US20140276354A1 - Biophotonic materials and uses thereof - Google Patents

Biophotonic materials and uses thereof Download PDF

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US20140276354A1
US20140276354A1 US14/204,741 US201414204741A US2014276354A1 US 20140276354 A1 US20140276354 A1 US 20140276354A1 US 201414204741 A US201414204741 A US 201414204741A US 2014276354 A1 US2014276354 A1 US 2014276354A1
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biophotonic material
biophotonic
chromophore
material
light
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US14/204,741
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Remigio Piergallini
Nikolaos Loupis
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KLOX Technologies Inc
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KLOX Technologies Inc
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Assigned to KLOX TECHNOLOGIES INC. reassignment KLOX TECHNOLOGIES INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: PIERGALLINI, REMIGIO, LOUPIS, NIKOLAOS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K41/00Medicinal preparations obtained by treating materials with wave energy or particle radiation; Therapies using these preparations
    • A61K41/0057Photodynamic therapy with a photosensitizer, i.e. agent able to produce reactive oxygen species upon exposure to light or radiation, e.g. UV or visible light; photocleavage of nucleic acids with an agent
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K47/00Medicinal preparations characterised by the non-active ingredients used, e.g. carriers or inert additives; Targeting or modifying agents chemically bound to the active ingredient
    • A61K47/30Macromolecular organic or inorganic compounds, e.g. inorganic polyphosphates
    • A61K47/36Polysaccharides; Derivatives thereof, e.g. gums, starch, alginate, dextrin, hyaluronic acid, chitosan, inulin, agar or pectin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/0212Face masks
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/0216Solid or semisolid forms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/04Dispersions; Emulsions
    • A61K8/042Gels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/30Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds
    • A61K8/49Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K8/4973Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds containing heterocyclic compounds with oxygen as the only hetero atom
    • A61K8/498Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds containing heterocyclic compounds with oxygen as the only hetero atom having 6-membered rings or their condensed derivatives, e.g. coumarin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/72Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds
    • A61K8/73Polysaccharides
    • A61K8/735Mucopolysaccharides, e.g. hyaluronic acid; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M11/00Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M35/00Devices for applying, e.g. spreading, media, e.g. remedies, on the human body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/06Radiation therapy using light
    • A61N5/0613Apparatus adapted for a specific treatment
    • A61N5/0616Skin treatment other than tanning
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/06Radiation therapy using light
    • A61N5/0613Apparatus adapted for a specific treatment
    • A61N5/062Photodynamic therapy, i.e. excitation of an agent
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q19/00Preparations for care of the skin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q19/00Preparations for care of the skin
    • A61Q19/08Anti-ageing preparations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65DCONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR; PACKAGING ELEMENTS; PACKAGES
    • B65D83/00Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents
    • B65D83/14Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents for delivery of liquid or semi-liquid contents by internal gaseous pressure, i.e. aerosol containers comprising propellant for a product delivered by a propellant
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/40Chemical, physico-chemical or functional or structural properties of particular ingredients
    • A61K2800/42Colour properties
    • A61K2800/43Pigments; Dyes
    • A61K2800/434Luminescent, Fluorescent; Optical brighteners; Photosensitizers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/80Process related aspects concerning the preparation of the cosmetic composition or the storage or application thereof
    • A61K2800/81Preparation or application process involves irradiation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/06Radiation therapy using light
    • A61N2005/0658Radiation therapy using light characterised by the wavelength of light used
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N5/00Radiation therapy
    • A61N5/06Radiation therapy using light
    • A61N2005/0658Radiation therapy using light characterised by the wavelength of light used
    • A61N2005/0662Visible light

Abstract

The present disclosure provides biophotonic materials and methods useful in phototherapy. In particular, the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure include a cohesive matrix, and at least one chromophore, wherein the at least one chromophore can absorb and emit light from within the biophotonic material. The biophotonic materials and the methods of the present disclosure are useful for promoting wound healing and skin rejuvenation, as well as treating acne and various skin disorders.

Description

    CROSS-RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/786,197, filed Mar. 14, 2013, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/873,747, filed Sep. 4, 2013, the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • Phototherapy has recently been recognized as having wide range of applications in both the medical and cosmetic fields including use in surgery, therapy and diagnostics. For example, phototherapy has been used to treat cancers and tumors with lessened invasiveness, to disinfect target sites as an antimicrobial treatment, to promote wound healing, and for facial skin rejuvenation.
  • Photodynamic therapy is a type of phototherapy involving the application of a photosensitive agent to target tissue then exposing the target tissue to a light source after a determined period of time during which the photosensitizer is absorbed by the target tissue. Such regimens, however, are often associated with undesired side-effects, including systemic or localized toxicity to the patient or damage to non-targeted tissue. Moreover, such existing regimens often demonstrate low therapeutic efficacy due to, for example, the poor selectivity of the photosensitive agents into the target tissues.
  • Therefore, it is an object of the present disclosure to provide new and improved compositions and methods useful in phototherapy.
  • SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • The present disclosure provides topical biophotonic materials and methods useful in phototherapy. In particular, the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure include a cohesive matrix, and at least one chromophore, wherein the at least one chromophore can absorb and emit light from within the biophotonic material.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material is an elastic material. In certain embodiments, the elastic material is a peelable film. In other embodiments, the biophotonic material is a non-elastic material. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material is rigid.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material has a tear and/or tensile strength greater than an adhesive strength of the biophotonic material to a surface to which it is applied.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material is substantially translucent. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a translucency of at least about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, or about 80% at 460 nm.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material has a thickness of about 0.1 mm to about 50 mm.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material has a pre-formed configuration. In some embodiments, the pre-formed configuration is a shape and/or a size corresponding with a shape and/or a size of a body part to which the biophotonic material can be applied. In some embodiments, the body part to which the material is applied is a head, scalp, forehead, nose, cheeks, ears, lip, face, neck, shoulder, arm pit, arm, elbow, hand, finger, abdomen, chest, stomach, back, sacrum, buttocks, genitals, legs, knee, feet, nails, hair, toes, or bony prominences, or combinations thereof.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the material is a mask. In some embodiments, the mask is a face mask having at least one opening for the eyes, nose or mouth.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material has a pre-formed configuration and the pre-formed configuration is a shape and/or a size corresponding with a shape and/or a size of a light source or lamp to which the biophotonic material can be attached.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material can be removed without leaving substantially any residue on a surface to which the biophotonic material is applied.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the biophotonic material the at least one chromophore included in the biophotonic material is a fluorophore. In some embodiments, the fluorophore is a xanthene dye. In some embodiments, the chromophore is included in the cohesive matrix.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the cohesive matrix of the biophotonic material includes at least one polymer. In some embodiments, the polymer is selected from a cross-linked polyacrylic polymer, a hyaluronate, a hydrated polymer, a hydrophilic polymer. In some embodiments, cohesive matrix comprises sodium hyaluronate. In some embodiments, sodium hyaluronate is present in an amount of about 2% to about 8%. In some embodiments, the cohesive matrix comprises a carbomer. In some embodiments, the carbomer is present in an amount of about 0.1% to about 2%.
  • In certain embodiments of any of the foregoing or following, the cohesive matrix is in particulate form.
  • In some embodiments, the chromophore is included in a carrier medium which can form a cohesive matrix. In some embodiments, the chromophore can absorb and emit light within the cohesive matrix when illuminated with light. In some embodiments, the carrier medium is at least one polymer or a polymer pre-cursor which can form the cohesive matrix by polymerizing, cross-linking or drying.
  • The biophotonic material of any embodiments of the disclosure may be used as a mask, dressing or filler. The biophotonic material of any embodiments of the disclosure may also be used for cosmetic or medical treatment of tissue. In some embodiments, the cosmetic treatment is skin rejuvenation and conditioning, and the medical treatment is wound healing, periodontal treatment or acne treatment.
  • The present disclosure also provides containers comprising the biophotonic material or precursor material according to various embodiments of the disclosure. In some embodiments, the container comprises a sealed chamber for holding a biophotonic material, and an outlet in communication with the chamber for discharging the biophotonic material from the container, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore in a carrier medium which can form a cohesive matrix after being discharged from the sealed chamber. In some embodiments, the container is a spray can.
  • The present disclosure also provides kits for preparing or providing the biophotonic material or precursor according to various embodiments of the disclosure. In some embodiments, the kit comprises a first container comprising a first chromophore; and a second component comprising a thickening agent, wherein the thickening agent can form a cohesive matrix when mixed with the first component.
  • The present disclosure also provides methods for biophotonic treatment comprising applying the biophotonic material of the disclosure to a target tissue and illuminating the material with light. In some embodiments, the method is for biophotonic treatment of a skin disorder wherein the method comprises placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore; wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes healing of said skin disorder.
  • In some embodiments, the method is for biophotonic treatment of acne wherein the method comprises placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore; wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that treats the acne.
  • In some embodiments, the method is for promoting wound healing wherein the method comprises placing a biophotonic material over or within a wound, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore; wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes wound healing.
  • In some embodiments, the method is for promoting skin rejuvenation wherein the method comprises placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore; wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes skin rejuvenation.
  • In some embodiments, the biophotonic material is removed after illumination. In some embodiments, the material is peeled off after illumination.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 illustrates the absorption and emission spectra of donor and acceptor chromophores. The spectral overlap between the absorption spectrum of the acceptor chromophore and the emission spectrum of the donor chromophore is also shown.
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic of a Jablonski diagram that illustrates the coupled transitions involved between a donor emission and acceptor absorbance.
  • FIG. 3 is an emission fluorescence spectrum from an activated biophotonic material according to an embodiment of the present disclosure (Example 1).
  • FIG. 4 is an emission fluorescence spectrum from a photoactivated biophotonic material iraddiating fibroblasts and keratinocytes for evaluating protein regulation and gene expression (Example 5).
  • FIGS. 5 a and 5 b are emission fluorescence spectra for Eosin Y and Fluorescein, respectively, and the activating light passing through the composition, at different concentrations of the chromophores (Example 7).
  • FIGS. 6 a and 6 b are absorbance and emission spectra, respectively, of Eosin and Fluorescein in a gel (Example 8).
  • FIGS. 7 a and 7 b are absorbance and emission spectra, respectively, of Eosin, Fluorescein and Rose Bengal in a gel (Example 9).
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION (1) Overview
  • The present disclosure provides biophotonic materials and uses thereof. Biophotonic therapy using these materials would not involve substantial direct contact of a photosensitive agent (or chromophore) with the therapeutic target, which includes, but is not limited to, skin, mucous membranes, wounds, hair and nails. Therefore, undesired side effects caused by such direct contact may be reduced, minimized, or prevented. Furthermore, in certain embodiments, phototherapy using the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure will for instance rejuvenate the skin by, e.g., promoting collagen synthesis, promote wound healing, treat skin conditions such as acne, and treat periodontitis.
  • (2) Definitions
  • Before continuing to describe the present disclosure in further detail, it is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to specific compositions or process steps, as such may vary. It must be noted that, as used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular form “a”, “an” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.
  • As used herein, the term “about” in the context of a given value or range refers to a value or range that is within 20%, preferably within 10%, and more preferably within 5% of the given value or range.
  • It is convenient to point out here that “and/or” where used herein is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of the two specified features or components with or without the other. For example “A and/or B” is to be taken as specific disclosure of each of (i) A, (ii) B and (iii) A and B, just as if each is set out individually herein.
  • “Biophotonic” means the generation, manipulation, detection and application of photons in a biologically relevant context. In other words, biophotonic compositions and materials exert their physiological effects primarily due to the generation and manipulation of photons.
  • “Biophotonic material” is a material which may be activated by light to produce photons for biologically relevant applications. Biophotonic materials, as referred to herein, may be cohesive gels, semi-solids or solids. that The biophotonic material can be in the form of, including, but not limited to, a film or an elastic or non-elastic matrix, or the like, for uses such as a mask, a dressing or a light attachment. The biophotonic material can be a composite and include fibres, particulates, ribs, supporting structures, networks, non-biophotonic layers or biophotonic layers with the same or different compositions.
  • “Cohesive matrix” refers to a medium which is, or which can form, a self-supporting material e.g. a material with a defined shape under steady state conditions. This may be due to internal attractive forces. The property of cohesion in a material can allow the material to be handled without tearing.
  • “Topical application” or “topical uses” means application to body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, vagina, oral cavity, internal surgical wound sites, and the like.
  • Terms “chromophore” and “photoactivator” are used herein interchangeably. A chromophore means a chemical compound, when contacted by light irradiation, is capable of absorbing the light. The chromophore readily undergoes photoexcitation and can transfer its energy to other molecules or emit it as light (fluorescence).
  • “Photobleaching” or “photobleaches” means the photochemical destruction of a chromophore. A chromophore may fully or partially photobleach.
  • The term “actinic light” is intended to mean light energy emitted from a specific light source (e.g. lamp, LED, or laser) and capable of being absorbed by matter (e.g. the chromophore or photoactivator). In a preferred embodiment, the actinic light is visible light.
  • A “peel-off” or “peelable” film or matrix is one that can be mechanically removed, such as by hand, after application. It can be removed as a single piece, or as a small number of large pieces.
  • “Skin rejuvenation” means a process of reducing, diminishing, retarding or reversing one or more signs of skin aging. For instance, common signs of skin aging include, but are not limited to, appearance of fine lines or wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat (leading to hollowed cheeks and eye sockets as well as noticeable loss of firmness on the hands and neck), bone loss (such that bones shrink away from the skin due to bone loss, which causes sagging skin), dry skin (which might itch), inability to sweat sufficiently to cool the skin, unwanted facial hair, freckles, age spots, spider veins, rough and leathery skin, fine wrinkles that disappear when stretched, loose skin, or a blotchy complexion. According to the present disclosure, one or more of the above signs of aging may be reduced, diminished, retarded or even reversed by the compositions and methods of the present disclosure.
