US20140241031A1 - Dielectric-based memory cells having multi-level one-time programmable and bi-level rewriteable operating modes and methods of forming the same - Google Patents

Dielectric-based memory cells having multi-level one-time programmable and bi-level rewriteable operating modes and methods of forming the same Download PDF

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US20140241031A1
US20140241031A1 US13780089 US201313780089A US2014241031A1 US 20140241031 A1 US20140241031 A1 US 20140241031A1 US 13780089 US13780089 US 13780089 US 201313780089 A US201313780089 A US 201313780089A US 2014241031 A1 US2014241031 A1 US 2014241031A1
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material layer
nitride
conductive material
silicon nitride
memory
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Abhijit Bandyopadhyay
Tanmay Kumar
Scott Brad Herner
Christopher J. Petti
Roy E. Scheuerlein
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SanDisk Technologies LLC
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SanDisk 3D LLC
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    • GPHYSICS
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    • G11C17/00Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards
    • G11C17/14Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards in which contents are determined by selectively establishing, breaking or modifying connecting links by permanently altering the state of coupling elements, e.g. PROM
    • G11C17/16Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards in which contents are determined by selectively establishing, breaking or modifying connecting links by permanently altering the state of coupling elements, e.g. PROM using electrically-fusible links
    • G11C17/165Memory cells which are electrically programmed to cause a change in resistance, e.g. to permit multiple resistance steps to be programmed rather than conduct to or from non-conduct change of fuses and antifuses
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C11/00Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor
    • G11C11/56Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency
    • G11C11/5692Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency read-only digital stores using storage elements with more than two stable states
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11CSTATIC STORES
    • G11C17/00Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards
    • G11C17/14Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards in which contents are determined by selectively establishing, breaking or modifying connecting links by permanently altering the state of coupling elements, e.g. PROM
    • G11C17/18Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for writing into memory
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    • H01L27/04Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being a semiconductor body
    • H01L27/10Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being a semiconductor body including a plurality of individual components in a repetitive configuration
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    • H01L27/112Read-only memory structures [ROM] and multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L27/11206Programmable ROM [PROM], e.g. memory cells comprising a transistor and a fuse or an antifuse
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    • H01L27/2409Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures comprising two-terminal selection components, e.g. diodes
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    • H01L27/2409Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures comprising two-terminal selection components, e.g. diodes
    • H01L27/2418Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including solid state components for rectifying, amplifying or switching without a potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. resistance switching non-volatile memory structures comprising two-terminal selection components, e.g. diodes of the metal-insulator-metal type
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    • H01L27/2463Arrangements comprising multiple bistable or multistable switching components of the same type on a plane parallel to the substrate, e.g. cross-point arrays, details of the horizontal layout
    • H01L27/2481Arrangements comprising multiple bistable or multistable switching components of the same type on a plane parallel to the substrate, e.g. cross-point arrays, details of the horizontal layout arranged in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, e.g. 3D cell arrays, details of the vertical layout
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    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/86Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor controllable only by variation of the electric current supplied, or only the electric potential applied, to one or more of the electrodes carrying the current to be rectified, amplified, oscillated or switched
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    • H01L45/1233Device geometry adapted for essentially vertical current flow, e.g. sandwich or pillar type devices
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    • H01L45/16Manufacturing
    • H01L45/1666Patterning of the switching material
    • H01L45/1675Patterning of the switching material by etching of pre-deposited switching material layers, e.g. lithography

Abstract

In some aspects, a memory cell is provided that includes a steering element and a memory element. The memory element includes a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprise a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. Numerous other aspects are provided.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • This invention relates to non-volatile memories, and more particularly to dielectric-based memory cells having multi-level one-time programmable and bi-level rewriteable operating modes and methods of forming the same.
  • Non-volatile memory cells that include a diode and dielectric memory element in series (“diode-dielectric memory cells”) are known. For example, Johnson et al. U.S. Pat. No. 6,034,882, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes, describes a memory cell that includes a diode in series with a dielectric rupture antifuse. In general, previously known diode-dielectric memory cells have two memory states (e.g., the dielectric rupture antifuse is either intact or broken down), and are one-time programmable.
  • It would be advantageous to devise a rewriteable dielectric-based memory cell having multi-level one-time programmable and bi-level rewriteable operating modes.
  • SUMMARY
  • In a first aspect of the invention, a memory cell is provided that includes a steering element and a memory element. The memory element includes a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprise a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  • In a second aspect of the invention, a method of programming a memory cell is provided. The memory cell includes a memory element having a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprises a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. The memory cell has a first memory state upon fabrication corresponding to a first read current. The method includes applying a first programming pulse to the memory cell with a first current limit. The first programming pulse programs the memory cell to a second memory state that corresponds to a second read current greater than the first read current.
  • In a third aspect of the invention, a method of programming a memory cell is provided. The memory cell includes a memory element having a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprises a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. The method includes applying voltage pulses to the memory cell to reversibly switch the memory element between a low-resistivity state and a high-resistivity state.
  • In a fourth aspect of the invention, a monolithic three-dimensional memory array is provided that includes a first memory level monolithically formed above a substrate, and a second memory level monolithically formed above the first memory level. The first memory level includes a plurality of memory cells, wherein each memory cell includes a steering element and a memory element. The memory element includes a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprise a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  • Other features and aspects of the present invention will become more fully apparent from the following detailed description, the appended claims and the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Features of the present invention can be more clearly understood from the following detailed description considered in conjunction with the following drawings, in which the same reference numerals denote the same elements throughout, and in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram of an example memory cell in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 2A is a simplified perspective view of an example memory cell in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 2B is a simplified perspective view of a portion of a first example memory level formed from a plurality of the memory cells of FIG. 2A;
  • FIG. 2C is a simplified perspective view of a portion of a first example three-dimensional memory array in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 2D is a simplified perspective view of a portion of a second example three-dimensional memory array in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional view of an example memory cell in accordance with this invention;
  • FIGS. 3B-3H are cross-sectional views of example memory elements in accordance with this invention;
  • FIGS. 3I-3J are cross-sectional views of alternative example memory cells in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 4A is a diagram of example I-V characteristics of a memory cell in accordance with this invention;
  • FIG. 4B is a diagram of example memory states, programming conditions and read currents of a memory cell in accordance with this invention;
  • FIGS. 5A-5C illustrate example current and voltage characteristics of memory elements in accordance with this invention; and
  • FIGS. 6A-6E illustrate cross-sectional views of a portion of a substrate during an example fabrication of a single memory level in accordance with this invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • A previously known diode-dielectric memory cell includes a dielectric antifuse in series with a diode, such as a vertical polysilicon diode. As formed, a dielectric antifuse is in an initial high-resistance state. Accordingly, if a read voltage is applied across such a memory cell, little or no current flows through the device. If a larger programming voltage is applied across the device, the dielectric antifuse breaks down, and a low-resistance rupture region forms through the dielectric antifuse. As a result, if a read voltage is applied across a programmed memory cell, substantially more current flows through the device.
  • The difference in current between an unprogrammed memory cell having an intact antifuse and a programmed memory cell having a broken down antifuse can correspond to two different data states of the memory cell. In addition, such previously known dielectric antifuse memory cells typically are one-time programmable memory cells. That is, once a programming voltage has been applied across the device to break down the dielectric antifuse, the memory cell may not subsequently be re-programmed.
  • Some researchers have attempted to develop “multi-level” dielectric antifuse memory cells that can store more than two data states. For example, Yeh et al. U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0073642 (“Yeh”) describes a memory cell that includes an “ultra-thin” layer of a dielectric film disposed between first and second electrodes. Yeh asserts that the memory cell can store multiple data states by applying low voltages across the dielectric material layer for intervals of time to cause progressive breakdown of the dielectric material layer, by which a programmable resistance is established representing stored data. Yeh provides only one detailed example of “ultra-thin” dielectric films: oxides, such as oxynitride, having a thickness less than 20 Angstroms, and more preferably about 15 Angstroms or less.
  • Such previously known multi-level dielectric antifuse memory cells have numerous problems that make such devices unsuitable for use in commercial memory devices. In particular, as dielectric material starts to break down, the resistance of the material decreases. As a result, capacitive discharge from stray capacitance near the memory cell can cause undesirable current surges through the dielectric material, making it difficult to control the progressive breakdown process. This phenomenon can occur even if an external current limiter is used to drive the memory cell. Further, for ultra-thin dielectric materials, such as those described in Yeh, electron tunneling may be significant, which makes control of the progressive breakdown process even more difficult.
  • As a result of such problems, some previously known multi-level antifuse memory cells have difficulty obtaining repeatable data states. For example, in some previously known progressive breakdown antifuse memory cells, one or more data states may exhibit unacceptably wide variation and/or state jump from a lower data state to higher data states.
  • Memory cells in accordance with this invention may avoid controllability problems associated with previously known multi-level dielectric antifuse memory cells. In particular, memory cells in accordance with this invention include a memory element 16 that includes a first dielectric material layer disposed above a first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, and a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  • As described in more detail below, example memory cells in accordance with this invention may be used in a first operating mode as multi-level one-time programmable memory cells that provide at least four substantially distinct data states. In addition, as described in more detail below, example memory cells in accordance with this invention alternatively may be operated in a second operating mode as bi-level rewriteable memory cells.
