG. 3 is and exploded view of the beam support system.
  • FIGS. 4 and 4A show the metal decking system screwed into beams.
  • FIGS. 5, 5A, 5B and 5C depict the AAC floor system spanning structural beams w/ detail of beam mold and drill guide.
  • FIG. 6 is a top view AAC decking system.
  • FIGS. 7 and 7A AAC show the exterior panel system fastened to columns with AAC fastening inserts.
  • FIGS. 8, 8A, 8B and 8C depict the beam sleeve and knob casting systems.
  • FIGS. 9, 9A and 9B show the column, sleeve and knob casting system.
  • FIGS. 10, 10A and 10B show the sheer wall for buildings higher than seven stories employing the knob system and stair system.
  • FIGS. 11, 11A, 11B, 11C and 11D show the AAC recycling planer/molder for adding architectural relief to exterior panels.
  • FIGS. 12, 12A and 12B depict the clip securing system for permanently attaching precast members into a monolithic structural framework without welding.
  • FIGS. 13, 13A, 13B and 13C AAC show the screw for mounting AAC panels to the columns and drawing pieces tight together while securing.
  • FIGS. 14, 14A, 14B, 14C and 14D show the exterior AAC panel and fastening system.
  • FIGS. 15, 15A, 15B, 15C, 15D and 15E show beam to column joints.
  • FIGS. 16, 16A, 16B, 16C, 16D and 16E show the joist/beam fastening system replacing bond/ring beam.
  • FIG. 17 shows a balloon coupling/sleeve for the rebar.
  • FIGS. 18 and 18A show a crew coupling/sleeve for the rebar.
  • FIGS. 19, 19A, 19B, 19C and 19D show various views of a roofing system in accordance with this invention.
  • FIG. 1 is a partially exploded perspective view of the invention in a typical commercial building in various stages of construction, from start to completion.
  • The building is started with a foundation and first floor support columns being secured to/in the foundation or slab. Columns are set typically on 40′ centers and then plumbed and anchored.
  • Precast support columns 20 are approximately 20″×20″×9′-6″ high from base to top, except those columns supporting primary beams that are 24″×24″×9+″ high. This provides a 9′ high floor to finished acoustical ceiling and 6″ clearance for lights under all support beams, except for under primary beams that have clearance for ceiling and wiring but not lights.
  • Support columns have precast tunnel shaped sleeves 21 in the base for receiving corresponding reinforcing rods of rebar. Rebar is simply installed at site (FIG. 9B) and grouted. In this teaching, rebar is opposite from standard current methodologies in that the rebar protrudes from inside the base of a subsequent column a distance sufficient to go through beams and into top of previous floor level's supporting column's sleeve a distance adequate to secure it when grout is added. This allows for field installation of rebar and then grout is poured into sleeve 21 instead of pumped.
  • Column's top has knobs 22 corresponding to beam's base funnel sleeves 21 that receive rebar. The unique funnel shape of sleeves facilitates receiving the rebar by acting as a guide and additionally centers and positions piece being attached, whether beam or column, and then locking the piece onto knob to prevent movement from the correct position. The columns are anchored by simply filling precast area of voids 12 that are larger than rebar with epoxy grout. Columns have cast within them a receptor for rebar 11 that has pipe threading manufactured on it matching threads in receptor 23 so that reinforcing can be installed at site. By employing this receptor, columns do not have to have a rebar protruding from top of the precast forms or in transit.
  • Columns have cast into them AAC inserts 24 for receiving fasteners of exterior panels of AAC or alternatively interlocking fasteners shown in FIG. 14. These AAC inserts are located in such a manner that they allow pretension cables 25 to run through columns. The funnel and knob system is coordinated with column and beam reinforcing 26 so when grouted the pieces become monolithic. When the sleeves that house the steel reinforcing rods are grouted they will create a continuous steel reinforced monolithic structure as beams have steel reinforcing running their length with loop around sleeves 21, as known in the art.