  • “Wound” means an injury to any tissue, including for example, acute, subacute, delayed or difficult to heal wounds, and chronic wounds. Examples of wounds may include both open and closed wounds. Wounds include, for example, amputations, burns, incisions, excisions, lesions, lacerations, abrasions, puncture or penetrating wounds, surgical wounds, contusions, hematomas, crushing injuries, ulcers (such as for example pressure, diabetic or venous), wounds caused by periodontitis (inflammation of the periodontium).
  • Features and advantages of the subject matter hereof will become more apparent in light of the following detailed description of selected embodiments, as illustrated in the accompanying figures. As will be realized, the subject matter disclosed and claimed is capable of modifications in various respects, all without departing from the scope of the claims. Accordingly, the drawings and the description are to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not as restrictive and the full scope of the subject matter is set forth in the claims.
  • (3) Biophotonic Materials
  • The present disclosure provides, in a broad sense, biophotonic materials which are cohesive and methods of using the biophotonic materials. Biophotonic materials can be, in a broad sense, activated by light (e.g., photons) of specific wavelength. A biophotonic material according to various embodiments of the present disclosure contains a cohesive matrix and at least one chromophore in or on the cohesive matrix which is activated by light and accelerates the dispersion of light energy, which leads to light carrying on a therapeutic effect on its own, and/or to the photochemical activation of other agents contained in the composition (e.g., acceleration in the breakdown process of peroxide (an oxidant) when such compound is present in the composition or in contact with the composition, leading to the formation of oxygen radicals, such as singlet oxygen).
  • When a chromophore absorbs a photon of a certain wavelength, it becomes excited. This is an unstable condition and the molecule tries to return to the ground state, giving away the excess energy. For some chromophores, it is favorable to emit the excess energy as light when returning to the ground state. This process is called fluorescence. The peak wavelength of the emitted fluorescence is shifted towards longer wavelengths compared to the absorption wavelengths due to loss of energy in the conversion process. This is called the Stokes' shift. In the proper environment (e.g., in a biophotonic material) much of this energy is transferred to the other components of the biophotonic material or to the treatment site directly.
  • Without being bound to theory, it is thought that fluorescent light emitted by photoactivated chromophores may have therapeutic properties due to its femto-, pico-, or nano-second emission properties which may be recognized by biological cells and tissues, leading to favourable biomodulation. Furthermore, the emitted fluorescent light has a longer wavelength and hence a deeper penetration into the tissue than the activating light. Irradiating tissue with such a broad range of wavelength, including in some embodiments the activating light which passes through the composition, may have different and complementary effects on the cells and tissues. In other words, chromophores are used in the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure for therapeutic effect on tissues. This is a distinct application of these photoactive agents and differs from the use of chromophores as simple stains or as catalysts for photo-polymerization.
  • The biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may have topical uses such as a mask or a wound dressing, or as an attachment to a light source, as a waveguide or as a light filter. The cohesive nature of these biophotonic materials may provide ease of removal from the site of treatment and hence a faster and less messy treatment. In addition the biophotonic materials can limit the contact between the chromopore and the tissue. These materials may be described based on the components making up the composition. Additionally or alternatively, the compositions of the present disclosure have functional and structural properties and these properties may also be used to define and describe the compositions. Individual components of the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure, including chromophores, thickening agents and other optional ingredients, are detailed below.
  • The present disclosure also provides a precursor composition to the material described herein, which will become cohesive on drying, heating, light exposure, application to tissue or mixing. The precursor composition comprises at least one chromophore in a carrier medium, or at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix.
  • (a) Chromophores
  • Suitable chromophores can be fluorescent dyes (or stains) (also known as “fluorochromes” or “fluorophores”). Other dye groups or dyes (biological and histological dyes, food colorings, carotenoids, naturally occurring fluorescent and other dyes) can also be used. Suitable photoactivators can be those that are Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Advantageously, photoactivators which are not well tolerated by the skin or other tissues can be included in the biophotonic material of the present disclosure, as in certain embodiments, the photoactivators are encapsulated within the cohesive matrix and may not contact the tissues.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure comprises a first chromophore which undergoes partial or complete photobleaching upon application of light. In some embodiments, the first chromophore absorbs at a wavelength in the range of the visible spectrum, such as at a wavelength of about 380-800 nm, 380-700, 400-800, or 380-600 nm. In other embodiments, the first chromophore absorbs at a wavelength of about 200-800 nm, 200-700 nm, 200-600 nm or 200-500 nm. In one embodiment, the first chromophore absorbs at a wavelength of about 200-600 nm. In some embodiments, the first chromophore absorbs light at a wavelength of about 200-300 nm, 250-350 nm, 300-400 nm, 350-450 nm, 400-500 nm, 450-650 nm, 600-700 nm, 650-750 nm or 700-800 nm.
  • It will be appreciated to those skilled in the art that optical properties of a particular chromophore may vary depending on the chromophore's surrounding medium. Therefore, as used herein, a particular chromophore's absorption and/or emission wavelength (or spectrum) corresponds to the wavelengths (or spectrum) measured in a biophotonic material of the present disclosure.
  • The biophotonic material disclosed herein may include at least one additional chromophore. Combining chromophores may increase photo-absorption by the combined dye molecules and enhance absorption and photo-biomodulation selectivity. This creates multiple possibilities of generating new photosensitive, and/or selective chromophores mixtures. Thus, in certain embodiments, biophotonic materials of the disclosure include more than one chromophore. When such multichromophore materials are illuminated with light, energy transfer can occur between the chromophores. This process, known as resonance energy transfer, is a widely prevalent photophysical process through which an excited ‘donor’ chromophore (also referred to herein as first chromophore) transfers its excitation energy to an ‘acceptor’ chromophore (also referred to herein as second chromophore). The efficiency and directedness of resonance energy transfer depends on the spectral features of donor and acceptor chromophores. In particular, the flow of energy between chromophores is dependent on a spectral overlap reflecting the relative positioning and shapes of the absorption and emission spectra. More specifically, for energy transfer to occur, the emission spectrum of the donor chromophore must overlap with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor chromophore (FIG. 1).
  • Energy transfer manifests itself through decrease or quenching of the donor emission and a reduction of excited state lifetime accompanied also by an increase in acceptor emission intensity. FIG. 2 is a Jablonski diagram that illustrates the coupled transitions involved between a donor emission and acceptor absorbance.
  • To enhance the energy transfer efficiency, the donor chromophore should have good abilities to absorb photons and emit photons. Furthermore, the more overlap there is between the donor chromophore's emission spectra and the acceptor chromophore's absorption spectra, the better a donor chromophore can transfer energy to the acceptor chromophore.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure further comprises a second chromophore. In some embodiments, the first chromophore has an emission spectrum that overlaps at least about 80%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20% or 10% with an absorption spectrum of the second chromophore. In one embodiment, the first chromophore has an emission spectrum that overlaps at least about 20% with an absorption spectrum of the second chromophore. In some embodiments, the first chromophore has an emission spectrum that overlaps at least 1-10%, 5-15%, 10-20%, 15-25%, 20-30%, 25-35%, 30-40%, 35-45%, 50-60%, 55-65% or 60-70% with an absorption spectrum of the second chromophore.
  • % spectral overlap, as used herein, means the % overlap of a donor chromophore's emission wavelength range with an acceptor chromophore's absorption wavelength rage, measured at spectral full width quarter maximum (FWQM). For example, FIG. 1 shows the normalized absorption and emission spectra of donor and acceptor chromophores. The spectral FWQM of the acceptor chromophore's absorption spectrum is from about 60 nm (515 nm to about 575 nm). The overlap of the donor chromophore's spectrum with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor chromophore is about 40 nm (from 515 nm to about 555 nm). Thus, the % overlap can be calculated as 40 nm/60 nm×100=66.6%.
  • In some embodiments, the second chromophore absorbs at a wavelength in the range of the visible spectrum. In certain embodiments, the second chromophore has an absorption wavelength that is relatively longer than that of the first chromophore within the range of about 50-250, 25-150 or 10-100 nm.
  • The first chromophore can be present in an amount of about 0.001-40% per weight of the biophotonic material. When present, the second chromophore can be present in an amount of about 0.001-40% per weight of the biophotonic material. In certain embodiments, the first chromophore is present in an amount of about 0.001-3%, 0.001-0.01%, 0.005-0.1%, 0.1-0.5%, 0.5-2%, 1-5%, 2.5-7.5%, 5-10%, 7.5-12.5%, 10-15%, 12.5-17.5%, 15-20%, 17.5-22.5%, 20-25%, 22.5-27.5%, 25-30%, 27.5-32.5%, 30-35%, 32.5-37.5%, or 35-40% per weight of the biophotonic material. In certain embodiments, the second chromophore is present in an amount of about 0.001-3%, 0.001-0.01%, 0.005-0.1%, 0.1-0.5%, 0.5-2%, 1-5%, 2.5-7.5%, 5-10%, 7.5-12.5%, 10-15%, 12.5-17.5%, 15-20%, 17.5-22.5%, 20-25%, 22.5-27.5%, 25-30%, 27.5-32.5%, 30-35%, 32.5-37.5%, or 35-40% per weight of the biophotonic material. In certain embodiments, the total weight per weight of chromophore or combination of chromophores may be in the amount of about 0.005-1%, 0.05-2%, 1-5%, 2.5-7.5%, 5-10%, 7.5-12.5%, 10-15%, 12.5-17.5%, 15-20%, 17.5-22.5%, 20-25%, 22.5-27.5%, 25-30%, 27.5-32.5%, 30-35%, 32.5-37.5%, or 35-40.001% per weight of the biophotonic material.
  • The concentration of the chromophore to be used can be selected based on the desired intensity and duration of the biophotonic activity from the biophotonic material, and on the desired medical or cosmetic effect. For example, some dyes such as xanthene dyes reach a ‘saturation concentration’ after which further increases in concentration do not provide substantially higher emitted fluorescence. Further increasing the chromophore concentration above the saturation concentration can reduce the amount of activating light passing through the matrix. Therefore, if more fluorescence is required for a certain application than activating light, a high ‘saturation’ concentration of chromophore can be used. However, if a balance is required between the emitted fluorescence and the activating light, a concentration close to or lower than the saturation concentration can be chosen.
  • Suitable chromophores that may be used in the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure include, but are not limited to the following:
  • Chlorophyll Dyes
  • Exemplary chlorophyll dyes include but are not limited to chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; chlorophyllin, oil soluble chlorophyll; bacteriochlorophyll a; bacteriochlorophyll b; bacteriochlorophyll c; bacteriochlorophyll d; protochlorophyll; protochlorophyll a; amphiphilic chlorophyll derivative 1; and amphiphilic chlorophyll derivative 2.
  • Xanthene Derivatives
  • Exemplary xanthene dyes include but are not limited to Eosin B (4′,5′-dibromo,2′,7′-dinitr-o-fluorescein, dianion); eosin Y; eosin Y (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-fluoresc-ein, dianion); eosin (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-fluorescein, dianion) methyl ester; eosin (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-fluorescein, monoanion) p-isopropylbenzyl ester; eosin derivative (2′,7′-dibromo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (4′,5′-dibromo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (2′,7′-dichloro-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (4′,5′-dichloro-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (2′,7′-diiodo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (4′,5′-diiodo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (tribromo-fluorescein, dianion); eosin derivative (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrachlor-o-fluorescein, dianion); eosin; eosin dicetylpyridinium chloride ion pair; erythrosin B (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetraiodo-fluorescein, dianion); erythrosin; erythrosin dianion; erythiosin B; fluorescein; fluorescein dianion; phloxin B (2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-fluorescein, dianion); phloxin B (tetrachloro-tetrabromo-fluorescein); phloxine B; rose bengal (3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2′,4′,5′,7′-tetraiodofluorescein, dianion); pyronin G, pyronin J, pyronin Y; Rhodamine dyes such as rhodamines include 4,5-dibromo-rhodamine methyl ester; 4,5-dibromo-rhodamine n-butyl ester; rhodamine 101 methyl ester; rhodamine 123; rhodamine 6G; rhodamine 6G hexyl ester; tetrabromo-rhodamine 123; and tetramethyl-rhodamine ethyl ester.
  • Methylene Blue Dyes
  • Exemplary methylene blue derivatives include but are not limited to 1-methyl methylene blue; 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue; methylene blue; methylene blue (16 μM); methylene blue (14 μM); methylene violet; bromomethylene violet; 4-iodomethylene violet; 1,9-dimethyl-3-dimethyl-amino-7-diethyl-a-mino-phenothiazine; and 1,9-dimethyl-3-diethylamino-7-dibutyl-amino-phenot-hiazine.
  • Azo Dyes
  • Exemplary azo (or diazo-) dyes include but are not limited to methyl violet, neutral red, para red (pigment red 1), amaranth (Azorubine S), Carmoisine (azorubine, food red 3, acid red 14), allura red AC (FD&C 40), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5), orange G (acid orange 10), Ponceau 4R (food red 7), methyl red (acid red 2), and murexide-ammonium purpurate.
