US2014013A - Calculating machine - Google PatentsCalculating machine Download PDF
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- US2014013A US2014013A US2014013DA US2014013A US 2014013 A US2014013 A US 2014013A US 2014013D A US2014013D A US 2014013DA US 2014013 A US2014013 A US 2014013A
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- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C7/00—Input mechanisms
- G06C7/08—Keyboards with one set of keys for all denominations, e.g. ten-key board
- G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
- G06C—DIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
- G06C15/00—Computing mechanisms; Actuating devices therefor
- G06C15/08—Multiplying or dividing devices; Devices for computing the exponent or root
Sept. 10, 1935. H. T. AVERY ETYfAL u CALCULATING MACHINE Filed Jury 15, 119.31 11 sheets-sheet 2 INVENTORS Hara/a five/ y v. l E www T v n Z w 5M Y B SePt- 10, 1935. H, T. AVERY 'r AL 2;014,013
CALCULATING MACHINE Filed July 15, 1931 11 sheets-sheet s INVENTOR5 Hara/a TA1/ery BY asfm/ enc/1 ATTORNEY Sept. 10, 1935. v H. T. AVERY ET Al. 2,014,013
CALCUIMING MACHINE vFiled. July 15, 1951 11 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORS Hara/d 7T Ave/y BY usfm/ fra/7 ATTORNEY Nw \mmm www. S. Num. www. w WNW Q Rw mmm /Ir .14 /r-F Qmw l Q ull W|I|W|HM :NMvUmmM n Mw www O Pl www VM www n@ www Sw V j Mm@ www @w Rw www @w l f QN@ xH mw t MN wk V w wm w @NN 1 l Sept. 10, 1935. H. T'. AVERY ET Al. CALCULATING MACHINE 11 sneetssheet 6 Filed `July 1.5, 1951 I INVENTORS Filed July 15. 1951 11 Sheets-Sheet 7 TTORNE Y Sept. 10, 1935. H. T. AVERY ET AL CALCULATING MACHINE Filed July 15, 1931 11 Sheets-Sheet 8 ATTORNEY Sept. 10, 1935. H. T. AVERY Er AL CALCULATING MACHINE Filed July 15, 1931 l1 Sheets-Sheet 9 mIImHVmH sept. 1o, 1935. Y
H. T. AVERY ET AL CALCULATING MACHINE Filed July 15, 1931 l1 Sheets-Shea?l lO E 'I EglE..
INI/ENTORS I Haro/d K1/@Cy TTOR EY.
Patented Sept. 10,k 1935 Harold Avery and Gustav Leren, oakland,
Calif., assignors to Mai-chant Calculating Machine Company, a corporation of California arpuccticn 'July 15, 1931,1serm Nc. 550,855-
The present invention relates" to calculating machines of the type adapted Vto perform the four cardinal calculations and combinations thereof, but particularly to the type embodying means whereby multiplication and division opgations are performed automatically.
Mechanism disclosed herein whereby the add key, the depression of whichresults in the release of all depressed keys of the keyboard at the end lo of each cycle of operation, is automatically released from depressed position upon manipulation of the automatic division control member, is claimed inthe copending divisional application of Harold T. Avery, Serial Number 727,709, file May 26, 1934. v
An object of the invention is to provide means whereby the machine will be arrested and the automatic division control member released at the end of the rst denominational order as a warning to the operator in the event that the machine has been set to register a complementary fquotient. Y
A further object of the invention is to provide means whereby the operator may purposely obtain registration of a complementary quotient by holding the automatic 'division control member in operative position. Y, Other objects willappear aspthis description progresses. A
The invention possesses a plurality o! advantageous features, some of which will be set forth at length in the following description'where that form of the invention which has been selected for illustration in the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the present speeication, wm be described in fun. In seid drawings the preferred form of the apparatus has been shown, but it is to be understood that the invention has Y not been limited to such form, since the invention 4 0 as-set forthin the claims may be embodied in a plurality of other forms,l
It is manifest thatthe invention lmay be embodied ,in' any calculating machineof the type mentioned above. However, in the lng drawings, it is shown embodied ln-a motor drivenmachineof thegeneraltype disclosed in the patent tc Friden, Number 1,s43,'11o,dated September 27th, 1927, but is an improvement on the machine disclosed in tne'ppucation of Avery and Lerch, Number 405,127, dated November 6th,
1929, to which reference is herebymade for a disclosure of mechanisms as. are not y descriDedhereiB. "J
YIn Athe drawings accompanying and forming a VV part Yof thepresent specification:
. clutch control.
" Figure 1 is a longitudinal section from-the-left, showing drive' and power control mechanisms. Figure 2 is a longitudinal section' from the right, showing the plus and minus bar structures.
Figure 3 is a lateral section from the rear, showing the reverse mechanism .and the automatic division control thereior.
Figure 4 is a section taken online 4 4 of Fig ure 3,y showing a mechanism for preventing a reversing operation inhalt cycle position.
Figure 5 is a lateral section-from the front showing the automatic carriage shifting mechanism. Y
Figures 6, 6A, andk 'I are details of the shift l l5 Figure 8 is an assembly view' of the clearing and shift control.-
Figure 9 is a detail of the clear and shift key interlocking mechanism.
, Figure 10 is a longitudinal sectionI of the auto- 20 matic multiplier unit showing thee automatic shift Y control.. A i
Figure 10`A is a plan view ofthe add key releasing mechanism and a portion of the automatic division control means.
` Figure 11 is a section from the left showing the automatic division control lever and associated mechanism.
Figure' 12 is a-section division controls. Y
Figures 13 to 16 are details of portions of the mechanism shown in Figure l2.
Figure 17 is an elevation ci the automatic carriage shifting Figure ljis a-plan view of details of the auto- 35 matic carriage shitting mechanism. Figures 19'and 20 are also details of the automatic carriage shifting 1n.y Figures 21 and 22 are'tic views showing certain of the showing the drive geartrains to the variousm.