  • After correct placement, plumbing and grouting of the columns on the first level, beams are installed. Beams, identified as primary 30, secondary 31 and cross 32 are similar in design except for size and precast features. Primary beams 30 being approximately 42″ wide×24″ deep×40′ long, secondary beams 31 being approximately 36″×18″×20′ long, cross beams 32 being approximately 24″×18″×20′ long, and AAC beams 33 approximately 8″×18″×20′ long. Perimeter beams 34 being approximately 24″×24−×20′.
  • One of the invention's teachings is a concrete structural beam with perpendicular utility voids 39 for allowing mechanical duct, sprinkler systems, etc., to pass through them. Utility voids 39 are unique in being strategically located for both structural purposes as well as functional requirements of mechanical system so that a grid system results for ease of design and a reduction of as much as 33% of prior art's vertical height dead space is removed from the building.
  • The structural beam system represented in FIG. 3 is constructed on top of precast columns 30 as follows: first, the precast primary beams 30, are installed onto top of columns and later receive through its precast sleeves the rebar protruding from base of next level's column; after the primary beams are secondary structural beams 31 that are placed perpendicularly to primary beams 30 and grouted 49 into block out/seat 35 formed in precast primary beam 30; these beams (as well as all others as desired) can also be clipped 121 together; then cross beams 32 are placed parallel to primary 30 and perpendicularly to secondary beams 31 and grouted into block out/seat 35 formed into precast secondary beams 31; lastly the AAC beams 33 that span parallel to secondary structural beam 31 and perpendicularly to primary beams 30 are secured by joist hangers 61. The joist hangers 61 fit into shallower precast block outs/seats 62 formed in primary and cross beams that reduces potential error of measuring in field by workers. The joist hangers 61 have clip system 160 attached to permanently secure them to beam without welding or grout. All beams as well can employ clip system 160 & 161 that will result in a reinforced monolithic structural frame without welding that has seismic flexibility and rigidity in desired directions.
  • The perimeter beams 34 have unique end design 36 to finish corners flush with rebar 11, knob 22 and funnel system 21 locking corners in place. Perimeter beams 34 have precast seats on only the interior side and no utility voids. Perimeter beams can also have AAC inserts 24 to attach AAC exterior panels.
  • Beams do not require a curing time as they are secured by sleeve 21 and knob 22 system and pouring an epoxy mortar permanently sets beams. This adequately secures the structural system so than an entire floor level can be constructed and secured without any welding, mechanical fastening or further bracing other than temporary X bracing so that construction can continue unimpeded by prior art's welding and/or shoring.
  • This entire interlocking beam/joist floor support system can have one or more 40′×40′ quadrants, or even one or more smaller AAC 20′×20′ quadrants, rotated 90 degrees if required for mechanical duct work, sprinkler system, etc., by simple design of interchangeable block outs 32A and 35A and joist notches 62 in primary and secondary beams.
  • A top view of partial floor plan engineered for structural beam system is shown by FIG. 3 with beams identified by number primary: 30, secondary: 31, cross: 32, AAC 33 and perimeter 34 and typical dimensional size with columns on 40′ centers.
  • The flooring system FIG. 4 of 1½″ metal decking 40 is manufactured with predetermined holes 41 of a size fastening screws 53 modified with duplex heads and shaft and/or custom rebar that fits snuggly into the hole by the screw shaft being the diameter of the prefabricated hole and thereby transforms decking into a reinforcing panel against horizontal sheer, a completely unanticipated function in addition to a base support for poured concrete floors as known in the art. The duplex head type decking screws 53 are inserted into AAC beam 33 so that heads protrude into 3½″ send light-weight concrete decking and can be tied to reinforcing, etc. Where decking overlaps holes align so that entire floor system is monolithic reinforcing.