  • In some aspects of the disclosure, the one or more chromophores of the biophotonic materials disclosed herein can be independently selected from any of Acid black 1, Acid blue 22, Acid blue 93, Acid fuchsin, Acid green, Acid green 1, Acid green 5, Acid magenta, Acid orange 10, Acid red 26, Acid red 29, Acid red 44, Acid red 51, Acid red 66, Acid red 87, Acid red 91, Acid red 92, Acid red 94, Acid red 101, Acid red 103, Acid roseine, Acid rubin, Acid violet 19, Acid yellow 1, Acid yellow 9, Acid yellow 23, Acid yellow 24, Acid yellow 36, Acid yellow 73, Acid yellow S, Acridine orange, Acriflavine, Alcian blue, Alcian yellow, Alcohol soluble eosin, Alizarin, Alizarin blue 2RC, Alizarin carmine, Alizarin cyanin BBS, Alizarol cyanin R, Alizarin red S, Alizarin purpurin, Aluminon, Amido black 10B, Amidoschwarz, Aniline blue WS, Anthracene blue SWR, Auramine O, Azocannine B, Azocarmine G, Azoic diazo 5, Azoic diazo 48, Azure A, Azure B, Azure C, Basic blue 8, Basic blue 9, Basic blue 12, Basic blue 15, Basic blue 17, Basic blue 20, Basic blue 26, Basic brown 1, Basic fuchsin, Basic green 4, Basic orange 14, Basic red 2, Basic red 5, Basic red 9, Basic violet 2, Basic violet 3, Basic violet 4, Basic violet 10, Basic violet 14, Basic yellow 1, Basic yellow 2, Biebrich scarlet, Bismarck brown Y, Brilliant crystal scarlet 6R, Calcium red, Carmine, Carminic acid, Celestine blue B, China blue, Cochineal, Coelestine blue, Chrome violet CG, Chromotrope 2R, Chromoxane cyanin R, Congo corinth, Congo red, Cotton blue, Cotton red, Croceine scarlet, Crocin, Crystal ponceau 6R, Crystal violet, Dahlia, Diamond green B, Direct blue 14, Direct blue 58, Direct red, Direct red 10, Direct red 28, Direct red 80, Direct yellow 7, Eosin B, Eosin Bluish, Eosin, Eosin Y, Eosin yellowish, Eosinol, Erie garnet B, Eriochrome cyanin R, Erythrosin B, Ethyl eosin, Ethyl green, Ethyl violet, Evans blue, Fast blue B, Fast green FCF, Fast red B, Fast yellow, Fluorescein, Food green 3, Gallein, Gallamine blue, Gallocyanin, Gentian violet, Haematein, Haematine, Haematoxylin, Helio fast rubin BBL, Helvetia blue, Hematein, Hematine, Hematoxylin, Hoffman's violet, Imperial red, Indocyanin Green, Ingrain blue, Ingrain blue 1, Ingrain yellow 1, INT, Kermes, Kermesic acid, Kernechtrot, Lac, Laccaic acid, Lauth's violet, Light green, Lissamine green SF, Luxol fast blue, Magenta 0, Magenta I, Magenta II, Magenta III, Malachite green, Manchester brown, Martius yellow, Merbromin, Mercurochrome, Metanil yellow, Methylene azure A, Methylene azure B, Methylene azure C, Methylene blue, Methyl blue, Methyl green, Methyl violet, Methyl violet 2B, Methyl violet 10B, Mordant blue 3, Mordant blue 10, Mordant blue 14, Mordant blue 23, Mordant blue 32, Mordant blue 45, Mordant red 3, Mordant red 11, Mordant violet 25, Mordant violet 39 Naphthol blue black, Naphthol green B, Naphthol yellow S, Natural black 1, Natural green 3(chlorophyllin), Natural red, Natural red 3, Natural red 4, Natural red 8, Natural red 16, Natural red 25, Natural red 28, Natural yellow 6, NBT, Neutral red, New fuchsin, Niagara blue 3B, Night blue, Nile blue, Nile blue A, Nile blue oxazone, Nile blue sulphate, Nile red, Nitro BT, Nitro blue tetrazolium, Nuclear fast red, Oil red 0, Orange G, Orcein, Pararosanilin, Phloxine B, Picric acid, Ponceau 2R, Ponceau 6R, Ponceau B, Ponceau de Xylidine, Ponceau S, Primula, Purpurin, Pyronin B, phycobilins, Phycocyanins, Phycoerythrins. Phycoerythrincyanin (PEC), Phthalocyanines, Pyronin G, Pyronin Y, Quinine, Rhodamine B, Rosanilin, Rose bengal, Saffron, Safranin O, Scarlet R, Scarlet red, Scharlach R, Shellac, Sirius red F3B, Solochrome cyanin R, Soluble blue, Solvent black 3, Solvent blue 38, Solvent red 23, Solvent red 24, Solvent red 27, Solvent red 45, Solvent yellow 94, Spirit soluble eosin, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan black B, Sulfur yellow S, Swiss blue, Tartrazine, Thioflavine S, Thioflavine T, Thionin, Toluidine blue, Toluyline red, Tropaeolin G, Trypaflavine, Trypan blue, Uranin, Victoria blue 4R, Victoria blue B, Victoria green B, Vitamin B, Water blue I, Water soluble eosin, Xylidine ponceau, or Yellowish eosin.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure includes any of the chromophores listed above, or a combination thereof, so as to provide a synergistic biophotonic effect at the application site.
  • Without being bound to any particular theory, a synergistic effect of the chromophore combinations means that the biophotonic effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Advantageously, this may translate to increased reactivity of the biophotonic material, faster or improved treatment time. Also, the treatment conditions need not be altered to achieve the same or better treatment results, such as time of exposure to light, power of light source used, and wavelength of light used. In other words, use of synergistic combinations of chromophores may allow the same or better treatment without necessitating a longer time of exposure to a light source, a higher power light source or a light source with different wavelengths.
  • In some embodiments, the material includes Eosin Y as a first chromophore and any one or more of Rose Bengal, Fluorescein, Erythrosin, Phloxine B, chlorophyllin as a second chromophore. It is believed that these combinations have a synergistic effect as they can transfer energy to one another when activated due in part to overlaps or close proximity of their absorption and emission spectra. This transferred energy is then emitted as fluoresence or leads to production of reactive oxygen species. This absorbed and re-emitted light is thought to be transmitted throughout the composition, and also to be transmitted into the site of treatment.
  • In further embodiments, the material includes the following synergistic combinations: Eosin Y and Fluorescein; Fluorescein and Rose Bengal; Erythrosine in combination with Eosin Y, Rose Bengal or Fluorescein; Phloxine B in combination with one or more of Eosin Y, Rose Bengal, Fluorescein and Erythrosine. Other synergistic chromophore combinations are also possible.
  • By means of synergistic effects of the chromophore combinations in the material, chromophores which cannot normally be activated by an activating light (such as a blue light from an LED), can be activated through energy transfer from chromophores which are activated by the activating light. In this way, the different properties of photoactivated chromophores can be harnessed and tailored according to the cosmetic or the medical therapy required.
  • For example, Rose Bengal can generate a high yield of singlet oxygen when activated in the presence of molecular oxygen, however it has a low quantum yield in terms of emitted fluorescent light. Rose Bengal has a peak absorption around 540 nm and so can be activated by green light. Eosin Y has a high quantum yield and can be activated by blue light. By combining Rose Bengal with Eosin Y, one obtains a composition which can emit therapeutic fluorescent light and generate singlet oxygen when activated by blue light. In this case, the blue light photoactivates Eosin Y which transfers some of its energy to Rose Bengal as well as emitting some energy as fluorescence.
  • In some embodiments, the chromophore or chromophores are selected such that their emitted fluorescent light, on photoactivation, is within one or more of the green, yellow, orange, red and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, for example having a peak wavelength within the range of about 490 nm to about 800 nm. In certain embodiments, the emitted fluorescent light has a power density of between 0.005 to about 10 mW/cm2, about 0.5 to about 5 mW/cm2.
  • (b) Cohesive Matrix
  • The biophotonic material of the present disclosure comprise a cohesive matrix made from one or more thickening agents, or a carrier medium. In other words, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure comprise one or more thickening agents, or a carrier medium which can form a cohesive matrix. These agents are present in an amount and ratio sufficient to provide a desired viscosity, flexibility, rigidity, tensile strength, tear strength, elasticity, and adhesiveness. The desired properties may be one of achieving a peelable film, or a rigid or flexible matrix. The thickening agents are selected so that the chromophore can remain photoactive in the cohesive matrix. The thickening agents are also selected according to the optical transparency of the cohesive matrix which they will form. The cohesive matrix should be able to transmit sufficient light to activate the at least one chromophore and, in embodiments where fluorescence is emitted by the activated chromophore, the cohesive matrix should also be able to transmit the emitted fluorescent light to tissues. It will be recognized by persons skilled in the art that the thickening agent is an appropriate medium for the chromophore selected. For example, some xanthene dyes do not fluoresce in non-hydrated media, so hydrated polymers or polar solvents may be used. The thickening agents should also be selected according to the intended use. For example, if the biophotonic material is to be applied onto tissue, the thickening agent is preferably a biocompatible material, or the cohesive matrix has an outside layer of a biocompatible material which will interface the tissue.
  • Thickening Agents
  • In some embodiments, the content of a thickening agent used to make the cohesive matrix is from about 0.001% to about 40% (w/w %) of the total weight. In certain embodiments, the total content of the thickening agent is about 0.001-0.01%, about 0.005-0.05%, about 0.01-0.1, about 0.05-0.5% about 0.1-1%, about 0.5-5%, about 1-5%, about 2.5-7.5%, about 5-10%, about 7.5-12.5%, about 10-15%, about 12.5-17.5%, or about 15-20%, or about 15-25%, or about 20-30%, or about 25-35%, or about 30-40%. It will be recognized by one of skill in the art that the viscosity, flexibility, rigidity, tensile strength, tear strength, elasticity, and adhesiveness can be adjusted by varying the content of the thickening material. Methods of determining viscosity, flexibility, rigidity, tensile strength, tear strength, elasticity, and adhesiveness are known in the art.
  • Thickening agents that can be used to prepare the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure include polymers, copolymers, and monomers of: vinylpyrrolidones, methacrylamides, acrylamides N-vinylimidazoles, carboxy vinyls, vinyl esters, vinyl ethers, silicones, polyethyleneoxides, polyethyleneglycols, vinylalcohols, sodium acrylates, acrylates, maleic acids, NN-dimethylacrylamides, diacetone acrylamides, acrylamides, acryloyl morpholine, pluronic, collagens, polyacrylamides, polyacrylates, polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinylenes, polyvinyl silicates, polyacrylates substituted with a sugar (e.g., sucrose, glucose, glucosamines, galactose, trehalose, mannose, or lactose), acylamidopropane sulfonic acids, tetramethoxyorthosilicates, methyltrimethoxyorthosilicates, tetraalkoxyorthosilicates, trialkoxyorthosilicates, glycols, propylene glycol, glycerine, polysaccharides, alginates, dextrans, cyclodextrin, celluloses, modified celluloses, oxidized celluloses, chitosans, chitins, guars, carrageenans, hyaluronic acids, inulin, starches, modified starches, agarose, methylcelluloses, plant gums, hylaronans, hydrogels, gelatins, glycosaminoglycans, carboxymethyl celluloses, hydroxyethyl celluloses, hydroxy propyl methyl celluloses, pectins, low-methoxy pectins, cross-linked dextrans, starch-acrylonitrile graft copolymers, starch sodium polyacrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylates, hydroxylethyl acrylates, polyvinylene, polyethylvinylethers, polymethyl methacrylates, polystyrenes, polyurethanes, polyalkanoates, polylactic acids, polylactates, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), sulfonated hydrogels, AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid), SEM (sulfoethylmethacrylate), SPM (sulfopropyl methacrylate), SPA (sulfopropyl acrylate), N,N-dimethyl-N-methacryloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine, methacryllic acid amidopropyl-dimethyl ammonium sulfobetaine, SPI {itaconic acid-bis(1-propyl sulfonizacid-3) ester di-potassium salt}, itaconic acids, AMBC (3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoic acid), beta-carboxyethyl acrylate (acrylic acid dimers), and maleic anhydride-methylvinyl ether polymers, derivatives thereof, salts thereof, acids thereof, combinations thereof, and the like.
  • Thickening agents also include poly (ethylene oxide) polymers (such as POLYOX from Dow Chemical), linear PVP and cross-linked PVP, PEG/PPG copolymers (such as BASF Pluracare L1220), ethylene oxide (EO)-propylene oxide (PO) block copolymers (such as polymers sold under the trade mark Pluronic available from BASF Corporation), ester gum, shellac, pressure sensitive silicone adhesives (such as BioPSA from Dow-Corning), or mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, a copolymer comprises (PVM/MA). In an embodiment, a copolymer comprises poly (methylvinylether/maleic anhydride). In some embodiments, a copolymer comprises poly (methylvinylether/maleic acid). In some embodiments, a copolymer comprises poly (methylvinylether/maleic acid) half esters. In some embodiments, a copolymer comprises poly (methylvinylether/maleic acid) mixed salts.
  • Thickening agents can also include carbomers which are a synthetic high molecular weight polymer of acrylic acid that is crosslinked with either allylsucrose or allylethers of pentaerythritol having a molecular weight of about 3×106. The gelation mechanism depends on neutralization of the carboxylic acid moiety to form a soluble salt. The polymer is hydrophilic and produces sparkling clear gels when neutralized. Carbomers are available as fine white powders which disperse in water to form acidic colloidal suspensions (a 1% dispersion has approx. pH 3) of low viscosity. Neutralization of these suspensions using a base, for example sodium, potassium or ammonium hydroxides, low molecular weight amines and alkanolamines, results in the formation of clear translucent gels.
  • In one embodiment of the disclosure, the carbomer is Carbopol. Such polymers are commercially available from B.F. Goodrich or Lubrizol under the designation Carbopol® 71G NF, 420, 430, 475, 488, 493, 910, 934, 934P, 940, 971PNF, 974P NF, 980 NF, 981 NF and the like. Carbopols are versatile controlled-release polymers, as described by Brock (Pharmacotherapy, 14:430-7 (1994)) and Durrani (Pharmaceutical Res. (Supp.) 8:S-135 (1991)), and belong to a family of carbomers which are synthetic, high molecular weight, non-linear polymers of acrylic acid, cross-linked with polyalkenyl polyether. In some embodiments, the carbomer is Carbopol® 974P NF, 980 NF, 5984 EP, ETD 2020NF, Ultrez 10 NF, 934 NF, 934P NF or 940 NF. In certain embodiments, the carbomer is Carbopol® 980 NF, ETD 2020 NF, Ultrez 10 NF, Ultrez 21 or 1382 Polymer, 1342 NF, 940 NF.