  • Example Inventive Memory Cell
  • FIG. 1 is a diagram of an example memory cell 10 in accordance with this invention. Memory cell 10 includes a memory element 16 coupled to a steering element 14. As described in more detail below, memory element 16 includes multiple layers of dielectric material stacked on one another (not separately shown in FIG. 1). In addition, as described in more detail below, memory cell 10 may be used either in a first operating mode, in which memory cell 10 may be operated as a multi-level one-time programmable memory cell, or in a second operating mode, in which memory cell 10 may be operated as a bi-level rewritable memory cell.
  • In the first operating mode, the conductivity of memory element 16 has more than two stable values that can be sensed as more than two data states. For example, memory element 16 may have a first conductivity upon fabrication, in which a first read current flows through memory cell 10 upon application of a read voltage. The first conductivity of memory element 16 corresponds to a first memory state (e.g., binary “00”) of memory cell 10.
  • Upon application of a first programming voltage across memory cell 10 while limiting current through memory cell 10 to a first current limit, memory element 16 switches to a second conductivity, in which a second read current (higher than the first read current) flows through memory cell 10 upon application of the read voltage. The second conductivity of memory element 16 corresponds to a second memory state (e.g., binary “01”) of memory cell 10. Without wanting to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that in the second memory state, memory element 16 conducts tunneling leakage current as a conductive path forms through the dielectric stack due to partial or soft breakdown of one of the dielectric material layers (e.g., the thinner dielectric material layer may leak through, and soft breakdown may take place for the thicker dielectric material layer).
  • Upon application of a second programming voltage across memory cell 10 while limiting current through memory cell 10 to a second current limit greater than the first current limit, memory element 16 switches to a third conductivity, in which a third read current (higher than the second read current) flows through memory cell 10 upon application of the read voltage. The third conductivity of memory element 16 corresponds to a third memory state (e.g., binary “10”) of memory cell 10. Without wanting to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that in the third memory state a stronger conductive path forms through the thicker dielectric material layer, the thinner dielectric material layer leaks through, the overall stack resistance decreases and a higher current state is achieved.
  • Upon application of a third programming voltage across memory cell 10 without limiting current through memory cell 10, memory element 16 switches to a fourth conductivity, in which a fourth read current (higher than the third read current) flows through memory cell 10 upon application of the read voltage. The fourth conductivity of memory element 16 corresponds to a fourth memory state (e.g., binary “11”) of memory cell 10. Without wanting to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that in the fourth memory state, memory element 16 exhibits substantially complete dielectric breakdown.
  • In the second operating mode, memory element 16 may be used as a bi-level rewriteable memory element. In particular, memory element 16 may be reversibly switched between a low-resistivity state and a high-resistivity state. The low-resistivity state may represent a first memory state (e.g., binary “1”), and the high-resistivity state may represent a second memory state (e.g., binary “0”). Without wanting to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that the thicker of the first and second dielectric material layers exhibits resistance switching, and the thinner dielectric material layer exhibits leakage and acts like a local/embedded resistor that modulates the total current flow through the stack.
  • In an example embodiment, the process of switching memory element 16 from the high-resistivity state to the low-resistivity state is referred to as setting or forming, and the process of switching memory element 16 from the low-resistivity state to the high-resistivity state is referred to as resetting. In other embodiments, setting and resetting and/or data encoding can be reversed. The set or reset process can be performed to program a memory cell to a desired state to represent binary data.
  • Steering element 14 may include a thin film transistor, a diode, a metal-insulator-metal tunneling current device, or another similar steering element that exhibits non-ohmic conduction by selectively limiting the voltage across and/or the current flow through multi-layer antifuse structure 12. In this manner, memory cell 10 may be used as part of a two or three dimensional memory array and data may be written to and/or read from memory cell 10 without affecting the state of other memory cells in the array.
  • Example embodiments of memory cell 10, memory element 16 and steering element 14 are described below with reference to FIGS. 2A-2D and FIGS. 3A-3B.
  • Example Embodiments of Memory Cells and Memory Arrays
  • FIG. 2A is a simplified perspective view of an example memory cell 10 in accordance with this invention that includes steering element 14 and memory element 16. Memory element 16 is coupled in series with steering element 14 between a first conductor 20 and a second conductor 22. In some embodiments, a barrier layer 26 may be formed between steering element 14 and first conductor 20. Barrier layer 26 may include titanium (“Ti”), titanium nitride (“TiN”), tantalum (“Ta”), tantalum nitride (“TaN”), tungsten (“W”), tungsten nitride (“WN”), molybdenum (“Mo”) or another similar material.
  • Memory element 16 includes a first conductive material layer 24, a first dielectric material layer 12 a disposed above first conductive material layer 24, a second conductive material layer 25 disposed above first dielectric material layer 12 a, a second dielectric material layer 12 b disposed above second conductive material layer 25, and a third conductive material layer 28 disposed above second dielectric material layer 12 b. As described in more detail below, one or both of first conductive material layer 24 and second conductive material layer 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer (not separately shown in FIG. 2A).
  • First conductive material layer 24 forms a bottom electrode, second conductive material layer 25 forms an intermediate electrode, and second conductive material layer 28 forms a top electrode of memory element 16. For simplicity, first conductive material layer 24, second conductive material layer 25, and third conductive material layer 28 will be referred to in the remaining discussion as “bottom electrode 24,” “intermediate electrode 25,” and “top electrode 28,” respectively. In some embodiments, memory element 16 may be positioned below steering element 14.
  • As discussed above, steering element 14 may include a thin film transistor, a diode, a metal-insulator-metal tunneling current device, or another similar steering element that exhibits non-ohmic conduction by selectively limiting the voltage across and/or the current flow through multi-layer antifuse structure 12. In the example of FIG. 2A, steering element 14 is a diode. Accordingly, steering element 14 is sometimes referred to herein as “diode 14.”
  • Diode 14 may include any suitable diode such as a vertical polycrystalline p-n, p-i-n, n-p-n or p-n-p punch-through diode, a carbon diode, or other similar diode, whether upward pointing with an n-region above a p-region of the diode or downward pointing with a p-region above an n-region of the diode. For example, diode 14 may include a heavily doped n+ polysilicon region 14 a, a lightly doped or an intrinsic (unintentionally doped) polysilicon region 14 b above the n+ polysilicon region 14 a, and a heavily doped p+ polysilicon region 14 c above intrinsic region 14 b. It will be understood that the locations of the n+ and p+ regions may be reversed. Example embodiments of diode 14 are described below with reference to FIG. 3A. Example carbon diodes and methods of forming carbon diodes are described in Bandyopadhyay et al. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/639,840, filed Dec. 16, 2009 (“the '840 application”), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes.
  • First conductor 20 and/or second conductor 22 may include any suitable conductive material such as tungsten, any appropriate metal, heavily doped semiconductor material, a conductive silicide, a conductive silicide-germanide, a conductive germanide, or the like. In the embodiment of FIG. 2A, first and second conductors 20 and 22, respectively, are rail-shaped and extend in different directions (e.g., substantially perpendicular to one another). Other conductor shapes and/or configurations may be used. In some embodiments, barrier layers, adhesion layers, antireflection coatings and/or the like (not shown) may be used with the first conductor 20 and/or second conductor 22 to improve device performance and/or aid in device fabrication.
  • FIG. 2B is a simplified perspective view of a portion of a first memory level 32 formed from a plurality of memory cells 10, such as memory cell 10 of FIG. 2A. For simplicity, memory element 16, diode 14, and barrier layer 26 are not separately shown. Memory level 32 is a “cross-point” array including a plurality of bit lines (second conductors 22) and word lines (first conductors 20) to which multiple memory cells are coupled (as shown). Other memory array configurations may be used, as may multiple levels of memory.
  • For example, FIG. 2C is a simplified perspective view of a portion of a monolithic three dimensional array 40 a that includes a first memory level 42 positioned below a second memory level 44. Memory levels 42 and 44 each include a plurality of memory cells 10 in a cross-point array. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that additional layers (e.g., an interlevel dielectric) may be present between the first and second memory levels 42 and 44, but are not shown in FIG. 2C for simplicity. Other memory array configurations may be used, as may additional levels of memory. In the embodiment of FIG. 2C, all diodes may “point” in the same direction, such as upward or downward depending on whether p-i-n diodes having a p-doped region on the bottom or top of the diodes are employed, simplifying diode fabrication.
  • In some embodiments, the memory levels may be formed as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,952,030, titled “High-Density Three-Dimensional Memory Cell,” which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes. For instance, the upper conductors of a first memory level may be used as the lower conductors of a second memory level that is positioned above the first memory level as shown in the alternative example three dimensional memory array 40 b illustrated in FIG. 2D.
  • In such embodiments, the diodes on adjacent memory levels preferably point in opposite directions as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/692,151, filed Mar. 27, 2007, and titled “Large Array Of Upward Pointing P-I-N Diodes Having Large And Uniform Current” (hereinafter “the '151 application”), which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes.
  • For example, as shown in FIG. 2D, the diodes of the first memory level 42 may be upward pointing diodes as indicated by arrow D1 (e.g., with p regions at the bottom of the diodes), whereas the diodes of the second memory level 44 may be downward pointing diodes as indicated by arrow D2 (e.g., with n regions at the bottom of the diodes), or vice versa.