  • The flooring system employing AAC panels sprinkler system's CPVC pipe branches 51 embedded into the AAC panel's enlarged key joint at 6′ centers, 3 panels from the beam. The precast beams have a void for accepting sprinkler pipe formed 64 across the top.
  • The sprinkler system's main pipe 51A runs in the gap between the panels and beam. Sprinkler heads 54 protrude through the ceiling, that is the bottom face of the AAC panel, as code requires. Additional heads can be placed at minimal cost so that future remodeling of pace presents no problems, as even acoustical ceiling can be installed in rare instances to hide additional runs if required.
  • After testing for pressure and drainage, the sprinkler pipes are covered in floor's cement topcoat that can be colored or stained and become a finished floor without the health hazards of carpet that contribute to “sick building” syndrome.
  • The AAC floor panel system has on the beams a marking system 57 b so workers can easily locate the correct placement for fasteners 130 employing drill guide 57 a. The triangulated point fits into beams triangulated void 57 b and straight front plate aligns square. The worker simply eyes the alignment plates in imaginary crosshairs 57 c to drill fastener directly into AAC insert 24. The AAC insert is held into precast mold by guide 24 a. Alternatively to AAC insert is a beam void 55 that is precast using a large plastic screw 56 that when removed from mold it leaves a void cavity in the beam into that fastener point sits after being drilled through AAC floor panel and when epoxy is poured info the fastener and flows out of fastener the void is filled and thereby locks the panel into place.
  • The precast utility voids 39 in the beams are formed circular 39 or to accommodate required duct volume while retaining beam strength formed oval 39A. FIG. 5C is a side view representing the beam forms 90 for utility voids. Slightly conical to facilitate removal plastic utility void form piece 58 is simply slipped into the tight-fitting, whether round or oval, opening in form and bolt 59B in screw cap 59 a goes through utility void form 58 in bracing bracket 59 d to keep level so worker can easily slip utility void form over and as slipped into place the bolt receptor 59 e forces bolt into tightening nut 59 f that is held at location by holding bracket and by turning tightening nut pulls utility void piece's 58 end cap and walls tight against exterior walls of form 90. This part of the invention makes it possible for only one worker to install all required pieces from one side of form.
  • A top view of partial floor plan for an alternative AAC floor panel system FIG. 6 has AAC floor panels 50 which run parallel to secondary beams 31 spanning between primary 30 and modified cross beams 32 with middle support of AAC beam 33 to handle commercial loads.
  • The exterior AAC panel system in FIGS. 7 and 7A shows combined AAC panels to form one exterior panel block 70 that is attached to structural columns and perimeter beams with fasteners 53 drilled into AAC inserts 24. These exterior panels can be set before the floors are poured and with reinforcing 180 placed into AAC exterior panels and into floor space, the panels become a form for floor pour as well as an integral part of building via concrete floor 181 when poured.
  • The beam precast form system is represented in FIG. 8 with the knob and sleeve system shown in FIGS. 8A-8C. The beam form 90 has sleeve seats 81 fixed to form that fit into sleeve's 21 funnel base in same opening 82 that ratchet will turn. The sleeve shaft ledge 85 and beam deck form 88 with opening 83A are complementary dimensions to fit snug and secure. The knob 22 is precast in form 84 that has a three wings coming off a center shaft 85A that becomes a void in knob 86 when knob is removed from the form. These wing voids allow grout to flow through knob into beam rebar void when assembled at site. The center shaft of wings is the size of rebar and thereby aligns rebar. Short sections of rebar 87 are set into knob form 84 while concrete is curing. These rebar pieces 87 protruding from the knob go into beam form and will be embedded in concrete when beam form is poured. The knob sits snuggly on sleeve ledge 83 and in the hole of the deck form thereby staying positioned during pour and beam deck form 88 can still be removed by slipping off precast knob 22. When the beam is poured and cured, the form is removed by first taking off form deck 88 then the beam form is removed. When beam is lifted for storage the sleeves 21 are either hit with rubber mallet from top or a ratchet is used back them out. The sleeve's threads are only partial to facilitate the ratchet and produce more holding power for grout that is poured later after assembly at site.
