US20140261090A1 - Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing - Google Patents

Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing Download PDF

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Publication number
US20140261090A1
US20140261090A1 US14/207,728 US201414207728A US2014261090A1 US 20140261090 A1 US20140261090 A1 US 20140261090A1 US 201414207728 A US201414207728 A US 201414207728A US 2014261090 A1 US2014261090 A1 US 2014261090A1
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fuel cell
anode
fuel
stream
cathode
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US14/207,728
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Paul J. Berlowitz
Timothy Andrew Barckholtz
Anita S. Lee
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
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Priority to US201361787879P priority
Priority to US201361884635P priority
Priority to US201361884586P priority
Priority to US201361884565P priority
Priority to US201361884605P priority
Priority to US201361884545P priority
Priority to US201361884376P priority
Priority to US201361889757P priority
Priority to US14/207,728 priority patent/US20140261090A1/en
Application filed by ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co filed Critical ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co
Assigned to EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY reassignment EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BARCKHOLTZ, TIMOTHY A., BERLOWITZ, PAUL J., LEE, ANITA S.
Priority claimed from US14/325,664 external-priority patent/US9819042B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/486,159 external-priority patent/US9755258B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/486,200 external-priority patent/US9556753B2/en
Priority claimed from US14/486,177 external-priority patent/US20150093665A1/en
Publication of US20140261090A1 publication Critical patent/US20140261090A1/en
Priority claimed from CA2920288A external-priority patent/CA2920288A1/en
Priority claimed from CN201480053118.9A external-priority patent/CN105612648B/en
Priority claimed from JP2016545263A external-priority patent/JP2016533628A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21BMANUFACTURE OF IRON OR STEEL
    • C21B15/00Other processes for the manufacture of iron from iron compounds
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    • C01B3/06Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of inorganic compounds containing electro-positively bound hydrogen, e.g. water, acids, bases, ammonia, with inorganic reducing agents
    • C01B3/12Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of inorganic compounds containing electro-positively bound hydrogen, e.g. water, acids, bases, ammonia, with inorganic reducing agents by reaction of water vapour with carbon monoxide
    • C01B3/16Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of inorganic compounds containing electro-positively bound hydrogen, e.g. water, acids, bases, ammonia, with inorganic reducing agents by reaction of water vapour with carbon monoxide using catalysts
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    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
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    • C01B3/48Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents followed by reaction of water vapour with carbon monoxide
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    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
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    • C04B7/00Hydraulic cements
    • C04B7/36Manufacture of hydraulic cements in general
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    • Y02P30/00Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry
    • Y02P30/30Carbon capture or storage [CCS] specific to hydrogen production
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/56Manufacturing of fuel cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/16Energy recuperation from low temperature heat sources of the ICE to produce additional power

Abstract

In various aspects, systems and methods are provided for operating molten carbonate fuel cells with processes for cement production. The systems and methods can provide process improvements including increased efficiency, reduction of carbon emissions per ton of product produced, and simplified capture of the carbon emissions as an integrated part of the system. The number of separate processes and the complexity of the overall production system can be reduced while providing flexibility in fuel feed stock and the various chemical, heat, and electrical outputs needed to power the processes.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. Nos. 61/787,587, 61/787,697, 61/787,879, and 61/788,628, all filed on Mar. 15, 2013, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. This application also claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. Nos. 61/884,376, 61/884,545, 61/884,565, 61/884,586, 61/884,605, and 61/884,635, all filed on Sep. 30, 2013, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. This application further claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. No. 61/889,757, filed on Oct. 11, 2013, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • This application is related to 25 other co-pending U.S. applications, filed on even date herewith, and identified by the following Attorney Docket numbers and titles: 2013EM104-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM104-US3 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM107-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM107-US3 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM108-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM108-US3 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM109-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM109-US3 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Carbon Capture using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM272-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM273-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells at a Reduced Electrical Efficiency”; 2013EM274-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM277-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM278-US2 entitled “Integrated Carbon Capture and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM279-US2 entitled “Integrated Power Generation and Chemical Production using Fuel Cells”; 2013EM285-US2 entitled “Integrated Operation of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells”; 2014EM047-US entitled “Mitigation of NOx in Integrated Power Production”; 2014EM048-US entitled “Integrated Power Generation using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells”; 2014EM049-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis”; 2014EM050-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis”; 2014EM051-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis”; 2014EM052-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Methanol Synthesis”; 2014EM053-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in a Refinery Setting”; 2014EM054-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells for Synthesis of Nitrogen Compounds”; 2014EM055-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells with Fermentation Processes”; and 2014EM056-US entitled “Integrated of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Iron and Steel Processing”. Each of these co-pending U.S. applications is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • In various aspects, the invention is related to use of molten carbonate fuel cells in processing and/or production of cement.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Concrete and steel are important infrastructure building materials that can account for the majority of mass, cost and carbon dioxide emissions in the building of major infrastructure projects. For example, concrete is currently responsible for about 5% of CO2 emissions worldwide. Of the total emissions, the manufacture of cement, for example Portland cement, represents about 95% of the total emissions from the final product. The CO2 can be primarily generated from two sources: the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide and CO2, and the heating of cement kilns to temperatures as high about 1800° C., which is typically done with coal as a fuel. Cement is made in hundreds of plants (about 150-200 in the US), typically near quarries where the constituent rock is found.
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells utilize hydrogen and/or other fuels to generate electricity. Options for generating hydrogen for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell include reforming methane or other reformable fuels within the anode of the fuel cell, or reforming fuel in an associated reforming zone that is either internal to or external to the fuel cell. Reformable fuels can encompass hydrocarbonaceous materials that can be reacted with steam and/or oxygen at elevated temperature and/or pressure to produce a gaseous product that comprises hydrogen.
  • Traditionally, molten carbonate fuel cells are operated to maximize electricity production per unit of fuel input, which may be referred to as the fuel cell's electrical efficiency. This maximization can be based on the fuel cell alone or in conjunction with another power generation system. In order to achieve increased electrical production and to manage the heat generation, fuel utilization within a fuel cell is typically maintained at 70% to 75%.
  • U.S. Published Patent Application 2011/0111315 describes a system and process for operating fuel cell systems with substantial hydrogen content in the anode inlet stream. The technology in the '315 publication is concerned with providing enough fuel in the anode inlet so that sufficient fuel remains for the oxidation reaction as the fuel approaches the anode exit. To ensure adequate fuel, the '315 publication provides fuel with a high concentration of H2. The H2 not utilized in the oxidation reaction is recycled to the anode for use in the next pass. On a single pass basis, the H2 utilization may range from 10% to 30%. The '315 reference does not describe significant reforming within the anode, instead relying primarily on external reforming.
  • U.S. Published Patent Application 2005/0123810 describes a system and method for co-production of hydrogen and electrical energy. The co-production system comprises a fuel cell and a separation unit, which is configured to receive the anode exhaust stream and separate hydrogen. A portion of the anode exhaust is also recycled to the anode inlet. The operating ranges given in the '810 publication appear to be based on a solid oxide fuel cell. Molten carbonate fuel cells are described as an alternative.
  • U.S. Published Patent Application 2003/0008183 describes a system and method for co-production of hydrogen and electrical power. A fuel cell is mentioned as a general type of chemical converter for converting a hydrocarbon-type fuel to hydrogen. The fuel cell system also includes an external reformer and a high temperature fuel cell. An embodiment of the fuel cell system is described that has an electrical efficiency of about 45% and a chemical production rate of about 25% resulting in a system coproduction efficiency of about 70%. The '183 publication does not appear to describe the electrical efficiency of the fuel cell in isolation from the system.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,084,362 describes a system for integrating a fuel cell with a gasification system so that coal gas can be used as a fuel source for the anode of the fuel cell. Hydrogen generated by the fuel cell is used as an input for a gasifier that is used to generate methane from a coal gas (or other coal) input. The methane from the gasifier is then used as at least part of the input fuel to the fuel cell. Thus, at least a portion of the hydrogen generated by the fuel cell is indirectly recycled to the fuel cell anode inlet in the form of the methane generated by the gasifier.
  • An article in the Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology (G. Manzolini et. al., J. Fuel Cell Sci. and Tech., Vol. 9, February 2012) describes a power generation system that combines a combustion power generator with molten carbonate fuel cells. Various arrangements of fuel cells and operating parameters are described. The combustion output from the combustion generator is used in part as the input for the cathode of the fuel cell. One goal of the simulations in the Manzolini article is to use the MCFC to separate CO2 from the power generator's exhaust. The simulation described in the Manzolini article establishes a maximum outlet temperature of 660° C. and notes that the inlet temperature must be sufficiently cooler to account for the temperature increase across the fuel cell. The electrical efficiency (i.e. electricity generated/fuel input) for the MCFC fuel cell in a base model case is 50%. The electrical efficiency in a test model case, which is optimized for CO2 sequestration, is also 50%.
  • An article by Desideri et al. (Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37, 2012) describes a method for modeling the performance of a power generation system using a fuel cell for CO2 separation. Recirculation of anode exhaust to the anode inlet and the cathode exhaust to the cathode inlet are used to improve the performance of the fuel cell. The model parameters describe an MCFC electrical efficiency of 50.3%.
  • U.S. Patent Application Publication 2013/0081516 describes a method for direct production of iron slabs and nuggets from ore without pelletizing or briquetting. The method involves forming a mixture of fine particles of iron ore with fine particles of a carbon source such as biomass, coke, or coal. The mixture of fine particles is passed through a linear furnace to form metallic iron. An excess of biomass, coke, or coal can be used to allow excess production of CO and H2 that can be recovered as syngas from a gas phase environment in the furnace.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,524,356 describes a method for performing direct iron reduction in a shaft furnace using reformed methane as a source of synthesis gas. The method further describes introducing additional natural gas into the shaft furnace as a source of carbon for incorporation into the iron.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In an aspect, a method is provided for producing cement. The method includes introducing a fuel stream comprising a reformable fuel into the anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell, an internal reforming element associated with the anode, or a combination thereof; heating a cement kiln to form a cement product and a cement kiln exhaust; introducing a cathode inlet stream comprising CO2 and O2 into the cathode of the fuel cell, the cathode inlet stream comprising at least a portion of the cement kiln exhaust; and generating electricity within the molten carbonate fuel cell.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • FIG. 1 schematically shows an example of a configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells and associated reforming and separation stages.
  • FIG. 2 schematically shows another example of a configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells and associated reforming and separation stages.
  • FIG. 3 schematically shows an example of the operation of a molten carbonate fuel cell.
  • FIG. 4 schematically shows an example of integration of molten carbonate fuel cells with a process for producing iron or steel.
  • FIG. 5 shows process flows for an example of integration of molten carbonate fuel cells with a process for producing iron or steel.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS Overview
  • In various aspects, the operation of molten carbonate fuel cells can be integrated with a variety of chemical and/or materials production processes, including but not limited to processes for production of cement. The production processes can correspond to production of an output from the molten carbonate fuel cells, and/or the production process can consume and/or provide one or more fuel cell streams.
  • Integration with Cement Manufacture
  • Concrete and steel are important infrastructure building materials that can account for the majority of mass, cost and carbon dioxide emissions in the building of major infrastructure projects. For example, concrete is currently responsible for about 5% of CO2 emissions worldwide. Of the total emissions, the manufacture of cement, for example Portland cement, represents about 95% of the total emissions from the final product. The CO2 can be primarily generated from two sources: the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide and CO2, and the heating of cement kilns to temperatures as high about 1800° C., which is typically done with coal as a fuel. Cement is made in hundreds of plants (about 150-200 in the US), typically near quarries where the constituent rock is found.
  • Manufacture of cement typically involves heating a mixture of materials to very high temperatures. The major constituents can include limestone (CaCO3) along with one or more of silica (sand), iron ores, alumina (shale, bauxite, other ores), and/or other materials. The constituents can be crushed and mixed, after which they can be introduced into a kiln at very high temperatures, typically in air, and typically at temperatures of at least about 1400° C., such as at least about 1800° C., and sometime up to about 2000° C. or greater. Under these conditions a product, referred to as clinker, can be produced. Clinker can be a stable product typically ground in order to form a commercial cement. In this discussion, a clinker can be referred to as a cement product. The process to form the cement product can typically result in one significant chemical change: the decompositions of limestone to CaO and CO2. The other ores, starting as oxides, typically do not change chemically. After some cooling, the cement product can typically be mixed with other components, such as gypsum, and optionally ground to achieve the final desired characteristics suitable for use in cement applications and/or concrete production.
  • In general, the MCFC can be used as a resource for management of CO2 by using CO2 from the cement manufacture process as an input for the cathode. The amount of CO2 released by traditional cement manufacture can typically be at least about 50% from the decomposition of the CaCO3 and about 50% or less due to heating based on combustion of carbon-containing fuels, with the amounts potentially varying depending on the characteristics of an individual manufacturing operation. Additionally or alternately, concrete and cement manufacture can require electricity and mechanical energy for the overall process. When typically co-located, or closely located with local resources, such as quarries for production of minerals, transport, grinding, a variety of mechanical processes associated with the cement production process can consume a large amount of electricity. These energy needs can be met at least in part by electricity generated by an MCFC integrated with the cement plant. Further additionally or alternately, separation steps performed on the anode exhaust can produce water, and this water can be used to mitigate and/or satisfy the water needs of the typical cement plant. Optionally, the MCFC can be operated at low fuel utilization to provide hydrogen as a fuel, which can still further additionally or alternately remove or mitigate CO2 emissions due to fuel combustion.
  • In an aspect, an MCFC system can be integrated with a cement production plant to use cement effluent as a CO2 source while also using the MCFC heat and electricity to power the production plant. This first configuration can consume the main source of CO2 and can also mitigate some of the secondary sources of CO2 due to heat and electrical demand. The net result can be a lower carbon emissions cement manufacture process with the possibility of carbon capture.
  • In an additional or alternate configuration, an MCFC system can be heat integrated with a cement manufacturing operation so that a reduced amount of additional fuel or even no additional fuel may be needed to preheat one or more of the MCFC inlet streams, such as all of the MCFC inlet streams. For example, the cathode inlet, which may comprise some CO2 containing effluent from the kiln plus additional (cold) oxidant (air) to provide sufficient oxygen, can be preheated fully to typical cathode inlet temperatures of about 500° C. to about 700° C. by heat exchange with kiln outputs. Additionally or alternately, the heat for the kiln, typically provided by burning coal, can instead be partially or completely provided by burning anode exhaust effluent from the MCFC system, which, when derived from a less carbon-intensive source than coal, can reduce overall CO2 emissions.
  • In another additional or alternate configuration, the MCFC system can be configured to avoid a substantial majority of overall plant carbon emissions. In this configuration, the MCFC system anode outlet, a stream typically containing CO2, CO, H2, and water, can undergo a series of processes designed to separate CO2 for sequestration/capture, to remove water in that same or in a different separation process, and/or to “shift” the water-gas shift gases to produce a stream highly enriched in hydrogen. This hydrogen stream can then be used as the heating input (when combusted) for the kiln, yielding reduced or minimized carbon emissions. Optionally, any off-gasses containing fuel value can be recycled to the anode (for example, a CO containing off-gas). Further additionally or alternately, water from the anode exhaust can be used to off-set any water used in the grinding, mixing, or other cement processes that might be drawn from local sources. The electricity needed for at least a portion of or the entire cement, concrete, and/or quarry operations, and/or for at least a portion of the operations, can be provided by the MCFC on-site. This can reduce or minimize transmission losses as well as reducing corresponding CO2 emissions from the fuels used to provide electricity via the electrical grid. The overall process can then exhibit “life-cycle” CO2 emissions that can be substantially reduced, when compared to conventional mining and manufacturing operations, while operating at higher overall thermal efficiency.
  • In these configurations, the fuel for the inlet to the anode can typically be provided by a source of natural gas, methane, and/or other light hydrocarbons, optionally along with off-gasses and/or other waste streams containing some light fuel components and/or along with water-gas shift components. The fuel to the anode may contain other inert gases, such as nitrogen, in acceptable amounts, but preferably does not contain substantial amounts of oxygen, such as no intentionally added oxygen. The anode inlet may additionally or alternately include and/or be derived from other hydrocarbonaceous materials, including coal, if these materials are first converted to a reformable fuel. At least a portion of the heat (perhaps even all the heat) required for these conversions, and optionally for preheating the anode inlet, can advantageously provided by heat exchange from contact with kiln exhaust gases or products. The heat exchange can be direct, and/or can be indirect through a heat transfer medium such as steam. Water (steam) for such heat exchange processes, and/or water used in other processes related to cement manufacture, can be provided at least in part using water produced by the anode chemical and electrochemical reactions after separation from the anode exhaust stream.
  • The cathode inlet stream can be derived at least in part from the kiln exhaust that can be rich in CO2. This stream may contain dust, dirt, minerals, and/or other solid substances not suitable for introduction into a MCFC. Such unsuitable substances can be removed with, for example, filters. Additionally or alternately, typically cement plants can contain systems to reduce, minimize, and/or substantially eliminate particulate emissions from the kiln, and similar systems can be employed in a system that is integrated with a MCFC. The kiln exhaust and/or cathode inlet stream containing at least a portion of kiln exhaust may contain some residual gases not harmful to the cathode. Examples of such residual gases can include nitrogen, oxygen, and/or other air components, as well as optional minor amounts of impurity pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, when present at acceptable concentrations (for example, such as less than about 100 vppm, or less than about 50 vppm, or less than about 25 vppm, depending on the impurity pollutant(s)). The cathode can additionally or alternately require the use of fresh air to obtain a sufficient oxygen concentration. Preferably, the oxygen concentration at the cathode outlet can be at least about the CO2 concentration at the cathode outlet, but oxygen concentrations of at least about half the CO2 concentration can also be acceptable. Optionally, the oxygen concentration at the cathode inlet can be at least about the CO2 concentration at the cathode inlet. In many MCFC systems it can be necessary to burn some fuel to heat the cathode inlet stream. However, for the configurations described above, heat exchange with the kiln gaseous exhaust and/or solid product can provide at least a portion of the heat, or substantially all of the heat, required to heat one or more of the cathode inlet streams. This can reduce, minimize, or possibly eliminate the need for combustion of fuel to provide additional heat for the cathode inlet streams.
  • The anode outlet stream, in most traditional power-producing MCFC systems, can typically be partially or fully recycled to the cathode to provide CO2 and heat. In these configurations according to the invention, this anode exhaust is not required for those purposes, instead optionally but preferably being used for another purpose, such as to provide heat for the kiln. Advantageously, the MCFC can be operated at reduced fuel utilization such that the anode exhaust, when used either with or without shift and/or separation steps, can provide at least a portion (or all) of the heat necessary to raise the kiln to the operating temperature. Advantageously, the conditions can additionally or alternately be chosen such that the total electrical power output can be sufficient for at least a portion (or all) of the local power needs, which may include the direct cement manufacture as well as associated concrete, quarry and other operations. The MCFC systems can be designed such that, by varying the fuel utilization, the system can meet both requirements and can respond to variability in those requirements through adjusting fuel utilization, cell voltage and current, and/or other parameters.
  • The cathode exhaust stream, typically comprising a reduced CO2 and O2 concentration relative to the cathode inlet stream, along with inert (air) components such as nitrogen, can typically be exhausted to the atmosphere, but alternately can be first exposed to one or more post-treatments before doing so.
  • FIG. 4 shows an example of an MCFC system integrated in a cement manufacturing plant to produce low CO2 emissions cement. The two largest CO2 sources of a cement plant are typically from the combustion of fossil fuels for heat in the kiln, such as a rotary kiln, and the decomposition of CaCO3 to CaO in the kiln. In the configuration shown in FIG. 4, the integrated process can instead combust H2 produced from the MCFC in the kiln. The decomposition CO2 off gas can additionally or alternately be used as the cathode feed.
  • In the configuration shown in FIG. 4, gas flows of methane 401 and steam 402 can be fed to the anode of MCFC 420. The anode exhaust 403, which can comprise a mixture of H2, CO, CO2, and H2O, can be cooled in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) 422 and shifted in a water gas shift reactor (not shown), producing a mixture of mostly H2 and CO2 404. Stream 404 can, in this case, be dehydrated 460 and separated 450 into H2-containing stream 406 and CO2-containing stream 407. Stream 407 can be compressed (and sold for use, shipped for use remotely, etc.) and/or can be sent to a sequestration facility. Stream 406 can be used as fuel for the open flame (along with oxidant/air 441) in the rotary kiln 440. The “clinker” product formed in kiln 440 can be passed into clinker cooler 470. Various types of heat exchange can be performed with the kiln 440, the clinker product, and/or the clinker cooler 470 to provide heat for other processes in the system. In the kiln 440, as CaCO3 decomposes, CO2 can be released. The CO2 can combine with the flame exhaust gases and exit the top of the kiln 440 as a kiln off gas 408. The kiln off gas 408 can be cleaned and/or dehydrated 430 to form a water and/or impurities stream 409 and a CO2-containing stream 410 that can be returned to the front of the cathode of MCFC 420. Stream 410 can be mixed with air 411 and optionally part of the cathode exhaust 412 to help meet the CO2 feed demand to the cathode. The cathode exhaust, depleted in CO2, can be split, with a fraction optionally recycled 412 and another fraction sent to a HRSG 424 and emitted to the atmosphere 413 (if not sent for further processing, not shown).
  • As an example of the heating requirements and CO2 production from a rotary kiln, values were taken from Energy and Emissions from the Cement Industry. (Choate, William T. Energy and Emissions Reduction Opportunities for the Cement Industry. U.S. Department of Energy, December 2003.) Based on these representative values, calculations were performed for an example of an integrated process sized to process ˜300 tonnes/hour of clinker in the rotary kiln. Flow values based on mass and energy balance calculations for a configuration similar to FIG. 4 are shown in the tables in FIG. 5. In FIG. 5, the number at the top of each column indicates the corresponding element from the configuration in FIG. 4. The calculations can be used to show that the large amount of heat in the clinker cooler 470 shown in FIG. 4 can be used to pre-heat all the MCFC inlet streams to operating temperatures. In addition to H2 fuel for the kiln, the MCFC can also produce ˜176 MW of power that can be used in the other energy intensive processes, like grinding of the raw material for the kiln feed. Table A shows a summary of the additional electric power generation and reduced CO2 emissions that were calculated based on the calculations shown in FIG. 5. As shown in Table A, the calculations for a configuration similar to FIG. 4 using representative values for the rotary kiln show that integration of a MCFC with a cement process can provide additional electrical power while reducing CO2 emissions by about 90%.
  • TABLE A Power Generation and CO2 Emissions during Cement Processing CO2 Emissions Power Generation [MW] [kg CO2/tonne Clinker] Fossil fuel fired kiln 0 976.5 MCFC + kiln 172 96.9
  • As noted above, about half of the CO2 emissions from a typical cement process are due to combustion of fuels to provide heat for a kiln. Such combustion processes usually use air to provide a source of oxygen, resulting in off gasses from combustion that are relatively dilute in CO2 concentration due in part to the large amount of N2 present in air. The conventional alternative for separating CO2 from a stream containing dilute CO2 (such as 10 vol % CO2 or less) is to use an amine wash, such as an amine wash based on monoethanolamine. For comparison purposes, a typical expected energy cost for using an amine wash based on monoethanolamine (MEA) to capture CO2 from dilute CO2 streams (such as streams with approximately 10 vol % or less CO2) was estimated to be about 3 GJ/ton CO2. Based on this expected energy cost, using an amine wash to capture CO2 instead of using a MCFC could eliminate the additional electrical energy generated by the MCFC while also incurring a substantial energy cost.
  • Additional Fuel Cell Operation Strategies
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated so that the amount of reforming can be selected relative to the amount of oxidation in order to achieve a desired thermal ratio for the fuel cell. As used herein, the “thermal ratio” is defined as the heat produced by exothermic reactions in a fuel cell assembly divided by the endothermic heat demand of reforming reactions occurring within the fuel cell assembly. Expressed mathematically, the thermal ratio (TH)=QEX/QEN, where QEX is the sum of heat produced by exothermic reactions and QEN is the sum of heat consumed by the endothermic reactions occurring within the fuel cell. Note that the heat produced by the exothermic reactions corresponds to any heat due to reforming reactions, water gas shift reactions, and the electrochemical reactions in the cell. The heat generated by the electrochemical reactions can be calculated based on the ideal electrochemical potential of the fuel cell reaction across the electrolyte minus the actual output voltage of the fuel cell. For example, the ideal electrochemical potential of the reaction in a MCFC is believed to be about 1.04V based on the net reaction that occurs in the cell. During operation of the MCFC, the cell will typically have an output voltage less than 1.04 V due to various losses. For example, a common output/operating voltage can be about 0.7 V. The heat generated is equal to the electrochemical potential of the cell (i.e. ˜1.04V) minus the operating voltage. For example, the heat produced by the electrochemical reactions in the cell is ˜0.34 V when the output voltage of ˜0.7V. Thus, in this scenario, the electrochemical reactions would produce ˜0.7 V of electricity and ˜0.34 V of heat energy. In such an example, the ˜0.7 V of electrical energy is not included as part of QEX. In other words, heat energy is not electrical energy.
  • In various aspects, a thermal ratio can be determined for any convenient fuel cell structure, such as a fuel cell stack, an individual fuel cell within a fuel cell stack, a fuel cell stack with an integrated reforming stage, a fuel cell stack with an integrated endothermic reaction stage, or a combination thereof. The thermal ratio may also be calculated for different units within a fuel cell stack, such as an assembly of fuel cells or fuel cell stacks. For example, the thermal ratio may be calculated for a single anode within a single fuel cell, an anode section within a fuel cell stack, or an anode section within a fuel cell stack along with integrated reforming stages and/or integrated endothermic reaction stage elements in sufficiently close proximity to the anode section to be integrated from a heat integration standpoint. As used herein, “an anode section” comprises anodes within a fuel cell stack that share a common inlet or outlet manifold.
  • In various aspects of the invention, the operation of the fuel cells can be characterized based on a thermal ratio. Where fuel cells are operated to have a desired thermal ratio, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have a thermal ratio of about 1.5 or less, for example about 1.3 or less, or about 1.15 or less, or about 1.0 or less, or about 0.95 or less, or about 0.90 or less, or about 0.85 or less, or about 0.80 or less, or about 0.75 or less. Additionally or alternately, the thermal ratio can be at least about 0.25, or at least about 0.35, or at least about 0.45, or at least about 0.50. Additionally or alternately, in some aspects the fuel cell can be operated to have a temperature rise between anode input and anode output of about 40° C. or less, such as about 20° C. or less, or about 10° C. or less. Further additionally or alternately, the fuel cell can be operated to have an anode outlet temperature that is from about 10° C. lower to about 10° C. higher than the temperature of the anode inlet. Still further additionally or alternately, the fuel cell can be operated to have an anode inlet temperature that is greater than the anode outlet temperature, such as at least about 5° C. greater, or at least about 10° C. greater, or at least about 20° C. greater, or at least about 25° C. greater. Yet still further additionally or alternately, the fuel cell can be operated to have an anode inlet temperature that is greater than the anode outlet temperature by about 100° C. or less, such as by about 80° C. or less, or about 60° C. or less, or about 50° C. or less, or about 40° C. or less, or about 30° C. or less, or about 20° C. or less.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell (such as a fuel cell assembly) can be operated with increased production of syngas (or hydrogen) while also reducing or minimizing the amount of CO2 exiting the fuel cell in the cathode exhaust stream. Syngas can be a valuable input for a variety of processes. In addition to having fuel value, syngas can be used as a raw material for forming other higher value products, such as by using syngas as an input for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and/or methanol synthesis processes. One option for making syngas can be to reform a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon-like fuel, such as methane or natural gas. For many types of industrial processes, a syngas having a ratio of H2 to CO of close to 2:1 (or even lower) can often be desirable. A water gas shift reaction can be used to reduce the H2 to CO ratio in a syngas if additional CO2 is available, such as is produced in the anodes.
  • One way of characterizing the overall benefit provided by integrating syngas generation with use of molten carbonate fuel cells can be based on a ratio of the net amount of syngas that exits the fuel cells in the anode exhaust relative to the amount of CO2 that exits the fuel cells in the cathode exhaust. This characterization measures the effectiveness of producing power with low emissions and high efficiency (both electrical and chemical). In this description, the net amount of syngas in an anode exhaust is defined as the combined number of moles of H2 and number of moles of CO present in the anode exhaust, offset by the amount of H2 and CO present in the anode inlet. Because the ratio is based on the net amount of syngas in the anode exhaust, simply passing excess H2 into the anode does not change the value of the ratio. However, H2 and/or CO generated due to reforming in the anode and/or in an internal reforming stage associated with the anode can lead to higher values of the ratio. Hydrogen oxidized in the anode can lower the ratio. It is noted that the water gas shift reaction can exchange H2 for CO, so the combined moles of H2 and CO represents the total potential syngas in the anode exhaust, regardless of the eventual desired ratio of H2 to CO in a syngas. The syngas content of the anode exhaust (H2+CO) can then be compared with the CO2 content of the cathode exhaust. This can provide a type of efficiency value that can also account for the amount of carbon capture. This can equivalently be expressed as an equation as