  • A monolithic three dimensional memory array is one in which multiple memory levels are formed above a single substrate, such as a wafer, with no intervening substrates. The layers forming one memory level are deposited or grown directly over the layers of an existing level or levels. In contrast, stacked memories have been constructed by forming memory levels on separate substrates and adhering the memory levels atop each other, as in Leedy, U.S. Pat. No. 5,915,167, titled “Three Dimensional Structure Memory.” The substrates may be thinned or removed from the memory levels before bonding, but as the memory levels are initially formed over separate substrates, such memories are not true monolithic three dimensional memory arrays.
  • FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional view of an example embodiment of memory cell 10 of FIG. 1. In particular, FIG. 3A shows an example memory cell 10 which includes diode 14, memory element 16 and first and second conductors 20 and 22, respectively. Memory element 16 includes first dielectric material layer 12 a disposed above bottom electrode 24, intermediate electrode 25 disposed above first dielectric material layer 12 a, second dielectric material layer 12 b disposed above intermediate electrode 25, and top electrode 28 disposed above second dielectric material layer 12 b. As described in more detail below, one or both of bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  • Memory cell 10 also may include barrier layer 26, a silicide layer 50, a silicide-forming metal layer 52, and dielectric layer 54, as well as adhesion layers, antireflective coating layers and/or the like (not shown) which may be used with first and/or second conductors 20 and 22, respectively, to improve device performance and/or facilitate device fabrication.
  • Diode 14 may be a vertical p-n, p-i-n, n-p-n or p-n-p punch-through diode, a carbon diode, or other similar diode, which may either point upward or downward. In the embodiment of FIG. 2D in which adjacent memory levels share conductors, adjacent memory levels preferably have diodes that point in opposite directions such as downward-pointing p-i-n diodes for a first memory level and upward-pointing p-i-n diodes for an adjacent, second memory level (or vice versa).
  • In some embodiments, diode 14 may be formed from a polycrystalline semiconductor material such as polysilicon, a polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloy, polygermanium or any other suitable material. For example, diode 14 may include a heavily doped n+ polysilicon region 14 a, a lightly doped or an intrinsic (unintentionally doped) polysilicon region 14 b above the n+ polysilicon region 14 a, and a heavily doped p+ polysilicon region 14 c above intrinsic region 14 b. It will be understood that the locations of the n+ and p+ regions may be reversed.
  • In some embodiments, a thin germanium and/or silicon-germanium alloy layer (not shown) may be formed on n+ polysilicon region 14 a to prevent and/or reduce dopant migration from n+ polysilicon region 14 a into intrinsic region 14 b. Use of such a layer is described, for example, in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/298,331, filed Dec. 9, 2005 and titled “Deposited Semiconductor Structure To Minimize N-Type Dopant Diffusion And Method Of Making” (hereinafter “the '331 application”), which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes. In some embodiments, a few hundred angstroms or less of silicon-germanium alloy with about 10 at % or more of germanium may be employed.
  • Barrier layer 26, such as Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, etc., may be formed between first conductor 20 and n+ region 14 a (e.g., to prevent and/or reduce migration of metal atoms into the polysilicon regions).
  • If diode 14 is fabricated from deposited silicon (e.g., amorphous or polycrystalline), a silicide layer 50 may be formed on diode 14 to place the deposited silicon in a low resistivity state, as fabricated. Such a low resistivity state allows for easier programming of memory cell 10 as a large voltage is not required to switch the deposited silicon to a low resistivity state.
  • For example, a silicide-forming metal layer 52 such as titanium or cobalt may be deposited on p+ polysilicon region 14 c. During a subsequent anneal step (described below), silicide-forming metal layer 52 and the deposited silicon of diode 14 interact to form silicide layer 50, consuming all or a portion of the silicide-forming metal layer 52. In some embodiments, a nitride layer (not shown) may be formed at a top surface of silicide-forming metal layer 52. For example, if silicide-forming metal layer 52 is titanium, a TiN layer may be formed at a top surface of silicide-forming metal layer 52.
  • A rapid thermal anneal (“RTA”) step may then be performed to form silicide regions by reaction of silicide-forming metal layer 52 with p+ region 14 c. The RTA may be performed at about 540-650° C. for about 1 minute, and causes silicide-forming metal layer 52 and the deposited silicon of diode 14 to interact to form silicide layer 50, consuming all or a portion of silicide-forming metal layer 52. An additional, higher temperature anneal (e.g., such as at about 750° C. as described below) may be used to crystallize the diode.
  • As described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,176,064, titled “Memory Cell Comprising A Semiconductor Junction Diode Crystallized Adjacent To A Silicide,” which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety for all purposes, silicide-forming materials such as titanium and/or cobalt react with deposited silicon during annealing to form a silicide layer. The lattice spacing of titanium silicide and cobalt silicide are close to that of silicon, and it appears that such silicide layers may serve as “crystallization templates” or “seeds” for adjacent deposited silicon as the deposited silicon crystallizes (e.g., the silicide layer enhances the crystalline structure of diode 14 during annealing). Lower resistivity silicon thereby is provided. Similar results may be achieved for silicon-germanium alloy and/or germanium diodes.
  • In embodiments in which a nitride layer was formed at a top surface of silicide-forming metal layer 52, following the RTA step, the nitride layer may be stripped using a wet chemistry. For example, if silicide-forming metal layer 52 includes a TiN top layer, a wet chemistry (e.g., ammonium, peroxide, water in a 1:1:1 ratio) may be used to strip any residual TiN. In some embodiments, the nitride layer formed at a top surface of silicide-forming metal layer 52 may remain, or may not be used at all.
  • Bottom electrode 24 is formed above silicide-forming metal layer 52. In some embodiments, bottom electrode 24 may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 500 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 1200 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. Bottom electrode 24 may be formed by atomic layer deposition (“ALD”), chemical vapor deposition (“CVD”), plasma-enhanced CVD (“PECVD”), physical vapor deposition (“PVD”), sputter deposition from a target, or other similar process.
  • First dielectric material layer 12 a is formed above bottom electrode 24. In some embodiments, first dielectric material layer 12 a may have a thickness of about 20 angstroms to about 30 angstroms, more generally between about 10 angstroms to about 50 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. First dielectric material layer 12 a may be silicon dioxide (“SiO2”), hafnium oxide (“HfO2”), silicon oxynitride (“SiON”), hafnium silicon oxynitride (“HfSiON”), hafnium silicon oxide (“HfSiOx”), hafnium aluminate (“HfAlxOy”), aluminum oxide (“Al2O3”), silicon nitride (“Si3N4”), zirconium dioxide (“ZrO2”), lanthanum oxide (“La2O3”), tantalum pentoxide (“Ta2O5”), titanium dioxide (“TiO2”), strontium titanate (“SrTiO3”), vanadium oxide (“VO2”), vanadium silicon oxide (“VSiO”), or other similar dielectric materials.
  • First dielectric material layer 12 a may be formed over bottom electrode 24 using any suitable formation process, such as ALD, CVD, PECVD, high density plasma CVD (“HDP-CVD”), PVD, metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (“MOCVD”), direct liquid injection MOCVD (“DLI-MOCVD”), rapid thermal oxidation (“RTO”), or slot plan antenna plasma technology (“SPA”). Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other processes may be used to form first dielectric material layer 12 a.
  • Intermediate electrode 25 is formed above first dielectric material layer 12 a. In some embodiments, intermediate electrode 25 may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 500 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 1200 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. Intermediate electrode 25 may be formed by ALD, CVD, PECVD, PVD, sputter deposition from a target, or other similar process.
  • Second dielectric material layer 12 b is formed above intermediate electrode 25. In some embodiments, second dielectric material layer 12 b may have a thickness of about 30 angstroms to about 50 angstroms, more generally between about 20 angstroms to about 60 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. Second dielectric material layer 12 b may be SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, VSiO, or other similar dielectric materials.
  • Second dielectric material layer 12 b may be formed over intermediate electrode 25 using any suitable formation process, such as ALD, CVD, PECVD, HDP-CVD, PVD, RIO, MOCVD, DLI-MOCVD or SPA. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other processes may be used to form first dielectric material layer 12 a.
  • Top electrode 28 is formed above second dielectric material layer 12 b. In some embodiments, top electrode 28 may have a thickness of about 100 angstroms to about 200 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 400 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. In some embodiments, top electrode 28 may be Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, tantalum aluminum nitride (“TaAlN”), vanadium nitride (“VN”), vanadium silicon nitride (“VSi3N4”), zirconium nitride (“ZrN”), zirconium silicon nitride (“ZrSi3N4”), hafnium nitride (“HfN”), hafnium silicon nitride (“HfSi3N4”), titanium silicon nitride (“TiSi3N4”), tantalum silicon nitride (“TaSi3N4”), tungsten silicon nitride (“WSi3N4”), tungsten aluminum nitride (“WAlN”), carbon, a noble metal such as platinum, or another similar material. In an example embodiment in accordance with this invention, top electrode 28 is TiN. Top electrode 28 may be formed by ALD, CVD, PECVD, PVD, sputter deposition, or other similar processes.