  • The column precast form system is represented in FIGS. 9-9B that show form 90 lying horizontally. The top form plate 91 and bottom form plate 91A are similar in function and design. The plates have supporting guides 92 that receive extensions 94 of rebar void form 93. The extensions 94 are permanently attached to the top plate so that the rebar void form 93 will remain level and not break off when concrete is poured into column form 90 and additionally these can be a reinforcing bar 92A to further strengthen supporting guides 92. The threading 96 on the end farthest from column is for pulling rebar void form 93 tight against the base of top plate 91. Beyond the threading at the very end 98 is squared so that a wrench can remove a whole piece as described later. The portion of rebar void form 93 inside column form 90 has a slightly reducing diameter towards threads 96 at end to facilitate removal. The partial threads 193 on the rebar void form 93 are to increase the holding strength of grout as it already has advantage of chemical bond that prior art employing steel sleeves does not have. The present invention additionally has the advantage of indentations that the grout will fill creating even greater holding strength comparable to poured in place concrete structure. The partial threads 193 do not extend beyond the previous diameter of the shaft thereby greatly casing removal of form as compared to a standard threaded shaft embedded in concrete. The threaded male end 96 is screwed into a threaded female coupling known as a rebar anchor 97 with extensions that will be embedded in cement of column 97A.
  • The process of disassembling the form assembly is to remove nuts from ends of void form extensions 92, 94, then remove top plate 91 off column form 90, sliding it over extensions and then with wrench type device applied at end of extension 98 to remove the entire rebar void form 93 leaving the rebar anchor 97 embedded in concrete column. At site reinforcing rebar 11 will be installed as FIG. 9B shows, with rebar having a threaded end 96 that will be screwed into rebar anchor 97 and then grouted. Immediately a centering coupling 99 will be placed over rebar and centering coupling 99 will be slid down and into grouted rebar void, thereby aligning rebar 11 so it will be plumb when it passes through beams and into the base of next level's column.
  • The form for base of column is assembled and disassembled similarly to the top as detailed. The distinction is in the ends of rebar voids 93 in bottom have female threaded receptors 190 cut at angle so that the grout sleeve form 192 that has a male threaded bolt type end 194 can be screwed into base rebar void form 93 and thereby form a continuous void starting on exterior face of column channel with grout sleeve 191 and continuing to the rebar void form 93 and then to base 91A. At the site this will allow grout to flow all the way through the voids in knob and through support beam to lower level's column top, thereby making one monolithic piece of all precast pieces, with no welding nor mechanical fasteners.
  • The precast sheer wall 100 incorporates this invention's knob and sleeve system so that an entire wall sections for each floor can be precast and then assembled at site in order represented numerically in FIG. 10B. The interlocking clasps 101 and 102 allow for installation of the shear wall system and then either simple grouting to fill voids or welding as plates of clasping pin system 120 and 121 is exposed at metal joint and can be welded long after crane has already released piece. An alternative fastening system is the interlocking brackets 140 and 142 that is a one piece system that can be grouted and/or welded where surface plates are exposed on top or sides. Both systems free the crane to continue working without delay of holding precast pieces of shear wall in position until welded. Then the stairway guides 150 and 151 can be bolts to wall, with first landing guide 150 installed with AAC landing positioned and then stair guide 151 installed and individual AAC stairs slid into position.