  • Ratio of net syngas in anode exhaust to cathode CO2=net moles of (H2+CO)ANODE/moles of (CO2)CATHODE
  • In various aspects, the ratio of net moles of syngas in the anode exhaust to the moles of CO2 in the cathode exhaust can be at least about 2.0, such as at least about 3.0, or at least about 4.0, or at least about 5.0. In some aspects, the ratio of net syngas in the anode exhaust to the amount of CO2 in the cathode exhaust can be still higher, such as at least about 10.0, or at least about 15.0, or at least about 20.0. Ratio values of about 40.0 or less, such as about 30.0 or less, or about 20.0 or less, can additionally or alternately be achieved. In aspects where the amount of CO2 at the cathode inlet is about 6.0 volume % or less, such as about 5.0 volume % or less, ratio values of at least about 1.5 may be sufficient/realistic. Such molar ratio values of net syngas in the anode exhaust to the amount of CO2 in the cathode exhaust can be greater than the values for conventionally operated fuel cells.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell (such as a fuel cell assembly) can be operated at a reduced fuel utilization value, such as a fuel utilization of about 50% or less, while also having a high CO2 utilization value, such as at least about 60%. In this type of configuration, the molten carbonate fuel cell can be effective for carbon capture, as the CO2 utilization can advantageously be sufficiently high. Rather than attempting to maximize electrical efficiency, in this type of configuration the total efficiency of the fuel cell can be improved or increased based on the combined electrical and chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency can be based on withdrawal of a hydrogen and/or syngas stream from the anode exhaust as an output for use in other processes. Even though the electrical efficiency may be reduced relative to some conventional configurations, making use of the chemical energy output in the anode exhaust can allow for a desirable total efficiency for the fuel cell.
  • In various aspects, the fuel utilization in the fuel cell anode can be about 50% or less, such as about 40% or less, or about 30% or less, or about 25% or less, or about 20% or less. In various aspects, in order to generate at least some electric power, the fuel utilization in the fuel cell can be at least about 5%, such as at least about 10%, or at least about 15%, or at least about 20%, or at least about 25%, or at least about 30%. Additionally or alternatively, the CO2 utilization can be at least about 60%, such as at least about 65%, or at least about 70%, or at least about 75%.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated at conditions that increase or maximize syngas production, possibly at the detriment of electricity production and electrical efficiency. Instead of selecting the operating conditions of a fuel cell to improve or maximize the electrical efficiency of the fuel cell, operating conditions, possibly including an amount of reformable fuel passed into the anode, can be established to increase the chemical energy output of the fuel cell. These operating conditions can result in a lower electrical efficiency of the fuel cell. Despite the reduced electrical efficiency, optionally, but preferably, the operating conditions can lead to an increase in the total efficiency of the fuel cell, which is based on the combined electrical efficiency and chemical efficiency of the fuel cell. By increasing the ratio of reformable fuel introduced into the anode to the fuel that is actually electrochemically oxidized at the anode, the chemical energy content in the anode output can be increased.
  • In some aspects, the reformable hydrogen content of reformable fuel in the input stream delivered to the anode and/or to a reforming stage associated with the anode can be at least about 50% greater than the net amount of hydrogen reacted at the anode, such as at least about 75% greater or at least about 100% greater. Additionally or alternately, the reformable hydrogen content of fuel in the input stream delivered to the anode and/or to a reforming stage associated with the anode can be at least about 50% greater than the net amount of hydrogen reacted at the anode, such as at least about 75% greater or at least about 100% greater. In various aspects, a ratio of the reformable hydrogen content of the reformable fuel in the fuel stream relative to an amount of hydrogen reacted in the anode can be at least about 1.5:1, or at least about 2.0:1, or at least about 2.5:1, or at least about 3.0:1. Additionally or alternately, the ratio of reformable hydrogen content of the reformable fuel in the fuel stream relative to the amount of hydrogen reacted in the anode can be about 20:1 or less, such as about 15:1 or less or about 10:1 or less. In one aspect, it is contemplated that less than 100% of the reformable hydrogen content in the anode inlet stream can be converted to hydrogen. For example, at least about 80% of the reformable hydrogen content in an anode inlet stream can be converted to hydrogen in the anode and/or in an associated reforming stage(s), such as at least about 85%, or at least about 90%. Additionally or alternately, the amount of reformable fuel delivered to the anode can be characterized based on the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the reformable fuel relative to the LHV of the hydrogen oxidized in the anode. This can be referred to as a reformable fuel surplus ratio. In various aspects, the reformable fuel surplus ratio can be at least about 2.0, such as at least about 2.5, or at least about 3.0, or at least about 4.0. Additionally or alternately, the reformable fuel surplus ratio can be about 25.0 or less, such as about 20.0 or less, or about 15.0 or less, or about 10.0 or less.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell (such as a fuel cell assembly) can also be operated at conditions that can improve or optimize the combined electrical efficiency and chemical efficiency of the fuel cell. Instead of selecting conventional conditions for maximizing the electrical efficiency of a fuel cell, the operating conditions can allow for output of excess synthesis gas and/or hydrogen in the anode exhaust of the fuel cell. The synthesis gas and/or hydrogen can then be used in a variety of applications, including chemical synthesis processes and collection of hydrogen for use as a “clean” fuel. In aspects of the invention, electrical efficiency can be reduced to achieve a high overall efficiency, which includes a chemical efficiency based on the chemical energy value of syngas and/or hydrogen produced relative to the energy value of the fuel input for the fuel cell.
  • In some aspects, the operation of the fuel cells can be characterized based on electrical efficiency. Where fuel cells are operated to have a low electrical efficiency (EE), a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have an electrical efficiency of about 40% or less, for example, about 35% EE or less, about 30% EE or less, about 25% EE or less, or about 20% EE or less, about 15% EE or less, or about 10% EE or less. Additionally or alternately, the EE can be at least about 5%, or at least about 10%, or at least about 15%, or at least about 20%. Further additionally or alternately, the operation of the fuel cells can be characterized based on total fuel cell efficiency (TFCE), such as a combined electrical efficiency and chemical efficiency of the fuel cell(s). Where fuel cells are operated to have a high total fuel cell efficiency, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have a TFCE (and/or combined electrical efficiency and chemical efficiency) of about 55% or more, for example, about 60% or more, or about 65% or more, or about 70% or more, or about 75% or more, or about 80% or more, or about 85% or more. It is noted that for a total fuel cell efficiency and/or combined electrical efficiency and chemical efficiency, any additional electricity generated from use of excess heat generated by the fuel cell can be excluded from the efficiency calculation.
  • In various aspects of the invention, the operation of the fuel cells can be characterized based on a desired electrical efficiency of about 40% or less and a desired total fuel cell efficiency of about 55% or more. Where fuel cells are operated to have a desired electrical efficiency and a desired total fuel cell efficiency, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have an electrical efficiency of about 40% or less with a TFCE of about 55% or more, for example, about 35% EE or less with about a TFCE of 60% or more, about 30% EE or less with about a TFCE of about 65% or more, about 25% EE or less with about a 70% TFCE or more, or about 20% EE or less with about a TFCE of 75% or more, about 15% EE or less with about a TFCE of 80% or more, or about 10% EE or less with about a TFCE of about 85% or more.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell (such as a fuel cell assembly) can be operated at conditions that can provide increased power density. The power density of a fuel cell corresponds to the actual operating voltage VA multiplied by the current density I. For a molten carbonate fuel cell operating at a voltage VA, the fuel cell also can tend to generate waste heat, the waste heat defined as (V0-VA)*I based on the differential between VA and the ideal voltage V0 for a fuel cell providing current density I. A portion of this waste heat can be consumed by reforming of a reformable fuel within the anode of the fuel cell. The remaining portion of this waste heat can be absorbed by the surrounding fuel cell structures and gas flows, resulting in a temperature differential across the fuel cell. Under conventional operating conditions, the power density of a fuel cell can be limited based on the amount of waste heat that the fuel cell can tolerate without compromising the integrity of the fuel cell.
  • In various aspects, the amount of waste heat that a fuel cell can tolerate can be increased by performing an effective amount of an endothermic reaction within the fuel cell. One example of an endothermic reaction includes steam reforming of a reformable fuel within a fuel cell anode and/or in an associated reforming stage, such as an integrated reforming stage in a fuel cell stack. By providing additional reformable fuel to the anode of the fuel cell (or to an integrated/associated reforming stage), additional reforming can be performed so that additional waste heat can be consumed. This can reduce the amount of temperature differential across the fuel cell, thus allowing the fuel cell to operate under an operating condition with an increased amount of waste heat. The loss of electrical efficiency can be offset by the creation of an additional product stream, such as syngas and/or H2, that can be used for various purposes including additional electricity generation further expanding the power range of the system.
  • In various aspects, the amount of waste heat generated by a fuel cell, (V0-VA)*I as defined above, can be at least about 30 mW/cm2, such as at least about 40 mW/cm2, or at least about 50 mW/cm2, or at least about 60 mW/cm2, or at least about 70 mW/cm2, or at least about 80 mW/cm2, or at least about 100 mW/cm2, or at least about 120 mW/cm2, or at least about 140 mW/cm2, or at least about 160 mW/cm2, or at least about 180 mW/cm2. Additionally or alternately, the amount of waste heat generated by a fuel cell can be less than about 250 mW/cm2, such as less than about 200 mW/cm2, or less than about 180 mW/cm2, or less than about 165 mW/cm2, or less than about 150 mW/cm2.
  • Although the amount of waste heat being generated can be relatively high, such waste heat may not necessarily represent operating a fuel cell with poor efficiency. Instead, the waste heat can be generated due to operating a fuel cell at an increased power density. Part of improving the power density of a fuel cell can include operating the fuel cell at a sufficiently high current density. In various aspects, the current density generated by the fuel cell can be at least about 150 mA/cm2, such as at least about 160 mA/cm2, or at least about 170 mA/cm2, or at least about 180 mA/cm2, or at least about 190 mA/cm2, or at least about 200 mA/cm2, or at least about 225 mA/cm2, or at least about 250 mA/cm2. Additionally or alternately, the current density generated by the fuel cell can be about 500 mA/cm2 or less, such as 450 mA/cm2, or less, or 400 mA/cm2, or less or 350 mA/cm2, or less or 300 mA/cm2 or less.
  • In various aspects, to allow a fuel cell to be operated with increased power generation and increased generation of waste heat, an effective amount of an endothermic reaction (such as a reforming reaction) can be performed. Alternatively, other endothermic reactions unrelated to anode operations can be used to utilize the waste heat by interspersing “plates” or stages into the fuel cell array that are in thermal communication but not fluid communication. The effective amount of the endothermic reaction can be performed in an associated reforming stage, an integrated reforming stage, an integrated stack element for performing an endothermic reaction, or a combination thereof. The effective amount of the endothermic reaction can correspond to an amount sufficient to reduce the temperature rise from the fuel cell inlet to the fuel cell outlet to about 100° C. or less, such as about 90° C. or less, or about 80° C. or less, or about 70° C. or less, or about 60° C. or less, or about 50° C. or less, or about 40° C. or less, or about 30° C. or less. Additionally or alternately, the effective amount of the endothermic reaction can correspond to an amount sufficient to cause a temperature decrease from the fuel cell inlet to the fuel cell outlet of about 100° C. or less, such as about 90° C. or less, or about 80° C. or less, or about 70° C. or less, or about 60° C. or less, or about 50° C. or less, or about 40° C. or less, or about 30° C. or less, or about 20° C. or less, or about 10° C. or less. A temperature decrease from the fuel cell inlet to the fuel cell outlet can occur when the effective amount of the endothermic reaction exceeds the waste heat generated. Additionally or alternately, this can correspond to having the endothermic reaction(s) (such as a combination of reforming and another endothermic reaction) consume at least about 40% of the waste heat generated by the fuel cell, such as consuming at least about 50% of the waste heat, or at least about 60% of the waste heat, or at least about 75% of the waste heat. Further additionally or alternately, the endothermic reaction(s) can consume about 95% of the waste heat or less, such as about 90% of the waste heat or less, or about 85% of the waste heat or less.
  • As an addition, complement, and/or alternative to the fuel cell operating strategies described herein, a molten carbonate fuel cell (such as a fuel cell assembly) can be operated at conditions corresponding to a decreased operating voltage and a low fuel utilization. In various aspects, the fuel cell can be operated at a voltage VA of less than about 0.7 Volts, for example less than about 0.68 V, less than about 0.67 V, less than about 0.66 V, or about 0.65 V or less. Additionally or alternatively, the fuel cell can be operated at a voltage VA of at least about 0.60 V, for example at least about 0.61 V, at least about 0.62 V, or at least about 0.63 V. In so doing, energy that would otherwise leave the fuel cell as electrical energy at high voltage can remain within the cell as heat as the voltage is lowered. This additional heat can allow for increased endothermic reactions to occur, for example increasing the CH4 conversion to syngas.
  • DEFINITIONS
  • Syngas: In this description, syngas is defined as mixture of H2 and CO in any ratio. Optionally, H2O and/or CO2 may be present in the syngas. Optionally, inert compounds (such as nitrogen) and residual reformable fuel compounds may be present in the syngas. If components other than H2 and CO are present in the syngas, the combined volume percentage of H2 and CO in the syngas can be at least 25 vol % relative to the total volume of the syngas, such as at least 40 vol %, or at least 50 vol %, or at least 60 vol %. Additionally or alternately, the combined volume percentage of H2 and CO in the syngas can be 100 vol % or less, such as 95 vol % or less or 90 vol % or less.
  • Reformable fuel: A reformable fuel is defined as a fuel that contains carbon-hydrogen bonds that can be reformed to generate H2. Hydrocarbons are examples of reformable fuels, as are other hydrocarbonaceous compounds such as alcohols. Although CO and H2O can participate in a water gas shift reaction to form hydrogen, CO is not considered a reformable fuel under this definition.
  • Reformable hydrogen content: The reformable hydrogen content of a fuel is defined as the number of H2 molecules that can be derived from a fuel by reforming the fuel and then driving the water gas shift reaction to completion to maximize H2 production. It is noted that H2 by definition has a reformable hydrogen content of 1, although H2 itself is not defined as a reformable fuel herein. Similarly, CO has a reformable hydrogen content of 1. Although CO is not strictly reformable, driving the water gas shift reaction to completion will result in exchange of a CO for an H2. As examples of reformable hydrogen content for reformable fuels, the reformable hydrogen content of methane is 4H2 molecules while the reformable hydrogen content of ethane is 7H2 molecules. More generally, if a fuel has the composition CxHyOz, then the reformable hydrogen content of the fuel at 100% reforming and water-gas shift is n(H2 max reforming)=2x+y/2−z. Based on this definition, fuel utilization within a cell can then be expressed as n(H2 ox)/n(H2 max reforming). Of course, the reformable hydrogen content of a mixture of components can be determined based on the reformable hydrogen content of the individual components. The reformable hydrogen content of compounds that contain other heteroatoms, such as oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen, can also be calculated in a similar manner.
  • Oxidation Reaction: In this discussion, the oxidation reaction within the anode of a fuel cell is defined as the reaction corresponding to oxidation of H2 by reaction with CO3 2− to form H2O and CO2. It is noted that the reforming reaction within the anode, where a compound containing a carbon-hydrogen bond is converted into H2 and CO or CO2, is excluded from this definition of the oxidation reaction in the anode. The water-gas shift reaction is similarly outside of this definition of the oxidation reaction. It is further noted that references to a combustion reaction are defined as references to reactions where H2 or a compound containing carbon-hydrogen bond(s) are reacted with O2 to form H2O and carbon oxides in a non-electrochemical burner, such as the combustion zone of a combustion-powered generator.
  • Aspects of the invention can adjust anode fuel parameters to achieve a desired operating range for the fuel cell. Anode fuel parameters can be characterized directly, and/or in relation to other fuel cell processes in the form of one or more ratios. For example, the anode fuel parameters can be controlled to achieve one or more ratios including a fuel utilization, a fuel cell heating value utilization, a fuel surplus ratio, a reformable fuel surplus ratio, a reformable hydrogen content fuel ratio, and combinations thereof.
  • Fuel utilization: Fuel utilization is an option for characterizing operation of the anode based on the amount of oxidized fuel relative to the reformable hydrogen content of an input stream can be used to define a fuel utilization for a fuel cell. In this discussion, “fuel utilization” is defined as the ratio of the amount of hydrogen oxidized in the anode for production of electricity (as described above) versus the reformable hydrogen content of the anode input (including any associated reforming stages). Reformable hydrogen content has been defined above as the number of H2 molecules that can be derived from a fuel by reforming the fuel and then driving the water gas shift reaction to completion to maximize H2 production. For example, each methane introduced into an anode and exposed to steam reforming conditions results in generation of the equivalent of 4H2 molecules at max production. (Depending on the reforming and/or anode conditions, the reforming product can correspond to a non-water gas shifted product, where one or more of the H2 molecules is present instead in the form of a CO molecule.) Thus, methane is defined as having a reformable hydrogen content of 4H2 molecules. As another example, under this definition ethane has a reformable hydrogen content of 7H2 molecules.