  • As described above, one or both of bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. For example, FIG. 3B illustrates an expanded view of a memory element 16 in accordance with this invention. Bottom electrode 24 may be a metal material layer or a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. Likewise, intermediate electrode 25 may be a layer of a metal material or a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. Without wanting to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that the highly doped semiconductor material in bottom electrode 24 and/or intermediate electrode 25 may act as local resistor with in-situ current limiting, and may limit capacitive discharge through memory element 16 during a programming event to prevent over programming of the cell.
  • Example metal materials include Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, TaAlN, VN, VSi3N4, ZrN, ZrSi3N4, HfN, HfSi3N4, TiSi3N4, TaSi3N4, WSi3N4, WAlN, carbon, or other similar metal materials. Example highly doped semiconductor materials include n+ polysilicon having a doping concentration between about 1×1020 cm−3 and about 1×1022 cm−3 (referred to herein as “n+ poly”), p+ polysilicon having a doping concentration between about 1×1020 cm−3 and about 1×1022 cm−3 (referred to herein as “p+ poly”), n+ poly with Ge (10-20% Ge), p+ poly with Ge (10-20% Ge), or other similar highly doped semiconductor materials. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other semiconductor materials, doping types and doping concentrations may be used.
  • Persons of ordinary skill in the art also will understand that the highly doped semiconductor materials may be uniformly doped or may have a graded or combination of low and high doping profile, which controls the resistance of the electrode. Resistance modulation by doping control impacts the switching endurance of the cell when used in rewriteable mode and also improves the state distinction when one-time programmable mode is invoked.
  • FIGS. 3C-3J illustrate various example embodiments of memory element 16, in which one or both of bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer formed on the metal material layer. In particular, bottom electrode 24 may include a metal material layer 24 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b formed on metal material layer 24 a, and intermediate electrode 25 may include a metal material layer 25 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b formed on metal material layer 25 a. Metal material layers 24 a and 25 a each may be Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, TaAlN, VN, VSi3N4, ZrN, ZrSi3N4, HfN, HfSi3N4, TiSi3N4, TaSi3N4, WSi3N4, WAlN, or other similar metal materials. Highly doped semiconductor material layers 24 b and 25 v each may be n+ poly, p+ poly, n+ poly with Ge (10-20% Ge), p+ poly with Ge (10-20% Ge), or other similar highly doped semiconductor materials.
  • In FIG. 3C, bottom electrode 24 includes a stack of a metal material layer (TiN) 24 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer n+ poly layer 24 b formed on TiN layer 24 a. In some embodiments, metal material layer 24 a may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 500 angstroms, and highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 1000 angstroms. Other thicknesses may be used.
  • Likewise, intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer (TiN) 25 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer (n+ poly) 25 b formed on TiN layer 25 a. In some embodiments, metal material layer 25 a may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 500 angstroms, and highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b may have a thickness of about 200 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 100 angstroms to about 1000 angstroms. Other thicknesses may be used.
  • In example memory element 16 c of FIG. 3C, first dielectric material layer 12 a and second dielectric material layer 12 b are both SiO2, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b and highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b are both n+ poly, and metal material layers 24 a and 25 a are both TiN. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that first dielectric material layer 12 a and second dielectric material layer 12 b need not be the same material, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b and highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b need not be the same material, and that metal material layers 24 a and 25 a need not be the same metal and that other metal materials may be used.
  • For example, FIG. 3D illustrates an alternative example memory element 16 d in which first dielectric material layer 12 a is SiO2, second dielectric material layer 12 b is SiON, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b is p+ poly and highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b is n+ poly, and metal material layers 24 a and 25 a are WN.
  • In example memory element 16 c of FIG. 3C, highly doped semiconductor material layers 24 b and 25 b are both n+ poly. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that highly doped semiconductor material layers 24 b and 25 b may include other highly doped semiconductor materials. For example, FIG. 3E illustrates an alternative example memory element 16 e in which highly doped semiconductor material layers 24 b and 25 b are both p+ poly. In this example embodiment, metal material layers 24 a and 25 a are both TiAlN. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b and highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b need not be the same material, other metal materials may be used, and that metal material layers 24 a and 25 a need not be the same metal.
  • In example memory elements 16 c, 16 d and 16 e of FIGS. 3C-3E, bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 have each included a stack of a metal material and a highly doped semiconductor material. In example embodiments of this invention, however, one of bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 may include a metal material, whereas the other one of bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 may include a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  • For example, FIG. 3F illustrates an example memory element 16 f in which bottom electrode 24 is a metal material layer (TiN), and intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer (TiN) 25 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer (n+ poly) 25 b formed on TiN layer 25 a.
  • In example memory element 16 f of FIG. 3F, first dielectric material layer 12 a and second dielectric material layer 12 b are both HfO2, and bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 both include TiN. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that first dielectric material layer 12 a and second dielectric material layer 12 b need not be the same material, and bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 need not include the same metal, and may include metals other than TiN.
  • For example, FIG. 3H illustrates another alternative example memory element 16 g in which first dielectric material layer 12 a is SiO2, and second dielectric material layer 12 b is HfO2, bottom electrode 24 is TaN, and intermediate electrode 25 includes a TaN layer 25 a and an n+ poly layer 25 b formed on TaN layer 25 a.
  • In example memory elements 16 f and 16 g of FIGS. 3F-3G, bottom electrode 24 is metal, and intermediate electrode 25 includes a stack of a metal material layer and an n+ poly layer. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that intermediate electrode 25 may be a metal, bottom electrode 24 alternatively may include a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer, and the highly doped semiconductor material may be other than n+ poly.
  • For example, FIG. 3H illustrates an another example memory element 16 h in which bottom electrode 24 includes a stack of a metal material layer (TiN) 24 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer (p+ poly) 24 b formed on TiN layer 24 a, and intermediate electrode 25 is metal (TiN). In this example embodiment, bottom electrode 24 and intermediate electrode 25 both include TiN. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand, however, that other metal materials may be used, and that metal layer 24 a and intermediate electrode 25 need not be the same metal.
  • Referring now to FIG. 3I, still another example memory element 16 i is described. In this example embodiment, memory element 16 i includes n+ polysilicon region 14 c. That is, memory element 16 i shares n+ polysilicon region 14 c with diode 14. In this regard, bottom electrode 24 may be eliminated. Likewise, FIG. 3J illustrates yet another example memory element 16 j, which includes p+ polysilicon region 14 c shared with diode 14. As in the embodiment of FIG. 3I, bottom electrode 24 may be eliminated.
  • Referring again to FIG. 3A, second conductor 22 is formed above memory element 16. Second conductor 22 may include one or more barrier layers and/or adhesion layers (not shown) deposited over memory element 16 prior to deposition of a conductive layer used to form second conductors 22. Second conductors may be formed from any suitable conductive material such as tungsten, another suitable metal, heavily doped semiconductor material, a conductive silicide, a conductive silicide-germanide, a conductive germanide, or the like deposited by PVD or any other any suitable method (e.g., CVD, etc.). Other conductive layer materials may be used. The deposited conductive layer and optional barrier and/or adhesion layer may be patterned and etched to form second conductors 22. In at least one embodiment, second conductors 22 are substantially parallel, substantially coplanar conductors that extend in a different direction than first conductors 20.
  • Programming and Sensing
  • As described above, memory cells 10 in accordance with this invention may be used either in a first operating mode, in which memory cell 10 may be operated as a multi-level one-time programmable memory cell, or in a second operating mode, in which memory cell 10 may be operated as a bi-level rewritable memory cell. Each of these will be discussed in turn.
  • Multi-Level One-Time Programmable Memory Operation
  • Referring to FIGS. 4A and 4B, example current and voltage characteristics of a four-state one-time programmable memory cell in accordance with this invention, such as memory cell 10, are described. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that memory cells in accordance with this invention may have more or less than four data states.
  • If a read voltage VR is applied across memory cell 10 as formed, a first read current IA flows through the device. Read voltage VR may be about 1V to about 2V, although other voltage values may be used. First read current IA may be about 0.5 nA to about 5 nA, although other current values may be used. First read current IA corresponds to a first data state of memory cell 10.
  • To program memory cell 10 to a second data state, a first programming pulse P1 having a first programming voltage VP1 is applied across memory cell 10, while limiting current through the device to a first current limit I11. Current limiting may be obtained using one or more on-chip resistors or using transistor (e.g., FET) control. First current limit I11 may be between about 1 μA and about 2 μA, although other values may be used. After the pulse, the read current is measured. This process may be iteratively repeated until a second predetermined read current IB flows through memory cell 10 upon application of read voltage VR. The second predetermined read current IB corresponds to a second data state of memory cell 10, and may be about 50 nA to about 200 nA, although other values may be used.
  • First programming pulse P1 may have a first programming voltage VP1 between about 9V and about 10V, more generally between about 8V and about 13V, may have a pulse width of between about 100 μs and about 150 μs, and may have rise and fall times between about 50 ns and about 200 ns. Other voltage values, pulse widths and/or rise and fall times may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that first programming pulse P1 alternatively may be a current pulse.
  • To program memory cell 10 to a third data state, a second programming pulse P2 having a second programming voltage VP2 is applied across memory cell 10, while limiting current through the device to a second current limit I12, and the read current is measured. Second current limit I12 may be between about 2 μA and about 10 μA, although other values may be used. This process may be iteratively repeated until a third predetermined read current Ic flows through memory cell 10 upon application of read voltage VR. The third predetermined read current Ic corresponds to a third data state of memory cell 10, and may be about 0.5 μA to about 1 μA, although other values may be used.