' mechanisms. v Y
Calculating machines are provided with'means whereby it is n to make a manual setting to obtain registration of true multipliers during the performance of automatic multiplication and 45 true quotients during the performance of automatie division- This same manual setting makes it possible for the operator' to obtain complementary multipliers and quotients if the natureof the calculation requires them. It is obvious, 50
then, that during successive problems in multipleation` and division. inadvertenceA or undueY Vspeedonthepartoftheoperatornuaiyrcaultinv overlooking this manual setting wherebya complementaryqiwtientmaybeobtainedzwhenatme .55
quotient is desired. In some cases the difference between a complementary and true quotient may be so slight that the mistake would not be noticed by the operator. The present invention provides means whereby the machine is stopped at the end of the first denominational order of thecalculation if the machine is set to register a complementary quotient, thereby insuring the registration of the desired quotient ligure.
If, then, the registration of said complementary\ quotient is due to a faulty setting of the machine, it is only necessary for the operator to shift the carriage back to the first denominational order and depress the plus key, thereby rotating the actuator a sufficient number of times in the opposite direction to correct the factors of the calculation, .instead of having to clear the accumulating and counter registers and again reset the entire group of factors into the machine.
However, if the operator has purposely set theA machine to register a complementary quotient, meanshave been provided in conjunction with the present invention, whe eby said complementary quotient may be obtained without this intermittent arresting of the machine between each denominational order. 'I'his is accomplished by the'operators holding the automatic division control lever in its forward operative position, and the means controlled thereby will be described in full hereinafter.
Calculating machines are ordinarily provided with an add key which, while maintained in its depressed position, causes the release of all de pressed keys of the keyboard and may also limit the actuator to one full revolution for each depression of the plus and minus bars. Due to the construction and operation of this add key control mechanism, the performance of -automatic division is impossible while said key is in its depreed position. 4 In the machine disclosed here-y in, the release of said add key is automatically effected upon displacement of theautomatic division control lever to its operative position. The construction of the mechanism accomplishing this end will be described in full hereinafter.
Actuator, accumulator, und counter (Figure 5) to effect the calculating operation. Por the purpose of making direct action of the selected values on the numeral wheel of highest order possible, the. accumulating register is disposed in parallel displaceable relation to the axis of the actuator.
The machine is also provided with a stationary counting register )1I (Figure 5) 'so arranged that it willcount the number of rotations of the actuator in any denominational Aorder positively or negatively. 1 j
Each of these registering mechanism is provided with'suitable tens transferfmean's, as disclosed in the above-mentioned patent, and other associated mechanisms which will be described in full as the specification-progresses.
Drive control nested to the drive shaft |00 (Figure l) by appropriate reducing gearing, and is adapted to be intermittently connected to the calculating mechanism to drive the same.
' The means whereby the drive is connected to 5 the calculating mechanism includes a clutch IIU, the driving member of which is a toothed wheel III fixed on one end of the drive shaft |00. Enclosing the toothed Wheel III is a circular housing II2 which constitutes the driven member of 1n the clutch, and pivoted within this housing, in a position to engage the toothed wheel III, is a driving pawl I I3. This pawl is normally pressed into engagement with the toothed wheel by means of vthe inset compression spring H4, but 15 it is adapted to be maintained' in its non-engaging position by means of the clutch control mechanism. The clutch control mechanism comprises a bell crank member H5 journaled on the stud shaft I I6 on the machine frame, and carry- 2o ing on one arm a foot I I1 adapted, when the actuator is in full cycle position, to project through an appropriately positioned aperture in the clutch housing I I2, to engage the tail of the pawl I I3 and urge it to clutch disengaging position. A 25 spring IIB, tensioned between a stud on the machine base and the opposite arm of the bell crank H5, tends to urge the foot II'I into disengaging position, so that in the absence of intervention by other instrumentalities, the actuator will be 30 brought to rest with the clutch in disengaged position when it reaches full cycle position after a rotation.
Means are provided for operating the bell crank IIB to engage the actuator for the number 35 of rotations requisite to perform a desired calculation, and pin Il! is provided on the forward end of the bell crank for this purpose. Pin III ls engaged by the notched rear end of the control link I2| which is pivoted at its forward end to 40 control plate 120, 4'and normally held in position overlying the pin I I9 by spring |21 tensioned between the shaft I-II and an intermediate point on the control link. Control plate |20 is fixed to shaft Ill journaled ln the machine and com, 45 prises a forward vertical portion I20B adapted to y cooperate with the plus key. and a rearward inclined portion I20A adapted to cooperate with the minus key. Operation of either of these keys serves to impart a counter-clockwise -oscillation to control plate |20. This imparts correspondlng counter-clockwise oscillation to the clutch operating bell crank III, permitting engagement of the driving pawl H3 for the period that such adjustment is maintained. Means whereby the plus and minuskeys accomplish this end will be described hereinafter.
Reversing gearing Flxedto the clutch housing IIO.(Figure 3) .for 60 rotation therewith, is a sleeve In journaled in an intermediate wall of the machine, and journaled upon this sleeve adjacent the clutch hous ingn are two gears III and I32. On their contiguous faces, these gears are provided with e5 annularanges III, each of which is provided with two oppositely disposed seats of different depth designed to receive pin III fixed in shifting shaft |35, and adapted to engage said seats through oppositely disposed orifices in the sleeve |30. A shifting of the pin |34, then, by means of the shaft- |35, causes one or the other of the two gears to be engaged for drive by the clutch housing. One of these gears includes an intermediate idler IIIA in its driving train tothe 76.
actuator which the other omits, and they therefore serve to drive the actuator in opposite 'directions as shown diagrammatically-in Figure 22. This portion of the mechanism is fully disclosed in the patent to Friden Number 1,682,901 dated September 4, 1928. In Figure 3, the pin |34 is shownso positioned as to drive the actuatorY in the additive direction into which position it is normally urged by the spring 225 (Figure 2) supportingthe minus bar.