  • The utilization of fuel in the anode can also be characterized by defining a heating value utilization based on a ratio of the Lower Heating Value of hydrogen oxidized in the anode due to the fuel cell anode reaction relative to the Lower Heating Value of all fuel delivered to the anode and/or a reforming stage associated with the anode. The “fuel cell heating value utilization” as used herein can be computed using the flow rates and Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the fuel components entering and leaving the fuel cell anode. As such, fuel cell heating value utilization can be computed as (LHV(anode_in)−LHV(anode_out))/LHV(anode_in), where LHV(anode_in) and LHV(anode_out) refer to the LHV of the fuel components (such as H2, CH4, and/or CO) in the anode inlet and outlet streams or flows, respectively. In this definition, the LHV of a stream or flow may be computed as a sum of values for each fuel component in the input and/or output stream. The contribution of each fuel component to the sum can correspond to the fuel component's flow rate (e.g., mol/hr) multiplied by the fuel component's LHV (e.g., joules/mol).
  • Lower Heating Value: The lower heating value is defined as the enthalpy of combustion of a fuel component to vapor phase, fully oxidized products (i.e., vapor phase CO2 and H2O product). For example, any CO2 present in an anode input stream does not contribute to the fuel content of the anode input, since CO2 is already fully oxidized. For this definition, the amount of oxidation occurring in the anode due to the anode fuel cell reaction is defined as oxidation of H2 in the anode as part of the electrochemical reaction in the anode, as defined above.
  • It is noted that, for the special case where the only fuel in the anode input flow is H2, the only reaction involving a fuel component that can take place in the anode represents the conversion of H2 into H2O. In this special case, the fuel utilization simplifies to (H2-rate-in minus H2-rate-out)/H2-rate-in. In such a case, H2 would be the only fuel component, and so the H2 LHV would cancel out of the equation. In the more general case, the anode feed may contain, for example, CH4, H2, and CO in various amounts. Because these species can typically be present in different amounts in the anode outlet, the summation as described above can be needed to determine the fuel utilization.
  • Alternatively or in addition to fuel utilization, the utilization for other reactants in the fuel cell can be characterized. For example, the operation of a fuel cell can additionally or alternately be characterized with regard to “CO2 utilization” and/or “oxidant” utilization. The values for CO2 utilization and/or oxidant utilization can be specified in a similar manner.
  • Fuel surplus ratio: Still another way to characterize the reactions in a molten carbonate fuel cell is by defining a utilization based on a ratio of the Lower Heating Value of all fuel delivered to the anode and/or a reforming stage associated with the anode relative to the Lower Heating Value of hydrogen oxidized in the anode due to the fuel cell anode reaction. This quantity will be referred to as a fuel surplus ratio. As such the fuel surplus ratio can be computed as (LHV (anode_in)/(LHV(anode_in)−LHV(anode_out)) where LHV(anode_in) and LHV(anode_out) refer to the LHV of the fuel components (such as H2, CH4, and/or CO) in the anode inlet and outlet streams or flows, respectively. In various aspects of the invention, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have a fuel surplus ratio of at least about 1.0, such as at least about 1.5, or at least about 2.0, or at least about 2.5, or at least about 3.0, or at least about 4.0. Additionally or alternately, the fuel surplus ratio can be about 25.0 or less.
  • It is noted that not all of the reformable fuel in the input stream for the anode may be reformed. Preferably, at least about 90% of the reformable fuel in the input stream to the anode (and/or into an associated reforming stage) can be reformed prior to exiting the anode, such as at least about 95% or at least about 98%. In some alternative aspects, the amount of reformable fuel that is reformed can be from about 75% to about 90%, such as at least about 80%.
  • The above definition for fuel surplus ratio provides a method for characterizing the amount of reforming occurring within the anode and/or reforming stage(s) associated with a fuel cell relative to the amount of fuel consumed in the fuel cell anode for generation of electric power.
  • Optionally, the fuel surplus ratio can be modified to account for situations where fuel is recycled from the anode output to the anode input. When fuel (such as H2, CO, and/or unreformed or partially reformed hydrocarbons) is recycled from anode output to anode input, such recycled fuel components do not represent a surplus amount of reformable or reformed fuel that can be used for other purposes. Instead, such recycled fuel components merely indicate a desire to reduce fuel utilization in a fuel cell.
  • Reformable fuel surplus ratio: Calculating a reformable fuel surplus ratio is one option to account for such recycled fuel components is to narrow the definition of surplus fuel, so that only the LHV of reformable fuels is included in the input stream to the anode. As used herein the “reformable fuel surplus ratio” is defined as the Lower Heating Value of reformable fuel delivered to the anode and/or a reforming stage associated with the anode relative to the Lower Heating Value of hydrogen oxidized in the anode due to the fuel cell anode reaction. Under the definition for reformable fuel surplus ratio, the LHV of any H2 or CO in the anode input is excluded. Such an LHV of reformable fuel can still be measured by characterizing the actual composition entering a fuel cell anode, so no distinction between recycled components and fresh components needs to be made. Although some non-reformed or partially reformed fuel may also be recycled, in most aspects the majority of the fuel recycled to the anode can correspond to reformed products such as H2 or CO. Expressed mathematically, the reformable fuel surplus ratio (RRFS)=LHVRF/LHVOH, where LHVRF is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the reformable fuel and LHVOH is the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the hydrogen oxidized in the anode. The LHV of the hydrogen oxidized in the anode may be calculated by subtracting the LHV of the anode outlet stream from the LHV of the anode inlet stream (e.g., LHV(anode_in)−LHV(anode_out)). In various aspects of the invention, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated to have a reformable fuel surplus ratio of at least about 0.25, such as at least about 0.5, or at least about 1.0, or at least about 1.5, or at least about 2.0, or at least about 2.5, or at least about 3.0, or at least about 4.0. Additionally or alternately, the reformable fuel surplus ratio can be about 25.0 or less. It is noted that this narrower definition based on the amount of reformable fuel delivered to the anode relative to the amount of oxidation in the anode can distinguish between two types of fuel cell operation methods that have low fuel utilization. Some fuel cells achieve low fuel utilization by recycling a substantial portion of the anode output back to the anode input. This recycle can allow any hydrogen in the anode input to be used again as an input to the anode. This can reduce the amount of reforming, as even though the fuel utilization is low for a single pass through the fuel cell, at least a portion of the unused fuel is recycled for use in a later pass. Thus, fuel cells with a wide variety of fuel utilization values may have the same ratio of reformable fuel delivered to the anode reforming stage(s) versus hydrogen oxidized in the anode reaction. In order to change the ratio of reformable fuel delivered to the anode reforming stages relative to the amount of oxidation in the anode, either an anode feed with a native content of non-reformable fuel needs to be identified, or unused fuel in the anode output needs to be withdrawn for other uses, or both.
  • Reformable hydrogen surplus ratio: Still another option for characterizing the operation of a fuel cell is based on a “reformable hydrogen surplus ratio.” The reformable fuel surplus ratio defined above is defined based on the lower heating value of reformable fuel components. The reformable hydrogen surplus ratio is defined as the reformable hydrogen content of reformable fuel delivered to the anode and/or a reforming stage associated with the anode relative to the hydrogen reacted in the anode due to the fuel cell anode reaction. As such, the “reformable hydrogen surplus ratio” can be computed as (RFC(reformable_anode_in)/(RFC(reformable_anode_in)−RFC(anode_out)), where RFC(reformable_anode_in) refers to the reformable hydrogen content of reformable fuels in the anode inlet streams or flows, while RFC (anode_out) refers to the reformable hydrogen content of the fuel components (such as H2, CH4, and/or CO) in the anode inlet and outlet streams or flows. The RFC can be expressed in moles/s, moles/hr, or similar. An example of a method for operating a fuel cell with a large ratio of reformable fuel delivered to the anode reforming stage(s) versus amount of oxidation in the anode can be a method where excess reforming is performed in order to balance the generation and consumption of heat in the fuel cell. Reforming a reformable fuel to form H2 and CO is an endothermic process. This endothermic reaction can be countered by the generation of electrical current in the fuel cell, which can also produce excess heat corresponding (roughly) to the difference between the amount of heat generated by the anode oxidation reaction and the carbonate formation reaction and the energy that exits the fuel cell in the form of electric current. The excess heat per mole of hydrogen involved in the anode oxidation reaction/carbonate formation reaction can be greater than the heat absorbed to generate a mole of hydrogen by reforming. As a result, a fuel cell operated under conventional conditions can exhibit a temperature increase from inlet to outlet. Instead of this type of conventional operation, the amount of fuel reformed in the reforming stages associated with the anode can be increased. For example, additional fuel can be reformed so that the heat generated by the exothermic fuel cell reactions can be (roughly) balanced by the heat consumed in reforming, or even the heat consumed by reforming can be beyond the excess heat generated by the fuel oxidation, resulting in a temperature drop across the fuel cell. This can result in a substantial excess of hydrogen relative to the amount needed for electrical power generation. As one example, a feed to the anode inlet of a fuel cell or an associated reforming stage can be substantially composed of reformable fuel, such as a substantially pure methane feed. During conventional operation for electric power generation using such a fuel, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated with a fuel utilization of about 75%. This means that about 75% (or ¾) of the fuel content delivered to the anode is used to form hydrogen that is then reacted in the anode with carbonate ions to form H2O and CO2. In conventional operation, the remaining about 25% of the fuel content can be reformed to H2 within the fuel cell (or can pass through the fuel cell unreacted for any CO or H2 in the fuel), and then combusted outside of the fuel cell to form H2O and CO2 to provide heat for the cathode inlet to the fuel cell. The reformable hydrogen surplus ratio in this situation can be 4/(4−1)=4/3.
  • Electrical efficiency: As used herein, the term “electrical efficiency” (“EE”) is defined as the electrochemical power produced by the fuel cell divided by the rate of Lower Heating Value (“LHV”) of fuel input to the fuel cell. The fuel inputs to the fuel cell includes both fuel delivered to the anode as well as any fuel used to maintain the temperature of the fuel cell, such as fuel delivered to a burner associated with a fuel cell. In this description, the power produced by the fuel may be described in terms of LHV(el) fuel rate.
  • Electrochemical power: As used herein, the term “electrochemical power” or LHV(el) is the power generated by the circuit connecting the cathode to the anode in the fuel cell and the transfer of carbonate ions across the fuel cell's electrolyte. Electrochemical power excludes power produced or consumed by equipment upstream or downstream from the fuel cell. For example, electricity produced from heat in a fuel cell exhaust stream is not considered part of the electrochemical power. Similarly, power generated by a gas turbine or other equipment upstream of the fuel cell is not part of the electrochemical power generated. The “electrochemical power” does not take electrical power consumed during operation of the fuel cell into account, or any loss incurred by conversion of the direct current to alternating current. In other words, electrical power used to supply the fuel cell operation or otherwise operate the fuel cell is not subtracted from the direct current power produced by the fuel cell. As used herein, the power density is the current density multiplied by voltage. As used herein, the total fuel cell power is the power density multiplied by the fuel cell area.
  • Fuel inputs: As used herein, the term “anode fuel input,” designated as LHV(anode_in), is the amount of fuel within the anode inlet stream. The term “fuel input”, designated as LHV(in), is the total amount of fuel delivered to the fuel cell, including both the amount of fuel within the anode inlet stream and the amount of fuel used to maintain the temperature of the fuel cell. The fuel may include both reformable and nonreformable fuels, based on the definition of a reformable fuel provided herein. Fuel input is not the same as fuel utilization.
  • Total fuel cell efficiency: As used herein, the term “total fuel cell efficiency” (“TFCE”) is defined as: the electrochemical power generated by the fuel cell, plus the rate of LHV of syngas produced by the fuel cell, divided by the rate of LHV of fuel input to the anode. In other words, TFCE=(LHV(el)+LHV(sg net))/LHV(anode_in), where LHV(anode_in) refers to rate at which the LHV of the fuel components (such as H2, CH4, and/or CO) delivered to the anode and LHV(sg net) refers to a rate at which syngas (H2, CO) is produced in the anode, which is the difference between syngas input to the anode and syngas output from the anode. LHV(el) describes the electrochemical power generation of the fuel cell. The total fuel cell efficiency excludes heat generated by the fuel cell that is put to beneficial use outside of the fuel cell. In operation, heat generated by the fuel cell may be put to beneficial use by downstream equipment. For example, the heat may be used to generate additional electricity or to heat water. These uses, when they occur apart from the fuel cell, are not part of the total fuel cell efficiency, as the term is used in this application. The total fuel cell efficiency is for the fuel cell operation only, and does not include power production, or consumption, upstream, or downstream, of the fuel cell.
  • Chemical efficiency: As used herein, the term “chemical efficiency”, is defined as the lower heating value of H2 and CO in the anode exhaust of the fuel cell, or LHV(sg out), divided by the fuel input, or LHV(in).
  • Neither the electrical efficiency nor the total system efficiency takes the efficiency of upstream or downstream processes into consideration. For example, it may be advantageous to use turbine exhaust as a source of CO2 for the fuel cell cathode. In this arrangement, the efficiency of the turbine is not considered as part of the electrical efficiency or the total fuel cell efficiency calculation. Similarly, outputs from the fuel cell may be recycled as inputs to the fuel cell. A recycle loop is not considered when calculating electrical efficiency or the total fuel cell efficiency in single pass mode.
  • Syngas produced: As used herein, the term “syngas produced” is the difference between syngas input to the anode and syngas output from the anode. Syngas may be used as an input, or fuel, for the anode, at least in part. For example, a system may include an anode recycle loop that returns syngas from the anode exhaust to the anode inlet where it is supplemented with natural gas or other suitable fuel. Syngas produced LHV (sg net)=(LHV(sg out)−LHV(sg in)), where LHV(sg in) and LHV(sg out) refer to the LHV of the syngas in the anode inlet and syngas in the anode outlet streams or flows, respectively. It is noted that at least a portion of the syngas produced by the reforming reactions within an anode can typically be utilized in the anode to produce electricity. The hydrogen utilized to produce electricity is not included in the definition of “syngas produced” because it does not exit the anode. As used herein, the term “syngas ratio” is the LHV of the net syngas produced divided by the LHV of the fuel input to the anode or LHV (sg net)/LHV(anode in). Molar flow rates of syngas and fuel can be used instead of LHV to express a molar-based syngas ratio and a molar-based syngas produced.
  • Steam to carbon ratio (S/C): As used herein, the steam to carbon ratio (S/C) is the molar ratio of steam in a flow to reformable carbon in the flow. Carbon in the form of CO and CO2 are not included as reformable carbon in this definition. The steam to carbon ratio can be measured and/or controlled at different points in the system. For example, the composition of an anode inlet stream can be manipulated to achieve a S/C that is suitable for reforming in the anode. The S/C can be given as the molar flow rate of H2O divided by the product of the molar flow rate of fuel multiplied by the number of carbon atoms in the fuel, e.g. one for methane. Thus, S/C=fH20/(fCH4 X #C), where fH20 is the molar flow rate of water, where fCH4 is the molar flow rate of methane (or other fuel) and #C is the number of carbons in the fuel.
  • EGR ratio: Aspects of the invention can use a turbine in partnership with a fuel cell. The combined fuel cell and turbine system may include exhaust gas recycle (“EGR”). In an EGR system, at least a portion of the exhaust gas generated by the turbine can be sent to a heat recovery generator. Another portion of the exhaust gas can be sent to the fuel cell. The EGR ratio describes the amount of exhaust gas routed to the fuel cell versus the total exhaust gas routed to either the fuel cell or heat recovery generator. As used herein, the “EGR ratio” is the flow rate for the fuel cell bound portion of the exhaust gas divided by the combined flow rate for the fuel cell bound portion and the recovery bound portion, which is sent to the heat recovery generator.
  • In various aspects of the invention, a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) can be used to facilitate separation of CO2 from a CO2-containing stream while also generating additional electrical power. The CO2 separation can be further enhanced by taking advantage of synergies with the combustion-based power generator that can provide at least a portion of the input feed to the cathode portion of the fuel cell.