  • Second programming pulse P2 may have a second programming voltage VP2 between about 8V and about 9.5V, more generally between about 4V and about 11V, may have a pulse width of between about 100 μs and about 150 μs, and may have rise and fall times between about 50 ns and about 200 ns. Other voltage values, pulse widths, rise and fall times and/or current limits may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that second programming pulse P2 alternatively may be a current pulse.
  • Limiting the current while applying the programming pulse is important to avoid over-programming the memory cell. Current limiting may be achieved through external resistors, on-chip resistors, or other similar techniques. Arrays of memory cells, such as memory cells 10, typically are driven by CMOS logic transistors, which may be used to provide current limiting. In addition, using on-chip resistors, preferably closely located to the memory cells, may be more effective in terms of reducing parasitic capacitive discharge current flowing through the memory cell.
  • To program memory cell 10 to a fourth data state, a third programming pulse P3 having a third programming voltage VP3 is applied across memory cell 10 without limiting current through the device, and the read current is measured. This process may be iteratively repeated until a fourth predetermined read current ID flows through memory cell 10 upon application of read voltage VR. The fourth predetermined read current ID corresponds to a fourth data state of memory cell 10, and may be about 5 μA to about 20 μA, although other values may be used.
  • Third programming pulse P3 may have a third programming voltage VP3 between about 10V and about 12V, more generally between about 5V and about 13V, may have a pulse width of about fps to about 100 μs, and may have rise and fall times of about 50 ns to about 200 ns. Other voltage values, pulse widths, and/or rise and fall times may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that third programming pulse P3 alternatively may be a current pulse.
  • Memory cell 10 thus can be in any one of four possible data states, as summarized in FIG. 4B. The first data state (sometimes referred to as the “virgin state”) is the state of memory cell 10 as measured first out of the fab, without any programming pulses having been applied to the device. The second data state is the state of memory cell 10 after first program pulse P1 has been applied to the device, the third data state is the state of memory cell 10 after the second program pulse P2 has been applied to the device, and the fourth data state is the state of memory cell 10 after the third program pulse P3 has been applied to the device. Program pulses P1, P2 and P3 may be applied independently of one another (e.g., third program pulse P3 may be applied to memory cell 10 without first applying program pulses P1 and P2). In addition, persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that memory cell 10 may be programmed to any memory state (e.g., including intermediate levels, such as 1.5 bits/cell) using appropriate programming conditions.
  • Memory cell 10 may be read by applying read voltage VR across memory cell 10, and sensing a read current while applying read voltage VR. The sensed read current corresponds to the data state of memory cell 10. The four read current values IA, IB, Ic and ID are different from one another so that each unique data state may be sensed.
  • Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that memory cells in accordance with this invention may have more or less than four data states.
  • Bi-Level Rewriteable Memory Operation
  • As described above, memory cells 10 in accordance with this invention alternatively may be operated as bi-level rewriteable memory cells, in which the memory cells may be reversibly switched between a low-resistivity state and a high-resistivity state. The low-resistivity state may represent a first memory state (e.g., binary “1”), and the high-resistivity state may represent a second memory state (e.g., binary “0”).
  • To operate a memory cell 10 as rewriteable memory cell, an initial forming step is used so that memory element 16 operates in a current range in which switching can occur. Forming is a critical event in oxide-based resistive-RAM or the like devices. An appropriate forming current level is necessary to achieve proper switching with optimum ON/OFF window. Forming is generally understood to be a soft dielectric breakdown which generates and moves oxygen vacancies to form conductive filaments, which is often explained by time-dependent dielectric breakdown (“TDDB”) models.
  • In the forming step, the initially insulating properties of first dielectric material layer 12 a and/or second dielectric material layer 12 b are altered, and a conductive current path is formed between top and bottom electrode. This forming step is usually obtained by applying a long pulse with slow rise time, where the pulse voltage is stepped-up slowly to avoid sudden current spikes through the device. This may be especially important for larger array than single-bit. The E-field thus built-up across the dielectric stack creates a percolation path through trap assisted tunneling that leads to increase in current through the stack. Once this current reaches forming verify current level, Iverify, it is sensed and monitored for the forming of the cell. Example forming parameters are set forth in Table 1:
  • TABLE 1
    EXAMPLE FORMING PARAMETERS
    PARAMETER EXAMPLE RANGE PREFERRED RANGE
    Pulse Magnitude (V) 5-12 6-9
    Pulse Duration (ns)  1-1000  10-100
    Pulse Rise Time (ns) 20-250  50-150
    Iverify (nA) 50-400 100-200

    Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that forming pulses may be current pulses, and that other pulse magnitude, pulse duration, pulse rise time and Iverify values may be used.
  • Following the forming step, voltage (or current) pulses may be applied to the memory cell 10 to switch memory element 16 from the high resistivity state to the low resistivity state. The process of switching memory element 16 from the high-resistivity state to the low-resistivity state is referred to as setting, and the process of switching memory element 16 from the low-resistivity state to the high-resistivity state is referred to as resetting. In other embodiments, setting and resetting and/or the data encoding can be reversed. The set or reset process can be performed for a memory cell to program it to a desired state to represent binary data.
  • First dielectric material layer 12 a and/or second dielectric material layer 12 b may exhibit unipolar or bipolar resistance-switching characteristics. The layer responsible for the switching in the present embodiment may be the thicker one. However, apart from the thickness, there are other parameters such as type of material, deposition condition, and interface control that may be considered for the design and fabrication steps of the stack.
  • With a unipolar resistance-switching characteristic, the voltages used for both set and reset processes are of the same polarity, e.g., either both positive or both negative. In contrast, with a bipolar resistance-switching characteristic, opposite polarity voltages are used for the set and reset processes. Specifically, the voltage used for the set process can be positive whereas the voltage used for the reset process is negative, or the voltage used for the set process can be negative while the voltage used for the reset process is positive. For the present embodiment, forming is always positive and independent of the SET/RESET polarity chosen for switching.
  • Referring now to FIG. 5A, a graph of voltage versus current for an example embodiment of memory element 16 is described. In particular, FIG. 5A illustrates an example voltage versus current characteristic for a memory element 16 having a first dielectric material layer 12 a and/or the second dielectric material layer 12 b that exhibit unipolar resistance-switching characteristics. The x-axis depicts an absolute value of voltage, the y-axis depicts current, and the lines are adjusted to meet at the origin of the graph. In the reset process, line 40 a represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 in the low-resistivity, set state, and line 42 a represents a transition to the high-resistivity, reset state at Vreset. In the set process, line 44 a represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 in the high-resistivity, reset state, and line 46 a represents a transition to the low-resistivity, set state at Vset. The example shows a unipolar operation mode where the polarity of the voltage is the same for the both set and reset switching. In this example, forming voltage Vf>Vset.
  • To determine the state of memory element 16, a voltage is applied across memory element 16 and the resulting current is measured. A higher or lower measured current indicates that memory element 16 is in the low- or high-resistivity state, respectively. In some cases, the high resistivity state is substantially higher, e.g., two or three orders of magnitude (100-1,000) times higher than the low resistivity state.
  • When in the reset state, memory element 16 exhibits the resistance characteristics shown by line 44 a in response to an applied voltage between 0 and Vset. When in the set state, however, memory element 16 exhibits the resistance characteristics shown by line 40 a in response an applied voltage between 0 and Vreset, where Vreset<Vset. Thus, memory element 16 exhibits different resistance characteristics in response to the same voltages in the same voltage range (e.g., between 0 and Vreset) depending on the resistance state of memory element 16.
  • In a read operation, a fixed voltage VR<Vreset is applied, in response to which the sensed current is IA in the set state, or IB in the reset state. The state of memory element 16 can thus be sensed by identifying at least one point of its I-V characteristic. Example unipolar programming parameters are set forth in Table 2:
  • TABLE 2
    EXAMPLE UNIPOLAR PROGRAMMING PARAMETERS
    PARAMETER EXAMPLE RANGE PREFERRED RANGE
    VR (V) 1-2  1.5-1.8
    Vreset (V) 3-7  4-6
    Vset (V) 7-10 6-9
    Vf (V) 5-12  6-10
    IA (nA) 20-150  50-100
    IB (nA) 100-1000 250-600
    TSET (ns) 100-1000 300-600
    TRESET (ns) 100-1000 300-600

    Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand other values may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that VSET and VRESET values depend on the on-chip resistance associated with the structure—in an array configuration, the on-chip resistance will depend on the bit location, such as a Near-Near bit needs lower voltages than a Far-Far bit.
  • FIG. 5B illustrates a graph of voltage versus current for example embodiments of memory element 16 having a first dielectric material layer 12 a and/or a second dielectric material layer 12 b that exhibit bipolar resistance-switching characteristics. Here, opposite polarity voltages are used for the set and reset processes. Moreover, positive voltages are used for the set process and negative voltages are used for the reset process. In this bipolar memory element, the set process occurs when a positive voltage is applied, and the reset process occurs when a negative voltage is applied.