Means areprovided for shifting. theshaft |35 (Figure 3) to carry the pin into engagement with the negative driving gear |32. made resilient so that its control may be superseded-by other controls operative in automatic division operations as will be hereinafter set forth. The shaft I35`carries a collar |43 which is inclosed by slidable sleeve |l| which also encloses a compression spring |42, one end of which bears against the collar M3 and the other end of which bears against one e of the sleeve Ml, thus maintaining the collar in engagement --with the other end of said sleeve. The shifting fork shown in Friden Patent Number 1,643,710 engages this collar |4| as shown at H3 and lateral motion thereof tends to shift the shaft |35 and its pin |34 into engagement with either of the two driving gears selectively.
A study of the Friden Patent Number 1,682,901 will reveal lthat the pin shift reversing mechanism described can be shifted in full and half cycle position, and since an accidental shift in half cycle position, caused by depression of the minus 'key during a problem in automatic' division, is undesirable, means'have been provided y whereby a shift 'in half cycle position is ren--d Y dered impossible. This is accomplished by provision of a radial fiange |63 (Figures 3 and 4) which is fixed to the shaft ,|35 and adapted to rotatektherewith. This ange is provided with a wide slot |63A which, while the shaft |35 is in full cycle position, is in radial alignment with'a depending tooth |62A of a bracket |62. This bracket |62 is rigidly secured to the shaft |5| which is merelyv aV supporting bar between the frames of the machine. The relative position of the radial flange, |63 andthe depending tooth |$2A is such that wlen the shaft |35is shifted l to one of its positions the flange |50 is disposed on one side of th'e tooth |52A and Vwhen the shaft is rshifted to its other position, the flange-is disposed on the other side of said tooth., The depending tooth 52A is of suilicient length so that the shift o f the shaft |35 from one 'position' tothe other can 5 only be made while the slot' am of the flange is in raam augnmet with the toothV |62TA. This condition being fulfilled only 'at full cycle position, it is obvious that the shaft |35 and the reversing pin carried thereby can be shifted only at such time. A
Since the accumulator and counter actuators must be necessarily arranged to rotate in the same direction oropposite directions from each other; a manually rversing meanshas been provided therebetween. Thisr manualV setting is accomplished through longitudinal movement of `a leverj|50 (Figure 3). which, through a worm `'cam provided on its lower extremity, slides a' shaft I5| laterally. This displacement, through a' fork |52, positions a gear |53 to operateeither. direct or through the idler gear |3|A. This mechanism is fully disclosed in the Friden Patent This means is arm of said bell crank 223 is provided with a Y 3 Y Plus and minus keus 'selectively operable, manual means are provided for controlling theengagement and direction of the drive. The means for manually con-V trolling rotation in the forward direction com? 5 Ykey in its Velevated position. The frame' 23| carries a roller V235I which extends through an aperture in the plate 2|3 and abuts the forward vertical end |23B of the control link |23 (Figures 1 and 2). Due to the manner in which the frame is mounted uponthe parallel links, depression of the plus bar causes the roller to be moved downwardly and to the, rear, rocking the control plate in a counter-clockwise direction to effect engage- -ment of the main-clutch in the manner hereinbefore set forth.
The manual means for controllingv reverse engagement of the drive comprises a minus-key 223, slidably mounted on the intermediate plate 2|3 by means ofY a pin and slot connection 22|. The
vstern of this key carries a pin 222 which extends Von the opposite side thereof from said key. The
key 223 is urged to its elevated positions by means' of a spring 223Bv (Figure 1) cooperating with a pin 223A on the stem of saidkey. The upper roller 225 which abuts the rearward inclined portion |23A of the control plate |23 and which is adapted upon dep ession of the key torock the plate in a counte clockwise direction, thereby effecting engagement of thev main clutch. The lower arm of said bell crank is connected by a link 221 with a worm cam which controls the reversing gear as fully disclosed in the aforementioned patent to Friden Number 1,643,710. Depression of the key 223, therefore, in addition to effecting engagement of the drive, operates the reversing gear to reverse the direction of the drive. To prevent concurrent depression of the' plus and minus keys, an interlock is'provided comprisinga bar-'233 (Figure 2) pivoted on the intermediate plate between the :two keys. and having one arm underlying the miler 235 of theY plus key, vwhile its other end underlies the upperv arm of bell crankr223. Depression of either key rocks the arm to prevent depression of the other key.
' Add key A special key' zu (Figure io), designated as ,o the add key, iseprovided to control the various mec in the performance of addition. Said key 253 is pivoted at 25| to a lever 252 pivotedat 253 and normally heldin its elevated podengages a pin 253 on a pitman 23| driven bythe Y machine and operated, when raised into opera-75 tive position by the depression of key 255, to release the keys by contacting the gate 254 near the end of each cycle of operation. The operation of this pitman in releasing the depressed keys is fully disclosed in the patent to Friden, Number 1,643,710, dated September 27th, 1927.
Depression of the key 250 also disables the automatic carriage shift mechanism through means which will be described hereinafter. f
i Carriage shifting mechanism tionv by the driving motor. This link is designed to impart a quickly accelerated motion to the carriage through approximately the first half of its step of-movement, whereupon the acquired momentum is sufficient to complete the shift. VI'he construction which makes" this possible has the additional advantage of permitting idle movement =of the link in the event'ofa locking of the carriage mechanism, thus preventing a jam. The link 550 is slidably mounted by pin and "alot connection 55| and 552 to stationary portions of the machine and is provided adjacent plate 552 with a cut out portion through which pass pivot rod 58| and a pin 555 fixed to pla? 552. Pivotally mounted on link 55D at 554 are spring shift bars 55.5 abutting opposite sides of pin 553 and normally maintained vertical `by compression springs 555 disposed between opposite anchors on link 550 and bars 555, pressing said bars against a lug 551 and 550.