  • Fuel Cell and Fuel Cell Components: In this discussion, a fuel cell can correspond to a single cell, with an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte. The anode and cathode can receive input gas flows to facilitate the respective anode and cathode reactions for transporting charge across the electrolyte and generating electricity. A fuel cell stack can represent a plurality of cells in an integrated unit. Although a fuel cell stack can include multiple fuel cells, the fuel cells can typically be connected in parallel and can function (approximately) as if they collectively represented a single fuel cell of a larger size. When an input flow is delivered to the anode or cathode of a fuel cell stack, the fuel stack can include flow channels for dividing the input flow between each of the cells in the stack and flow channels for combining the output flows from the individual cells. In this discussion, a fuel cell array can be used to refer to a plurality of fuel cells (such as a plurality of fuel cell stacks) that are arranged in series, in parallel, or in any other convenient manner (e.g., in a combination of series and parallel). A fuel cell array can include one or more stages of fuel cells and/or fuel cell stacks, where the anode/cathode output from a first stage may serve as the anode/cathode input for a second stage. It is noted that the anodes in a fuel cell array do not have to be connected in the same way as the cathodes in the array. For convenience, the input to the first anode stage of a fuel cell array may be referred to as the anode input for the array, and the input to the first cathode stage of the fuel cell array may be referred to as the cathode input to the array. Similarly, the output from the final anode/cathode stage may be referred to as the anode/cathode output from the array.
  • It should be understood that reference to use of a fuel cell herein typically denotes a “fuel cell stack” composed of individual fuel cells, and more generally refers to use of one or more fuel cell stacks in fluid communication. Individual fuel cell elements (plates) can typically be “stacked” together in a rectangular array called a “fuel cell stack”. This fuel cell stack can typically take a feed stream and distribute reactants among all of the individual fuel cell elements and can then collect the products from each of these elements. When viewed as a unit, the fuel cell stack in operation can be taken as a whole even though composed of many (often tens or hundreds) of individual fuel cell elements. These individual fuel cell elements can typically have similar voltages (as the reactant and product concentrations are similar), and the total power output can result from the summation of all of the electrical currents in all of the cell elements, when the elements are electrically connected in series. Stacks can also be arranged in a series arrangement to produce high voltages. A parallel arrangement can boost the current. If a sufficiently large volume fuel cell stack is available to process a given exhaust flow, the systems and methods described herein can be used with a single molten carbonate fuel cell stack. In other aspects of the invention, a plurality of fuel cell stacks may be desirable or needed for a variety of reasons.
  • For the purposes of this invention, unless otherwise specified, the term “fuel cell” should be understood to also refer to and/or is defined as including a reference to a fuel cell stack composed of set of one or more individual fuel cell elements for which there is a single input and output, as that is the manner in which fuel cells are typically employed in practice. Similarly, the term fuel cells (plural), unless otherwise specified, should be understood to also refer to and/or is defined as including a plurality of separate fuel cell stacks. In other words, all references within this document, unless specifically noted, can refer interchangeably to the operation of a fuel cell stack as a “fuel cell”. For example, the volume of exhaust generated by a commercial scale combustion generator may be too large for processing by a fuel cell (i.e., a single stack) of conventional size. In order to process the full exhaust, a plurality of fuel cells (i.e., two or more separate fuel cells or fuel cell stacks) can be arranged in parallel, so that each fuel cell can process (roughly) an equal portion of the combustion exhaust. Although multiple fuel cells can be used, each fuel cell can typically be operated in a generally similar manner, given its (roughly) equal portion of the combustion exhaust.
  • “Internal reforming” and “external reforming”: A fuel cell or fuel cell stack may include one or more internal reforming sections. As used herein, the term “internal reforming” refers to fuel reforming occurring within the body of a fuel cell, a fuel cell stack, or otherwise within a fuel cell assembly. External reforming, which is often used in conjunction with a fuel cell, occurs in a separate piece of equipment that is located outside of the fuel cell stack. In other words, the body of the external reformer is not in direct physical contact with the body of a fuel cell or fuel cell stack. In a typical set up, the output from the external reformer can be fed to the anode inlet of a fuel cell. Unless otherwise noted specifically, the reforming described within this application is internal reforming.
  • Internal reforming may occur within a fuel cell anode. Internal reforming can additionally or alternately occur within an internal reforming element integrated within a fuel cell assembly. The integrated reforming element may be located between fuel cell elements within a fuel cell stack. In other words, one of the trays in the stack can be a reforming section instead of a fuel cell element. In one aspect, the flow arrangement within a fuel cell stack directs fuel to the internal reforming elements and then into the anode portion of the fuel cells. Thus, from a flow perspective, the internal reforming elements and fuel cell elements can be arranged in series within the fuel cell stack. As used herein, the term “anode reforming” is fuel reforming that occurs within an anode. As used herein, the term “internal reforming” is reforming that occurs within an integrated reforming element and not in an anode section.
  • In some aspects, a reforming stage that is internal to a fuel cell assembly can be considered to be associated with the anode(s) in the fuel cell assembly. In some alternative aspects, for a reforming stage in a fuel cell stack that can be associated with an anode (such as associated with multiple anodes), a flow path can be available so that the output flow from the reforming stage is passed into at least one anode. This can correspond to having an initial section of a fuel cell plate not in contact with the electrolyte and instead can serve just as a reforming catalyst. Another option for an associated reforming stage can be to have a separate integrated reforming stage as one of the elements in a fuel cell stack, where the output from the integrated reforming stage can be returned to the input side of one or more of the fuel cells in the fuel cell stack.
  • From a heat integration standpoint, a characteristic height in a fuel cell stack can be the height of an individual fuel cell stack element. It is noted that the separate reforming stage and/or a separate endothermic reaction stage could have a different height in the stack than a fuel cell. In such a scenario, the height of a fuel cell element can be used as the characteristic height. In some aspects, an integrated endothermic reaction stage can be defined as a stage that is heat integrated with one or more fuel cells, so that the integrated endothermic reaction stage can use the heat from the fuel cells as a heat source for the endothermic reaction. Such an integrated endothermic reaction stage can be defined as being positioned less than 5 times the height of a stack element from any fuel cells providing heat to the integrated stage. For example, an integrated endothermic reaction stage (such as a reforming stage) can be positioned less than 5 times the height of a stack element from any fuel cells that are heat integrated, such as less than 3 times the height of a stack element. In this discussion, an integrated reforming stage and/or integrated endothermic reaction stage that represent an adjacent stack element to a fuel cell element can be defined as being about one stack element height or less away from the adjacent fuel cell element.
  • In some aspects, a separate reforming stage that is heat integrated with a fuel cell element can correspond to a reforming stage associated with the fuel cell element. In such aspects, an integrated fuel cell element can provide at least a portion of the heat to the associated reforming stage, and the associated reforming stage can provide at least a portion of the reforming stage output to the integrated fuel cell as a fuel stream. In other aspects, a separate reforming stage can be integrated with a fuel cell for heat transfer without being associated with the fuel cell. In this type of situation, the separate reforming stage can receive heat from the fuel cell, but the decision can be made not to use the output of the reforming stage as an input to the fuel cell. Instead, the decision can be made to use the output of such a reforming stage for another purpose, such as directly adding the output to the anode exhaust stream, and/or for forming a separate output stream from the fuel cell assembly.
  • More generally, a separate stack element in a fuel cell stack can be used to perform any convenient type of endothermic reaction that can take advantage of the waste heat provided by integrated fuel cell stack elements. Instead of plates suitable for performing a reforming reaction on a hydrocarbon fuel stream, a separate stack element can have plates suitable for catalyzing another type of endothermic reaction. A manifold or other arrangement of inlet conduits in the fuel cell stack can be used to provide an appropriate input flow to each stack element. A similar manifold or other arrangement of outlet conduits can additionally or alternately be used to withdraw the output flows from each stack element. Optionally, the output flows from a endothermic reaction stage in a stack can be withdrawn from the fuel cell stack without having the output flow pass through a fuel cell anode. In such an optional aspect, the products of the exothermic reaction can therefore exit from the fuel cell stack without passing through a fuel cell anode. Examples of other types of endothermic reactions that can be performed in stack elements in a fuel cell stack can include, without limitation, ethanol dehydration to form ethylene and ethane cracking.
  • Recycle: As defined herein, recycle of a portion of a fuel cell output (such as an anode exhaust or a stream separated or withdrawn from an anode exhaust) to a fuel cell inlet can correspond to a direct or indirect recycle stream. A direct recycle of a stream to a fuel cell inlet is defined as recycle of the stream without passing through an intermediate process, while an indirect recycle involves recycle after passing a stream through one or more intermediate processes. For example, if the anode exhaust is passed through a CO2 separation stage prior to recycle, this is considered an indirect recycle of the anode exhaust. If a portion of the anode exhaust, such as an H2 stream withdrawn from the anode exhaust, is passed into a gasifier for converting coal into a fuel suitable for introduction into the fuel cell, then that is also considered an indirect recycle.
  • Anode Inputs and Outputs
  • In various aspects of the invention, the MCFC array can be fed by a fuel received at the anode inlet that comprises, for example, both hydrogen and a hydrocarbon such as methane (or alternatively a hydrocarbonaceous or hydrocarbon-like compound that may contain heteroatoms different from C and H). Most of the methane (or other hydrocarbonaceous or hydrocarbon-like compound) fed to the anode can typically be fresh methane. In this description, a fresh fuel such as fresh methane refers to a fuel that is not recycled from another fuel cell process. For example, methane recycled from the anode outlet stream back to the anode inlet may not be considered “fresh” methane, and can instead be described as reclaimed methane. The fuel source used can be shared with other components, such as a turbine that uses a portion of the fuel source to provide a CO2-containing stream for the cathode input. The fuel source input can include water in a proportion to the fuel appropriate for reforming the hydrocarbon (or hydrocarbon-like) compound in the reforming section that generates hydrogen. For example, if methane is the fuel input for reforming to generate H2, the molar ratio of water to fuel can be from about one to one to about ten to one, such as at least about two to one. A ratio of four to one or greater is typical for external reforming, but lower values can be typical for internal reforming. To the degree that H2 is a portion of the fuel source, in some optional aspects no additional water may be needed in the fuel, as the oxidation of H2 at the anode can tend to produce H2O that can be used for reforming the fuel. The fuel source can also optionally contain components incidental to the fuel source (e.g., a natural gas feed can contain some content of CO2 as an additional component). For example, a natural gas feed can contain CO2, N2, and/or other inert (noble) gases as additional components. Optionally, in some aspects the fuel source may also contain CO, such as CO from a recycled portion of the anode exhaust. An additional or alternate potential source for CO in the fuel into a fuel cell assembly can be CO generated by steam reforming of a hydrocarbon fuel performed on the fuel prior to entering the fuel cell assembly.
  • More generally, a variety of types of fuel streams may be suitable for use as an input stream for the anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell. Some fuel streams can correspond to streams containing hydrocarbons and/or hydrocarbon-like compounds that may also include heteroatoms different from C and H. In this discussion, unless otherwise specified, a reference to a fuel stream containing hydrocarbons for an MCFC anode is defined to include fuel streams containing such hydrocarbon-like compounds. Examples of hydrocarbon (including hydrocarbon-like) fuel streams include natural gas, streams containing C1-C4 carbon compounds (such as methane or ethane), and streams containing heavier C5+ hydrocarbons (including hydrocarbon-like compounds), as well as combinations thereof. Still other additional or alternate examples of potential fuel streams for use in an anode input can include biogas-type streams, such as methane produced from natural (biological) decomposition of organic material.
  • In some aspects, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be used to process an input fuel stream, such as a natural gas and/or hydrocarbon stream, with a low energy content due to the presence of diluent compounds. For example, some sources of methane and/or natural gas are sources that can include substantial amounts of either CO2 or other inert molecules, such as nitrogen, argon, or helium. Due to the presence of elevated amounts of CO2 and/or inerts, the energy content of a fuel stream based on the source can be reduced. Using a low energy content fuel for a combustion reaction (such as for powering a combustion-powered turbine) can pose difficulties. However, a molten carbonate fuel cell can generate power based on a low energy content fuel source with a reduced or minimal impact on the efficiency of the fuel cell. The presence of additional gas volume can require additional heat for raising the temperature of the fuel to the temperature for reforming and/or the anode reaction. Additionally, due to the equilibrium nature of the water gas shift reaction within a fuel cell anode, the presence of additional CO2 can have an impact on the relative amounts of H2 and CO present in the anode output. However, the inert compounds otherwise can have only a minimal direct impact on the reforming and anode reactions. The amount of CO2 and/or inert compounds in a fuel stream for a molten carbonate fuel cell, when present, can be at least about 1 vol %, such as at least about 2 vol %, or at least about 5 vol %, or at least about 10 vol %, or at least about 15 vol %, or at least about 20 vol %, or at least about 25 vol %, or at least about 30 vol %, or at least about 35 vol %, or at least about 40 vol %, or at least about 45 vol %, or at least about 50 vol %, or at least about 75 vol %. Additionally or alternately, the amount of CO2 and/or inert compounds in a fuel stream for a molten carbonate fuel cell can be about 90 vol % or less, such as about 75 vol % or less, or about 60 vol % or less, or about 50 vol % or less, or about 40 vol % or less, or about 35 vol % or less.
  • Yet other examples of potential sources for an anode input stream can correspond to refinery and/or other industrial process output streams. For example, coking is a common process in many refineries for converting heavier compounds to lower boiling ranges. Coking typically produces an off-gas containing a variety of compounds that are gases at room temperature, including CO and various C1-C4 hydrocarbons. This off-gas can be used as at least a portion of an anode input stream. Other refinery off-gas streams can additionally or alternately be suitable for inclusion in an anode input stream, such as light ends (C1-C4) generated during cracking or other refinery processes. Still other suitable refinery streams can additionally or alternately include refinery streams containing CO or CO2 that also contain H2 and/or reformable fuel compounds.
  • Still other potential sources for an anode input can additionally or alternately include streams with increased water content. For example, an ethanol output stream from an ethanol plant (or another type of fermentation process) can include a substantial portion of H2O prior to final distillation. Such H2O can typically cause only minimal impact on the operation of a fuel cell. Thus, a fermentation mixture of alcohol (or other fermentation product) and water can be used as at least a portion of an anode input stream.
  • Biogas, or digester gas, is another additional or alternate potential source for an anode input. Biogas may primarily comprise methane and CO2 and is typically produced by the breakdown or digestion of organic matter. Anaerobic bacteria may be used to digest the organic matter and produce the biogas. Impurities, such as sulfur-containing compounds, may be removed from the biogas prior to use as an anode input.
  • The output stream from an MCFC anode can include H2O, CO2, CO, and H2. Optionally, the anode output stream could also have unreacted fuel (such as H2 or CH4) or inert compounds in the feed as additional output components. Instead of using this output stream as a fuel source to provide heat for a reforming reaction or as a combustion fuel for heating the cell, one or more separations can be performed on the anode output stream to separate the CO2 from the components with potential value as inputs to another process, such as H2 or CO. The H2 and/or CO can be used as a syngas for chemical synthesis, as a source of hydrogen for chemical reaction, and/or as a fuel with reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
  • In various aspects, the composition of the output stream from the anode can be impacted by several factors. Factors that can influence the anode output composition can include the composition of the input stream to the anode, the amount of current generated by the fuel cell, and/or the temperature at the exit of the anode. The temperature of at the anode exit can be relevant due to the equilibrium nature of the water gas shift reaction. In a typical anode, at least one of the plates forming the wall of the anode can be suitable for catalyzing the water gas shift reaction. As a result, if a) the composition of the anode input stream is known, b) the extent of reforming of reformable fuel in the anode input stream is known, and c) the amount of carbonate transported from the cathode to anode (corresponding to the amount of electrical current generated) is known, the composition of the anode output can be determined based on the equilibrium constant for the water gas shift reaction.