  • In the set process, line 44 c represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 when in the high-resistivity, reset state, and line 46 c represents a transition to the low-resistivity, set state at Vset. In the reset process, line 40 c represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 when in the low-resistivity, set state, and line 42 c represents a transition to the high-resistivity, reset state at Vreset. Vset and Vf are positive voltages and Vreset is a negative voltage. Example bipolar programming parameters are set forth in Table 3:
  • TABLE 3
    EXAMPLE BIPOLAR PROGRAMMING PARAMETERS
    PARAMETER EXAMPLE RANGE PREFERRED RANGE
    VR (V) 1-2  1.5-1.8
    Vreset (V)  −(9-14.5) −(10.5-13.5) 
    Vset (V) 4-10 6-9
    Vf (V) 5-12  6-10
    IA (nA) 20-150  50-100
    IB (nA) 100-800  250-600
    TSET (ns)  20-10000  50-1000
    TRESET (ns)  20-10000  50-2000

    Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand other values may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that VSET and VRESET values depend on the on-chip resistance associated with the structure—in an array configuration, the on-chip resistance will depend on the bit location, such as a Near-Near bit needs lower voltages than a Far-Far bit.
  • FIG. 5C illustrates a graph of voltage versus current for another example embodiment of memory element 16 having a first dielectric material layer 12 a and a second dielectric material layer 12 b that exhibit bipolar resistance-switching characteristics. In this bipolar memory element, the reset process occurs when a positive voltage is applied, and the set process occurs when a negative voltage is applied.
  • In the set process, line 44 d represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 when in the high-resistivity, reset state, and line 46 d represents a transition to the low-resistivity, set state at Vset. In the reset process, line 40 d represents the I-V characteristic of memory element 16 when in the low-resistivity, set state, and line 42 d represents a transition to the high-resistivity, reset state at Vreset. Vreset and Vf are positive voltages and Vset is a negative voltage. Example bipolar programming parameters are set forth in Table 4:
  • TABLE 4
    EXAMPLE BIPOLAR PROGRAMMING PARAMETERS
    PARAMETER EXAMPLE RANGE PREFERRED RANGE
    VR (V) 1-2  1.5-1.8
    Vreset (V) 4-10 7-9
    Vset (V) −(9.5-15.5)   −(11-14.5)
    Vf (V) 5-12  6-10
    IA (nA) 50-150 100-200
    IB (nA) 200-1500  500-1000
    TSET (ns)  20-10000  50-2000
    TRESET (ns)  20-10000  50-1000

    Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand other values may be used. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that VSET and VRESET values depend on the on-chip resistance associated with the structure—in an array configuration, the on-chip resistance will depend on the bit location, such as a Near-Near bit needs lower voltages than a Far-Far bit.
  • Example Fabrication Processes for Memory Cells
  • Referring now to FIGS. 6A-6E, an example method of forming a memory level in accordance with this invention is described. In particular, FIGS. 6A-6E illustrate an example method of forming a memory level including memory cells 10 of FIG. 3A. As will be described below, the first memory level includes a plurality of memory cells that each include memory cells in accordance with this invention include a memory element 16 that includes a first dielectric material layer disposed above a first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, and a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer. One or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer includes a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer. Additional memory levels may be fabricated above the first memory level (as described previously with reference to FIGS. 2C-2D).
  • With reference to FIG. 6A, substrate 100 is shown as having already undergone several processing steps. Substrate 100 may be any suitable substrate such as a silicon, germanium, silicon-germanium, undoped, doped, bulk, silicon-on-insulator (“SOI”) or other substrate with or without additional circuitry. For example, substrate 100 may include one or more n-well or p-well regions (not shown). Isolation layer 102 is formed above substrate 100. In some embodiments, isolation layer 102 may be a layer of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride or any other suitable insulating layer.
  • Following formation of isolation layer 102, an adhesion layer 104 is formed over isolation layer 102 (e.g., by PVD or another method). For example, adhesion layer 104 may be between about 20 and about 500 angstroms, and preferably about 100 angstroms, of titanium nitride or another suitable adhesion layer such as tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, tungsten, molybdenum, combinations of one or more adhesion layers, or the like. Other adhesion layer materials and/or thicknesses may be employed. In some embodiments, adhesion layer 104 may be optional.
  • After formation of adhesion layer 104, a conductive layer 106 is deposited over adhesion layer 104. Conductive layer 106 may include any suitable conductive material such as tungsten or another appropriate metal, heavily doped semiconductor material, a conductive silicide, a conductive silicide-germanide, a conductive germanide, or the like deposited by any suitable method (e.g., CVD, PVD, etc.). In at least one embodiment, conductive layer 106 may comprise between about 200 and about 2500 angstroms of tungsten. Other conductive layer materials and/or thicknesses may be used.
  • Following formation of conductive layer 106, adhesion layer 104 and conductive layer 106 are patterned and etched. For example, adhesion layer 104 and conductive layer 106 may be patterned and etched using conventional lithography techniques, with a soft or hard mask, and wet or dry etch processing. In at least one embodiment, adhesion layer 104 and conductive layer 106 are patterned and etched to form substantially parallel, substantially co-planar first conductors 20. Example widths for first conductors 20 and/or spacings between first conductors 20 range between about 200 and about 2500 angstroms, although other conductor widths and/or spacings may be used.
  • After first conductors 20 have been formed, a dielectric material layer 58 a is formed over substrate 100 to fill the voids between first conductors 20. For example, approximately 3000-7000 angstroms of silicon dioxide may be deposited on the substrate 100 and planarized using chemical mechanical polishing or an etchback process to form a planar surface 110. Planar surface 110 includes exposed top surfaces of first conductors 20 separated by dielectric material (as shown). Other dielectric materials such as silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, low K dielectrics, etc., and/or other dielectric material layer thicknesses may be used. Example low K dielectrics include carbon doped oxides, silicon carbon layers, or the like.
  • In other embodiments of the invention, first conductors 20 may be formed using a damascene process in which dielectric material layer 58 a is formed, patterned and etched to create openings or voids for first conductors 20. The openings or voids then may be filled with adhesion layer 104 and conductive layer 106 (and/or a conductive seed, conductive fill and/or barrier layer if needed). Adhesion layer 104 and conductive layer 106 then may be planarized to form planar surface 110. In such an embodiment, adhesion layer 104 will line the bottom and sidewalls of each opening or void.
  • Following planarization, the diode structures of each memory cell are formed. With reference to FIG. 6B, a barrier layer 26 is formed over planarized top surface 110 of substrate 100. In some embodiments, barrier layer 26 may be between about 20 and about 500 angstroms, and preferably about 100 angstroms, of titanium nitride or another suitable barrier layer such as tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, tungsten, molybdenum, combinations of one or more barrier layers, barrier layers in combination with other layers such as titanium/titanium nitride, tantalum/tantalum nitride or tungsten/tungsten nitride stacks, or the like. Other barrier layer materials and/or thicknesses may be employed.
  • After deposition of barrier layer 26, deposition of the semiconductor material used to form the diode of each memory cell begins (e.g., diode 14 in FIGS. 1 and 3A). Each diode may be a vertical p-n, p-i-n, n-p-n or p-n-p punch-through diode, a carbon diode, or other similar diode as previously described. In some embodiments, each diode is formed from a polycrystalline semiconductor material such as polysilicon, a polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloy, polygermanium or any other suitable material. For convenience, formation of a polysilicon, downward-pointing diode is described herein. It will be understood that other materials and/or diode configurations may be used. Example carbon diodes and methods of forming carbon diodes are described the '840 application.
  • Following formation of barrier layer 26, a heavily doped n+ silicon layer 14 a is deposited on barrier layer 26. In some embodiments, n+ silicon layer 14 a is in an amorphous state as deposited. In other embodiments, n+ silicon layer 14 a is in a polycrystalline state as deposited. CVD or another suitable process may be employed to deposit n+ silicon layer 14 a.
  • In at least one embodiment, n+ silicon layer 14 a may be formed, for example, from about 100 to about 1000 angstroms, preferably about 100 angstroms, of phosphorus or arsenic doped silicon having a doping concentration of about 1021 cm−3. Other layer thicknesses, doping types and/or doping concentrations may be used. N+ silicon layer 14 a may be doped in situ, for example, by flowing a donor gas during deposition. Other doping methods may be used (e.g., implantation).
  • After deposition of n+ silicon layer 14 a, a lightly doped, intrinsic and/or unintentionally doped silicon layer 14 b may be formed over n+ silicon layer 14 a. In some embodiments, intrinsic silicon layer 14 b may be in an amorphous state as deposited. In other embodiments, intrinsic silicon layer 14 b may be in a polycrystalline state as deposited. CVD or another suitable deposition method may be employed to deposit intrinsic silicon layer 14 b. In at least one embodiment, intrinsic silicon layer 14 b may be about 300 to about 4800 angstroms, preferably about 2500 angstroms, in thickness. Other intrinsic layer thicknesses may be used.
  • A thin (e.g., a few hundred angstroms or less) germanium and/or silicon-germanium alloy layer (not shown) may be formed on n+ silicon layer 14 a prior to depositing intrinsic silicon layer 14 b to prevent and/or reduce dopant migration from n+ silicon layer 14 a into intrinsic silicon layer 14 b (as described in the '331 application).