The right end of link 550 is provided with i notches 555 and 550A cooperating with peripheral cams 55| and *55|A` and ydriven by carriage shift clutches 552 and 552A, respectively, to reciprocate link 555 to the right or left, depending .upon the yclutch selected for operation. The peripheral cams 55|. and 55m` are provided with notches 550A and 558B (Figure 17), respectively,-
which underlie link 55|.when the clutches are in full cycle position, permitting either cam to operate 555 withoutvinterference from the other. l As the link 555 is reciprocated to the right or l left by one of the cams, one of vthe springs 555 (Figure 5) is slightly compresses due to the inertia of the 'carriage and shifting' mechanism,
but as the carriage is started in motion, it expands, accelerating the carriage sufficiently to carryit a full step, although the link 555 moves only about a half st cp distance. In the event that the carriage is locked against movement the spring 555 will merely be farther compressed, as the bar 555 moves about its pivot 554 during reciprocatlon of link 555 and no Jam will ensue. I
' The construction Vand operation of the ktwo shift clutches, being substantially identical, only one will be described, except in touching on their differences. The cam 56|, driven by clutch 552,
shifts thecarriage to the right and the shift clutch is controlled by key- 510(Figure 5), while cam 55|A'driven by clutch 552A shifts the carnage. to the ien, and thisV clutch is controlled by key 515A. 'Ibese keys are relatively arranged,
not with .respect to the actual direction of the carriage shift, but with respect to the direction of denominational shift, as indicated by the usual pointer associated with the counter and which moves oppositely from the carriage. Operation of the right hand key 510A, therefore, moves the carriage into a lower denominational position. while operation of the left hand key 51B moves the carriage into a higher denominational position.
Both clutches are of the same pawl and ratchet type as the main clutch lli) heretofore described, and are mounted on and driven by shaft 553 geared to the main drive shaft |00. Clutch 552A is controlled by a clutch control lever 555A (Figure 6) corresponding to the main clutch control lever I I5, shown in Figure l. 'I'his shift control lever 566A is pivoted at 551 and has a hooked shaped upper end 558A adapted to be engaged by aA pin 559A carried on the lower extremity of the key 510A which key is pivoted' at 51| and urged to its upward position by a spring 515A tensioned between an intermediate position on the key lever and a stud on the machine frame provided therefor. Both clutch control levers are provided with tails 514 .and 514A for automatic operation, as will be hereinafter described, and are provided with spring 515A urging them to clutch disengaging position.
Automatic control of carriage shifting Automatic means are provided for engaging the carriage shift clutch at the proper time in automatic multiplication and automatic division operations. Automatic carriage shifting always occurs at the end of an additive rotation of the actuatcr, in automatic multiplication immediately after the last successive addition in each denominational order, and in automatic division at the end of the additive rotation which corrects the overdraft in each denominational order. 'Ihe shift clutch releasing means is, therefore, arranged to be driven with the actuator in additive rotation, and controlled from` the appropriate machine functioncontrol. A tripping finger580 (Figures '1 and 17) is therefore arranged on the right hand end of shaft 58| which extends through the sleeve carrying the counter transfer drum and is connected through an intermediate gear of the actuator drive train. Regarding the machine from the right side thereof, it will be observed that the actuator rotates in a counterclockwise direction for addition. It will thus be seen that in additive rotation of the actuator the tripping finger 580 is rotated in a clockwise dlrection. Y
A trip slide 582 (Figures '7 and 17) is arranged to be vertically reciprocated by the trip finger 588 as the actuator approaches full cycle position and for pivotal oscillation by its control member 595 to bring it in and out ofthe path of the trip finger 580 by means of the lower pin and slot connection [-33 through which it is supported on thc machine frame. A spring 584 tensioned between the machine frame and the lower arm of the member 582 tends to oscillate it in a clockwise directionand carries it out of the path of the trip finger. A locking member 585 pivoted 'at 585 has a laterally bent endgportion 551 adapted to latch behind a tooth 588 of the trip slide 582 to retain such slide in an active position in the path of tooth 580 until the shift clutch is actuated. The tail 585 of the latch member cooperates with a cam 580 fixed to the shift clutch housing. 0n .rotation of the shift clutch housing this and positively camming it out of the path of th tooth 588 to prevent a second actuation of the shift clutch. Spring 592 tensioned between the frame and the'latch lever 585 tends normally to retain it in a position to engage the rear of tooth A control shaft 595, journaled inthe side frame of the machine, carries a depending lever 596 having a laterally bent end portion 591 lying in contact with the lower forward edge of the trip slide 582. The lower end 591 of the iever'596, when moved rearwardly by. means of-th'e control shaft 595, moves the trip slide 582 intoits keifective position where it is held by member585. This control shaft is oscillated at the proper-time in the automatic computations hereinafter described to initiate carriage shifting.
The shift clutch trip slide 582 carries a pin 593 v (Figures 7,' 17, 18, and 20) adapted on reciprocation of the slide to operate one of the clutch con'- trol levers 566 and 566A, depending on the posiposition ofthe shift clutch control interponent 516 which is pivoted at 518A to a strap ."16B'jour-Y naled on shaft 516C so that the saidinterponent is capable of horizontal movement to select one or the other clutch control levers for operation upon vertical movement of said interponent. A
T-,shaped headv 516D on the interponent 516 is adapted in one position to overlie the tail 514A of the clutch control lever 566A and in 'its' other position to overlie the tail 514 of the clutch control lever 566. I'he T -shaped head 516D is formed with a lateral extension which is adapted to be operated by pin i593t in either position of Reciprocation of the shift.
the interponent. clutch trip slide 582 therefore oscillates the head 516D of the interponent and the contiguous tail of one of the shift clutch control levers, depending upon the lateral adjustment ofthe interponent. One or the other of the shift clutches is thereby engaged for a cycle of operation, shifting i ythe carriage one step to the right or left.
interpellent 516 and member 818 tends to move the head of the interponent to its position overlying control lever tail 514 and when the nger piece 'of the shift switch levere511 is in its leftmost position, it is free to do so. An automatic shift initiated while this adjustment is maintained operates the tail 514 oscillating lever 566 and engaging shift clutch 562 shifting the carriage one step to the right. When the shift switch lever is moved to its right hand position, however, the head of interponent 516 is moved to its position contiguous-to control lever tail 514A. An automatic shift initiated while this adjustment is maintained will operate tail 514A oscillating lever 556A and engaging shift clutch 561AY shifting the carriage one step to the left.