  • The biophotonic material of the present disclosure may be water soluble. Alternatively, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure may optionally include a water-insoluble substrate. By “water insoluble”, it is meant that the substrate does not dissolve in or readily break apart upon immersion in water. In some embodiments, the water-insoluble substrate is the implement or vehicle for delivering the treatment composition to the skin or target tissue. A wide variety of materials can be used as the water-insoluble substrate. The following non-limiting characteristics are desirable: (i) sufficient wet strength for use, (ii) sufficient softness, (iii) sufficient thickness, (iv) appropriate size, (v) air permeability, and (vi) hydrophilicity.
  • Non-limiting examples of suitable water-insoluble substrates which meet the above criteria include nonwoven substrates, woven substrates, hydroentangled substrates, air entangled substrates, natural sponges, synthetic sponges, polymeric netted meshes, and the like. Preferred embodiments employ nonwoven substrates since they are economical and readily available in a variety of materials. By “nonwoven”, it is meant that the layer is comprised of fibers which are not woven into a fabric but rather are formed into a sheet, mat, or pad layer.
  • Antimicrobials
  • Antimicrobials kill microbes or inhibit their growth or accumulation, and are optionally included in the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure. Exemplary antimicrobials (or antimicrobial agent) are recited in U.S. Patent Application Publications 20040009227 and 20110081530. Suitable antimicrobials for use in the methods and compositions of the present disclosure include, but not limited to, hydrogen peroxide, urea hydrogen peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, phenolic and chlorinated phenolic and chlorinated phenolic compounds, resorcinol and its derivatives, bisphenolic compounds, benzoic esters (parabens), halogenated carbonilides, polymeric antimicrobial agents, thazolines, trichloromethylthioimides, natural antimicrobial agents (also referred to as “natural essential oils”), metal salts, and broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a powerful oxidizing agent, and breaks down into water and oxygen and does not form any persistent, toxic residual compound. A suitable range of concentration over which hydrogen peroxide can be used in the biophotonic material is from about 0.1% to about 3%, about 0.1 to 1.5%, about 1%.
  • Urea hydrogen peroxide (also known as urea peroxide, carbamide peroxide or percarbamide) is soluble in water and contains approximately 35% hydrogen peroxide. A suitable range of concentration over which urea peroxide can be used in the biophotonic material of the present disclosure is from about 0.3% to about 5%. Urea peroxide breaks down to urea and hydrogen peroxide in a slow-release fashion that can be accelerated with heat or photochemical reactions.
  • Benzoyl peroxide consists of two benzoyl groups (benzoic acid with the H of the carboxylic acid removed) joined by a peroxide group. It is found in treatments for acne, in concentrations varying from 2.5% to 10%. The released peroxide groups are effective at killing bacteria. Benzoyl peroxide also promotes skin turnover and clearing of pores, which further contributes to decreasing bacterial counts and reduce acne. Benzoyl peroxide breaks down to benzoic acid and oxygen upon contact with skin, neither of which is toxic. A suitable range of concentration over which benzoyl peroxide can be used in the matrix biophotonic is from about 2.5% to about 5%.
  • According to certain embodiments, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure may optionally comprise one or more additional components, such as oxygen-rich compounds as a source of oxygen radicals. Peroxide compounds are oxidants that contain the peroxy group (R—O—O—R), which is a chainlike structure containing two oxygen atoms, each of which is bonded to the other and a radical or some element. When a biophotonic material of the present disclosure comprising an oxidant is illuminated with light, the chromophores are excited to a higher energy state. When the chromophores' electrons return to a lower energy state, they emit photons with a lower energy level, thus causing the emission of light of a longer wavelength (Stokes' shift). In the proper environment, some of this energy is transferred to oxygen or the reactive hydrogen peroxide and causes the formation of oxygen radicals, such as singlet oxygen. The singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species generated by the activation of the biophotonic material are thought to operate in a hormetic fashion. That is, a health beneficial effect that is brought about by the low exposure to a normally toxic stimuli (e.g. reactive oxygen), by stimulating and modulating stress response pathways in cells of the targeted tissues. Endogenous response to exogenous generated free radicals (reactive oxygen species) is modulated in increased defense capacity against the exogenous free radicals and induces acceleration of healing and regenerative processes. Furthermore, activation of the oxidant will also produce an antibacterial effect. The extreme sensitivity of bacteria to exposure to free radicals makes the biophotonic material of the present disclosure a de facto bactericidal composition.
  • Specific phenolic and chlorinated phenolic antimicrobial agents that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: phenol; 2-methyl phenol; 3-methyl phenol; 4-methyl phenol; 4-ethyl phenol; 2,4-dimethyl phenol; 2,5-dimethyl phenol; 3,4-dimethyl phenol; 2,6-dimethyl phenol; 4-n-propyl phenol; 4-n-butyl phenol; 4-n-amyl phenol; 4-tert-amyl phenol; 4-n-hexyl phenol; 4-n-heptyl phenol; mono- and poly-alkyl and aromatic halophenols; p-chlorophenyl; methyl p-chlorophenol; ethyl p-chlorophenol; n-propyl p-chlorophenol; n-butyl p-chlorophenol; n-amyl p-chlorophenol; sec-amyl p-chlorophenol; n-hexyl p-chlorophenol; cyclohexyl p-chlorophenol; n-heptyl p-chlorophenol; n-octyl; p-chlorophenol; o-chlorophenol; methyl o-chlorophenol; ethyl o-chlorophenol; n-propyl o-chlorophenol; n-butyl o-chlorophenol; n-amyl o-chlorophenol; tert-amyl o-chlorophenol; n-hexyl o-chlorophenol; n-heptyl o-chlorophenol; o-benzyl p-chlorophenol; o-benxyl-m-methyl p-chlorophenol; o-benzyl-m,m-dimethyl p-chlorophenol; o-phenylethyl p-chlorophenol; o-phenylethyl-m-methyl p-chlorophenol; 3-methyl p-chlorophenol 3,5-dimethyl p-chlorophenol, 6-ethyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol, 6-n-propyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; 6-iso-propyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl p-chlorophenol; 6-sec-butyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; 2-iso-propyl-3,5-dimethyl p-chlorophenol; 6-diethylmethyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; 6-iso-propyl-2-ethyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; 2-sec-amyl-3,5-dimethyl p-chlorophenol; 2-diethylmethyl-3,5-dimethyl p-chlorophenol; 6-sec-octyl-3-methyl p-chlorophenol; p-chloro-m-cresol p-bromophenol; methyl p-bromophenol; ethyl p-bromophenol; n-propyl p-bromophenol; n-butyl p-bromophenol; n-amyl p-bromophenol; sec-amyl p-bromophenol; n-hexyl p-bromophenol; cyclohexyl p-bromophenol; o-bromophenol; tert-amyl o-bromophenol; n-hexyl o-bromophenol; n-propyl-m,m-dimethyl o-bromophenol; 2-phenyl phenol; 4-chloro-2-methyl phenol; 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol; 4-chloro-3,5-dimethyl phenol; 2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol; 3,4,5,6-tetabromo-2-methylphenol-; 5-methyl-2-pentylphenol; 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol; para-chloro-metaxylenol (PCMX); chlorothymol; phenoxyethanol; phenoxyisopropanol; and 5-chloro-2-hydroxydiphenylmethane.
  • Resorcinol and its derivatives can also be used as antimicrobial agents. Specific resorcinol derivatives include, but are not limited to: methyl resorcinol; ethyl resorcinol; n-propyl resorcinol; n-butyl resorcinol; n-amyl resorcinol; n-hexyl resorcinol; n-heptyl resorcinol; n-octyl resorcinol; n-nonyl resorcinol; phenyl resorcinol; benzyl resorcinol; phenylethyl resorcinol; phenylpropyl resorcinol; p-chlorobenzyl resorcinol; 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxydiphenyl methane; 4′-chloro-2,4-dihydroxydiphenyl methane; 5-bromo-2,4-dihydroxydiphenyl methane; and 4′-bromo-2,4-dihydroxydiphenyl methane. Specific bisphenolic antimicrobial agents that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: 2,2′-methylene bis-(4-chlorophenol); 2,4,4′ trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, which is sold by Ciba Geigy, Florham Park, N.J. under the tradename Triclosan®; 2,2′-methylene bis-(3,4,6-trichlorophenol); 2,2′-methylene bis-(4-chloro-6-bromophenol); bis-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorop-henyl)sulphide; and bis-(2-hydroxy-5-chlorobenzyl)sulphide. Specific benzoie esters (parabens) that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: methylparaben; propylparaben; butylparaben; ethylparaben; isopropylparaben; isobutylparaben; benzylparaben; sodium methylparaben; and sodium propylparaben.
  • Specific halogenated carbanilides that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilides, such as 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(3,4-dichlorphenyl)urea sold under the tradename Triclocarban® by Ciba-Geigy, Florham Park, N.J.; 3-trifluoromethyl-4,4′-dichlorocarbanilide; and 3,3′,4-trichlorocarbanilide. Specific polymeric antimicrobial agents that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride; and poly(iminoimidocarbonyl iminoimidocarbonyl iminohexamethylene hydrochloride), which is sold under the tradename Vantocil® IB.
  • Specific thazolines that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to that sold under the tradename Micro-Check®; and 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, which is sold under the tradename Vinyzene® IT-3000 DIDP.
  • Specific trichloromethylthioimides that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to: N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide, which is sold under the tradename Fungitrol®; and N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide, which is sold under the tradename Vancide®.
  • Specific natural antimicrobial agents that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to, oils of: anise; lemon; orange; rosemary; wintergreen; thyme; lavender; cloves; hops; tea tree; citronella; wheat; barley; lemongrass; cedar leaf; cedarwood; cinnamon; fleagrass; geranium; sandalwood; violet; cranberry; eucalyptus; vervain; peppermint; gum benzoin; basil; fennel; fir; balsam; menthol; ocmea origanuin; hydastis; carradensis; Berberidaceac daceae; Ratanhiae longa; and Curcuma longa. Also included in this class of natural antimicrobial agents are the key chemical components of the plant oils which have been found to provide antimicrobial benefit. These chemicals include, but are not limited to: anethol; catechole; camphene; thymol; eugenol; eucalyptol; ferulic acid; farnesol; hinokitiol; tropolone; limonene; menthol; methyl salicylate; carvacol; terpineol; verbenone; berberine; ratanhiae extract; caryophellene oxide; citronellic acid; curcumin; nerolidol; and geraniol.
  • Specific metal salts that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to, salts of metals in groups 3a-5a, 3b-7b, and 8 of the periodic table. Specific examples of metal salts include, but are not limited to, salts of: aluminum; zirconium; zinc; silver; gold; copper; lanthanum; tin; mercury; bismuth; selenium; strontium; scandium; yttrium; cerium; praseodymiun; neodymium; promethum; samarium; europium; gadolinium; terbium; dysprosium; holmium; erbium; thalium; ytterbium; lutetium; and mixtures thereof. An example of the metal-ion based antimicrobial agent is sold under the tradename HealthShield®, and is manufactured by HealthShield Technology, Wakefield, Mass.
  • Specific broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can be used in the disclosure include, but are not limited to, those that are recited in other categories of antimicrobial agents herein.
  • Additional antimicrobial agents that can be used in the methods of the disclosure include, but are not limited to: pyrithiones, and in particular pyrithione-including zinc complexes such as that sold under the tradename Octopirox®; dimethyldimethylol hydantoin, which is sold under the tradename Glydant®; methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, which is sold under the tradename Kathon CG®; sodium sulfite; sodium bisulfite; imidazolidinyl urea, which is sold under the tradename Germall 1150; diazolidinyl urea, which is sold under the tradename Germall 110; benzyl alcohol v2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, which is sold under the tradename Bronopol®; formalin or formaldehyde; iodopropenyl butylcarbamate, which is sold under the tradename Polyphase P1000; chloroacetamide; methanamine; methyldibromonitrile glutaronitrile (1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane), which is sold under the tradename Tektamer®; glutaraldehyde; 5-bromo-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane, which is sold under the tradename Bronidox®; phenethyl alcohol; o-phenylphenol/sodium o-phenylphenol sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, which is sold under the tradename Suttocide A®; polymethoxy bicyclic oxazolidine; which is sold under the tradename Nuosept C®; dimethoxane; thimersal; dichlorobenzyl alcohol; captan; chlorphenenesin; dichlorophene; chlorbutanol; glyceryl laurate; halogenated diphenyl ethers; 2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, which is sold under the tradename Triclosan® and is available from Ciba-Geigy, Florham Park, N.J.; and 2,2′-dihydroxy-5,5′-dibromo-diphenyl ether.
  • Additional antimicrobial agents that can be used in the methods of the disclosure include those disclosed by U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,141,321; 4,402,959; 4,430,381; 4,533,435; 4,625,026; 4,736,467; 4,855,139; 5,069,907; 5,091,102; 5,639,464; 5,853,883; 5,854,147; 5,894,042; and 5,919,554, and U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. Nos. 20040009227 and 20110081530.