  • Keq=[CO2][H2]/[CO][H2O]
  • In the above equation, Keq is the equilibrium constant for the reaction at a given temperature and pressure, and [X] is the partial pressure of component X. Based on the water gas shift reaction, it can be noted that an increased CO2 concentration in the anode input can tend to result in additional CO formation (at the expense of H2) while an increased H2O concentration can tend to result in additional H2 formation (at the expense of CO).
  • To determine the composition at the anode output, the composition of the anode input can be used as a starting point. This composition can then be modified to reflect the extent of reforming of any reformable fuels that can occur within the anode. Such reforming can reduce the hydrocarbon content of the anode input in exchange for increased hydrogen and CO2. Next, based on the amount of electrical current generated, the amount of H2 in the anode input can be reduced in exchange for additional H2O and CO2. This composition can then be adjusted based on the equilibrium constant for the water gas shift reaction to determine the exit concentrations for H2, CO, CO2, and H2O.
  • Table 1 shows the anode exhaust composition at different fuel utilizations for a typical type of fuel. The anode exhaust composition can reflect the combined result of the anode reforming reaction, water gas shift reaction, and the anode oxidation reaction. The output composition values in Table 1 were calculated by assuming an anode input composition with an about 2 to 1 ratio of steam (H2O) to carbon (reformable fuel). The reformable fuel was assumed to be methane, which was assumed to be 100% reformed to hydrogen. The initial CO2 and H2 concentrations in the anode input were assumed to be negligible, while the input N2 concentration was about 0.5%. The fuel utilization Uf (as defined herein) was allowed to vary from about 35% to about 70% as shown in the table. The exit temperature for the fuel cell anode was assumed to be about 650° C. for purposes of determining the correct value for the equilibrium constant.
  • TABLE 1 Anode Exhaust Composition Uf % 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% Anode Exhaust Composition H2O %, wet 32.5% 34.1% 35.5% 36.7% 37.8% 38.9% 39.8% 40.5% CO2 %, wet 26.7% 29.4% 32.0% 34.5% 36.9% 39.3% 41.5% 43.8% H2 %, wet 29.4% 26.0% 22.9% 20.0% 17.3% 14.8% 12.5% 10.4% CO %, wet 10.8% 10.0% 9.2% 8.4% 7.5% 6.7% 5.8% 4.9% N2 %, wet 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% CO2 %, dry 39.6% 44.6% 49.6% 54.5% 59.4% 64.2% 69.0% 73.7% H2 %, dry 43.6% 39.4% 35.4% 31.5% 27.8% 24.2% 20.7% 17.5% CO %, dry 16.1% 15.2% 14.3% 13.2% 12.1% 10.9% 9.7% 8.2% N2 %, dry 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% H2/CO 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 (H2 − O2)/(CO + CO2) 0.07 −0.09 −0.22 −0.34 −0.44 −0.53 −0.61 −0.69
  • Table 1 shows anode output compositions for a particular set of conditions and anode input composition. More generally, in various aspects the anode output can include about 10 vol % to about 50 vol % H2O. The amount of H2O can vary greatly, as H2O in the anode can be produced by the anode oxidation reaction. If an excess of H2O beyond what is needed for reforming is introduced into the anode, the excess H2O can typically pass through largely unreacted, with the exception of H2O consumed (or generated) due to fuel reforming and the water gas shift reaction. The CO2 concentration in the anode output can also vary widely, such as from about 20 vol % to about 50 vol % CO2. The amount of CO2 can be influenced by both the amount of electrical current generated as well as the amount of CO2 in the anode input flow. The amount of H2 in the anode output can additionally or alternately be from about 10 vol % H2 to about 50 vol % H2, depending on the fuel utilization in the anode. At the anode output, the amount of CO can be from about 5 vol % to about 20 vol %. It is noted that the amount of CO relative to the amount of H2 in the anode output for a given fuel cell can be determined in part by the equilibrium constant for the water gas shift reaction at the temperature and pressure present in the fuel cell. The anode output can further additionally or alternately include 5 vol % or less of various other components, such as N2, CH4 (or other unreacted carbon-containing fuels), and/or other components.
  • Optionally, one or more water gas shift reaction stages can be included after the anode output to convert CO and H2O in the anode output into CO2 and H2, if desired. The amount of H2 present in the anode output can be increased, for example, by using a water gas shift reactor at lower temperature to convert H2O and CO present in the anode output into H2 and CO2. Alternatively, the temperature can be raised and the water-gas shift reaction can be reversed, producing more CO and H2O from H2 and CO2. Water is an expected output of the reaction occurring at the anode, so the anode output can typically have an excess of H2O relative to the amount of CO present in the anode output. Alternatively, H2O can be added to the stream after the anode exit but before the water gas shift reaction. CO can be present in the anode output due to incomplete carbon conversion during reforming and/or due to the equilibrium balancing reactions between H2O, CO, H2, and CO2 (i.e., the water-gas shift equilibrium) under either reforming conditions or the conditions present during the anode reaction. A water gas shift reactor can be operated under conditions to drive the equilibrium further in the direction of forming CO2 and H2 at the expense of CO and H2O. Higher temperatures can tend to favor the formation of CO and H2O. Thus, one option for operating the water gas shift reactor can be to expose the anode output stream to a suitable catalyst, such as a catalyst including iron oxide, zinc oxide, copper on zinc oxide, or the like, at a suitable temperature, e.g., between about 190° C. to about 210° C. Optionally, the water-gas shift reactor can include two stages for reducing the CO concentration in an anode output stream, with a first higher temperature stage operated at a temperature from at least about 300° C. to about 375° C. and a second lower temperature stage operated at a temperature of about 225° C. or less, such as from about 180° C. to about 210° C. In addition to increasing the amount of H2 present in the anode output, the water-gas shift reaction can additionally or alternately increase the amount of CO2 at the expense of CO. This can exchange difficult-to-remove carbon monoxide (CO) for carbon dioxide, which can be more readily removed by condensation (e.g., cryogenic removal), chemical reaction (such as amine removal), and/or other CO2 removal methods. Additionally or alternately, it may be desirable to increase the CO content present in the anode exhaust in order to achieve a desired ratio of H2 to CO.
  • After passing through the optional water gas shift reaction stage, the anode output can be passed through one or more separation stages for removal of water and/or CO2 from the anode output stream. For example, one or more CO2 output streams can be formed by performing CO2 separation on the anode output using one or more methods individually or in combination. Such methods can be used to generate CO2 output stream(s) having a CO2 content of 90 vol % or greater, such as at least 95% vol % CO2, or at least 98 vol % CO2. Such methods can recover about at least about 70% of the CO2 content of the anode output, such as at least about 80% of the CO2 content of the anode output, or at least about 90%. Alternatively, in some aspects it may be desirable to recover only a portion of the CO2 within an anode output stream, with the recovered portion of CO2 being about 33% to about 90% of the CO2 in the anode output, such as at least about 40%, or at least about 50%. For example, it may be desirable to retain some CO2 in the anode output flow so that a desired composition can be achieved in a subsequent water gas shift stage. Suitable separation methods may comprise use of a physical solvent (e.g., Selexol™ or Rectisol™); amines or other bases (e.g., MEA or MDEA); refrigeration (e.g., cryogenic separation); pressure swing adsorption; vacuum swing adsorption; and combinations thereof. A cryogenic CO2 separator can be an example of a suitable separator. As the anode output is cooled, the majority of the water in the anode output can be separated out as a condensed (liquid) phase. Further cooling and/or pressurizing of the water-depleted anode output flow can then separate high purity CO2, as the other remaining components in the anode output flow (such as H2, N2, CH4) do not tend to readily form condensed phases. A cryogenic CO2 separator can recover between about 33% and about 90% of the CO2 present in a flow, depending on the operating conditions.
  • Removal of water from the anode exhaust to form one or more water output streams can also be beneficial, whether prior to, during, or after performing CO2 separation. The amount of water in the anode output can vary depending on operating conditions selected. For example, the steam-to-carbon ratio established at the anode inlet can affect the water content in the anode exhaust, with high steam-to-carbon ratios typically resulting in a large amount of water that can pass through the anode unreacted and/or reacted only due to the water gas shift equilibrium in the anode. Depending on the aspect, the water content in the anode exhaust can correspond to up to about 30% or more of the volume in the anode exhaust. Additionally or alternately, the water content can be about 80% or less of the volume of the anode exhaust. While such water can be removed by compression and/or cooling with resulting condensation, the removal of this water can require extra compressor power and/or heat exchange surface area and excessive cooling water. One beneficial way to remove a portion of this excess water can be based on use of an adsorbent bed that can capture the humidity from the moist anode effluent and can then be ‘regenerated’ using dry anode feed gas, in order to provide additional water for the anode feed. HVAC-style (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) adsorption wheels design can be applicable, because anode exhaust and inlet can be similar in pressure, and minor leakage from one stream to the other can have minimal impact on the overall process. In embodiments where CO2 removal is performed using a cryogenic process, removal of water prior to or during CO2 removal may be desirable, including removal by triethyleneglycol (TEG) system and/or desiccants. By contrast, if an amine wash is used for CO2 removal, water can be removed from the anode exhaust downstream from the CO2 removal stage.
  • Alternately or in addition to a CO2 output stream and/or a water output stream, the anode output can be used to form one or more product streams containing a desired chemical or fuel product. Such a product stream or streams can correspond to a syngas stream, a hydrogen stream, or both syngas product and hydrogen product streams. For example, a hydrogen product stream containing at least about 70 vol % H2, such as at least about 90 vol % H2 or at least about 95 vol % H2, can be formed. Additionally or alternately, a syngas stream containing at least about 70 vol % of H2 and CO combined, such as at least about 90 vol % of H2 and CO can be formed. The one or more product streams can have a gas volume corresponding to at least about 75% of the combined H2 and CO gas volumes in the anode output, such as at least about 85% or at least about 90% of the combined H2 and CO gas volumes. It is noted that the relative amounts of H2 and CO in the products streams may differ from the H2 to CO ratio in the anode output based on use of water gas shift reaction stages to convert between the products.
  • In some aspects, it can be desirable to remove or separate a portion of the H2 present in the anode output. For example, in some aspects the H2 to CO ratio in the anode exhaust can be at least about 3.0:1. By contrast, processes that make use of syngas, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, may consume H2 and CO in a different ratio, such as a ratio that is closer to 2:1. One alternative can be to use a water gas shift reaction to modify the content of the anode output to have an H2 to CO ratio closer to a desired syngas composition. Another alternative can be to use a membrane separation to remove a portion of the H2 present in the anode output to achieve a desired ratio of H2 and CO, or still alternately to use a combination of membrane separation and water gas shift reactions. One advantage of using a membrane separation to remove only a portion of the H2 in the anode output can be that the desired separation can be performed under relatively mild conditions. Since one goal can be to produce a retentate that still has a substantial H2 content, a permeate of high purity hydrogen can be generated by membrane separation without requiring severe conditions. For example, rather than having a pressure on the permeate side of the membrane of about 100 kPaa or less (such as ambient pressure), the permeate side can be at an elevated pressure relative to ambient while still having sufficient driving force to perform the membrane separation. Additionally or alternately, a sweep gas such as methane can be used to provide a driving force for the membrane separation. This can reduce the purity of the H2 permeate stream, but may be advantageous, depending on the desired use for the permeate stream.
  • In various aspects of the invention, at least a portion of the anode exhaust stream (preferably after separation of CO2 and/or H2O) can be used as a feed for a process external to the fuel cell and associated reforming stages. In various aspects, the anode exhaust can have a ratio of H2 to CO of about 1.5:1 to about 10:1, such as at least about 3.0:1, or at least about 4.0:1, or at least about 5.0:1. A syngas stream can be generated or withdrawn from the anode exhaust. The anode exhaust gas, optionally after separation of CO2 and/or H2O, and optionally after performing a water gas shift reaction and/or a membrane separation to remove excess hydrogen, can correspond to a stream containing substantial portions of H2 and/or CO. For a stream with a relatively low content of CO, such as a stream where the ratio of H2 to CO is at least about 3:1, the anode exhaust can be suitable for use as an H2 feed. Examples of processes that could benefit from an H2 feed can include, but are not limited to, refinery processes, an ammonia synthesis plant, or a turbine in a (different) power generation system, or combinations thereof. Depending on the application, still lower CO2 contents can be desirable. For a stream with an H2-to-CO ratio of less than about 2.2 to 1 and greater than about 1.9 to 1, the stream can be suitable for use as a syngas feed. Examples of processes that could benefit from a syngas feed can include, but are not limited to, a gas-to-liquids plant (such as a plant using a Fischer-Tropsch process with a non-shifting catalyst) and/or a methanol synthesis plant. The amount of the anode exhaust used as a feed for an external process can be any convenient amount. Optionally, when a portion of the anode exhaust is used as a feed for an external process, a second portion of the anode exhaust can be recycled to the anode input and/or recycled to the combustion zone for a combustion-powered generator.
  • The input streams useful for different types of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis processes can provide an example of the different types of product streams that may be desirable to generate from the anode output. For a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction system that uses a shifting catalyst, such as an iron-based catalyst, the desired input stream to the reaction system can include CO2 in addition to H2 and CO. If a sufficient amount of CO2 is not present in the input stream, a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst with water gas shift activity can consume CO in order to generate additional CO2, resulting in a syngas that can be deficient in CO. For integration of such a Fischer-Tropsch process with an MCFC fuel cell, the separation stages for the anode output can be operated to retain a desired amount of CO2 (and optionally H2O) in the syngas product. By contrast, for a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst based on a non-shifting catalyst, any CO2 present in a product stream could serve as an inert component in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction system.
  • In an aspect where the membrane is swept with a sweep gas such as a methane sweep gas, the methane sweep gas can correspond to a methane stream used as the anode fuel or in a different low pressure process, such as a boiler, furnace, gas turbine, or other fuel-consuming device. In such an aspect, low levels of CO2 permeation across the membrane can have minimal consequence. Such CO2 that may permeate across the membrane can have a minimal impact on the reactions within the anode, and such CO2 can remain contained in the anode product. Therefore, the CO2 (if any) lost across the membrane due to permeation does not need to be transferred again across the MCFC electrolyte. This can significantly reduce the separation selectivity requirement for the hydrogen permeation membrane. This can allow, for example, use of a higher-permeability membrane having a lower selectivity, which can enable use of a lower pressure and/or reduced membrane surface area. In such an aspect of the invention, the volume of the sweep gas can be a large multiple of the volume of hydrogen in the anode exhaust, which can allow the effective hydrogen concentration on the permeate side to be maintained close to zero. The hydrogen thus separated can be incorporated into the turbine-fed methane where it can enhance the turbine combustion characteristics, as described above.
  • It is noted that excess H2 produced in the anode can represent a fuel where the greenhouse gases have already been separated. Any CO2 in the anode output can be readily separated from the anode output, such as by using an amine wash, a cryogenic CO2 separator, and/or a pressure or vacuum swing absorption process. Several of the components of the anode output (H2, CO, CH4) are not easily removed, while CO2 and H2O can usually be readily removed. Depending on the embodiment, at least about 90 vol % of the CO2 in the anode output can be separated out to form a relatively high purity CO2 output stream. Thus, any CO2 generated in the anode can be efficiently separated out to form a high purity CO2 output stream. After separation, the remaining portion of the anode output can correspond primarily to components with chemical and/or fuel value, as well as reduced amounts of CO2 and/or H2O. Since a substantial portion of the CO2 generated by the original fuel (prior to reforming) can have been separated out, the amount of CO2 generated by subsequent burning of the remaining portion of the anode output can be reduced. In particular, to the degree that the fuel in the remaining portion of the anode output is H2, no additional greenhouse gases can typically be formed by burning of this fuel.
  • The anode exhaust can be subjected to a variety of gas processing options, including water-gas shift and separation of the components from each other. Two general anode processing schemes are shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
  • FIG. 1 schematically shows an example of a reaction system for operating a fuel cell array of molten carbonate fuel cells in conjunction with a chemical synthesis process. In FIG. 1, a fuel stream 105 is provided to a reforming stage (or stages) 110 associated with the anode 127 of a fuel cell 120, such as a fuel cell that is part of a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell array. The reforming stage 110 associated with fuel cell 120 can be internal to a fuel cell assembly. In some optional aspects, an external reforming stage (not shown) can also be used to reform a portion of the reformable fuel in an input stream prior to passing the input stream into a fuel cell assembly. Fuel stream 105 can preferably include a reformable fuel, such as methane, other hydrocarbons, and/or other hydrocarbon-like compounds such as organic compounds containing carbon-hydrogen bonds. Fuel stream 105 can also optionally contain H2 and/or CO, such as H2 and/or CO provided by optional anode recycle stream 185. It is noted that anode recycle stream 185 is optional, and that in many aspects no recycle stream is provided from the anode exhaust 125 back to anode 127, either directly or indirectly via combination with fuel stream 105 or reformed fuel stream 115. After reforming, the reformed fuel stream 115 can be passed into anode 127 of fuel cell 120. A CO2 and O2-containing stream 119 can also be passed into cathode 129. A flow of carbonate ions 122, CO3 2-, from the cathode portion 129 of the fuel cell can provide the remaining reactant needed for the anode fuel cell reactions. Based on the reactions in the anode 127, the resulting anode exhaust 125 can include H2O, CO2, one or more components corresponding to incompletely reacted fuel (H2, CO, CH4, or other components corresponding to a reformable fuel), and optionally one or more additional nonreactive components, such as N2 and/or other contaminants that are part of fuel stream 105. The anode exhaust 125 can then be passed into one or more separation stages. For example, a CO2 removal stage 140 can correspond to a cryogenic CO2 removal system, an amine wash stage for removal of acid gases such as CO2, or another suitable type of CO2 separation stage for separating a CO2 output stream 143 from the anode exhaust. Optionally, the anode exhaust can first be passed through a water gas shift reactor 130 to convert any CO present in the anode exhaust (along with some H2O) into CO2 and H2 in an optionally water gas shifted anode exhaust 135. Depending on the nature of the CO2 removal stage, a water condensation or removal stage 150 may be desirable to remove a water output stream 153 from the anode exhaust. Though shown in FIG. 1 after the CO2 separation stage 140, it may optionally be located before the CO2 separation stage 140 instead. Additionally, an optional membrane separation stage 160 for separation of H2 can be used to generate a high purity permeate stream 163 of H2. The resulting retentate stream 166 can then be used as an input to a chemical synthesis process. Stream 166 could additionally or alternately be shifted in a second water-gas shift reactor 131 to adjust the H2, CO, and CO2 content to a different ratio, producing an output stream 168 for further use in a chemical synthesis process. In FIG. 1, anode recycle stream 185 is shown as being withdrawn from the retentate stream 166, but the anode recycle stream 185 could additionally or alternately be withdrawn from other convenient locations in or between the various separation stages. The separation stages and shift reactor(s) could additionally or alternately be configured in different orders, and/or in a parallel configuration. Finally, a stream with a reduced content of CO2 139 can be generated as an output from cathode 129. For the sake of simplicity, various stages of compression and heat addition/removal that might be useful in the process, as well as steam addition or removal, are not shown.
  • As noted above, the various types of separations performed on the anode exhaust can be performed in any convenient order. FIG. 2 shows an example of an alternative order for performing separations on an anode exhaust. In FIG. 2, anode exhaust 125 can be initially passed into separation stage 260 for removing a portion 263 of the hydrogen content from the anode exhaust 125. This can allow, for example, reduction of the H2 content of the anode exhaust to provide a retentate 266 with a ratio of H2 to CO closer to 2:1. The ratio of H2 to CO can then be further adjusted to achieve a desired value in a water gas shift stage 230. The water gas shifted output 235 can then pass through CO2 separation stage 240 and water removal stage 250 to produce an output stream 275 suitable for use as an input to a desired chemical synthesis process. Optionally, output stream 275 could be exposed to an additional water gas shift stage (not shown). A portion of output stream 275 can optionally be recycled (not shown) to the anode input. Of course, still other combinations and sequencing of separation stages can be used to generate a stream based on the anode output that has a desired composition. For the sake of simplicity, various stages of compression and heat addition/removal that might be useful in the process, as well as steam addition or removal, are not shown.
  • Cathode Inputs and Outputs