It will be noted that the directional adjustment of the shift clutch lever corresponds to the direction of the denominational shift indicated by the relative movement of the counter indicator to thecarriage as in the case of the shift key and not in the direction oi' the shift of the carriage.
As a safety factor to prevent damage to the machine in the event of misoperation of.a por- Y tion of the clutch control mechanism, the slide 582 (Figure 17) .has been made in two parts connected in slidable relation with one another by means of the pin and slot connections 583. They 1l0 are enormally held in their extended position by a compression spring 582A insuch a manner that the compression spring takes the load applied at thetop of the slide 582 by rotation of the tooth 588 and transmitted by the bottom portion of said slide to eifect engagement of one of the shift clutches. Due to this two part construction it is evident that .misoperation or a jam' in che clutch control mechanism will merely result in a compression of spring- 582A instead of a probably 20 serious bending of the severalparts'.
Automatic division Automatic division is performed in the present machine upon entry of the factors in the usual manner, positioning the carriage and shifting the division lever into its forward position whereupon a sequence -of operations ensues which. registers the quotient in the revolutions counter. Shifting of the division lever 688 starts the actuator in the subtractive direction and it acts to subtract the selected decimal multiple of the divisor from the dividend, registering the number of subtractions in the counter, until an overdraft occurs, which operates controls which effect a reversal of the actuator without effecting disengagement of the actuator clutch. The cycle immediately following upon the overdraft cycle therefore corrects the overdraft, and a control exerted during this cycle acts to disengage the actuator clutch in full 0 cycle position, and to engage the carriage shift clutch for a single cycle. The carriage shift clutch, in terminating its cycle of operation, actuates controls to reengage the actuator clutch and again drive the actuator in a subtractive direc= 45 tion. This tour of operation repeats itself suc-I cessively in consecutive denominational orders until the carriage reaches home position, when a special control intervenes to prevent engagement of the carriage shift clutch and all the mechanism is consequently brought to rest with all controls restored totheir normaLposition.
The automatic division control lever 688 (Figure 1l) is pivoted at 68! to the side wall of the machine and its upper end is brought toward the front of the machine to initiate a division operation. By this motion it moves the main division slide Y682 and the supplemental division slide 683 towardlthe rear of the machine against the force of a springs tensionedbetween the so base of the machine and the main division slide. A short pin and slot connection 683A connects the supplemental division-slide to the division lever so that this slide follows the movement of the division lever in both directions. division slide is, hoWever,-connected to the division lever by a longer `pin and slot connection 682A.
This longer pin and slot connection 682A is so arranged that the main division slide will be 70 vpushed to the rear by a forward rocking of the division lever but will not be returned by the restoration of the divisionlever to inoperative position, A pair of latching pawls 685 and 686 are pivoted side by side on the side frame of the 15 The main machine at 601. The heads of both these pawls cooperate with a notch 602B in a widened portion of the main division slide into which theyare pressed by their individual springs 6M `and 609 compressed between the forward portion of the respective pawls and an extension of the side frame. By this means, the main division slide B02 is latched in the rear position to which it is forced byr an operation ofthe division lever 600 until the two latching pawls 605 and 50B are concurrently raised.
Adjacent its rear end, the main division slide 602 has a camming bend 602C which cooperates with a notch in the shaft SI5 `to shift the shaft laterally on a movement of the slide. Shifting of this shaft operates the shifting fork IIB (Figures 17 and 19) fixed adjacent its opposite end which controls the engagement of a clutch Gil for a purpose presently to be described.
Spaced from its rear end the main division slide 802 carries a laterally extending pin SI2, the remote end of which lies directly in front of a vertical portion 221A (see Figure 2) of the link which controls the actuator reversing gear. .'Etearward'Y motion of the slide 502, then, serves to move the link 221 and place the gear control in position tocause subtractive rotation of the actuator.
concurrently, the bell crank 223 (Figure 2) attached to the forward end of link 221 is rocked, and the upper arm carrying rollerv 225 is moved downwardly, the roller being carried downwardly and toward the rear of the machine in the same manner as when actuated by the minusbar. In this motion it rocks control plate |20 (Figure 1) to cause engagement of the main actuator clutch III. This mechanism is locked in this position for the duration of the division operation by the latches holding the main division slide in its rearward position. The actuator, being thus set in motion, rotates continuousiy, subtracting the divisor or its decimal multiple from the dividend in the accumulator carriage at each successive rotation until an overdraft occurs. In an overdraft operation, due to the tens carrying mechanism, all eective numeral wheels to the left of those actuated are operated from their normal zero registration to a nine registration.
The movement of the familiar tens carrying mechanism of the machine in this operation is utilized to control the reversal of the actuator to eect a correction of the overdraft. This mechanism comprises carrying levers 4 25 (Figure l2) normally latched in their forward position as shown, but adapted to be tripped to and resilientiy latched in their rearward position by the lug 428 of the numeral wheel in a direct transit from zero to nine. Abutting directly behind the carry lever 425 of the numeral wheel cooperating with the next to the last carrying order of the actuator toward the left, is a lever 830 (see also Figure 16) pivoted to the machine frame at 63|. I'he pivot 32| permits movement of the leveril! inra verticallplane when a carry lever 425 is tripped. Pivoted for movement in a horizontal plane to the end of the lever at 332 is a bifurcated tail piece 533. This tail piece is movable on its pivot by means under control of the main division slide presently to be described yin connection with .the means for terminating the additive corrective operation, and in its opn erative position overlies the foot 434 of a vertical lever 635 pivoted att (see also Figure 3), on a second lever 531 which is pivoted to the machine frame at 63|. Pivoted to the lever 531 at 538 is a depending link 639, the lower end of which engages one arm of a bell crank 640 pivoted to a standard 64| on the machine frame. The upper arm of the bell crank 64|! operates against a collar 542 on the shaft |35 in such a. manner that rocking of the bell crank brought about by'downward pressure on link 835 shifts the shaft |35 so that it carries its pin |34 into engagement with the gear |3| which serves to drive the actuator l in the additive direction. This shift is positively brought about by means driven from the actuator and controlled by the numeral wheels in an overdraft operation.