  • (4) Optical Properties of the Biophotonic Materials
  • In certain embodiments, biophotonic materials of the present disclosure are substantially transparent or translucent. The % transmittance of the biophotonic material can be measured in the range of wavelengths from 250 nm to 800 nm using, for example, a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 9500 series UV-visible spectrophotometer. In some embodiments, transmittance at 460 nm is measured. As transmittance is dependent upon thickness, the thickness of each sample can be measured with calipers prior to loading in the spectrophotometer. Transmittance values can be normalized to a thickness of 100 um (or any thickness) according to
  • F T - corr ( λ , t 2 ) = [ σ t ( λ ) t 1 ] t 2 t 1 = [ F T - corr ( λ , t 1 ) ] t 2 t 1 ,
  • where t1=actual specimen thickness, t2=thickness to which transmittance measurements can be normalized.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic materials are substantially opaque, In these embodiments, the biophotonic materials may include light transmitting structures such as fibres, particles, networks, which are made of materials which can transmit light. The light transmitting structures can be waveguides such as optical fibres.
  • In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a transmittance that is more than about 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, or 75% at 460 nm. In some embodiments, the transmittance exceeds 40% at 460 nm, 41% at 460 nm, 42% at 460 nm, 43% at 460 nm, 44% at 460 nm, or 45% at 460 nm.
  • (5) Forms of the Biophotonic Materials
  • The biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may be in the form of a cohesive film or matrix containing at least one chromophore. The cohesive film or matrix may be a cohesive gel, or a paste, a putty, a semi-solid, or a solid.
  • The biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may be deformable. They may be elastic or non-elastic. The biophotonic materials, for example, may be in a peel-off form (‘peelable’) to provide ease and speed of use. In certain embodiments, the tear strength and/or tensile strength of the peel-off form is greater than its adhesion strength. This may help handleability of the material. It will be recognized by one of skill in the art that the properties of the peel-off biophotonic material such as cohesiveness, flexibility, elasticity, tensile strength, and tearing strength, can be determined and/or adjusted by methods known in the art such as by selecting suitable thickening agents and adapting their relative ratios.
  • The biophotonic material may be in a pre-formed shape. In certain embodiments, the pre-formed shape is in the form of, including, but not limited to, a film, a face mask, a patch, or bandage. In certain embodiments, the pre-formed shapes can be customized for the individual user by trimming to size. In certain embodiments, perforations are provided around the perimeter of the pre-formed shape to facilitate trimming.
  • A biophotonic material of the disclosure can be configured with a shape and/or size for application to a desired portion of a subject's body. For example, the biophotonic material can be shaped and sized to correspond with a desired portion of the body to receive the biophotonic treatment. Such a desired portion of skin can be selected from, but not limited to, the group consisting of a skin, head, forehead, scalp, nose, cheeks, lips, ears, face, neck, shoulder, arm pit, arm, elbow, hand, finger, abdomen, chest, stomach, back, buttocks, sacrum, genitals, legs, knee, feet, toes, nails, hair, any boney prominences, and combinations thereof, and the like. Thus, the biophotonic material of the disclosure can be shaped and sized to be applied to any portion of skin on a subject's body. For example, the biophotonic material can be sock, hat, glove or mitten shaped. In embodiments where the biophotonic material is elastic or rigid, it can be peeled-off without leaving any residue on the tissue.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material is in the form of a an elastic and peelable face mask, which may be pre-formed. In other embodiments, the biophotonic material is in the form of a non-elastic face mask, which may also be pre-formed. The mask can have openings for one or more of the eyes, nose and mouth. In a further embodiment, the openings are protected with a covering, or the exposed skin such as on the nose, lips or eyes are protected using for example cocoa butter. In certain embodiments, the pre-formed face mask is provided in the form of multiple parts, e.g., an upper face part and a lower face part. In certain embodiments, the uneven proximity of the face to a light source is compensated for, e.g., by adjusting the thickness of the mask, or by adjusting the amount of chromophore in the different areas of the mask, or by blocking the skin in closest proximity to the light. In certain embodiments, the pre-formed shapes come in a one-size fits all form.
  • In certain aspects, the mask (or patch) is not pre-formed and is applied e.g., by spreading a composition making up the mask (or patch), on the skin or target tissue, or alternatively by spraying, smearing, dabbing or rolling the composition on target tissue. It can then be converted to a peel-off form after application, by means such as, but not limited to, drying, illumination with light, change in temperature or pH upon application to the skin or tissue. The mask (or patch) can then be peeled off without leaving any flakes on the skin or tissue, preferably without wiping or washing.
  • In certain aspects, the biophotonic material may have shape memory properties. For example, the biophotonic material can include a shape memory material, such as a shape memory polymer whose original shape is reverted to on activation by light. The original shape can be a flat or concave configuration which allows the film/matrix to be readily peeled off the tissue. The shape memory material may be included as a layer attached to the biophotonic material, or integrated with the biophotonic material.
  • In certain aspects, the biophotonic material forms part of a composite and can include fibres, particulates, non-biophotonic layers or biophotonic layers with the same or different compositions.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material may comprise a plurality of waveguides extending at least partially through the biophotonic material or contained at least partially within the biophotonic material. The waveguides can be attached to a light source to thereby illuminate the biophotonic material from within. The biophotonic material may further include the light source attached to the waveguides. The waveguides can be optical fibres which can transmit light, not only from their ends, but also from their body. For example, made of polycarbonate or polymethylmetacrylate or any other suitable material.
  • In a different embodiment, the biophotonic material comprises a layer of a woven or non-woven fabric dressing or a mask. Waveguides or a light source may be included within the dressing or mask fabric. For example, the dressing or mask fabric can be in the form of an envelope which receives the biophotonic material, and which comprises at least one light emitting surface.
  • In certain aspects, the biophotonic material is formed as a filter. For example, the biophotonic material can be made to have a shape and a size which can be connected to, or spaced from, a light emitting surface of a lamp. In one embodiment, the lamp can be a hand-held lamp such as a torch or a dentist's curing lamp. The lamp with the biophotonic filter can then be used to treat tissue sites of patient in a contacting or non-contacting manner. In this embodiment, the filter has a body having a first end which is sized and shaped to be connectable to a light emitting surface, and a second end shaped to treat tissues.
  • In certain aspects, the biophotonic material is formed as a waveguide. In certain embodiments, at least one chromophore is included in an elongate solid matrix having good light propagation properties and appropriate mechanical properties. The waveguide may be flexible. The waveguide can be shaped as all optical fibre. Such all optical fibre can be connected to a light source, and the at least one chromophore in the cohesive matrix activated by the light source to deliver therapeutic fluorescent light to hard to reach places, such as internal cavities and periodontal pockets. Polymethylmethacrylate is an example of an appropriate cohesive matrix for use as a biophotonic waveguide. Such a waveguide may additionally include a coating to prevent light dissipation from along its length.
  • In other aspects, the biophotonic material comprising at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix is in the form of particulates. Material processing techniques known in the art can be used to form particulates of any shape or size. These particulates can be contained in semi-solid or liquid preparations. For example, such biophotonic particulates can be used in skin preparations such as creams, emulsions to provide therapeutic effect to the skin. In this case, a biocompatible solid matrix is used and can be used to encapsulate all types of chromophores, even those not well tolerated by the skin.
  • The biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may have a thickness of from about 0.1 mm to about 50 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the biophotonic materials will vary based on the intended use. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a thickness of from about 0.1-1 mm. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a thickness of about 0.5-1.5 mm, about 1-2 mm, about 1.5-2.5 mm, about 2-3 mm, about 2.5-3.5 mm, about 3-4 mm. about 3.5-4.5 mm, about 4-5 mm, about 4.5-5.5 mm, about 5-6 mm, about 5.5-6.5 mm, about 6-7 mm, about 6.5-7.5 mm, about 7-8 mm, about 7.5-8.5 mm, about 8-9 mm, about 8.5-9.5, about 9-10 mm, about 10-11 mm about 11-12 mm, about 12-13 mm, about 13-14 mm, about 14-15 mm, about 15-16 mm, about 16-17 mm, about 17-18 mm, about 18-19 mint, about 19-20 mm, about 20-22 mm, about 22-24 mm, about 24-26 mm, about 26-28 mm, about 28-30 mm, about 30-35 mm, about 35-40 mm, about 40-45 mm, about 45-50 mm.
  • The tensile strength of the biophotonic materials will vary based on the intended use. The tensile strength can be determined by performing a tensile test and recording the force and displacement. These are then converted to stress (using cross sectional area) and strain; the highest point of the stress-strain curve is the “ultimate tensile strength.” In some embodiments, tensile strength can be characterized using a 500N capacity tabletop mechanical testing system (#5942R4910, Instron) with a 5N maximum static load cell (#102608, Instron). Pneumatic side action grips can be used to secure the samples (#2712-019, Instron). In some embodiments, a constant extension rate (for example, of about 2 mm/min) until failure can be applied and the tensile strength is calculated from the stress vs. strain data plots.
  • In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a tensile strength of from about 50 kPa to about 600 kPa. In some embodiments, the tensile strength is from about 75 kPa to about 500 kPa, from about 100 kPa to about 200 kPa, 100−300 kPa, 400 kPa, from about 150 kPa to about 350 kPa, or from about 200 kPa to about 300 kPa.
  • In some embodiments, the tensile strength is at least about 50 kPa, at least about 75 kPa, at least about 100 kPa, at least about 150 kPa, at least about 200 kPa, at least about 250 kPa, at least about 300 kPa, at least about 350 kPa, at least about 400 kPa, at least about 450 kPa, at least about 500 kPa, at least about 550 kPa or at least about 600 kPa.
  • The tear strength of the biophotonic material will vary depending on the intended use. The tear strength property of the biophotonic material can be tested using a 500N capacity tabletop mechanical testing system (#5942R4910, Instron) with a 5N maximum static load cell (#102608, Instron). Pneumatic side action grips can be used to secure the samples (#2712-019, Instron). Samples can be tested with a constant extension rate (for example, of about 2 mm/min) until failure. In accordance with the invention, tear strength is calculated as the force at failure divided by the average thickness (N/mm).
  • In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has a tear strength of from about 0.1 N/mm to about 1 N/mm. In some embodiments, the tear strength is from about 0.20 N/mm to about 0.40 N/mm, from about 0.25 N/mm to about 0.35 N/mm, from about 0.25 N/mm to about 0.45 N/mm, from about 0.35 N/mm to about 0.535 N/mm, from about 0.45 N/mm to about 0.65 N/mm, from about 0.55 N/mm to about 0.75 N/mm, from about 0.65 N/mm to about 0.85 N/mm, from about 0.75 N/mm to about 0.95 N/mm.
  • In some embodiments, the tear strength is at least about 0.10 N/mm, at least about 0.15 N/mm, at least about 0.20 N/mm, at least about 0.25 N/mm, at least about 0.30 N/mm, at least about 0.35 N/mm, at least about 0.40 N/mm, at least about 0.45 N/mm, at least about 0.55 N/mm or at least about 1 N/mm.
  • The adhesion strength of the biophotonic material will vary depending on the intended use. Adhesion strength is determined in accordance with ASTM D-3330-78, PSTC-101 and is a measure of the force required to remove a biophotonic material from a test panel at a specific angle and rate of removal. A predetermined size of a biophotonic material of is applied to a horizontal surface of a clean glass test plate. A hard rubber roller is used to firmly apply the piece and remove all discontinuities and entrapped air. The free end of the piece of biophotonic material is then doubled back nearly touching itself so that the angle of removal of the piece from the steel plate will be 180 degrees. The free end of the piece of biophotonic material (the one pulled) is attached to the adhesion tester scale (an Instron tensile tester or Harvey tensile tester). The test plate is then clamped in the jaws of the tensile testing machine capable of moving the plate away from the scale at a predetermined constant rate. The scale reading in kg is recorded as the tape is peeled from the steel surface.
  • In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has an adhesion strength that is less than its tear strength. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material has an adhesion strength of from about 0.01 N/mm to about 0.60 N/mm. In some embodiments, the adhesion strength is from about 0.20 N/mm to about 0.40 N/mm, or from about 0.25 N/mm to about 0.35 N/mm.
  • In some embodiments, the adhesion strength is less than about 0.10 N/mm, less than about 0.15 N/mm, less than about 0.20 N/mm, less than about 0.25 N/mm, less than about 0.30 N/mm, less than about 0.35 N/mm, less than about 0.40 N/mm, less than about 0.45 N/mm, less than about 0.55 N/mm or less than about 0.60 N/mm.
  • (6) Methods of Use
  • The biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may have cosmetic and/or medical benefits. They can be used to promote skin rejuvenation and skin conditioning, promote the treatment of a skin disorder such as acne, promote tissue repair, and promote wound healing including periodontitis pockets. They can be used to treat acute inflammation. Acute inflammation can present itself as pain, heat, redness, swelling and loss of function. It includes those seen in allergic reactions such as insect bites e.g.; mosquito, bees, wasps, poison ivy, post-ablative treatment.
  • Accordingly, in certain embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method for treating acute inflammation.
  • In certain embodiments, the present disclosure provides a method for providing skin rejuvenation, treating a skin disorder and/or accelerating wound healing and/or tissue repair, the method comprising: applying a biophotonic material of the present disclosure to the area of the skin or tissue in need of treatment, and illuminating the biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the chromophore(s) present in the biophotonic material.
  • In the methods of the present disclosure, any source of actinic light can be used. Any type of halogen, LED or plasma arc lamp, or laser may be suitable. The primary characteristic of suitable sources of actinic light will be that they emit light in a wavelength (or wavelengths) appropriate for activating the one or more photoactivators present in the composition. In one embodiment, an argon laser is used. In another embodiment, a potassium-titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser (e.g. a GreenLight™ laser) is used. In yet another embodiment, a LED lamp such as a photocuring device is the source of the actinic light. In yet another embodiment, the source of the actinic light is a source of light having a wavelength between about 200 to 800 nm. In another embodiment, the source of the actinic light is a source of visible light having a wavelength between about 400 and 600 nm. In yet another embodiment, the source of the actinic light is blue light. In yet another embodiment, the source of the actinic light is red light. In yet another embodiment, the source of the actinic light is green light. Furthermore, the source of actinic light should have a suitable power density. Suitable power density for non-collimated light sources (LED, halogen or plasma lamps) are in the range from about 0.1 mW/cm2 to about 200 mW/cm2. Suitable power density for laser light sources are in the range from about 0.5 mW/cm2 to about 0.8 mW/cm2.