  • P-type silicon may be either deposited and doped by ion implantation or may be doped in situ during deposition to form a p+ silicon layer 14 c. For example, a blanket p+ implant may be employed to implant boron a predetermined depth within intrinsic silicon layer 14 b. Example implantable molecular ions include BF2, BF3, B and the like. In some embodiments, an implant dose of about 1-5×1015 ions/cm2 may be employed. Other implant species and/or doses may be used. Further, in some embodiments, a diffusion process may be employed. In at least one embodiment, the resultant p+ silicon layer 14 c has a thickness of about 100-700 angstroms, although other p+ silicon layer sizes may be used.
  • Following formation of p+ silicon layer 14 c, a silicide-forming metal layer 52 is deposited over p+ silicon layer 14 c. Example silicide-forming metals include sputter or otherwise deposited titanium or cobalt. In some embodiments, silicide-forming metal layer 52 has a thickness of about 10 to about 200 angstroms, preferably about 20 to about 50 angstroms and more preferably about 20 angstroms. Other silicide-forming metal layer materials and/or thicknesses may be used. A nitride layer (not shown) may be formed at the top of silicide-forming metal layer 52.
  • Following formation of silicide-forming metal layer 52, an RTA step may be performed at about 600° C. for about one minute to form silicide layer 50 (FIG. 3), consuming all or a portion of the silicide-forming metal layer 52. Following the RTA step, any residual nitride layer from silicide-forming metal layer 52 may be stripped using a wet chemistry, as described above. Other annealing conditions may be used.
  • Following the RTA step and the nitride strip step, bottom electrode 24 is formed above silicide layer 50. In example embodiments of this invention, bottom electrode 24 includes a metal material layer 24 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b formed on metal material layer 24 a. Metal material layer 24 a may be Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, TaAlN, VN, VSi3N4, ZrN, ZrSi3N4, HfN, HfSi3N4, TiSi3N4, TaSi3N4, WSi3N4, WAlN, or other similar metal materials. In some embodiments, metal layer 24 a may have a thickness of about 100 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 50 angstroms to about 500 angstroms. Other thicknesses may be used.
  • As described above, metal material layer 24 a may be formed by CVD, PVD, sputter deposition, or other similar processes. In at least one embodiment, metal material layer 24 a may be deposited without a pre-clean or pre-sputter step prior to deposition. Example deposition process conditions are as set forth in Table 5 for forming a TiN metal material layer 24 a.
  • TABLE 5
    EXAMPLE TiN DEPOSITION PARAMETERS
    EXAMPLE PREFERRED
    PROCESS PARAMETER RANGE RANGE
    Argon Flow Rate (sccm) 20-40  20-30
    Ar With Dilute H2 0-30   0-10
    (<10%) Flow Rate (sccm)
    Nitrogen Flow Rate (sccm) 50-90  60-70
    Pressure (milliTorr)  1-5000 1800-2400
    Power (Watts) 10-9000 2000-9000
    Power Ramp Rate 10-5000 2000-4000
    (Watts/sec)
    Process Temperature (° C.) 100-600  200-350
    Deposition Time (sec) 5-200  10-150

    Other flow rates, pressures, powers, power ramp rates, process temperatures and/or deposition times may be used.
  • Example deposition chambers include the Endura 2 tool available from Applied Materials, Inc. of Santa Clara, Calif. Other processing tools may be used. In some embodiments, a buffer chamber pressure of about 1-2×10-7 Torr and a transfer chamber pressure of about 2-5×10-8 Torr may be used. The deposition chamber may be stabilized for about 250-350 seconds with about 60-80 sccm Ar, 60-70 sccm N2, and about 5-10 sccm of Ar with dilute H2 at about 1800-2400 milliTorr. In some embodiments, it may take about 2-5 seconds to strike the target. Other buffer chamber pressures, transfer chamber pressures and/or deposition chamber stabilization parameters may be used.
  • Highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b is formed on metal material layer 24 a. Highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b may be n+ poly, p+ poly, n+ poly with Ge (10-20%), p+ poly with Ge (10-20%), or other similar highly doped semiconductor material. In at least one embodiment, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b may be n+ poly, for example, from about 100 to about 1000 angstroms, preferably about 200 angstroms, of phosphorus or arsenic doped silicon having a doping concentration of between about 1×1020 cm−3 and about 1×1022 cm−3. Other layer thicknesses, doping types and/or doping concentrations may be used. N+ poly layer 24 b may be doped in situ, for example, by flowing a donor gas during deposition. Other doping methods may be used (e.g., implantation).
  • First dielectric material layer 12 a is formed over highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b. In some embodiments, first dielectric material layer 12 a may have a thickness of about 20 angstroms to about 30 angstroms, more generally between about 10 angstroms to about 50 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. First dielectric material layer 12 a may be SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy, Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, VSiO or other similar dielectric materials. First dielectric material layer 12 a may be formed using any suitable formation process, such as ALD, PVD, RTO, HDP-CVD, SPA, MOCVD, DLI-MOCVD or other similar process.
  • Intermediate electrode 25 is formed above first dielectric material layer 12 a. In example embodiments of this invention, intermediate electrode 25 includes a metal material layer 25 a and a highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b formed on metal material layer 25 a. Metal material layer 25 a may be Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, W, WN, Mo, TaAlN, VN, VSi3N4, ZrN, ZrSi3N4, HfN, HfSi3N4, TiSi3N4, TaSi3N4, WSi3N4, WAlN, carbon, a noble metal, such as Pt, or other similar metal materials. In some embodiments, metal layer 25 a may have a thickness of about 100 angstroms to about 300 angstroms, more generally between about 50 angstroms to about 500 angstroms. Other thicknesses may be used.
  • As described above, metal material layer 25 a may be formed by CVD, PVD, sputter deposition, or other similar processes. In at least one embodiment, metal material layer 25 a may be deposited without a pre-clean or pre-sputter step prior to deposition. Example deposition process conditions are as set forth in Table 1, above, for forming a TiN metal material layer 25 a.
  • Highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b is formed on metal material layer 25 a. Highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b may be n+ poly, p+ poly, n+ poly with Ge (10-20%), p+ poly with Ge (10-20%), or other similar highly doped semiconductor material. In at least one embodiment, highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b may be n+ poly, for example, from about 100 to about 1000 angstroms, preferably about 200 angstroms, of phosphorus or arsenic doped silicon having a doping concentration of between about 1×1020 cm−3 and about 1×1022 cm−3. Other layer thicknesses, doping types and/or doping concentrations may be used. N+ poly layer 25 b may be doped in situ, for example, by flowing a donor gas during deposition. Other doping methods may be used (e.g., implantation).
  • Second dielectric material layer 12 b is formed over highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b. In some embodiments, second dielectric material layer 12 b may have a thickness of about 30 angstroms to about 50 angstroms, more generally between about 20 angstroms to about 60 angstroms, although other thicknesses may be used. Second dielectric material layer 12 b may be SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy, Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, VSiO, or other similar dielectric materials. Second dielectric material layer 12 b may be formed using any suitable formation process, such as ALD, PVD, RTO, HDP-CVD, SPA, MOCVD, DLI-MOCVD or other similar process.
  • Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that first dielectric material layer 12 a and second dielectric material layer 12 b may be the same thickness, or may have different thickness from one another. Further, different process flows and recipes (such as film growth conditions, stoichiometry, gas flow, etc.) can be used to control the type and quality of the film and their respective interfaces to achieve reproducible memory states.
  • Top electrode 28 is formed above second dielectric material layer 12 b. Top electrode 28 may be about 20 angstroms to about 100 angstroms, more generally between about 10 angstroms and about 250 angstroms, of titanium nitride or another suitable barrier layer such as tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, tungsten, molybdenum, combinations of one or more barrier layers, barrier layers in combination with other layers such as titanium/titanium nitride, tantalum/tantalum nitride or tungsten/tungsten nitride stacks, or the like. Other barrier layer materials and/or thicknesses may be employed.
  • In at least one embodiment, top electrode 28 may be deposited without a pre-clean or pre-sputter step prior to deposition. Top electrode 28 may be formed by ALD, CVD, PVD, sputter deposition, or other similar processes. Example deposition process conditions are as set forth above in Table 1.
  • As shown in FIG. 6C, top electrode 28, second dielectric material layer 12 b, highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b, metal layer 25 a, first dielectric material layer 12 a, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b, metal layer 24 a, silicide-forming metal layer 52, diode layers 14 a-14 c, and barrier layer 26 are patterned and etched to form pillars 132. Pillars 132 may be formed above corresponding conductors 20 and have substantially the same width as conductors 20, for example, although other widths may be used. Some misalignment may be tolerated. The memory cell layers may be patterned and etched in a single pattern/etch procedure or using separate pattern/etch steps. In at least one embodiment, top electrode 28, second dielectric material layer 12 b, highly doped semiconductor material layer 25 b, metal layer 25 a, first dielectric material layer 12 a, highly doped semiconductor material layer 24 b, and metal layer 24 a are etched together to form memory element 16 (FIG. 3A).