In an overdraft operation the carrying lever 425 of the-controlling denominational order is rocked to the rear carrying with it the lever 630 and depressing its tail piece S33. This depresses the foot B34 of the vertical lever 535, rocking said lever, against the pressure of spring 635A to de- 4pressw a pin 645 slidably arranged in a socket in the upper end of lever 631 and arranged to be retained in either of the two adjusted positions by a spring pressed ball indicated at B46.
These operations occur just before the actuator 2.
its seat in gear |32 and into its seat in gear |3| 3u just as the actuator reaches full cycle position and against the force of spring |42 which is compressed in this operation, rendering unnecessary a release of link 221 which normally controls the position of pin |34, and also controls the main ki( actuator clutch. Thus the actuator is reversed without disengaging the main clutch and enters upon an additive cycle.
Pressure on the linkage system above outlined is at once relieved pon reversal of the ac- 4:
tuator but a reseating of the pin |34 in the gear |32 under pressure of spring |42 is prevented by the displacement of th-e seats and reversal in half cycle position is prevented by the mechanism shown in Figure 4 and described hereinbefore. 51
At `the end of a single cycle of additive rotation the actuator is arrested in full cycle dposition by disengagement of the' main clutch an spring |42 is permitted to reseat pin |34 in its seat in gear |32.
Means are provided whereby the tail piece 533 (Figures 3 and 16) normally held in inoperative position as shown, is rocked to operative position overlying the tail, 634 upon an operative stroke of the automatic division lever 600. This G is controlled by a lever 650 doubly pivoted for universal movement at the upper end of which'is disposed between the bifurcated end of a tail piece 633. A spring 652, tensioned between the upper portion of this lever 650 and a vertical portion' 553A of a slide 553, holds the upper portion of the lever G53 against the vertical portion 653A of the slide 553 in such a manner that the upper portion of lever 65|) follows the movementv of the slide 653. The lever |50,
i and consequently thetail piece 633, are normally maintained in inoperative position by a spring A653B which urges the slide 653 to the left as Figure ma) vwhich when the slide ssa isn inoperative position lies inthe path of a dependingv arm BME of the main division slide 602. It is obvious, then, upon rocking the automatic division lever 690 to its operative position, the rearward movement is such that the main division slide 692 thereby will, through the depending arm EOZE, cam the slide653 to the right as shown in Figure 3, and move the lever 650 and consequently the tail piece 633 into operative position.
As indicated in dottedlines in Figure 12; the actuator disk of nextlower qrderfrom that carrying the cam surfaces 651 and 651if is notched to permit transverse movement of lever 658 from operative to inoperative position.l -Means are provided to insure positioning oi the lever" 650 in either operative or inoperative position upon rotation of the actuator. A plate 650B (Figures .12 and 16) secured to the shaft IG! is providedwith two notches intermediate exterior limiting arms formed thereon, said lever 650 being aligned with Y l the respective notches when in operative and in scribed hereinafter, and said notch serves as a' guide for said lever in the rearward oscillation thereof.
in its operation position the lever 650 is arranged to effect a temporary disengagement of the main clutch at the end of an additive rotation of the actuator causedbyran overdraft registration; To accomplish this, the upper portion of the lever SSD lies in the path of a cam 656 (see alsovFigure' 13) carried on one of the actuator segments. The end of the camming member which approaches the lever during subtract'ive rotation of the actuator, carries aside bevel 651 which acts to move the lever 550 aside without tripping it, but the end which approaches the lever in additive rotatlonof the actuatorcarries a cam face $58 which acts to rock the lever $50 about its verticalpivot liftingits tail 659. This tail underlies and thus acts to lit one'end of a double lever system B60 (Figure 3) expediently plvoted in the machine, the other end of which lies in an aperture in the rearward end of the actuator clutch control link 121. The .lift exerted on the one end of the double lever-.system 660 causes a corresponding lift at the other end, raising the'clutch control lnk i2! clear of pin i i9 on the actuator clutch control bell crank H 5. Thus released, the bell crank H at once contacts the clutch housing H2 under urge of spring H8, and as the clutch reaches full cycle position the foot H1 enters the aperture i'n the clutch housing and disengages the clutch, lockingthe actuator in full cycle position. Duringy the additive rotation just completed, a cam 648A (F.gure 12) `formed on plate 64B acts to restore pin SI5 telits normal inoperative position.
Automatic add-key -releasc Y l As mentioned hereinbefore, proper functioning of the automatic division mechanism is imposs'ble while the add key 259 (Figure 10) is maintained in its depressed position. Therefore means have been provided for automatically rethe adjustment of shift control lever 511.
leasing said depressed add Vkey, said release being controlled by the rocking of the automatic division lever S90 toits operative position. This is accomplished by 'means of a horizontal slide 215 (Figure 10) slidably supported inY the machine by pin and slot connections 215, the fory ward end of which is provided with a cam faceslt in a clockwise oscillation of said depressed key about pivot point 251, thereby releasing the notch 255 from the supporting plate and permtt n g vthe cam'face 215B to force the pin and consequently the key to its elevated position. The slide then being held underneath the pin prevents depression of the key during the course of Aa divisionV operation.- The necessary forward movement of the slide 215 is. effected through the counterclockwise oscillation oi a bell' crank 211 (Figure 10A) pivotally mounted on the machine base at 218, one arm of which is disposed immediately to the rear and in contact with a depending portion 215A of the slide 215.
` The other arm of the bell crank 211 is provided with a camming faee'211A disposed in the path of the depending portion 602E ofthe main automatic division slide G82. It is obvious that a rearward movement of the main division slide 8112 to initiate a problem in automatic dvision will result in a rocking of the bell crank 211, thereby releasing the add key in the manner described above.