  • In some embodiments of the methods of the present disclosure, the light has an energy at the subject's skin surface of between about 0.1 mW/cm2 and about 500 mW/cm2, or 0.1-300 mW/cm2, or 0.1-200 mW/cm2, wherein the energy applied depends at least on the condition being treated, the wavelength of the light, the distance of the skin from the light source and the thickness of the biophotonic material. In certain embodiments, the light at the subject's skin in between about 1-40 mW/cm2, or 20-60 mW/cm2, or 40-80 mW/cm2, or 60-100 mW/cm2, or 80-120 mW/cm2, or 100-140 mW/cm2, or 30-180 mW/cm2, or 120-160 mW/cm2, or 140-180 mW/cm2, or 160-200 mW/cm2, or 110-240 mW/cm2, or 110-150 mW/cm2, or 190-240 mW/cm2.
  • The activation of the photoactivators within the biophotonic material may take place almost immediately on illumination (femto- or pico seconds). A prolonged exposure period may be beneficial to exploit the synergistic effects of the absorbed, reflected and reemitted light of the biophotonic material of the present disclosure and its interaction with the tissue being treated. In one embodiment, the time of exposure to actinic light of the tissue or skin or biophotonic material is a period between 1 minute and 5 minutes. In another embodiment, the time of exposure to actinic light of the tissue or skin or biophotonic material is a period between 1 minute and 5 minutes. In some other embodiments, the biophotonic material is illuminated for a period between 1 minute and 3 minutes. In certain embodiments, light is applied for a period of 1-30 seconds, 15-45 seconds, 30-60 seconds, 0.75-1.5 minutes, 1-2 minutes, 1.5-2.5 minutes, 2-3 minutes, 2.5-3.5 minutes, 3-4 minutes, 3.5-4.5 minutes, 4-5 minutes, 5-10 minutes, 10-15 minutes, 15-20 minutes, or 20-30 minutes. In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material may be re-illuminated at certain intervals. In yet another embodiment, the source of actinic light is in continuous motion over the treated area for the appropriate time of exposure.
  • In certain embodiments, the first and/or the second chromophore (when present) in the cohesive matrix can be photoexcited by ambient light including from the sun and overhead lighting. In certain embodiments, the first and/or the second chromophore (when present) can be photoactivated by light in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The light can be emitted by any light source such as sunlight, light bulb, an LED device, electronic display screens such as on a television, computer, telephone, mobile device, flashlights on mobile devices. In the methods of the present disclosure, any source of light can be used. For example, a combination of ambient light and direct sunlight or direct artificial light may be used. Ambient light can include overhead lighting such as LED bulbs, fluorescent bulbs etc, and indirect sunlight.
  • In the methods of the present disclosure, the biophotonic material may be removed from the skin following application of light. In some embodiments the biophotonic material is peeled off from the skin following application of light. In some embodiments, the biophotonic material is removed as a single piece from the skin following application of light. In other embodiments, the biophotonic material is left on the tissue for an extended period of time and re-activated with direct or ambient light at appropriate times to treat the condition.
  • In certain embodiments of the method of the present disclosure, the biophotonic material can be applied to the tissue, such as on the face, once, twice, three times, four times, five times or six times a week, daily, or at any other frequency. The total treatment time can be one week, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks, five weeks, six weeks, seven weeks, eight weeks, nine weeks, ten weeks, eleven weeks, twelve weeks, or any other length of time deemed appropriate. In certain embodiments, the total tissue area to be treated may be split into separate areas (cheeks, forehead), and each area treated separately. For example, the composition may be applied topically to a first portion, and that portion illuminated with light, and the biophotonic composition then removed. Then the composition is applied to a second portion, illuminated and removed. Finally, the composition is applied to a third portion, illuminated and removed.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material can be used following wound closure to optimize scar revision. In this case, the biophotonic material may be applied at regular intervals such as once a week, or at an interval deemed appropriate by the physician.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material can be used following acne treatment to maintain the condition of the treated skin. In this case, the biophotonic material may be applied at regular intervals such as once a week, or at an interval deemed appropriate by the physician.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material can be used following ablative skin rejuvenation treatment to maintain the condition of the treated skin. In this case, the biophotonic material may be applied at regular intervals such as once a week, or at an interval deemed appropriate by the physician.
  • In the methods of the present disclosure, additional components may optionally be included in the biophotonic materials or used in combination with the biophotonic materials. Such additional components include, but are not limited to, healing factors, antimicrobials, oxygen-rich agents, wrinkle fillers such as botox, hyaluronic acid and polylactic acid, fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral agents and/or agents that promote collagen synthesis. These additional components may be applied to the skin in a topical fashion, prior to, at the same time of, and/or after topical application of the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure. Suitable healing factors comprise compounds that promote or enhance the healing or regenerative process of the tissues on the application site. During the photoactivation of a biophotonic material of the present disclosure, there may be an increase of the absorption of molecules of such additional components at the treatment site by the skin or the mucosa. In certain embodiments, an augmentation in the blood flow at the site of treatment can observed for a period of time. An increase in the lymphatic drainage and a possible change in the osmotic equilibrium due to the dynamic interaction of the free radical cascades can be enhanced or even fortified with the inclusion of healing factors. Suitable healing factors include, but are not limited to glucosamines, allantoins, saffron, agents that promote collagen synthesis, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral agents and wound healing factors such as growth factors.
  • (i) Skin Rejuvenation
  • The biophotonic material of the present disclosure may be useful in promoting skin rejuvenation. The dermis is the second layer of skin, containing the structural elements of the skin, the connective tissue. There are various types of connective tissue with different functions. Elastin fibers give the skin its elasticity, and collagen gives the skin its strength.
  • The junction between the dermis and the epidermis is an important structure. The dermal-epidermal junction interlocks forming finger-like epidermal ridges. The cells of the epidermis receive their nutrients from the blood vessels in the dermis. The epidermal ridges increase the surface area of the epidermis that is exposed to these blood vessels and the needed nutrients.
  • The aging of skin comes with significant physiological changes to the skin. The generation of new skin cells slows down, and the epidermal ridges of the dermal-epidermal junction flatten out. While the number of elastin fibers increases, their structure and coherence decreases. Also the amount of collagen and the thickness of the dermis decrease with the ageing of the skin.
  • Collagen is a major component of the skin's extracellular matrix, providing a structural framework. During the aging process, the decrease of collagen synthesis and insolubilization of collagen fibers contribute to a thinning of the dermis and loss of the skin's biomechanical properties.
  • The physiological changes to the skin result in noticeable aging symptoms often referred to as chronological-, intrinsic- and photo-ageing. The skin becomes drier, roughness and scaling increase, the appearance becomes duller, and most obviously fine lines and wrinkles appear. Other symptoms or signs of skin aging include, but are not limited to, thinning and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat (leading to hollowed cheeks and eye sockets as well as noticeable loss of firmness on the hands and neck), bone loss (such that bones shrink away from the skin due to bone loss, which causes sagging skin), dry skin (which might itch), inability to sweat sufficiently to cool the skin, unwanted facial hair, freckles, age spots, spider veins, rough and leathery skin, fine wrinkles that disappear when stretched, loose skin, a blotchy complexion.
  • The dermal-epidermal junction is a basement membrane that separates the keratinocytes in the epidermis from the extracellular matrix, which lies below in the dermis. This membrane consists of two layers: the basal lamina in contact with the keratinocytes, and the underlying reticular lamina in contact with the extracellular matrix. The basal lamina is rich in collagen type IV and laminin, molecules that play a role in providing a structural network and bioadhesive properties for cell attachment.
  • Laminin is a glycoprotein that only exists in basement membranes. It is composed of three polypeptide chains (alpha, beta and gamma) arranged in the shape of an asymmetric cross and held together by disulfide bonds. The three chains exist as different subtypes which result in twelve different isoforms for laminin, including Laminin-1 and Laminin-5
  • The dermis is anchored to hemidesmosomes, specific junction points located on the keratinocytes, which consist of α-integrins and other proteins, at the basal membrane keratinocytes by type VII collagen fibrils. Laminins, and particularly Laminin-5, constitute the real anchor point between hemidesmosomal transmembrane proteins in basal keratinocytes and type VII collagen.
  • Laminin-5 synthesis and type VII collagen expression have been proven to decrease in aged skin. This causes a loss of contact between dermis and epidermis, and results in the skin losing elasticity and becoming saggy.
  • Recently another type of wrinkles, generally referred to as expression wrinkles, got general recognition. These wrinkles require loss of resilience, particularly in the dermis, because of which the skin is no longer able to resume its original state when facial muscles which produce facial expressions exert stress on the skin, resulting in expression wrinkles
  • The biophotonic material of the present disclosure and methods of the present disclosure promote skin rejuvenation. In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material and methods of the present disclosure promote collagen synthesis. In certain other embodiments, the biophotonic material and methods of the present disclosure may reduce, diminish, retard or even reverse one or more signs of skin aging including, but not limited to, appearance of fine lines or wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat (leading to hollowed cheeks and eye sockets as well as noticeable loss of firmness on the hands and neck), bone loss (such that bones shrink away from the skin due to bone loss, which causes sagging skin), dry skin (which might itch), inability to sweat sufficiently to cool the skin, unwanted facial hair, freckles, age spots, spider veins, rough and leathery skin, fine wrinkles that disappear when stretched, loose skin, or a blotchy complexion. In certain embodiments, the biphotonic material and methods of the present disclosure may induce a reduction in pore size, enhance sculpturing of skin subsections, and/or enhance skin translucence.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material may be used in conjunction with collagen promoting agents. Agents that promote collagen synthesis (i.e., pro-collagen synthesis agents) include amino acids, peptides, proteins, lipids, small chemical molecules, natural products and extracts from natural products.
  • For instance, it was discovered that intake of vitamin C, iron, and collagen can effectively increase the amount of collagen in skin or bone. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Application Publication 20090069217. Examples of the vitamin C include an ascorbic acid derivative such as L-ascorbic acid or sodium L-ascorbate, an ascorbic acid preparation obtained by coating ascorbic acid with an emulsifier or the like, and a mixture containing two or more of those vitamin Cs at an arbitrary rate. In addition, natural products containing vitamin C such as acerola and lemon may also be used. Examples of the iron preparation include: an inorganic iron such as ferrous sulfate, sodium ferrous citrate, or ferric pyrophosphate; an organic iron such as heme iron, ferritin iron, or lactoferrin iron; and a mixture containing two or more of those irons at an arbitrary rate. In addition, natural products containing iron such as spinach or liver may also be used. Moreover, examples of the collagen include: an extract obtained by treating bone, skin, or the like of a mammal such as bovine or swine with an acid or alkaline; a peptide obtained by hydrolyzing the extract with a protease such as pepsin, trypsin, or chymotrypsin; and a mixture containing two or more of those collagens at an arbitrary rate. Collagens extracted from plant sources may also be used.
  • Additional pro-collagen synthesis agents are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,598,291, 7,722,904, 6,203,805, 5,529,769, etc, and U.S. Patent Application Publications 20060247313, 20080108681, 20110130459, 20090325885, 20110086060, etc.
  • (ii) Skin Disorders
  • The biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may be used to treat skin disorders that include, but are not limited to, erythema, telangiectasia, actinic telangiectasia, psoriasis, skin cancer, pemphigus, sunburn, dermatitis, eczema, rashes, impetigo, lichen simplex chronicus, rhinophyma, perioral dermatitis, pseudofolliculitis barbae, drug eruptions, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, granuloma annulare, actinic keratosis, purpura, alopecia greata, aphthous stomatitis, drug eruptions, dry skin, chapping, xerosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, fungal infections, herpes simplex, intertrigo, keloids, keratoses, milia, moluscum contagiosum, pityriasis rosea, pruritus, urticaria, and vascular tumors and malformations. Dermatitis includes contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, and statis dermatitis Skin cancers include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • (iii) Acne and Acne Scars
  • The biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may be used to treat acne. As used herein, “acne” means a disorder of the skin caused by inflammation of skin glands or hair follicles. The biophotonic materials and methods of the disclosure can be used to treat acne at early pre-emergent stages or later stages where lesions from acne are visible. Mild, moderate and severe acne can be treated with embodiments of the biophotonic compositions and methods. Early pre-emergent stages of acne usually begin with an excessive secretion of sebum or dermal oil from the sebaceous glands located in the pilosebaceous apparatus. Sebum reaches the skin surface through the duct of the hair follicle. The presence of excessive amounts of sebum in the duct and on the skin tends to obstruct or stagnate the normal flow of sebum from the follicular duct, thus producing a thickening and solidification of the sebum to create a solid plug known as a comedone. In the normal sequence of developing acne, hyperkeratinazation of the follicular opening is stimulated, thus completing blocking of the duct. The usual results are papules, pustules, or cysts, often contaminated with bacteria, which cause secondary infections. Acne is characterized particularly by the presence of comedones, inflammatory papules, or cysts. The appearance of acne may range from slight skin irritation to pitting and even the development of disfiguring scars. Accordingly, the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure can be used to treat one or more of skin irritation, pitting, development of scars, comedones, inflammatory papules, cysts, hyperkeratinazation, and thickening and hardening of sebum associated with acne.