  • Conventionally, a molten carbonate fuel cell can be operated based on drawing a desired load while consuming some portion of the fuel in the fuel stream delivered to the anode. The voltage of the fuel cell can then be determined by the load, fuel input to the anode, air and CO2 provided to the cathode, and the internal resistances of the fuel cell. The CO2 to the cathode can be conventionally provided in part by using the anode exhaust as at least a part of the cathode input stream. By contrast, the present invention can use separate/different sources for the anode input and cathode input. By removing any direct link between the composition of the anode input flow and the cathode input flow, additional options become available for operating the fuel cell, such as to generate excess synthesis gas, to improve capture of carbon dioxide, and/or to improve the total efficiency (electrical plus chemical power) of the fuel cell, among others.
  • In a molten carbonate fuel cell, the transport of carbonate ions across the electrolyte in the fuel cell can provide a method for transporting CO2 from a first flow path to a second flow path, where the transport method can allow transport from a lower concentration (the cathode) to a higher concentration (the anode), which can thus facilitate capture of CO2. Part of the selectivity of the fuel cell for CO2 separation can be based on the electrochemical reactions allowing the cell to generate electrical power. For nonreactive species (such as N2) that effectively do not participate in the electrochemical reactions within the fuel cell, there can be an insignificant amount of reaction and transport from cathode to anode. By contrast, the potential (voltage) difference between the cathode and anode can provide a strong driving force for transport of carbonate ions across the fuel cell. As a result, the transport of carbonate ions in the molten carbonate fuel cell can allow CO2 to be transported from the cathode (lower CO2 concentration) to the anode (higher CO2 concentration) with relatively high selectivity. However, a challenge in using molten carbonate fuel cells for carbon dioxide removal can be that the fuel cells have limited ability to remove carbon dioxide from relatively dilute cathode feeds. The voltage and/or power generated by a carbonate fuel cell can start to drop rapidly as the CO2 concentration falls below about 2.0 vol %. As the CO2 concentration drops further, e.g., to below about 1.0 vol %, at some point the voltage across the fuel cell can become low enough that little or no further transport of carbonate may occur and the fuel cell ceases to function. Thus, at least some CO2 is likely to be present in the exhaust gas from the cathode stage of a fuel cell under commercially viable operating conditions.
  • The amount of carbon dioxide delivered to the fuel cell cathode(s) can be determined based on the CO2 content of a source for the cathode inlet. One example of a suitable CO2-containing stream for use as a cathode input flow can be an output or exhaust flow from a combustion source. Examples of combustion sources include, but are not limited to, sources based on combustion of natural gas, combustion of coal, and/or combustion of other hydrocarbon-type fuels (including biologically derived fuels). Additional or alternate sources can include other types of boilers, fired heaters, furnaces, and/or other types of devices that burn carbon-containing fuels in order to heat another substance (such as water or air). To a first approximation, the CO2 content of the output flow from a combustion source can be a minor portion of the flow. Even for a higher CO2 content exhaust flow, such as the output from a coal-fired combustion source, the CO2 content from most commercial coal-fired power plants can be about 15 vol % or less. More generally, the CO2 content of an output or exhaust flow from a combustion source can be at least about 1.5 vol %, or at least about 1.6 vol %, or at least about 1.7 vol %, or at least about 1.8 vol %, or at least about 1.9 vol %, or at least greater 2 vol %, or at least about 4 vol %, or at least about 5 vol %, or at least about 6 vol %, or at least about 8 vol %. Additionally or alternately, the CO2 content of an output or exhaust flow from a combustion source can be about 20 vol % or less, such as about 15 vol % or less, or about 12 vol % or less, or about 10 vol % or less, or about 9 vol % or less, or about 8 vol % or less, or about 7 vol % or less, or about 6.5 vol % or less, or about 6 vol % or less, or about 5.5 vol % or less, or about 5 vol % or less, or about 4.5 vol % or less. The concentrations given above are on a dry basis. It is noted that the lower CO2 content values can be present in the exhaust from some natural gas or methane combustion sources, such as generators that are part of a power generation system that may or may not include an exhaust gas recycle loop.
  • Other potential sources for a cathode input stream can additionally or alternately include sources of bio-produced CO2. This can include, for example, CO2 generated during processing of bio-derived compounds, such as CO2 generated during ethanol production. An additional or alternate example can include CO2 generated by combustion of a bio-produced fuel, such as combustion of lignocellulose. Still other additional or alternate potential CO2 sources can correspond to output or exhaust streams from various industrial processes, such as CO2-containing streams generated by plants for manufacture of steel, cement, and/or paper.
  • Yet another additional or alternate potential source of CO2 can be CO2-containing streams from a fuel cell. The CO2-containing stream from a fuel cell can correspond to a cathode output stream from a different fuel cell, an anode output stream from a different fuel cell, a recycle stream from the cathode output to the cathode input of a fuel cell, and/or a recycle stream from an anode output to a cathode input of a fuel cell. For example, an MCFC operated in standalone mode under conventional conditions can generate a cathode exhaust with a CO2 concentration of at least about 5 vol %. Such a CO2-containing cathode exhaust could be used as a cathode input for an MCFC operated according to an aspect of the invention. More generally, other types of fuel cells that generate a CO2 output from the cathode exhaust can additionally or alternately be used, as well as other types of CO2-containing streams not generated by a “combustion” reaction and/or by a combustion-powered generator. Optionally but preferably, a CO2-containing stream from another fuel cell can be from another molten carbonate fuel cell. For example, for molten carbonate fuel cells connected in series with respect to the cathodes, the output from the cathode for a first molten carbonate fuel cell can be used as the input to the cathode for a second molten carbonate fuel cell.
  • For various types of CO2-containing streams from sources other than combustion sources, the CO2 content of the stream can vary widely. The CO2 content of an input stream to a cathode can contain at least about 2 vol % of CO2, such as at least about 4 vol %, or at least about 5 vol %, or at least about 6 vol %, or at least about 8 vol %. Additionally or alternately, the CO2 content of an input stream to a cathode can be about 30 vol % or less, such as about 25 vol % or less, or about 20 vol % or less, or about 15 vol % or less, or about 10 vol % or less, or about 8 vol % or less, or about 6 vol % or less, or about 4 vol % or less. For some still higher CO2 content streams, the CO2 content can be greater than about 30 vol %, such as a stream substantially composed of CO2 with only incidental amounts of other compounds. As an example, a gas-fired turbine without exhaust gas recycle can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of approximately 4.2 vol %. With EGR, a gas-fired turbine can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of about 6-8 vol %. Stoichiometric combustion of methane can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of about 11 vol %. Combustion of coal can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of about 15-20 vol %. Fired heaters using refinery off-gas can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of about 12-15 vol %. A gas turbine operated on a low BTU gas without any EGR can produce an exhaust stream with a CO2 content of ˜12 vol %.
  • In addition to CO2, a cathode input stream must include O2 to provide the components necessary for the cathode reaction. Some cathode input streams can be based on having air as a component. For example, a combustion exhaust stream can be formed by combusting a hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of air. Such a combustion exhaust stream, or another type of cathode input stream having an oxygen content based on inclusion of air, can have an oxygen content of about 20 vol % or less, such as about 15 vol % or less, or about 10 vol % or less. Additionally or alternately, the oxygen content of the cathode input stream can be at least about 4 vol %, such as at least about 6 vol %, or at least about 8 vol %. More generally, a cathode input stream can have a suitable content of oxygen for performing the cathode reaction. In some aspects, this can correspond to an oxygen content of about 5 vol % to about 15 vol %, such as from about 7 vol % to about 9 vol %. For many types of cathode input streams, the combined amount of CO2 and O2 can correspond to less than about 21 vol % of the input stream, such as less than about 15 vol % of the stream or less than about 10 vol % of the stream. An air stream containing oxygen can be combined with a CO2 source that has low oxygen content. For example, the exhaust stream generated by burning coal may include a low oxygen content that can be mixed with air to form a cathode inlet stream.
  • In addition to CO2 and O2, a cathode input stream can also be composed of inert/non-reactive species such as N2, H2O, and other typical oxidant (air) components. For example, for a cathode input derived from an exhaust from a combustion reaction, if air is used as part of the oxidant source for the combustion reaction, the exhaust gas can include typical components of air such as N2, H2O, and other compounds in minor amounts that are present in air. Depending on the nature of the fuel source for the combustion reaction, additional species present after combustion based on the fuel source may include one or more of H2O, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and/or sulfur (SOx), and other compounds either present in the fuel and/or that are partial or complete combustion products of compounds present in the fuel, such as CO. These species may be present in amounts that do not poison the cathode catalyst surfaces though they may reduce the overall cathode activity. Such reductions in performance may be acceptable, or species that interact with the cathode catalyst may be reduced to acceptable levels by known pollutant removal technologies.
  • The amount of O2 present in a cathode input stream (such as an input cathode stream based on a combustion exhaust) can advantageously be sufficient to provide the oxygen needed for the cathode reaction in the fuel cell. Thus, the volume percentage of O2 can advantageously be at least 0.5 times the amount of CO2 in the exhaust. Optionally, as necessary, additional air can be added to the cathode input to provide sufficient oxidant for the cathode reaction. When some form of air is used as the oxidant, the amount of N2 in the cathode exhaust can be at least about 78 vol %, e.g., at least about 88 vol %, and/or about 95 vol % or less. In some aspects, the cathode input stream can additionally or alternately contain compounds that are generally viewed as contaminants, such as H2S or NH3. In other aspects, the cathode input stream can be cleaned to reduce or minimize the content of such contaminants.
  • In addition to the reaction to form carbonate ions for transport across the electrolyte, the conditions in the cathode can also be suitable for conversion of nitrogen oxides into nitrate and/or nitrate ions. Hereinafter, only nitrate ions will be referred to for convenience. The resulting nitrate ions can also be transported across the electrolyte for reaction in the anode. NOx concentrations in a cathode input stream can typically be on the order of ppm, so this nitrate transport reaction can have a minimal impact on the amount of carbonate transported across the electrolyte. However, this method of NOx removal can be beneficial for cathode input streams based on combustion exhausts from gas turbines, as this can provide a mechanism for reducing NOx emissions. The conditions in the cathode can additionally or alternately be suitable for conversion of unburned hydrocarbons (in combination with O2 in the cathode input stream) to typical combustion products, such as CO2 and H2O.
  • A suitable temperature for operation of an MCFC can be between about 450° C. and about 750° C., such as at least about 500° C., e.g., with an inlet temperature of about 550° C. and an outlet temperature of about 625° C. Prior to entering the cathode, heat can be added to or removed from the combustion exhaust, if desired, e.g., to provide heat for other processes, such as reforming the fuel input for the anode. For example, if the source for the cathode input stream is a combustion exhaust stream, the combustion exhaust stream may have a temperature greater than a desired temperature for the cathode inlet. In such an aspect, heat can be removed from the combustion exhaust prior to use as the cathode input stream. Alternatively, the combustion exhaust could be at very low temperature, for example after a wet gas scrubber on a coal-fired boiler, in which case the combustion exhaust can be below about 100° C. Alternatively, the combustion exhaust could be from the exhaust of a gas turbine operated in combined cycle mode, in which the gas can be cooled by raising steam to run a steam turbine for additional power generation. In this case, the gas can be below about 50° C. Heat can be added to a combustion exhaust that is cooler than desired.
  • Fuel Cell Arrangement
  • In various aspects, a configuration option for a fuel cell (such as a fuel cell array containing multiple fuel cell stacks) can be to divide the CO2-containing stream between a plurality of fuel cells. Some types of sources for CO2-containing streams can generate large volumetric flow rates relative to the capacity of an individual fuel cell. For example, the CO2-containing output stream from an industrial combustion source can typically correspond to a large flow volume relative to desirable operating conditions for a single MCFC of reasonable size. Instead of processing the entire flow in a single MCFC, the flow can be divided amongst a plurality of MCFC units, usually at least some of which can be in parallel, so that the flow rate in each unit can be within a desired flow range.
  • A second configuration option can be to utilize fuel cells in series to successively remove CO2 from a flow stream. Regardless of the number of initial fuel cells to which a CO2-containing stream can be distributed to in parallel, each initial fuel cell can be followed by one or more additional cells in series to further remove additional CO2. If the desired amount of CO2 in the cathode output is sufficiently low, attempting to remove CO2 from a cathode input stream down to the desired level in a single fuel cell or fuel cell stage could lead to a low and/or unpredictable voltage output for the fuel cell. Rather than attempting to remove CO2 to the desired level in a single fuel cell or fuel cell stage, CO2 can be removed in successive cells until a desired level can be achieved. For example, each cell in a series of fuel cells can be used to remove some percentage (e.g., about 50%) of the CO2 present in a fuel stream. In such an example, if three fuel cells are used in series, the CO2 concentration can be reduced (e.g., to about 15% or less of the original amount present, which can correspond to reducing the CO2 concentration from about 6% to about 1% or less over the course of three fuel cells in series).
  • In another configuration, the operating conditions can be selected in early fuel stages in series to provide a desired output voltage while the array of stages can be selected to achieve a desired level of carbon separation. As an example, an array of fuel cells can be used with three fuel cells in series. The first two fuel cells in series can be used to remove CO2 while maintaining a desired output voltage. The final fuel cell can then be operated to remove CO2 to a desired concentration but at a lower voltage.
  • In still another configuration, there can be separate connectivity for the anodes and cathodes in a fuel cell array. For example, if the fuel cell array includes fuel cathodes connected in series, the corresponding anodes can be connected in any convenient manner, not necessarily matching up with the same arrangement as their corresponding cathodes, for example. This can include, for instance, connecting the anodes in parallel, so that each anode receives the same type of fuel feed, and/or connecting the anodes in a reverse series, so that the highest fuel concentration in the anodes can correspond to those cathodes having the lowest CO2 concentration.
  • In yet another configuration, the amount of fuel delivered to one or more anode stages and/or the amount of CO2 delivered to one or more cathode stages can be controlled in order to improve the performance of the fuel cell array. For example, a fuel cell array can have a plurality of cathode stages connected in series. In an array that includes three cathode stages in series, this can mean that the output from a first cathode stage can correspond to the input for a second cathode stage, and the output from the second cathode stage can correspond to the input for a third cathode stage. In this type of configuration, the CO2 concentration can decrease with each successive cathode stage. To compensate for this reduced CO2 concentration, additional hydrogen and/or methane can be delivered to the anode stages corresponding to the later cathode stages. The additional hydrogen and/or methane in the anodes corresponding to the later cathode stages can at least partially offset the loss of voltage and/or current caused by the reduced CO2 concentration, which can increase the voltage and thus net power produced by the fuel cell. In another example, the cathodes in a fuel cell array can be connected partially in series and partially in parallel. In this type of example, instead of passing the entire combustion output into the cathodes in the first cathode stage, at least a portion of the combustion exhaust can be passed into a later cathode stage. This can provide an increased CO2 content in a later cathode stage. Still other options for using variable feeds to either anode stages or cathode stages can be used if desired.
  • The cathode of a fuel cell can correspond to a plurality of cathodes from an array of fuel cells, as previously described. In some aspects, a fuel cell array can be operated to improve or maximize the amount of carbon transferred from the cathode to the anode. In such aspects, for the cathode output from the final cathode(s) in an array sequence (typically at least including a series arrangement, or else the final cathode(s) and the initial cathode(s) would be the same), the output composition can include about 2.0 vol % or less of CO2 (e.g., about 1.5 vol % or less or about 1.2 vol % or less) and/or at least about 0.5 vol % of CO2, or at least about 1.0 vol %, or at least about 1.2 vol % or at least about 1.5 vol %. Due to this limitation, the net efficiency of CO2 removal when using molten carbonate fuel cells can be dependent on the amount of CO2 in the cathode input. For cathode input streams with CO2 contents of greater than about 6 vol %, such as at least about 8%, the limitation on the amount of CO2 that can be removed is not severe. However, for a combustion reaction using natural gas as a fuel and with excess air, as is typically found in a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the combustion exhaust may only correspond to a CO2 concentration at the cathode input of less than about 5 vol %. Use of exhaust gas recycle can allow the amount of CO2 at the cathode input to be increased to at least about 5 vol %, e.g., at least about 6 vol %. If EGR is increased when using natural gas as a fuel to produce a CO2 concentration beyond about 6 vol %, then the flammability in the combustor can be decreased and the gas turbine may become unstable. However, when H2 is added to the fuel, the flammability window can be significantly increased, allowing the amount of exhaust gas recycle to be increased further, so that concentrations of CO2 at the cathode input of at least about 7.5 vol % or at least about 8 vol % can be achieved. As an example, based on a removal limit of about 1.5 vol % at the cathode exhaust, increasing the CO2 content at the cathode input from about 5.5 vol % to about 7.5 vol % can correspond to a ˜10% increase in the amount of CO2 that can be captured using a fuel cell and transported to the anode loop for eventual CO2 separation. The amount of O2 in the cathode output can additionally or alternately be reduced, typically in an amount proportional to the amount of CO2 removed, which can result in small corresponding increases in the amount(s) of the other (non-cathode-reactive) species at the cathode exit.
  • In other aspects, a fuel cell array can be operated to improve or maximize the energy output of the fuel cell, such as the total energy output, the electric energy output, the syngas chemical energy output, or a combination thereof. For example, molten carbonate fuel cells can be operated with an excess of reformable fuel in a variety of situations, such as for generation of a syngas stream for use in chemical synthesis plant and/or for generation of a high purity hydrogen stream. The syngas stream and/or hydrogen stream can be used as a syngas source, a hydrogen source, as a clean fuel source, and/or for any other convenient application. In such aspects, the amount of CO2 in the cathode exhaust can be related to the amount of CO2 in the cathode input stream and the CO2 utilization at the desired operating conditions for improving or maximizing the fuel cell energy output.
  • Additionally or alternately, depending on the operating conditions, an MCFC can lower the CO2 content of a cathode exhaust stream to about 5.0 vol % or less, e.g., about 4.0 vol % or less, or about 2.0 vol % or less, or about 1.5 vol % or less, or about 1.2 vol % or less. Additionally or alternately, the CO2 content of the cathode exhaust stream can be at least about 0.9 vol %, such as at least about 1.0 vol %, or at least about 1.2 vol %, or at least about 1.5 vol %.
  • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Operation
  • In some aspects, a fuel cell may be operated in a single pass or once-through mode. In single pass mode, reformed products in the anode exhaust are not returned to the anode inlet. Thus, recycling syngas, hydrogen, or some other product from the anode output directly to the anode inlet is not done in single pass operation. More generally, in single pass operation, reformed products in the anode exhaust are also not returned indirectly to the anode inlet, such as by using reformed products to process a fuel stream subsequently introduced into the anode inlet. Optionally, CO2 from the anode outlet can be recycled to the cathode inlet during operation of an MCFC in single pass mode. More generally, in some alternative aspects, recycling from the anode outlet to the cathode inlet may occur for an MCFC operating in single pass mode. Heat from the anode exhaust or output may additionally or alternately be recycled in a single pass mode. For example, the anode output flow may pass through a heat exchanger that cools the anode output and warms another stream, such as an input stream for the anode and/or the cathode. Recycling heat from anode to the fuel cell is consistent with use in single pass or once-through operation. Optionally but not preferably, constituents of the anode output may be burned to provide heat to the fuel cell during single pass mode.
  • FIG. 3 shows a schematic example of the operation of an MCFC for generation of electrical power. In FIG. 3, the anode portion of the fuel cell can receive fuel and steam (H2O) as inputs, with outputs of water, CO2, and optionally excess H2, CH4 (or other hydrocarbons), and/or CO. The cathode portion of the fuel cell can receive CO2 and some oxidant (e.g., air/O2) as inputs, with an output corresponding to a reduced amount of CO2 in O2-depleted oxidant (air). Within the fuel cell, CO3 2− ions formed in the cathode side can be transported across the electrolyte to provide the carbonate ions needed for the reactions occurring at the anode.
  • Several reactions can occur within a molten carbonate fuel cell such as the example fuel cell shown in FIG. 3. The reforming reactions can be optional, and can be reduced or eliminated if sufficient H2 is provided directly to the anode. The following reactions are based on CH4, but similar reactions can occur when other fuels are used in the fuel cell.