Automatic control of carriage shift during division r Means are provided for automatically engaging the proper carriage shift clutch upon die engagement of the main actuator clutch. Since in automatic division the drection of carriage shift must always be from right to left, means are provided under control of the main division slide 602 for movingthe selecting interponent 51)l over clutch lever tail 514A, regardless of .As hereinbefore set forth, the positioning of main division slide B02 (Figures l0 and 19) shifts shaft 515 to move shifting fork EiB into position to engage the restart clutch 611. The shifting fork u is providedwith a depending portion `BIBA (Fgure 17) lying adjacent the left side of an upstanding portion 516G of the interponent 515. But, upon' a setting of the main divis'on slide, the
`rear end of interponent 516 will be moved to its vright hand position overlying clutch lever tail 514 and'each subsequent reciprocation oi trip `slide 582 will cause engagement of the clutch 552A, shift ng the Vcarriage one step to the left.
Means are provided whereby the trip slide 582 is reciprocated automatically upon disengagement of the main actuator clutch.. A lever 61!! (Figure 5) pivoted at^61i on a rigid member dependentk from the'carriage track has an angu-l lar tail portion B12 overlying the clutch conface 615B,.`rock said bell crank 615 counter-clock-- wise, thereby positioning said nose 614 to underlie the lever 610. When the control link |2| (Figure 1) is raised to arrest the actuator at the end of a corrective additive rotation, the pawl 610 is rocked clockwise and its nose depresses lever 613 rocking control shaft 595 to trip the automatic carriage shift control mechanism hereint before set forth.
Toward the end of the cycle of operation of the carriage shift clutch 662A, cam 680 (Figure 17), rigid with cam 56|A driven by said clutch, rocks its cooperating arm 66| to reengage the main clutch. This arm is journaled on a shaft 602 on the opposite end of which is fixed an arm 663`underlying the pin 664 (Figure l) on the' actuator clutch control bell crank H5. Movement of the arm 66| is normally ineffective, but a setting of the main division slide 602 operates shifting fork 6I6 moving the clutch member 6|1 (Figures 5 and 19) into engagement with a complementary clutch face 6|1B, fixed to arm 66| and clutches it to the shaft so that when it is' rocked by cam 660 the clutch bell crank H6 will be rocked to reengage the actuator clutch. Said clutch bell crank H5 is then latched by the reengagement of the pin H9 'in the notchedend of'control link I2I. This tour of operations is repeated in each denominational order until the carriage reaches its extreme left hand position.`
vMeans are provided for terminating the calculation at the end of a tour of operations if the carriage is in its extreme left hand position. Pawl 600 (Figure 5) pivoted at 69| has a nose overlying both latchesY 605 and 606 which it trips concurrently, completely releasing the main division slide 602 so that'it may be returned to inoperative position by its spring 604 to terminate a calculation. 4'A link 602 connects the tail of lever 600 with one end of a finger 692 pivoted at 664 and positioned to project through an aperture in the carriage track into contact with the underside of the carriage, in which direction it is urged by spring 606. The aperture is so positioned that the carriage' covers it and blocks the rise of the linger except when the carriage is in its extreme left hand position. T he lower end of the ringer also carries a pivoted latch 666 which projects through a slot in plate 691 depending from the lower side of the carriage track 600 and is urged into latching position against the lower end ot'said slot by a spring 666 tensioned between an intermediate portion of the latch and a depending plate 691.
The nose of the latch.overlies the actuator.l
clutch control link |2| and istherefore raised at the conclusion of each corrective additive rotation when the actuator clutch is disengaged. If the carriage is out of its extreme left hand position, the finger 663 is unable to rise under urge of spring 665 and the latch therefore merely falls back without effect. If, however, the carriage is in its extreme leit hand position, the spring moves the linger through the aperture and concurrently moves link 662 to the right, rocking lever 660 and depressing the underlying tails of latches 666 and 606, thus completely releasing the main division slide 602, which returns to its inoperative position terminating the calculation. The carriage shift trip slide 562 is, as usual,
tripped to its operative position by lever 610 but is returned to inoperative position (see Figure '1) before being actuated by the action of cam face 602D on the main division slide602 which depresses pin 622 on the trip slide latchtuator.
ing member 565, depressing this lever and positively camming the slide 582 to its inoperative position.
Manually controlledy means are provided for terminating a calculation prior to its completion` The calculation may be terminated at'the conclusion of the tour of operation in any denominational order by manual return of the division lever 600 to/its inoperative position at any time during the tour of operations. This carries the supplementary division slide 603 (Figure 11) to its forward position and a cam-face 603C formed thereon acts on a lug 606A iormed on a latch member 606 to release said latch from the notch 602B in the main division slide. The main division slide is, however, maintained in its operative position by latch 605 until the end of the tour of operations when it is tripped by the rocking of the overlying lever 610 the tail of which overlies actuator clutch control link |2l. Tripping of latch 605 completes the release of the main division slide 602 permitting it to return to inoperative position and terminating the calculation.
The second latch 605 may be alternatively relessed by manually operated means under the control of the multiplier clear key to terminate the calculation at the end of any cycle of the actuator and before completion of a tour of operations. The ste'n of themultiplier clear key is provided with a pin 625 (Figure 1l) overlying one end of a lever 626 pivoted to the side wall of the machine at 621. The other end of this lever has 'a laterally bent portion 626A lying in a wide notch in latch 605. Depression of the multiplier clear key rocks the lever 626, raising latch 605 and provided latch 606 has been released by return of lever 600, this action will completely release slide 602, terminating the calculation. This last releasing means of the latch 605 is only used, however, when the machine has been misoperated, as when the division lever has been pulled while no factorsare set in the machine, in which case it operates continuously in the subtractive direction, and no other means is effective to arrest it.
Complementary quotient arresting mechanism Means have been provided whereby the automatic division mechanism will be arrested by the subsequent carriage shift following fthe completion of the cycle of operations in each denominational order of the calculation in the event that the machine has been set to register a complimentary'quotient. This is accomplished through means of a member 6|0 (Figures 3, 11 and 1'1) which is slidably and rotatably supported in the .machinetat its lower end by pin and slot connection 6|0 and provided on its upper end with a horizontal portion, which is held by spring 6|0C in contact with the edge Vof a second member 6H against which it slides during an operation. The member 6| is 'pivotally mounted at 6l IA and by its contact with the periphery of the reversing shaft |5I is adapted to normally hold the horizontal portion of the member 6|0 out of operative position. As described hereinbefore, the shaft |5| is shifted laterally to eiiect a reversal of the counter actuator so that it will-rotate in the same direction or in the opposite direction from the accumulator ac- As seen in Figure`3, a shift of the shaft |5| Vto the left will result in its rotating in the same direction as the accumulator actuator,
which, in the present instance, will eifect registration of a complementary quotient.