  • To produce exterior panels with custom face relief a teaching is the AAC recycling planer molder 110 that has a cylinder shape with hollow core 112 and planer molder blade 111 that is attached from the backside so nothing impedes ground AAC. The AAC recycling planer molder can have water added to top 120 to facilitate expulsion of the ground “green uncured,” recyclable AAC waste 70B that exits from the base. The interior wall of shaft 112 has downward spiraling grooves 113 and hollow core is slightly wider at base than at top that employs centrifugal force to force AAC waste down as planer spins. The AAC recycling planer blade 111 is angled as shown to force ground AAC waste 70A into hollow shaft 112 and the centrifugal force of spinning action forces AAC waste against grooved shaft wall and down. When AAC reaches the overlap area 115B the AAC is forced to leap over intake slot and go against outer wall to repeat cycle until expelled out base. When AAC is cut, usually wire 116 is used when AAC is still green before if has hardened and been autoclaved. While in this stage the AAC can be recycled and reused unlike after it has hardened and/or been autoclaved. The left side of FIG. 11A represents the AAC recycling planer 110 as it creates a relief 114 on the face of AAC panel 70 while the backs are cut straight by wire 116. The finished product is a highly insulating architecturally finished exterior panel of AAC that additionally can be colored, etc., and then shipped to site and installed.
  • By employing interlocking clip system 120 and 121 precast pieces can be locked into position and together without requiring crane to hold pieces while being welded. FIG 12A shows how clip 121 locks onto reinforcing bracket 120 and by simple grouting 182 is permanently fastened without welding. FIG. 12B shows how front clip void mold 124A is first slipped into reinforcing bracket 120 and then back clip void mold 124B is slipped onto its backside, then whole assembly is fastened by screws onto desired position on mold panel 90. Clip void mold 124B can be fastened from any of three sides of precast mold 90 by precisely positioned screws passing through mold form panel 90 that allow for coordinating interlocking precast pieces. Duct tape covers holes for handle 125. When precast pour has cured, and precast removed from mold, the handle 125 is screwed into back clip void mold 124B and the installation process is reversed. The thickness of back 124B is greater than bracket 120 and portion of front 124A that creates void abutting bracket for clip to lock into so it can be backed away from bracket 120 and removed from the resultant void. This void receives clip 121, that catches on the underside of the bracket and top of clip is flush with the top of the bracket. Grout is poured into space and permanently locks clip and pieces together. Additionally, after clip is installed it can be welded to bracket if required.
  • When attaching AAC pieces such as a panel 70 to structure such as column 20 via AAC insert 24, fastening screw 130 is employed. The fastening screw has special threads 136 on only front half of a hollow shall 135A. The hollow shaft 135A has reverse rifling 131 to receive AAC dust that is ground up by screw special tip 135 that relieves pressure and facilitates screws ability to go through 12″ of AAC. The rear half of fastening screw's shall is smooth without threads so that there is still a bearing capacity of screw by the shaft fitting smoothly against walls of AAC, but by special threads 136 pulling screw into AAC and head 138 of screw pulling AAC panel tight against the grouted surface of the piece to that it is being secured. The head of the screw has two slots 134 that facilitate countersinking the screw and when the surface is finished the screw head is grouted that prevents screw from backing out, and in severe applications a securing pin 132 is driven that prevents screw from backing out. Once AAC pieces are fastened and pin set, then counter sunk screw's head can be covered by decorative architectural covers 139A and 139B that are attached by grout.
  • A fastening system that is an alternative to screws for exterior AAC panels 70 is the hanging clips 145 and 145B system. Prior art FIG. 15 requires panels to be installed individually using a complicated attaching system requiring extensive site work and that cannot be welded. The teaching of this present invention allows for three architecturally finished panels FIG. 14 to be hung simultaneously employing steel pieces and precast molding system. Panels 70 have a channel bored into them sufficient in size to receive rebar grout. The ends and appropriate corners are notched so that when hanging clip 145 or 145A is mounted into notch indented just less than flush. The AAC receives the hanging clip and the mounting flange 147 has a hole so that the rebar 11 passes through the hole in mounting flange 147 and thereby secures flange in place sufficiently to hang panel to building. The face of AAC is notched which prevents movement. The welding flange 148 protrudes to surface of exposed face area and can be welded so that panels 70 via hanging clips 145 and building weld plate 142 can all be secured together with the small weld area 143 not effecting any architectural finishes nor other construction, such as window placements. Alternatively, only the panels can be welded and then hanging clip 145 can be free for seismic movement purposes. The unique design of weld plate mold 140 allows the precast to have a void produced by its flange 141 that will receive hanging clip flange 146 or 146A. FIG. 14D is example of prior art of attaching exterior panels that require exact positioning and a great deal more labor, time and expense, with a great amount of crane time to hold panels in position while being attached to support structure by means of field fabricating fastening system.