  • For example, photoresist may be deposited, patterned using standard photolithography techniques, layers 26, 14 a-14 c, 52, 24 a, 24 b, 12 a, 25 a, 25 b, 12 b, and 28 may be etched, and then the photoresist may be removed. Alternatively, a hard mask of some other material, for example silicon dioxide, may be formed on top of top electrode 28, with bottom antireflective coating (“BARC”) on top, then patterned and etched. Similarly, dielectric antireflective coating (“DARC”) and/or amorphous carbon film (e.g., the Advanced Patterning Film from Applied Materials, Santa Clara, Calif.) may be used as a hard mask. In some embodiments, one or more additional metal layers may be formed above memory element 16 and diode 14 and used as a metal hard mask that remains part of pillars 132.
  • Pillars 132 may be formed using any suitable masking and etching process. For example, layers 26, 14 a-14 c, 52, 24 a, 24 b, 12 a, 25 a, 25 b, 12 b, and 28 may be patterned with about 1 to about 1.5 micron, more preferably about 1.2 to about 1.4 micron, of photoresist (“PR”) using standard photolithographic techniques. Thinner PR layers may be used with smaller critical dimensions and technology nodes. In some embodiments, an oxide hard mask may be used below the PR layer to improve pattern transfer and protect underlying layers during etching.
  • In some embodiments, after etching, pillars 132 may be cleaned using a dilute hydrofluoric/sulfuric acid clean. Such cleaning may be performed in any suitable cleaning tool, such as a Raider tool, available from Semitool of Kalispell, Mont. Example post-etch cleaning may include using ultra-dilute sulfuric acid (e.g., about 1.5-1.8 wt %) for about 60 seconds and/or ultra-dilute hydrofluoric (“HF”) acid (e.g., about 0.4-0.6 wt %) for 60 seconds. Megasonics may or may not be used. Other clean chemistries, times and/or techniques may be employed.
  • A dielectric material layer 58 b is deposited over pillars 132 to fill the voids between pillars 132. For example, approximately 2000-7000 angstroms of silicon dioxide may be deposited and planarized using chemical mechanical polishing or an etch-back process to form a planar surface 136, resulting in the structure illustrated in FIG. 6D. Planar surface 136 includes exposed top surfaces of pillars 132 separated by dielectric material 58 b (as shown). Other dielectric materials such as silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, low K dielectrics, etc., and/or other dielectric material layer thicknesses may be used.
  • With reference to FIG. 6E, second conductors 22 may be formed above pillars 132 in a manner similar to the formation of first conductors 20. For example, in some embodiments, one or more barrier layers and/or adhesion layers 140 may be deposited over pillars 132 prior to deposition of a conductive layer 142 used to form second conductors 22.
  • Barrier layer and/or adhesion layer 140 may include titanium nitride or another suitable layer such as tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, tungsten, molybdenum, combinations of one or more layers, or any other suitable material(s). Conductive layer 142 may be formed from any suitable conductive material such as tungsten, another suitable metal, heavily doped semiconductor material, a conductive silicide, a conductive silicide-germanide, a conductive germanide, or the like deposited by PVD or any other any suitable method (e.g., CVD, etc.). Other conductive layer materials may be used.
  • Conductive layer 142 and barrier and/or adhesion layer 140 may be patterned and etched to form second conductors 22. In at least one embodiment, second conductors 22 are substantially parallel, substantially coplanar conductors that extend in a different direction than first conductors 20.
  • In other embodiments of the invention, second conductors 22 may be formed using a damascene process in which a dielectric material layer is formed, patterned and etched to create openings or voids for conductors 22. The openings or voids may be filled with adhesion layer 140 and conductive layer 142 (and/or a conductive seed, conductive fill and/or barrier layer if needed). Adhesion layer 140 and conductive layer 142 then may be planarized to form a planar surface.
  • Following formation of second conductors 22, the resultant structure may be annealed to crystallize the deposited semiconductor material of diodes 14 (and/or to form silicide regions by reaction of the silicide-forming metal layer 52 with p+ region 14 c). In alternative embodiments, the arrangements of the doped silicon layers is reversed, so silicide-forming metal layer 52 is in contact with n+ region 14 a. The lattice spacing of titanium silicide and cobalt silicide are close to that of silicon, and it appears that such silicide layers may serve as “crystallization templates” or “seeds” for adjacent deposited silicon as the deposited silicon crystallizes. Lower resistivity diode material thereby is provided. Similar results may be achieved for silicon-germanium alloy and/or germanium diodes.
  • Thus in at least one embodiment, a crystallization anneal may be performed for about 10 seconds to about 2 minutes in nitrogen at a temperature of about 600 to 800° C., and more preferably between about 650 and 750° C. Other annealing times, temperatures and/or environments such as spike anneal, laser anneal may also be used.
  • Additional memory levels may be similarly formed above the memory level of FIGS. 6A-6E. Persons of ordinary skill in the art will understand that alternative memory cells in accordance with this invention may be fabricated with other suitable techniques.
  • The foregoing description discloses only example embodiments of the invention. Modifications of the above disclosed apparatus and methods which fall within the scope of the invention will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. For instance, in any of the above embodiments, the memory elements 16 may be located below diodes 14.
  • Accordingly, although the present invention has been disclosed in connection with example embodiments thereof, it should be understood that other embodiments may fall within the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined by the following claims.

Claims (40)

  1. 1. A memory cell comprising:
    a steering element; and
    a memory element comprising:
    a first conductive material layer;
    a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer;
    a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer;
    a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer; and
    a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer,
    wherein one or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprise a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer.
  2. 2. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  3. 3. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  4. 4. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  5. 5. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  6. 6. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the first dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  7. 7. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the second dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  8. 8. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the steering element comprises a diode.
  9. 9. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the steering element comprises a vertically oriented diode.
  10. 10. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the steering element comprises a p-n, p-i-n, n-p-n or p-n-p punch-through diode, a carbon diode.
  11. 11. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the steering element comprises a thin film transistor.
  12. 12. The memory cell of claim 1, wherein the memory element is disposed above or below the steering element.
  13. 13. A method of programming a memory cell comprising a memory element comprising a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer, wherein one or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprises a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer, wherein the memory cell has a first memory state upon fabrication corresponding to a first read current, wherein the method comprises:
    applying a first programming pulse to the memory cell with a first current limit, wherein the first programming pulse programs the memory cell to a second memory state that corresponds to a second read current greater than the first read current.
  14. 14. The method of claim 13, further comprising applying a second programming pulse to the memory cell with a second current limit higher than the first current limit, wherein the second programming pulse programs the memory cell to a third memory state that corresponds to a third read current greater than the second read current.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14, further comprising applying a third programming pulse to the memory cell without a current limit, wherein the third programming pulse programs the memory cell to a fourth memory state that corresponds to a fourth read current greater than the third read current.
  16. 16. The method of claim 13, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  17. 17. The method of claim 13, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  18. 18. The method of claim 13, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  19. 19. The method of claim 13, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  20. 20. The method of claim 13, wherein the first dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  21. 21. The method of claim 13, wherein the second dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  22. 22. A method of programming a memory cell comprising a memory element comprising a first conductive material layer, a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer, a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer, a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer, and a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer, wherein one or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprises a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer, wherein the method comprises:
    applying voltage pulses to the memory cell to reversibly switch the memory element between a low-resistivity state and a high-resistivity state.
  23. 23. The method of claim 22, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  24. 24. The method of claim 22, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  25. 25. The method of claim 22, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  26. 26. The method of claim 22, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  27. 27. The method of claim 22, wherein the first dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  28. 28. The method of claim 22, wherein the second dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  29. 29. A monolithic three-dimensional memory array comprising:
    a first memory level monolithically formed above a substrate, the first memory level comprising a plurality of memory cells, wherein each memory cell comprises:
    a steering element; and
    a memory element comprising:
    a first conductive material layer;
    a first dielectric material layer disposed above the first conductive material layer;
    a second conductive material layer disposed above the first dielectric material layer;
    a second dielectric material layer disposed above the second conductive material layer; and
    a third conductive material layer disposed above the second dielectric material layer,
    wherein one or both of the first conductive material layer and the second conductive material layer comprise a stack of a metal material layer and a highly doped semiconductor material layer; and
    a second memory level monolithically formed above the first memory level.
  30. 30. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein each steering element comprises a diode.
  31. 31. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein each steering element comprises a vertically oriented diode.
  32. 32. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein each steering element comprises a p-n, p-i-n, n-p-n or p-n-p punch-through diode or a carbon diode.
  33. 33. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein each steering element comprises a thin film transistor.
  34. 34. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the memory elements are disposed above or below the steering element.
  35. 35. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  36. 36. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the first conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  37. 37. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises one or more of titanium, titanium nitride, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, tungsten nitride, vanadium nitride, vanadium silicon nitride, zirconium nitride, zirconium silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicon nitride, titanium silicon nitride, tantalum silicon nitride, tungsten silicon nitride, tungsten aluminum nitride and carbon.
  38. 38. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the second conductive material layer comprises highly doped n+ polysilicon, highly doped p+ polysilicon, or highly doped polycrystalline silicon-germanium alloys.
  39. 39. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the first dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
  40. 40. The monolithic three-dimensional memory array of claim 29, wherein the second dielectric material layer comprises one or more of SiO2, HfO2, SiON, HfSiON, HfSiOx, HfAlxOy Al2O3, Si3N4, ZrO2, La2O3, Ta2O5, TiO2, SrTiO3, VO2, and VSiO.
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