  • <anode reforming>CH4+H2O=>3H2+CO  (1)

  • <water gas shift>CO+H2O=>H2+CO2  (2)

  • <reforming and water gas shift combined>CH4+2H2O=>4H2+CO2  (3)

  • <anode H2 oxidation>H2+CO3 2−=>H2O+CO2+2e   (4)

  • <cathode>½O2+CO2+2e =>CO3 2−  (5)
  • Reaction (1) represents the basic hydrocarbon reforming reaction to generate H2 for use in the anode of the fuel cell. The CO formed in reaction (1) can be converted to H2 by the water-gas shift reaction (2). The combination of reactions (1) and (2) is shown as reaction (3). Reactions (1) and (2) can occur external to the fuel cell, and/or the reforming can be performed internal to the anode.
  • Reactions (4) and (5), at the anode and cathode respectively, represent the reactions that can result in electrical power generation within the fuel cell. Reaction (4) combines H2, either present in the feed or optionally generated by reactions (1) and/or (2), with carbonate ions to form H2O, CO2, and electrons to the circuit. Reaction (5) combines O2, CO2, and electrons from the circuit to form carbonate ions. The carbonate ions generated by reaction (5) can be transported across the electrolyte of the fuel cell to provide the carbonate ions needed for reaction (4). In combination with the transport of carbonate ions across the electrolyte, a closed current loop can then be formed by providing an electrical connection between the anode and cathode.
  • In various embodiments, a goal of operating the fuel cell can be to improve the total efficiency of the fuel cell and/or the total efficiency of the fuel cell plus an integrated chemical synthesis process. This is typically in contrast to conventional operation of a fuel cell, where the goal can be to operate the fuel cell with high electrical efficiency for using the fuel provided to the cell for generation of electrical power. As defined above, total fuel cell efficiency may be determined by dividing the electric output of the fuel cell plus the lower heating value of the fuel cell outputs by the lower heating value of the input components for the fuel cell. In other words, TFCE=(LHV(el)+LHV(sg out))/LHV(in), where LHV(in) and LHV(sg out) refer to the LHV of the fuel components (such as H2, CH4, and/or CO) delivered to the fuel cell and syngas (H2, CO and/or CO2) in the anode outlet streams or flows, respectively. This can provide a measure of the electric energy plus chemical energy generated by the fuel cell and/or the integrated chemical process. It is noted that under this definition of total efficiency, heat energy used within the fuel cell and/or used within the integrated fuel cell/chemical synthesis system can contribute to total efficiency. However, any excess heat exchanged or otherwise withdrawn from the fuel cell or integrated fuel cell/chemical synthesis system is excluded from the definition. Thus, if excess heat from the fuel cell is used, for example, to generate steam for electricity generation by a steam turbine, such excess heat is excluded from the definition of total efficiency.
  • Several operational parameters may be manipulated to operate a fuel cell with excess reformable fuel. Some parameters can be similar to those currently recommended for fuel cell operation. In some aspects, the cathode conditions and temperature inputs to the fuel cell can be similar to those recommended in the literature. For example, the desired electrical efficiency and the desired total fuel cell efficiency may be achieved at a range of fuel cell operating temperatures typical for molten carbonate fuel cells. In typical operation, the temperature can increase across the fuel cell.
  • In other aspects, the operational parameters of the fuel cell can deviate from typical conditions so that the fuel cell is operated to allow a temperature decrease from the anode inlet to the anode outlet and/or from the cathode inlet to the cathode outlet. For example, the reforming reaction to convert a hydrocarbon into H2 and CO is an endothermic reaction. If a sufficient amount of reforming is performed in a fuel cell anode relative to the amount of oxidation of hydrogen to generate electrical current, the net heat balance in the fuel cell can be endothermic. This can cause a temperature drop between the inlets and outlets of a fuel cell. During endothermic operation, the temperature drop in the fuel cell can be controlled so that the electrolyte in the fuel cell remains in a molten state.
  • Parameters that can be manipulated in a way so as to differ from those currently recommended can include the amount of fuel provided to the anode, the composition of the fuel provided to the anode, and/or the separation and capture of syngas in the anode output without significant recycling of syngas from the anode exhaust to either the anode input or the cathode input. In some aspects, no recycle of syngas or hydrogen from the anode exhaust to either the anode input or the cathode input can be allowed to occur, either directly or indirectly. In additional or alternative aspects, a limited amount of recycle can occur. In such aspects, the amount of recycle from the anode exhaust to the anode input and/or the cathode input can be less than about 10 vol % of the anode exhaust, such as less than about 5 vol %, or less than about 1 vol %.
  • Additionally or alternately, a goal of operating a fuel cell can be to separate CO2 from the output stream of a combustion reaction or another process that produces a CO2 output stream, in addition to allowing generation of electric power. In such aspects, the combustion reaction(s) can be used to power one or more generators or turbines, which can provide a majority of the power generated by the combined generator/fuel cell system. Rather than operating the fuel cell to optimize power generation by the fuel cell, the system can instead be operated to improve the capture of carbon dioxide from the combustion-powered generator while reducing or minimizing the number of fuels cells required for capturing the carbon dioxide. Selecting an appropriate configuration for the input and output flows of the fuel cell, as well as selecting appropriate operating conditions for the fuel cell, can allow for a desirable combination of total efficiency and carbon capture.
  • In some embodiments, the fuel cells in a fuel cell array can be arranged so that only a single stage of fuel cells (such as fuel cell stacks) can be present. In this type of embodiment, the anode fuel utilization for the single stage can represent the anode fuel utilization for the array. Another option can be that a fuel cell array can contain multiple stages of anodes and multiple stages of cathodes, with each anode stage having a fuel utilization within the same range, such as each anode stage having a fuel utilization within 10% of a specified value, for example within 5% of a specified value. Still another option can be that each anode stage can have a fuel utilization equal to a specified value or lower than the specified value by less than an amount, such as having each anode stage be not greater than a specified value by 10% or less, for example, by 5% or less. As an illustrative example, a fuel cell array with a plurality of anode stages can have each anode stage be within about 10% of 50% fuel utilization, which would correspond to each anode stage having a fuel utilization between about 40% and about 60%. As another example, a fuel cell array with a plurality of stages can have each anode stage be not greater than 60% anode fuel utilization with the maximum deviation being about 5% less, which would correspond to each anode stage having a fuel utilization between about 55% to about 60%. In still another example, one or more stages of fuel cells in a fuel cell array can be operated at a fuel utilization from about 30% to about 50%, such as operating a plurality of fuel cell stages in the array at a fuel utilization from about 30% to about 50%. More generally, any of the above types of ranges can be paired with any of the anode fuel utilization values specified herein.
  • Still another additional or alternate option can include specifying a fuel utilization for less than all of the anode stages. For example, in some aspects of the invention fuel cells/stacks can be arranged at least partially in one or more series arrangements such that anode fuel utilization can be specified for the first anode stage in a series, the second anode stage in a series, the final anode stage in a series, or any other convenient anode stage in a series. As used herein, the “first” stage in a series corresponds to the stage (or set of stages, if the arrangement contains parallel stages as well) to which input is directly fed from the fuel source(s), with later (“second,” “third,” “final,” etc.) stages representing the stages to which the output from one or more previous stages is fed, instead of directly from the respective fuel source(s). In situations where both output from previous stages and input directly from the fuel source(s) are co-fed into a stage, there can be a “first” (set of) stage(s) and a “last” (set of) stage(s), but other stages (“second,” “third,” etc.) can be more tricky among which to establish an order (e.g., in such cases, ordinal order can be determined by concentration levels of one or more components in the composite input feed composition, such as CO2 for instance, from highest concentration “first” to lowest concentration “last” with approximately similar compositional distinctions representing the same ordinal level.)
  • Yet another additional or alternate option can be to specify the anode fuel utilization corresponding to a particular cathode stage (again, where fuel cells/stacks can be arranged at least partially in one or more series arrangements). As noted above, based on the direction of the flows within the anodes and cathodes, the first cathode stage may not correspond to (be across the same fuel cell membrane from) the first anode stage. Thus, in some aspects of the invention, the anode fuel utilization can be specified for the first cathode stage in a series, the second cathode stage in a series, the final cathode stage in a series, or any other convenient cathode stage in a series.
  • Yet still another additional or alternate option can be to specify an overall average of fuel utilization over all fuel cells in a fuel cell array. In various aspects, the overall average of fuel utilization for a fuel cell array can be about 65% or less, for example, about 60% or less, about 55% or less, about 50% or less, or about 45% or less (additionally or alternately, the overall average fuel utilization for a fuel cell array can be at least about 25%, for example at least about 30%, at least about 35%, or at least about 40%). Such an average fuel utilization need not necessarily constrain the fuel utilization in any single stage, so long as the array of fuel cells meets the desired fuel utilization.
  • Applications for CO2 Output after Capture
  • In various aspects of the invention, the systems and methods described above can allow for production of carbon dioxide as a pressurized fluid. For example, the CO2 generated from a cryogenic separation stage can initially correspond to a pressurized CO2 liquid with a purity of at least about 90%, e.g., at least about 95%, at least about 97%, at least about 98%, or at least about 99%. This pressurized CO2 stream can be used, e.g., for injection into wells in order to further enhance oil or gas recovery such as in secondary oil recovery. When done in proximity to a facility that encompasses a gas turbine, the overall system may benefit from additional synergies in use of electrical/mechanical power and/or through heat integration with the overall system.
  • Alternatively, for systems dedicated to an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application (i.e., not commingled in a pipeline system with tight compositional standards), the CO2 separation requirements may be substantially relaxed. The EOR application can be sensitive to the presence of O2, so O2 can be absent, in some embodiments, from a CO2 stream intended for use in EOR. However, the EOR application can tend to have a low sensitivity to dissolved CO, H2, and/or CH4. Also, pipelines that transport the CO2 can be sensitive to these impurities. Those dissolved gases can typically have only subtle impacts on the solubilizing ability of CO2 used for EOR. Injecting gases such as CO, H2, and/or CH4 as EOR gases can result in some loss of fuel value recovery, but such gases can be otherwise compatible with EOR applications.
  • Additionally or alternately, a potential use for CO2 as a pressurized liquid can be as a nutrient in biological processes such as algae growth/harvesting. The use of MCFCs for CO2 separation can ensure that most biologically significant pollutants could be reduced to acceptably low levels, resulting in a CO2-containing stream having only minor amounts of other “contaminant” gases (such as CO, H2, N2, and the like, and combinations thereof) that are unlikely to substantially negatively affect the growth of photosynthetic organisms. This can be in stark contrast to the output streams generated by most industrial sources, which can often contain potentially highly toxic material such as heavy metals.
  • In this type of aspect of the invention, the CO2 stream generated by separation of CO2 in the anode loop can be used to produce biofuels and/or chemicals, as well as precursors thereof. Further additionally or alternately, CO2 may be produced as a dense fluid, allowing for much easier pumping and transport across distances, e.g., to large fields of photosynthetic organisms. Conventional emission sources can emit hot gas containing modest amounts of CO2 (e.g., about 4-15%) mixed with other gases and pollutants. These materials would normally need to be pumped as a dilute gas to an algae pond or biofuel “farm”. By contrast, the MCFC system according to the invention can produce a concentrated CO2 stream (˜60-70% by volume on a dry basis) that can be concentrated further to 95%+(for example 96%+, 97%+, 98%+, or 99%+) and easily liquefied. This stream can then be transported easily and efficiently over long distances at relatively low cost and effectively distributed over a wide area. In these embodiments, residual heat from the combustion source/MCFC may be integrated into the overall system as well.
  • An alternative embodiment may apply where the CO2 source/MCFC and biological/chemical production sites are co-located. In that case, only minimal compression may be necessary (i.e., to provide enough CO2 pressure to use in the biological production, e.g., from about 15 psig to about 150 psig). Several novel arrangements can be possible in such a case. Secondary reforming may optionally be applied to the anode exhaust to reduce CH4 content, and water-gas shift may optionally additionally or alternately be present to drive any remaining CO into CO2 and H2.
  • The components from an anode output stream and/or cathode output stream can be used for a variety of purposes. One option can be to use the anode output as a source of hydrogen, as described above. For an MCFC integrated with or co-located with a refinery, the hydrogen can be used as a hydrogen source for various refinery processes, such as hydroprocessing. Another option can be to additionally or alternately use hydrogen as a fuel source where the CO2 from combustion has already been “captured.” Such hydrogen can be used in a refinery or other industrial setting as a fuel for a boiler, furnace, and/or fired heater, and/or the hydrogen can be used as a feed for an electric power generator, such as a turbine. Hydrogen from an MCFC fuel cell can further additionally or alternately be used as an input stream for other types of fuel cells that require hydrogen as an input, possibly including vehicles powered by fuel cells. Still another option can be to additionally or alternately use syngas generated as an output from an MCFC fuel cell as a fermentation input.
  • Another option can be to additionally or alternately use syngas generated from the anode output. Of course, syngas can be used as a fuel, although a syngas based fuel can still lead to some CO2 production when burned as fuel. In other aspects, a syngas output stream can be used as an input for a chemical synthesis process. One option can be to additionally or alternately use syngas for a Fischer-Tropsch type process, and/or another process where larger hydrocarbon molecules are formed from the syngas input. Another option can be to additionally or alternately use syngas to form an intermediate product such as methanol. Methanol could be used as the final product, but in other aspects methanol generated from syngas can be used to generate larger compounds, such as gasoline, olefins, aromatics, and/or other products. It is noted that a small amount of CO2 can be acceptable in the syngas feed to a methanol synthesis process, and/or to a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a shifting catalyst. Hydroformylation is an additional or alternate example of still another synthesis process that can make use of a syngas input.
  • It is noted that one variation on use of an MCFC to generate syngas can be to use MCFC fuel cells as part of a system for processing methane and/or natural gas withdrawn by an offshore oil platform or other production system that is a considerable distance from its ultimate market. Instead of attempting to transport the gas phase output from a well, or attempting to store the gas phase product for an extended period, the gas phase output from a well can be used as the input to an MCFC fuel cell array. This can lead to a variety of benefits. First, the electric power generated by the fuel cell array can be used as a power source for the platform. Additionally, the syngas output from the fuel cell array can be used as an input for a Fischer-Tropsch process at the production site. This can allow for formation of liquid hydrocarbon products more easily transported by pipeline, ship, or railcar from the production site to, for example, an on-shore facility or a larger terminal.
  • Still other integration options can additionally or alternately include using the cathode output as a source of higher purity, heated nitrogen. The cathode input can often include a large portion of air, which means a substantial portion of nitrogen can be included in the cathode input. The fuel cell can transport CO2 and O2 from the cathode across the electrolyte to the anode, and the cathode outlet can have lower concentrations of CO2 and O2, and thus a higher concentration of N2 than found in air. With subsequent removal of the residual O2 and CO2, this nitrogen output can be used as an input for production of ammonia or other nitrogen-containing chemicals, such as urea, ammonium nitrate, and/or nitric acid. It is noted that urea synthesis could additionally or alternately use CO2 separate from the anode output as an input feed.
  • Additional Embodiments Embodiment 1
  • A method for producing cement, the method comprising: introducing a fuel stream comprising a reformable fuel into an anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell, into an internal reforming element associated with the anode, or into a combination thereof; in a process for production of cement, heating a cement kiln to form a cement product and a cement kiln exhaust; introducing a cathode inlet stream comprising CO2 and O2 into a cathode of the fuel cell, the cathode inlet stream comprising at least a portion of the cement kiln exhaust; and generating electricity within the molten carbonate fuel cell.
  • Embodiment 2
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, further comprising a) transferring heat from at least one of the cement kiln and the cement kiln exhaust to the fuel stream, b) transferring heat to the cement kiln from at least one of: the molten carbonate fuel cell, a fuel cell anode exhaust, and a fuel cell cathode exhaust, or c) both a) and b).
  • Embodiment 3
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, further comprising withdrawing, from a fuel cell anode exhaust, a gas stream comprising H2, at least a portion of the withdrawn gas stream being used as a fuel for heating the cement kiln.
  • Embodiment 4
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein the cement product comprises a cement clinker product.
  • Embodiment 5
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell is operated to generate electricity at a thermal ratio from about 0.25 to about 1.5 (e.g., from about 0.25 to about 1.3, from about 0.25 to about 1.15, from about 0.25 to about 1.0, from about 0.25 to about 0.85, from about 0.25 to about 0.8, or from about 0.25 to about 0.75).
  • Embodiment 6
  • The method of Embodiment 5, the method further comprising transferring heat from the process for production of cement to the molten carbonate fuel cell.
  • Embodiment 7
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, further comprising processing at least one mineral input in one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof; and introducing the processed at least one mineral input into the cement kiln for heating to form at least a portion of the cement product and thereby generating at least a portion of the cement exhaust.
  • Embodiment 8
  • The method of Embodiment 7, wherein generating electricity within the molten carbonate fuel cell further comprises using the generated electricity to operate the one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof associated with the cement production process.
  • Embodiment 9
  • The method of Embodiment 7 or 8, further comprising: separating H2O from at least a portion of a fuel cell anode exhaust; and using the separated H2O in the one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof associated with the cement production process.
  • Embodiment 10
  • The method of any of embodiments 3-9, further comprising separating at least one of CO2 and H2O from at least one of the fuel cell anode exhaust and the withdrawn gas stream in one or more separation stages.
  • Embodiment 11
  • The method of any of the previous embodiments, wherein an amount of the reformable fuel introduced into the anode, into the internal reforming element associated with the anode, or into the combination thereof, provides a reformable fuel surplus ratio of at least about 1.5 (e.g., at least about 2.0, at least about 2.5, or at least about 3.0).
  • Embodiment 12
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, the method further comprising reforming the reformable fuel, wherein at least about 90% of the reformable fuel introduced into the anode, the reforming stage associated with the anode, or a combination thereof is reformed in a single pass through the anode.
  • Embodiment 13
  • The method of any of the above embodiments, wherein a ratio of net moles of syngas in a fuel cell anode exhaust to moles of CO2 in a fuel cell cathode exhaust is at least about 2.0 (e.g., at least about 3.0, at least about 4.0, at least about 5.0, at least about 10.0, or at least about 20.0), and optionally about 40.0 or less (e.g., about 30.0 or less or about 20.0 or less).
  • Embodiment 14
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein a fuel utilization in the anode is about 50% or less (e.g., about 30% or less, about 25% or less, or about 20% or less) and a CO2 utilization in the cathode is at least about 60% (e.g., at least about 65%, at least about 70%, or at least about 75%).
  • Embodiment 15
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein an electrical efficiency for the molten carbonate fuel cell is between about 10% and about 40% (e.g., between about 10% and about 35%, between about 10% and about 30%, between about 10% and about 25%, between about 10% and about 20%) and a total fuel cell efficiency for the fuel cell of at least about 50% (e.g., at least about 55%, at least about 60%, at least about 65%, at least about 70%, at least about 75%, or at least about 80%).
  • Embodiment 16
  • The method of any of the above embodiments, wherein a fuel cell anode exhaust has a molar ratio of H2:CO of at least about 3.0:1 (e.g., at least about 4.0:1, from about 3.0:1 to about 10:1, or from about 4.0:1 to about 10:1).
  • Embodiment 17
  • The method of any of the above embodiments, wherein at least about 90 vol % of the reformable fuel is methane.
  • Embodiment 18
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein less than 10 vol % of H2 produced in the anode in a single pass is directly or indirectly recycled to the anode or to the cathode.
  • Embodiment 19
  • The method of any of embodiments 3-18, wherein less than 10 vol % of the gas stream withdrawn from the anode exhaust comprising H2 and CO is directly or indirectly recycled to the anode or to the cathode.
  • Embodiment 20
  • The method of any of embodiments 1-18, wherein less than 10 vol % of a fuel cell anode exhaust is directly or indirectly recycled to the anode or to the cathode.
  • Embodiment 21
  • The method of any of embodiments 1-18, wherein no portion of a fuel cell anode exhaust is directly or indirectly recycled to the anode.
  • Embodiment 22
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein a reformable hydrogen content of the reformable fuel introduced into the anode, a reforming stage associated with the anode, or a combination thereof is at least about 50% greater (e.g., at least about 75% greater or at least about 100% greater) than an amount of hydrogen reacted to generate electricity.
  • Embodiment 23
  • The method of any of the above embodiments, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell further comprises one or more integrated endothermic reaction stages.
  • Embodiment 24
  • The method of any of the above Embodiments, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell is operated at a first operating condition to generate electrical power and at least about 50 mW/cm2 (e.g., at least 100 mW/cm2) of waste heat, the first operating condition providing a current density of at least about 150 mA/cm2, and wherein an effective amount of an endothermic reaction is performed to maintain a temperature differential between an anode inlet and an anode outlet of about 100° C. or less (e.g., about 80° C. or less or about 60° C. or less).
  • Embodiment 25
  • The method of embodiment 24, wherein performing the endothermic reaction consumes at least about 40% (e.g., at least about 50%, at least about 60%, or at least about 75%) of the waste heat.
  • Embodiment 26
  • The method of any of the above embodiments, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell is operated at a voltage VA of less than about 0.68V (e.g., less than about 0.67V, less than about 0.66V, or about 0.65V or less), and optionally of at least about 0.60V (e.g., at least about 0.61V, at least about 0.62V, or at least about 0.63V).
  • Although the present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiments, it is not so limited. Suitable alterations/modifications for operation under specific conditions should be apparent to those skilled in the art. It is therefore intended that the following claims be interpreted as covering all such alterations/modifications that fall within the true spirit/scope of the invention.