  • FIG. 15 is current teaching of invention of interlocking system 150 that allows for immediate installation of beams 30 into column 20 making it possible to have columns multiple stories high and then dropping floor beams into place. The male piece 150 has precast knob 151 that fits into precast void and sleeve 23 and when grouted becomes monolithic. The female void 151 formed by mold 152 does not interfere with tension cables or reinforcing, and by sleeve 23 is integrated into reinforcing system by minimal connection points. Sleeve 23 receives reinforcing rebar 11 protruding through precast male piece 150. These pieces are formed into interlocking shapes so pieces rest on each other while being grouted. These interlocking pieces fasten sufficiently not to come apart under normal conditions (wind loads of partially constructed building, etc.) until grout permanently cures. The interlocking pieces 151 and 152 are inserted and are supported by precast areas 154 that reinforce in direction of force. FIG. 15E makes obvious the advantages of invention due to prior art requirement to align multiple points simultaneously, several stages of framing and pours, etc.
  • This invention's teaching in FIGS. 16-16E shows a method of reinforcing building a frame that replaces prior art of bond/ring beam. The bond/ring beam as shown FIG. 16E is very time, labor and material consuming. This invention uniquely employs the diaphragm of the floor system by integrating structural floor members, such as steel, wood or precast concrete joists 160, into precast or AAC wall 161, or whatever supportive structural component of building is employed, by means of either rebar 11, or large tube nail as known in the art for AAC, securing joist 160 into wall at field cut or precast notch 164. The precast wall 161 is used as an anchoring system by means of a precast void 164 manufactured by void form 162A having a notch form 164A with alignment flange 165A and rebar anchoring form 167. The precast system has rebar positioning and alignment form 166A that corresponds to installation guide 166 for anchoring rebar 11. The anchoring guide 162 and void form 162A work by joist 160 having set anchoring holes 163 that are always positioned at a set distance from top of joist that corresponds to intersection of rebar 11 (or hollow nail in AAC application), that intersection is determined by set angle of rebar guide 166 and rebar form 166A and 167, thereby allowing one guide and form to be used for various depth sized joists. Therefore various flange widths are compensated for by using a standard width at the ends acting as anchoring guides. The anchoring guide 162 has a positioning bracket 168 that aligns joist for rebar 11 installation into reinforcing holes 163A in the joists. Set pin 167A countersinks rebar or hollow nail 11 into wall void 167A. The precast system uses rebar holes 163A that allow for workmanship variations in spans as by simply installing a reusable rubber plug into the notch void 164 and then grouting notch and rebar voids 167B to make monolithic system. FIGS. 16C and 16D show steel joist 160 having a reducing flange 169 in cases where extra strength for long spans, etc., necessitate thicker gauge steel that makes attaching sheetrock, etc., almost impossible. An example would be as shown in FIG. 16D if joist 160 was 10-gauge and the reducing flange 169 14-gauge, the bottom reducing flange would be wider, that facilitates fastening by providing larger contact area, and return longer so that bottom flange's reinforcing value would be adequate.