  • Some types of acne include, for example, acne vulgaris, cystic acne, acne atrophica, bromide acne, chlorine acne, acne conglobata, acne cosmetica, acne detergicans, epidemic acne, acne estivalis, acne fulminans, halogen acne, acne indurata, iodide acne, acne keloid, acne mechanica, acne papulosa, pomade acne, premenstral acne, acne pustulosa, acne scorbutica, acne scrofulosorum, acne urticata, acne varioliformis, acne venenata, propionic acne, acne excoriee, gram negative acne, steroid acne, and nodulocystic acne. Some skin disorders present various symptoms including redness, flushing, burning, scaling, pimples, papules, pustules, comedones, macules, nodules, vesicles, blisters, telangiectasia, spider veins, sores, surface irritations or pain, itching, inflammation, red, purple, or blue patches or discolorations, moles, and/or tumors.
  • The biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may be used to treat various types of acne. Some types of acne include, for example, acne vulgaris, cystic acne, acne atrophica, bromide acne, chlorine acne, acne conglobata, acne cosmetica, acne detergicans, epidemic acne, acne estivalis, acne fulminans, halogen acne, acne indurata, iodide acne, acne keloid, acne mechanica, acne papulosa, pomade acne, premenstral acne, acne pustulosa, acne scorbutica, acne scrofulosorum, acne urticata, acne varioliformis, acne venenata, propionic acne, acne excoriee, gram negative acne, steroid acne, and nodulocystic acne.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material of the present disclosure is used in conjunction with systemic or topical antibiotic treatment. For example, antibiotics used to treat acne include tetracycline, erythromycin, minocycline, doxycycline, which may also be used with the compositions and methods of the present disclosure. The use of the biophotonic material can reduce the time needed for the antibiotic treatment or reduce the dosage.
  • (iv) Wound Healing
  • The biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may be used to treat wounds, promote wound healing or promote tissue repair. Wounds that may be treated by the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure include, for example, injuries to the skin and subcutaneous tissue initiated in different ways (e.g., pressure ulcers from extended bed rest, wounds induced by trauma, wounds induced by conditions such as periodontitis) and with varying characteristics. In certain embodiments, the present disclosure provides biophotonic materials and methods for treating and/or promoting the healing of, for example, burns, incisions, excisions, lesions, lacerations, abrasions, puncture or penetrating wounds, surgical wounds, contusions, hematomas, crushing injuries, amputations, sores and ulcers.
  • Biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may be used to treat and/or promote the healing of chronic cutaneous ulcers or wounds, which are wounds that have failed to proceed through an orderly and timely series of events to produce a durable structural, functional, and cosmetic closure. The vast majority of chronic wounds can be classified into three categories based on their etiology: pressure ulcers, neuropathic (diabetic foot) ulcers and vascular (venous or arterial) ulcers.
  • For example, the present disclosure provides biophotonic materials and methods for treating and/or promoting healing of a diabetic ulcer. Diabetic patients are prone to foot and other ulcerations due to both neurologic and vascular complications. Peripheral neuropathy can cause altered or complete loss of sensation in the foot and/or leg. Diabetic patients with advanced neuropathy lose all ability for sharp-dull discrimination. Any cuts or trauma to the foot may go completely unnoticed for days or weeks in a patient with neuropathy. A patient with advanced neuropathy loses the ability to sense a sustained pressure insult, as a result, tissue ischemia and necrosis may occur leading to for example, plantar ulcerations. Microvascular disease is one of the significant complications for diabetics which may also lead to ulcerations. In certain embodiments, biophotonic materials and methods of treating a chronic wound are provided here in, where the chronic wound is characterized by diabetic foot ulcers and/or ulcerations due to neurologic and/or vascular complications of diabetes.
  • In other examples, the present disclosure provides biophotonic materials and methods for treating and/or promoting healing of a pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers include bed sores, decubitus ulcers and ischial tuberosity ulcers and can cause considerable pain and discomfort to a patient. A pressure ulcer can occur as a result of a prolonged pressure applied to the skin. Thus, pressure can be exerted on the skin of a patient due to the weight or mass of an individual. A pressure ulcer can develop when blood supply to an area of the skin is obstructed or cut off for more than two or three hours. The affected skin area can turn red, become painful and necrotic. If untreated, the skin can break open and become infected. A pressure ulcer is therefore a skin ulcer that occurs in an area of the skin that is under pressure from e.g. lying in bed, sitting in a wheelchair, and/or wearing a cast for a prolonged period of time. Pressure ulcers can occur when a person is bedridden, unconscious, unable to sense pain, or immobile. Pressure ulcers often occur in boney prominences of the body such as the buttocks area (on the sacrum or iliac crest), or on the heels of foot.
  • Additional types of wounds that can be treated by the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure include those disclosed by U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. No. 20090220450, which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • There are three distinct phases in the wound healing process. First, in the inflammatory phase, which typically occurs from the moment a wound occurs until the first two to five days, platelets aggregate to deposit granules, promoting the deposit of fibrin and stimulating the release of growth factors. Leukocytes migrate to the wound site and begin to digest and transport debris away from the wound. During this inflammatory phase, monocytes are also converted to macrophages, which release growth factors for stimulating angiogenesis and the production of fibroblasts.
  • Second, in the proliferative phase, which typically occurs from two days to three weeks, granulation tissue forms, and epithelialization and contraction begin. Fibroblasts, which are key cell types in this phase, proliferate and synthesize collagen to fill the wound and provide a strong matrix on which epithelial cells grow. As fibroblasts produce collagen, vascularization extends from nearby vessels, resulting in granulation tissue. Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of the wound. Epithelialization involves the migration of epithelial cells from the wound surfaces to seal the wound. Epithelial cells are driven by the need to contact cells of like type and are guided by a network of fibrin strands that function as a grid over which these cells migrate. Contractile cells called myofibroblasts appear in wounds, and aid in wound closure. These cells exhibit collagen synthesis and contractility, and are common in granulating wounds.
  • Third, in the remodeling phase, the final phase of wound healing which can take place from three weeks up to several years, collagen in the scar undergoes repeated degradation and re-synthesis. During this phase, the tensile strength of the newly formed skin increases.
  • However, as the rate of wound healing increases, there is often an associated increase in scar formation. Scarring is a consequence of the healing process in most adult animal and human tissues. Scar tissue is not identical to the tissue which it replaces, as it is usually of inferior functional quality. The types of scars include, but are not limited to, atrophic, hypertrophic and keloidal scars, as well as scar contractures. Atrophic scars are flat and depressed below the surrounding skin as a valley or hole. Hypertrophic scars are elevated scars that remain within the boundaries of the original lesion, and often contain excessive collagen arranged in an abnormal pattern. Keloidal scars are elevated scars that spread beyond the margins of the original wound and invade the surrounding normal skin in a way that is site specific, and often contain whorls of collagen arranged in an abnormal fashion.
  • In contrast, normal skin consists of collagen fibers arranged in a basket-weave pattern, which contributes to both the strength and elasticity of the dermis. Thus, to achieve a smoother wound healing process, an approach is needed that not only stimulates collagen production, but also does so in a way that reduces scar formation.
  • The biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure promote the wound healing by promoting the formation of substantially uniform epithelialization; promoting collagen synthesis; promoting controlled contraction; and/or by reducing the formation of scar tissue. In certain embodiments, the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure may promote wound healing by promoting the formation of substantially uniform epithelialization. In some embodiments, the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure promote collagen synthesis. In some other embodiments, the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure promote controlled contraction. In certain embodiments, the biophotonic materials and methods of the present disclosure promote wound healing, for example, by reducing the formation of scar tissue.
  • In the methods of the present disclosure, the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may also be used in combination with negative pressure assisted would closure devices and systems.
  • In certain embodiments, the biophotonic material is kept in place for up to one, two or 3 weeks, and illuminated with light which may include ambient light at various intervals. In this case, the composition may be covered up in between exposure to light with an opaque material or left exposed to light.
  • (6) Kits
  • The present disclosure also provides kits for preparing a biophotonic material and/or providing any of the components required for forming biophotonic materials of the present disclosure.
  • In some embodiments, the kit includes containers comprising the components or compositions that can be used to make the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the kit includes a biophotonic material of the present disclosure. The different components making up the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure may be provided in separate containers. For example, if the biophotonic material is to include an oxygen-rich agent, the oxygen-rich agent should be provided in a container separate from the chromophore. Examples of such containers are dual chamber syringes, or sachets with pouches. Another example is one of the components being provided in a syringe which can be injected into a container of another component.
  • In other embodiments, the kit comprises a systemic drug for augmenting the treatment of the biophotonic material of the present disclosure. For example, the kit may include a systemic or topical antibiotic, hormone treatment (e.g. for acne treatment or wound healing), or a negative pressure device.
  • In certain embodiments, the kit comprises a first component comprising a first chromophore; and a second component comprising a at least one thickening agent, wherein the thickening agent can form a cohesive matrix when mixed with the first component, when the mixture is applied to skin, or when illuminated with light.
  • In other embodiments, the kit comprises a means for applying the components of the biophotonic materials.
  • In certain aspects, there is provided a container comprising a chamber for holding a biophotonic material, and an outlet in communication with the chamber for discharging the biophotonic material from the container, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore in a carrier medium which can form a biophotonic material after being discharged from the sealed chamber. The container can be a pressurized or non-pressurized spray can.
  • In certain embodiments, the kit comprises a first component comprising the biophotonic material or a non-cohesive form of the biophotonic material (‘precursor’), and the second component comprises a dressing or a mask. The dressing or mask may be a porous or semi-porous structure for receiving the biophotonic material. The dressing or mask may also comprise woven or non-woven fibrous materials. The biophotonic material or its precursor can be incorporated, such as by injection, into the dressing before the biophotonic material takes on a cohesive form within the dressing or mask.
  • In certain embodiments of the kit, the kit may further comprise a light source such as a portable light with a wavelength appropriate to activate the chromophore the biophotonic material. The portable light may be battery operated or re-chargeable.
  • Written instructions on how to use the biophotonic materials in accordance with the present disclosure may be included in the kit, or may be included on or associated with the containers comprising the compositions or components making up the biophotonic materials of the present disclosure. The instructions can include information on how to form the cohesive matrix from the thickening agent(s) or matrix precursors provided with the kit.
  • Identification of equivalent biophotonic materials, methods and kits are well within the skill of the ordinary practitioner and would require no more than routine experimentation, in light of the teachings of the present disclosure. Practice of the disclosure will be still more fully understood from the following examples, which are presented herein for illustration only and should not be construed as limiting the disclosure in any way.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 Preparation of an Exemplary Cohesive Biophotonic Material
  • % in Composition
    (wt/wt)
    Water 60-95
    Glycerine  5-15
    Propylene Glycol 2-6
    Sodium hyaluronate 2-8
    Urea peroxide 1-5
    Glucosamine sulfate 0.5-4  
    Carbopol 0.1-2  
    First Chromophore 0.001-0.01 
    Second chromophore 0.001-0.01 
  • Phase A was prepared by mixing water, Eosin Y, Rose Bengal and Glucosamine sulphate. Phase B (Water, Glycerin, Propylene glycol, Urea peroxide, Carbopol polymer) was then added to Phase A, and mixed until a light viscous liquid was obtained. Phase C (Sodium hyaluronate) was then added to the mixture, and mixed until a homogenous thick gel was obtained.
  • The homogenous gel obtained above was spread onto a flat surface. The layer was covered with an aluminum sheet and was allowed to dry for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the resulting material was a cohesive gel, was elastic and easy to manipulate. It could be applied to the skin and pealed off with little or no residue remaining A 5-20% weight loss of the total weight of the material was found to occur after drying for 24 hours. The film could be stored between two layers of saran wrap, paraffin etc. On illumination with light (peak wavelength between 400-470 nm and a power density of about 30-150 mW/cm2) for 5 minutes at a distance of 5 cm from the light source, the film emitted fluorescent light which was captured by a photospectrometer and is illustrated in FIG. 3. The emitted fluorescent light was in the green, yellow and orange portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Example 2 Measurement of Tensile Strength
  • The tensile strength of a biophotonic material formed according to Example 1 may be measured by the following method. Pieces of the biophotonic material having a size of about 2 cm×2 cm, and 2 mm thickness are prepared. The tensile strength of the biophotonic material pieces is then measured using a 500N capacity tabletop mechanical testing system (#5942R4910, Instron) with a 5N maximum static load cell (#102608, Instron). Pneumatic side action grips are used to secure the samples (#2712-019, Instron). A constant extension rate of 2 mm/min until failure is used and the tensile strength is calculated from the stress vs. strain data plots. Stress-strain testing is detailed by standards-setting organizations, notably the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A preferred method is ASTM D638.
  • Example 3 Measurement of Tear Strength
  • The tear strength of a biophotonic material formed according to Example 1 may be measured by any American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods known in the art. A preferred method is ASTM D1004.
  • Example 4 Measurement of Adhesion Strength
  • The adhesion strength of the biophotonic material prepared according to Example 1 is measured in Newtons per meter (N/m) using a peel test with an Instron 1122 Tensile Tester. First, pieces of the biophotonic material having a size of about 2 cm×2 cm, and 2 mm thickness are prepared, placed onto a glass plate and then mounted into the Instron 1122 Tensile Tester with the substrate clamped in the upper grip and the glass plate clamped in the bottom grip. The average force (N) required to peel the piece of biophotonic solid off the glass plate at a 180° angle at speed of 50 mm/min is recorded. Using this force value the adhesive strength in units of N/m is calculated using the equation:

  • S A =F P(1−cos θ)/w
  • wherein SA is the adhesive strength, FP is the peel force, θ is the angle of peel (180°), and w is the width of the sample (2 cm).