Spaced from one of its ends, the shaft I5I is 'provided with a depression I5IA into which the rear edge of the member 6I I will be disposed when said shaft is shifted to its extreme left or complementary quotient position. 'I'he slot I5 IA of shaft I5I is provided with a gradual approach so that a shift of shaft I5I to its extreme left position results in a counter-clockwise rotation of the member SII (Figure 17) about its pivot GIIA, thereby permitting spring 6 I 0C to move the horizontal portion of the member BIB into operative position. In its operative position the horizontal portion of the member 6 I0 is Asufficiently near the hooked end 552B of the carriage shift slide 552 so that when said shift slide is rocked counterclockwise into engagement with the rotating tooth 580 to initiate a carriage shift, as hereinbefore described, the hooked end 582B will be rocked into a position overlying' the horizontal portion of the member GIO, and the subsequent downward movement of the slide 582 will result in a similar downward movement of the member'GIIi. The lower portion of the member GII) is provided with a lateral extension GIIlB, overlying the latches 605 and 505 so that said downward movement' of the member SIU will depress the tails of said latches, thereby eifecting a release of the main division slide 502 and terminating the calculating operation after its completion in one denominational order. However, it is obvious that if the operator intended to obtain registration of a complementary quotient, he may do so through continuous operation by merely holding the automatic division lever 50u in its forward operative position, thereby preventing the slide 502 from returning to eifect termination of the cal culating operation.'
Warning bell mechanism 'Ihe present machine is provided with a mechanism for signaling to the operator when the capacity of the calculating mechanism is exceeded in addition, subtraction, and multiplication. The signaling means is, however, disabled during automatic division and its control mechanism used as a machine function control in that operation.
A bell 450 (Figures 3 and 12) suitably mounted on the side frame is arranged to be sounded by a clapper pivoted to a standard on the machine base and urged to a neutral position by spring 453.
overlying the link 454 where it will be during any problem other than automatic division, an overdraft, or the rocking of the numeral wheels of the accumulator carriage from zero to'nine, will result, through the tooth 425 rocking the transfer lever 425 and tail piece 623 in a downward reciprocation of the link 454. The bell clapper 45| is thereforeoscillated, ringing the bell, indicating that a transferred increment has been lost and that the indicated registration is therefore incorrect.
In automatic division operations, however, the tail piece 633 (see also Figure 16) is moved so that its other arm overlies the foot 634 and its extension 633A is consequently moved from its position overlying the link 454, thereby rendering the throwing of the transfer lever 425 ineleotive t0 sound the alarm mechanism during that operation. y
'I'he calculating machine as shown in the patent to Friden Number 1,643,710, is provided with a trip slide for tripping or raising the rear end of the latch lever I2I to release the clutch control lever II5 at the endvof a selected, predetermined number of rotations of the actuator. Movement of the trip slide -'IIiII serves to raise the rear end of the latch lever I2I and the trip slide is moved by a pin III (Figure 10) carried by the sli-fie bar 1N, which is positioned in variable angular positions, depending upon the predetermined number of rotations of the actuator, by the lever 120, which is provided with a pin-12| engaging in a slot 'H2 in the slide bar 1I0. 'I'he slide/bar 'II Il is connected to a rack as disclosed in said patent which is restrained against movement by a spring, and which is given a step by step movement by a tooth integral with the actuator clutch. The slide bar 1I!! which carries the pin 'III therefore is moved one step for each rotation of the actuator and, by variably positioning the slide bar TIO, a diiferent number of steps of movement are required before the pin 'III comes into engagement with the stepped face of the slide plate 100. The
next rotation of the actuator after such engagement causes the pin III to move the slide plate 100, and thereby disconnect the latch bar I2I from the clutch control lever I I5.
l The siide bar 'H0 is normally held in depressed position by the spring '|22 connected to the lever 120 which is in turn connected to the slide bar lill. When the slide bar 'H0 is in its normal depressed position, the pin 'III is in zero position, that is, one station below the number one position, in which zero position it is shown in Figure 10. With the pin 'III in this zero position, it may oscillate through one step of movement, moving the slide 100 for less than a full step as set forth in the above-mentioned patent, thus preventing operation of the trip slide latch.
As can be seen in the Friden Patent Number 1,643,710, the unit is provided with a series of keys ranging in value from'one to nine, whichv serve to position the pin III to automatically stance, will position the pin 'III in front of the eighth step on the slide plate 105, so that at the end of the eighth rotation of the actuator the clutch control link I2I will be raised and the clutch disengaged, thereby terminating the operation.
Control of carriage shift during automatic multiplication Depression of a multiplier key therefore results in the rotation of the accumulator actuator the number of times delineated on said-key, during the last rotation of which thev plate 'IM (Figure 10) is moved to the rear by pin 'III to actuate instrumentalities for terminating the calculation. It is at thisr point in the operation that it is desired to initiate action of the shift clutch. For this purpose a member 150 is provided. Said control the number of revolutions of the actu- 55 ator. Depression of the key valued eight, for in-
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US2014013A true US2014013A (en)||1935-09-10|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US2014013D Expired - Lifetime US2014013A (en)||Calculating machine|
Country Status (1)
|US (1)||US2014013A (en)|
Cited By (2)
|Publication number||Priority date||Publication date||Assignee||Title|
|US2546893A (en) *||1951-03-27||Hilder|
|US2688439A (en) *||1954-09-07||Decimal point mechanism|
- US US2014013D patent/US2014013A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
Cited By (2)
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|US2546893A (en) *||1951-03-27||Hilder|
|US2688439A (en) *||1954-09-07||Decimal point mechanism|
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