  • The balloon coupling sleeve FIG. 17 employs an inflatable mold 170 that when initially positioned is inflated 170A and then after precast pour has cured it is deflated and removed from precast piece, leaving a void. The void becomes a form that when precast member is installed at site, the coupling sleeve void is filled with high strength grout and hour glass reducing neck provides resistance greater than integral strength of rebar. The locking potential of balloon coupling is increased by ridges 171 on the surface that create indentations in void surface. For horizontal applications, grout pipes 173, as known in the art, are installed and positioned to be on top surface of precast member. A reinforcing rebar 172 and 172A, or other shapes, can be installed at the narrow neck of hourglass and tied to precast member's reinforcing to increase the coupling's strength. After the balloon coupling form is removed by preferred method of unscrewing from special precast rebar coupling 176 as shown, then special coupling 176 receives rebar inserted into balloon coupling and thereby coupling also uniquely provides sheer strength as well as tension strength.
  • An alternative to the balloon coupling sleeve is the threaded coupling sleeve 180. First step is to slide special circular reinforcing rebar 172A onto precast's rebar 11. Then screw threaded coupling sleeve 180 onto rebar 11 and slide circular rebar 172A over threaded coupling and screw it onto threads 186 on coupling sleeve. After member has cured, simply remove coupling sleeve by unscrewing. At site this invention's hour glass threads 183 is screwed into the void's threads and the rebar inserted into coupling sleeve passes through hour glass threads 183 that has holes with reducing diameter, as diagram 185 shows, at end towards knob seat 22A. The hourglass thread 183 also has notches 184 so when high strength grout is installed it locks whole system into place. A funnel shaped receiver 187 can assist rebar fitting into hourglass thread 183.
  • A unique and interlocking rebar pattern 188 that acts like a paper clip is fitted over a group of coupling sleeves and then poured to become a monolithic precast system requiring no ties, etc., to secure. As shown in FIG. 18A, a coupling sleeve 180A works with pretension cable 189. The tension coupling 180A is slipped onto pretension cable and secured to the form frame. After the precast piece has cured the tension cable sleeve is removed with form and cable cut just short of knob seat 22A so it does not interfere. In column construction, tension sleeve 180A is grouted and rebar 11 from other precast piece enters pretension sleeve void. The knob is fixed into the seat and when grout has cured the result is a continuous pretension cable and rebar coupling that overlaps as shown in FIG. 18A so that incredible strength and building integrity results.

Claims (11)

1. A cementitious building of at least one story height comprising precast components assembled on site,
said components being fastened together by a permanent high strength bonding agent and steel fasteners in a precast system that does not require welding, and
said bonding agent disposed in precast cavities to combine with exposed steel fasteners replacing the need for forms, poured in place concrete and welding.
2. The building according to claim 1 wherein said cavities are created by inflatable-type molds that are deflated and removed after concrete cures sufficiently.
3. The building according to claim 1 wherein said cavities are created by inserts that are removed after the concrete has cured sufficiently and the resultant void receives a complementary precast component and the two components are made into one monolithic, steel reinforced unit.
4. A cementitious building support structure comprising a column, sleeves formed in said column, said sleeves being funnel-shaped to receive a reinforcing rod, and said reinforcing rod extending from said column.
5. The building according to claim 4 wherein grout is poured into said sleeve.
6. The building according to claim 4 wherein an insert is formed in said column.
7. The building according to claim 4 wherein a knob is concentrically disposed on said reinforcing rod and receivable in the funnel-shaped portion of said sleeve.
8. A cementitious building floor system comprising a cementitious beam, metal decking partially overlying said beam, multiple holes formed in said decking, fasteners interconnecting said beam and said decking, and lightweight concrete overlying said decking.
9. The floor system according to claim 8 wherein said fasteners extend above said decking.
10. The floor system according to claim 9 wherein multiple holes are formed in said beam and said holes in said beam are in alignment with corresponding holes in said decking.
11. The building according to claim 1 wherein said components comprise a combination of precast high density concrete and lightweight insulative aerated concrete.
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