  • Example 5 Angiogenic Potential of the Biophotonic Material of the Disclosure
  • A human skin model was developed to assess the angiogenic potential of the biophotonic material of the present disclosure. Briefly, a biophotonic composition comprising a fluorescent chromophore was placed on top of a human skin model containing fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The skin model and the composition were separated by a nylon mesh of 20 micron pore size. The composition was then irradiated with blue light (‘activating light’) for 5 minutes at a distance of 5 cm from the light source. The activating light consisted of light emitted from an LED lamp having an average peak wavelength of about 400-470 nm, and a power intensity measured at 10 cm of 7.7 J/cm2 to 11.5 J/cm2. Upon illumination with the activating light, the biophotonic composition emitted fluorescent light (FIG. 4) which may be replicated by a biophotonic material of the present disclosure. Since the biophotonic composition was in limited contact with the cells, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes were exposed mainly to the activating light and the fluorescent light emitted from the biophotonic composition. Conditioned media from the treated human 3D skin model were then applied to human aortic endothelial cells previously plated in matrigel. The formation of tubes by endothelial cells was observed and monitored by microscopy after 24 hours. The conditioned medium from 3D skin models treated with light illumination induced endothelial tube formation in vitro, suggesting an indirect effect of the light treatment (blue light and fluorescence) on angiogenesis via the production of factors by fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Plain medium and conditioned medium of untreated skin samples were used as a control, and did not induce endothelial tube formation.
  • Example 6 Protein Secretion and Gene Expression Profiles
  • Wounded and unwounded 3D human skin models (EpiDermFT, MatTek Corporation) were used assess the potential of a biophotonic material of the present disclosure to trigger distinct protein secretion and gene expression profiles. Briefly, a biophotonic composition comprising Eosin and Erythrosine were placed on top of wounded and unwounded 3D human skin models cultured under different conditions (with growth factors, 50% growth factors and no growth factors). The skin models and the composition were separated by a nylon mesh of 20 micron pore size. Each skin model-composition combination was then irradiated with blue light (‘activating light’) for 5 minutes at a distance of 5 cm from the light source. The activating light consisted of light emitted from an LED lamp having an average peak wavelength of about 440-470 nm, a power density of 60-150 mW/cm2 at 5 cm, and a total intensity after 5 minutes of about 18-39 J/cm2. The controls were consisted of 3D skin models not illuminated with light.
  • Gene expression and protein secretion profiles were measured 24 hours post-light exposure. Cytokine secretion was analyzed by antibody arrays (RayBio Human Cytokine antibody array), gene expression was analyzed by PCR array (PAHS-013A, SABioscience) and cytotoxicity was determined by GAPDH and LDH release. Results (Tables 1 and 2) showed that the light treatment is capable of increasing the level of protein secreted and gene expression involved in the early inflammatory phase of wound healing in wounded skin inserts and in non-starvation conditions. In starvation conditions mimicking chronic wounds, there was no increase in the level of inflammatory protein secreted when compared to the control. Interestingly, the effect of the light treatment on unwounded skin models has a much lower impact at the cellular level than on wounded skin insert, which suggests an effect at the cellular effect level of the light treatment. It seems to accelerate the inflammatory phase of the wound healing process. Due to the lack of other cell types such as macrophages in the 3D skin model, the anti-inflammatory feed-back is absent and may explain the delay in wound closure. Cytoxicity was not observed in the light treatments.
  • TABLE 1
    List of proteins with statistically significant difference secretion
    ratio between treated and untreated control at day 3.
    Medium 1X Medium 0.5X Medium 0X
    In- ENA78 p = 0.04 ↑↑ Angiogenin
    crease Il-1R4/ST2 p = 0.02 ↑↑ p = 0.03
    MMP3 p = 0.01 ↑↑ CXCL16
    MCP-2 p = 0.04 ↑↑ p = 0.04
    De- BMP6 p = 0.01 BMP6 p = 0.02
    crease TNFα p = 0.005
    Two arrows mean that the ratio was over 2 folds.
  • TABLE 2
    List of genes with statistically significant difference expression
    ratio between treated and untreated control during the first 24 hours.
    Medium 1X Medium 0.5X Medium 0X
    In- CTGF p = 0.02 CTGF P = 0.04 MMP3 ↑↑
    crease ITGB3 p = 0.03 ITGB3 p = 0.05 p = 0.007
    MMP1 p = 0.03 MMP1 p = 0.02 ↑↑ LAMA1
    MMP3 p = 0.01 MMP10 p = 0.003 ↑↑ p = 0.03
    THBS1 P = 0.02 MMP3 p = 0.007 ↑↑ ITGA2
    MMP8 p = 0.02 ↑↑ p = 0.03
    THBS1 p = 0.03
    De- HAS1 p = 0.009 ↓↓ NCAM1 p = 0.02 ↓↓
    crease NCAM1 p = 0.05 ↓↓ VCAN p = 0.02
    VCAM1 p = 0.03 ↓↓ LAMC1 p = 0.002
    COL7A1 p = 0.04 COL6A1 p = 0.007
    CTNNA1 p = 0.03 MMP7 p = 0.003
    Two arrows mean that the ratio was over 2 folds.
  • Example 7 Selecting Concentration of Chromophore in Composition
  • The fluorescence spectra of biophotonic materials with different concentrations of chromophores were investigated using a spectrophotometer and an activating blue light. Exemplary fluorescence spectra of Eosin Y and Fluorescein are presented in FIGS. 5 a and 5 b, respectively. It was found that emitted fluorescence from the chromophore increases rapidly with increasing concentration but slows down to a plateau with further concentration increase. Activating light passing through the composition decreases with increasing chromophore composition as more is absorbed by the chromophores. Therefore, the concentration of chromophores in biophotonic materials of the present disclosure can be selected according to a required ratio and level of activating light and fluorescence treating the tissue based on this example.
  • Example 8 Synergistic Combination of Eosin Y and Fluorescein
  • The photodynamic properties of (i) Fluorescein sodium salt at about 0.09 mg/mL, (ii) Eosin Y at about 0.305 mg/mL, and (iii) a mixture of Fluorescein sodium salt at about 0.09 mg/mL and Eosin Y at about 0.305 mg/mL in a gel (comprising about 12% carbamide peroxide), were evaluated. A flexstation 384 II spectrometer was used with the following parameters: mode fluorescence, excitation 460 nm, emission spectra 465-750 nm. The absorption and emission spectra are shown in FIGS. 6 a and 6 b which indicate an energy transfer between the chromophores in the combination. It is to be reasonably inferred that this energy transfer can also occur in biophotonic materials of the present disclosure.
  • Example 9 Synergistic Combination of Eosin Y, Fluorescein and Rose Bengal
  • The photodynamic properties of (i) Rose Bengal at about 0.085 mg/mL, (ii) Fluorescein sodium salt at about 0.44 mg/mL final concentration, (ii) Eosin Y at about 0.305 mg/mL, and (iii) a mixture of (i), (ii) and (iii) in a gel (comprising about 12% carbamide peroxide) (Set A), were evaluated. A flexstation 384 II spectrometer was used with the following parameters: mode fluorescence, excitation 460 nm, emission spectra 465-750 nm. The absorbance and emission spectra are shown in FIGS. 7 a and 7 b which indicate an energy transfer between the chromophores in the chromophore combination. It is to be reasonably inferred that this energy transfer can also occur in biophotonic materials of the present disclosure.
  • Energy transfer was also seen between: Eosin Y and Rose Bengal; Phloxine B and EosinY; Phloxine B, EosinY and Fluorescein, amongst other combinations. It is to be reasonably inferred that energy transfer can also occur in biophotonic materials of the present disclosure.
  • Example 10 Eosin Y and Fluorescein Induce Collagen Formation
  • A composition according to an embodiment of the present invention, comprising 0.01% Eosin Y and 0.01% Fluorescein in a carrier matrix (1.8% carbopol gel) was evaluated for its potential to induce collagen formation. Dermal human fibroblasts were plated in glass-bottomed dishes with wells (MatTek®). There were approximately 4000 cells per well. After 48 hours, the glass-bottomed dishes were inverted and the cells were treated through the glass bottom with (i) a no light (control), (ii) sunlight exposure for about 13 minutes at noon (control), (iii) the composition applied to the glass well bottom on the other side of the cells (no light exposure), and (iv) the composition applied to the glass well bottom on the other side of the cells (sun light exposure for about 13 minutes at noon). In the case of (iii) and (iv), there was no direct contact between the cells and the composition. In the case of (iv), the cells were exposed to emitted light from and through the Eosin Y and Fluorescein composition when exposed to sunlight. A partial photobleaching was observed in (iv). After the treatment, the cells were washed and incubated in regular medium for 48 hours. A collagen assay was then performed on the supernatant using the Picro-Sirius red method. This involved adding Sirius red dye solution in picric acid to the supernatant, incubating with gentle agitation for 30 minutes followed by centrifugation to form a pellet. The pellet was washed first with 0.1N HCl and then 0.5 N NaOH to remove free dye. After centrifugation, the suspension was read at 540 nm for collagen type I. The results are shown in Table 3.
  • TABLE 3
    A qualitative comparison of collagen type I concentration in a dermal human
    fibroblast supernatant exposed to (i) a no light (control), (ii) sunlight exposure for about 13
    minutes at noon (control), (iii) any light emitted from a Eosin Y and Fluorescein
    composition through a glass separation (no light exposure), and (iv) any light emitted from a
    Eosin Y and Fluorescein composition through a glass separation (sun light exposure for
    about 13 minutes at noon).
    Eosin Y and Eosin and
    No light Sunlight alone Fluorescein-no Fluorescein-
    (control) (alone) light sunlight
    Collagen + + ++ +++
    formation
    ++ indicates collagen levels about twice as high as +, and
    +++ indicates collagen levels about three times as high as +.
  • There was a statistical difference between the collagen levels induced by the Eosin Y and Fluorescein composition exposed to sunlight compared to the no light and sunlight alone controls.
  • Collagen generation is indicative of a potential for tissue repair including stabilization of granulation tissue and decreasing of wound size. It is also linked to reduction of fine lines, a decrease in pore size, improvement of texture and improvement of tensile strength of intact skin.

Claims (33)

1. A biophotonic material, said biophotonic material comprising:
a cohesive matrix, and
at least one chromophore, wherein the at least one chromophore can absorb and emit light from within the biophotonic material.
2. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material is elastic.
3. The biophotonic material of claim 2, wherein the biophotonic material is a peelable film.
4. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the tear and/or tensile strength of the biophotonic material is greater than an adhesive strength of the biophotonic material to a surface to which it is applied.
5. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material is non-elastic.
6. The biophotonic material of claim 5, wherein the biophotonic material is rigid.
7. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material is substantially translucent.
8. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material has a translucency of at least about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, or about 80% at 460 nm.
9. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material has a thickness of about 0.1 mm to about 50 mm.
10. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material has a pre-formed configuration.
11. The biophotonic material of claim 10, wherein the pre-formed configuration is a shape and/or a size corresponding with a shape and/or a size of a body part to which the biophotonic material can be applied.
12. The biophotonic material of claim 11, wherein the body part is selected from a head, scalp, forehead, nose, cheeks, ears, lip, face, neck, shoulder, arm pit, arm, elbow, hand, finger, abdomen, chest, stomach, back, sacrum, buttocks, genitals, legs, knee, feet, nails, hair, toes, boney prominences, and combinations thereof.
13. The biophotonic material of claim 10, wherein the biophotonic material is a mask.
14. The biophotonic material of claim 13, wherein the mask is a face mask having at least one opening for the eyes, nose or mouth.
15. The biophotonic material of claim 10, wherein the pre-formed configuration is a shape and/or a size corresponding with a shape and/or a size of a light source or lamp to which the biophotonic material can be attached.
16. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the biophotonic material can be removed without leaving substantially any residue on a surface to which the biophotonic material is applied.
17. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the at least one chromophore is a fluorophore.
18. The biophotonic material of claim 17, wherein the fluorophore is a xanthene dye.
19. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the cohesive matrix comprises at least one polymer.
20. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the polymer is selected from a cross-linked polyacrylic polymer, a hyaluronate, a hydrated polymer, a hydrophilic polymer.
21. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the at least one chromophore is within the cohesive matrix.
22. The biophotonic material of claim 1, wherein the cohesive matrix is in particulate form.
23. A biophotonic material for phototherapy, said biophotonic material comprising at least one chromophore in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium can form a cohesive matrix containing the at least one chromophore and wherein the at least one chromophore can absorb and emit light within the cohesive matrix when illuminated with light.
24. The biophotonic material of claim 23, wherein the carrier medium is at least one polymer or a polymer pre-cursor which can form the cohesive matrix by polymerizing, cross-linking or drying.
25-27. (canceled)
28. A container comprising:
a sealed chamber for holding a biophotonic material, and
an outlet in communication with the chamber for discharging the biophotonic material from the container, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore in a carrier medium which can form a cohesive matrix after being discharged from the sealed chamber.
29. A container according to claim 28, wherein the container is a spray can.
30. A kit comprising:
a first component comprising a first chromophore; and
a second component comprising a thickening agent, wherein the thickening agent can form a cohesive matrix when mixed with the first component.
31. A method for biophotonic treatment of a skin disorder comprising:
placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and
illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore;
wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes healing of said skin disorder.
32. A method for biophotonic treatment of acne comprising:
placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and
illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore;
wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that treats the acne.
33. A method for promoting wound healing comprising:
placing a biophotonic material over or within a wound, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and
illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore;
wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes wound healing.
34. A method for promoting skin rejuvenation comprising:
placing a biophotonic material over a target skin tissue, wherein the biophotonic material comprises at least one chromophore and a cohesive matrix; and
illuminating said biophotonic material with light having a wavelength that overlaps with an absorption spectrum of the at least one chromophore;
wherein said biophotonic material emits fluorescence at a wavelength and intensity that promotes skin rejuvenation.
35-43. (canceled)
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