Claims (17)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for producing cement, the method comprising:
introducing a fuel stream comprising a reformable fuel into an anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell, into an internal reforming element associated with the anode, or into a combination thereof;
in a process for production of cement, heating a cement kiln to form a cement product and a cement kiln exhaust;
introducing a cathode inlet stream comprising CO2 and O2 into a cathode of the fuel cell, the cathode inlet stream comprising at least a portion of the cement kiln exhaust; and
generating electricity within the molten carbonate fuel cell.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising a) transferring heat from at least one of the cement kiln and the cement kiln exhaust to the fuel stream, b) transferring heat to the cement kiln from at least one of: the molten carbonate fuel cell, a fuel cell anode exhaust, and a fuel cell cathode exhaust, or c) both a) and b).
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising withdrawing, from a fuel cell anode exhaust, a gas stream comprising H2, at least a portion of the withdrawn gas stream being used as a fuel for heating the cement kiln.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the cement product comprises a cement clinker product.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell is operated to generate electricity at a thermal ratio from about 0.25 to about 1.0.
6. The method of claim 5, the method further comprising transferring heat from the process for production cement to the molten carbonate fuel cell.
7. The method of claim 1, further comprising processing at least one mineral input in one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof; and introducing the processed at least one mineral input into the cement kiln for heating to form at least a portion of the cement product and thereby generating at least a portion of the cement exhaust.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein generating electricity within the molten carbonate fuel cell further comprises using the generated electricity to operate the one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof associated with the cement production process.
9. The method of claim 7, further comprising: separating H2O from at least a portion of a fuel cell anode exhaust; and using the separated H2O in the one or more mixers, grinders, or a combination thereof associated with the cement production process.
10. The method of claim 3, further comprising separating at least one of CO2 and H2O from at least one of the fuel cell anode exhaust and the withdrawn gas stream in one or more separation stages.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein an amount of the reformable fuel introduced into the anode, into the internal reforming element associated with the anode, or into the combination thereof, provides a reformable fuel surplus ratio of at least about 1.5.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein a ratio of net moles of syngas in a fuel cell anode exhaust to moles of CO2 in a fuel cell cathode exhaust is at least about 2.0.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein a fuel utilization in the anode is about 50% or less and a CO2 utilization in the cathode is at least about 60%.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein the molten carbonate fuel cell is operated to generate electrical power at a current density of at least about 150 mA/cm2 and at least about 50 mW/cm2 of waste heat, the method further comprising performing an effective amount of an endothermic reaction to maintain a temperature differential between an inlet of the anode and an outlet of the anode of about 100° C. or less.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein performing the endothermic reaction consumes at least about 40% of the waste heat.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein an electrical efficiency for the molten carbonate fuel cell is between about 10% and about 40% and a total fuel cell efficiency for the molten carbonate fuel cell is at least about 55%.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein at least about 90 vol % of the reformable fuel is methane.
US14/207,728 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing Pending US20140261090A1 (en)

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US201361787697P true 2013-03-15 2013-03-15
US201361787587P true 2013-03-15 2013-03-15
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US201361787879P true 2013-03-15 2013-03-15
US201361884586P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361884635P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361884565P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361884605P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361884545P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361884376P true 2013-09-30 2013-09-30
US201361889757P true 2013-10-11 2013-10-11
US14/207,728 US20140261090A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing

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US14/207,728 US20140261090A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing
US14/325,664 US9819042B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-07-08 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
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EP14792633.1A EP3052437A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion for enhanced fuel cell syngas production
JP2016545262A JP6251403B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration in a heat recovery steam generator
CA2920288A CA2920288A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion for enhanced fuel cell syngas production
PCT/US2014/058005 WO2015048622A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
KR1020167011199A KR20160064187A (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion for enhanced fuel cell syngas production
CN201480053118.9A CN105612648B (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Carbon dioxide is generated electricity and trapped with tandem-compound turbine
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JP2016516957A JP6423869B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion to improve fuel cell synthesis gas production
KR1020167011204A KR20160064188A (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Integrated power generation and chemical production using solid oxide fuel cells
PCT/US2014/058020 WO2015048628A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Power generation and co2 capture with turbines in series
AU2014324640A AU2014324640B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
CN201480053793.1A CN105594049B (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 In the fuel cell heat recovery steam generator Integration
CN201480053417.2A CN105579392B (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Preparing a cathode for enhancing combustion of the syngas fuel cell
KR1020167011211A KR20160062139A (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Power generation and co_2 capture with turbines in series
AU2014324641A AU2014324641B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion for enhanced fuel cell syngas production
PCT/US2014/058009 WO2015048623A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Cathode combustion for enhanced fuel cell syngas production
CN201480053460.9A CN105580179B (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Use the integrated power generation of solid oxide fuel cell and chemical production
EP14792634.9A EP3053218A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Integrated power generation and chemical production using solid oxide fuel cells
CA2921525A CA2921525A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
KR1020167011206A KR20160065151A (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
EP14792632.3A EP3053217B1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator
PCT/US2014/058015 WO2015048626A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Integrated power generation and chemical production using solid oxide fuel cells
JP2016518764A JP6480429B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Power generation and CO2 capture by serial turbine
EP14796572.7A EP3053214A1 (en) 2013-09-30 2014-09-29 Power generation and co2 capture with turbines in series
US15/729,000 US10283802B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2017-10-10 Fuel cell integration within a heat recovery steam generator

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US14/207,688 Abandoned US20140272618A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/207,698 Active 2035-03-25 US9419295B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells at a reduced electrical efficiency
US14/207,705 Abandoned US20140272641A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
US14/207,696 Abandoned US20140272620A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,711 Active 2035-09-13 US9735440B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in fischer-tropsch synthesis
US14/207,704 Abandoned US20140272627A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,721 Active 2035-03-03 US9520607B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells with fermentation processes
US14/207,686 Abandoned US20140272633A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/207,714 Active 2034-04-05 US9343764B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in methanol synthesis
US14/207,700 Abandoned US20140260310A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated Power Generation Using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
US14/207,708 Active 2034-12-31 US9647284B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
US14/207,710 Active US9362580B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in a refinery setting
US14/207,699 Abandoned US20140272635A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Mitigation of NOx in Integrated Power Production
US14/207,706 Active 2034-08-18 US9455463B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated electrical power and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,691 Active 2034-08-13 US9257711B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated carbon capture and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,687 Active 2036-09-28 US9941534B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/207,728 Pending US20140261090A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Cement Processing
US14/207,693 Active 2036-03-23 US9786939B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,712 Active US9343763B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells for synthesis of nitrogen compounds
US14/207,726 Active 2034-08-06 US9263755B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in iron and steel processing
US14/207,690 Active 2035-08-18 US9553321B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/315,479 Active US9077006B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-06-26 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/315,419 Active US9178234B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-06-26 Integrated power generation using molten carbonate fuel cells
US14/315,439 Active US9077005B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-06-26 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
US14/722,376 Active US9397355B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-05-27 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in fischer-tropsch synthesis
US14/865,741 Abandoned US20160013502A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-09-25 Integrated Power Generation Using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
US14/987,108 Active 2035-01-06 US10093997B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-01-04 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in iron and steel processing
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US14/207,698 Active 2035-03-25 US9419295B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells at a reduced electrical efficiency
US14/207,705 Abandoned US20140272641A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
US14/207,696 Abandoned US20140272620A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,711 Active 2035-09-13 US9735440B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in fischer-tropsch synthesis
US14/207,704 Abandoned US20140272627A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and chemical production using fuel cells
US14/207,721 Active 2035-03-03 US9520607B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells with fermentation processes
US14/207,686 Abandoned US20140272633A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
US14/207,714 Active 2034-04-05 US9343764B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in methanol synthesis
US14/207,700 Abandoned US20140260310A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated Power Generation Using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
US14/207,708 Active 2034-12-31 US9647284B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
US14/207,710 Active US9362580B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in a refinery setting
US14/207,699 Abandoned US20140272635A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Mitigation of NOx in Integrated Power Production
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US14/207,690 Active 2035-08-18 US9553321B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-03-13 Integrated power generation and carbon capture using fuel cells
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US14/315,419 Active US9178234B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-06-26 Integrated power generation using molten carbonate fuel cells
US14/315,439 Active US9077005B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-06-26 Integration of molten carbonate fuel cells in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
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