US20140039139A1 - Nonsymmetric Catalysts Comprising Salan Ligands - Google Patents

Nonsymmetric Catalysts Comprising Salan Ligands Download PDF

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US20140039139A1
US20140039139A1 US13921709 US201313921709A US2014039139A1 US 20140039139 A1 US20140039139 A1 US 20140039139A1 US 13921709 US13921709 US 13921709 US 201313921709 A US201313921709 A US 201313921709A US 2014039139 A1 US2014039139 A1 US 2014039139A1
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borate
tetrakis
pentafluorophenyl
radical
catalyst
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US8957172B2 (en )
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Garth R. Giesbrecht
Matthew W. Holtcamp
Moshe Kol
Gregory S. Day
David A. Cano
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Ramot at Tel Aviv University Ltd
ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc
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Ramot at Tel Aviv University Ltd
ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F4/00Polymerisation catalysts
    • C08F4/42Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors
    • C08F4/72Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors selected from metals not provided for in group C08F4/44
    • C08F4/74Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors selected from metals not provided for in group C08F4/44 selected from refractory metals
    • C08F4/76Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors selected from metals not provided for in group C08F4/44 selected from refractory metals selected from titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium or tantalum
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F210/00Copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond
    • C08F210/16Copolymers of ethene with alpha-alkenes, e.g. EP rubbers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F4/00Polymerisation catalysts
    • C08F4/42Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors
    • C08F4/44Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors selected from light metals, zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, silver, gold, boron, gallium, indium, thallium, rare earths or actinides
    • C08F4/52Metals; Metal hydrides; Metallo-organic compounds; Use thereof as catalyst precursors selected from light metals, zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, silver, gold, boron, gallium, indium, thallium, rare earths or actinides selected from boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium or rare earths

Abstract

Catalysts comprising a non-symmetrical Salan ligand with a carbazole moiety. Also disclosed are catalyst systems comprising the catalyst and an activator; methods to prepare the ligands, catalysts and catalyst systems; processes to polymerize olefins using the catalysts and/or catalyst systems; and the olefin polymers prepared according to the processes.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority to and the benefit of provisional application U.S. 61/679,505, filed Aug. 3, 2012.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to novel catalyst compounds comprising Salan ligands and catalyst systems comprising such and uses thereof.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Olefin polymerization catalysts are of great use in industry. Hence there is interest in finding new catalyst systems that increase the commercial usefulness of the catalyst and allow the production of polymers having improved properties.
  • There is a need in the art for new and improved catalysts and catalyst systems to obtain new and improved polyolefins, polymerization processes, and the like. Accordingly, there is a need in the art for new and improved catalyst systems for the polymerization of olefins for one or more of the following purposes: to achieve one or more specific polymer properties, such as high polymer melting point and/or high polymer molecular weights; to increase conversion or comonomer incorporation; and/or to alter comonomer distribution without deterioration of the properties of the resulting polymer. The instant disclosure is directed to novel catalyst compounds, catalysts systems comprising such compounds, and processes for the polymerization of olefins using such compounds and systems in satisfaction of the need in the art.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The instant disclosure is directed to catalyst compounds, catalyst systems comprising such compounds, processes for the preparation of the catalyst compounds and systems, and processes for the polymerization of olefins using such catalyst compounds and systems.
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst compound comprises Group 3, 4, 5 and/or 6 disubstituted compounds supported by a non-symmetrical heteroaryl-substituted tetradentate di-anionic Salan ligand.
  • In an embodiment, a catalyst compound is represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00001
  • where:
  • each solid line represents a covalent bond and each dashed line represents a bond having varying degrees of covalency and a varying degree of coordination;
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical, and
  • Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • In an embodiment, a catalyst system comprises an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00002
  • where:
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or a combination thereof, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical; and
  • Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • In an embodiment, a process to polymerize olefins comprises contacting one or more olefins with a catalyst system at a temperature, a pressure, and for a period of time sufficient to produce a polyolefin, the catalyst system comprising an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00003
  • where:
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof, subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical; and
  • Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • For the purposes of this invention and the claims thereto, the new numbering scheme for the Periodic Table Groups is used as in Chem. Eng. News, 1985, 63, 27. Therefore, a “Group 4 metal” is an element from Group 4 of the Periodic Table.
  • In the structures depicted throughout this specification and the claims, a solid line indicates a bond, an arrow indicates that the bond may be dative, and each dashed line represents a bond having varying degrees of covalency and a varying degree of coordination.
  • The terms “hydrocarbyl radical,” “hydrocarbyl” and “hydrocarbyl group” are used interchangeably throughout this document unless otherwise specified. For purposes of this disclosure, a hydrocarbyl radical is defined to be C1 to C70 radicals, or C1 to C20 radicals, or C1 to C10 radicals, or C6 to C70 radicals, or C6 to C20 radicals, or C7 to C20 radicals that may be linear, branched, or cyclic where appropriate (aromatic or non-aromatic); and includes hydrocarbyl radicals substituted with other hydrocarbyl radicals and/or one or more functional groups comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements. In addition two or more such hydrocarbyl radicals may together form a fused ring system, including partially or fully hydrogenated fused ring systems, which may include heterocyclic radicals.
  • For purposes herein, a carbazole or substituted carbazole radical is represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00004
  • wherein each R1 through R8 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R8 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof.
  • The term “substituted” means that a hydrogen atom and/or a carbon atom in the base structure has been replaced with a hydrocarbyl radical, and/or a functional group, and/or a heteroatom or a heteroatom containing group. Accordingly, the term hydrocarbyl radical includes heteroatom containing groups. For purposes herein, a heteroatom is defined as any atom other than carbon and hydrogen. For example, methyl cyclopentadiene (Cp) is a Cp group, which is the base structure, substituted with a methyl radical, which may also be referred to as a methyl functional group, ethyl alcohol is an ethyl group, which is the base structure, substituted with an —OH functional group, and pyridine is a phenyl group having a carbon in the base structure of the benzene ring substituted with a nitrogen atom.
  • For purposes herein, a hydrocarbyl radical may be independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted methyl, ethyl, ethenyl and isomers of propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, pentadecyl, hexadecyl, heptadecyl, octadecyl, nonadecyl, eicosyl, heneicosyl, docosyl, tricosyl, tetracosyl, pentacosyl, hexacosyl, heptacosyl, octacosyl, nonacosyl, triacontyl, propenyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, heptenyl, octenyl, nonenyl, decenyl, undecenyl, dodecenyl, tridecenyl, tetradecenyl, pentadecenyl, hexadecenyl, heptadecenyl, octadecenyl, nonadecenyl, eicosenyl, heneicosenyl, docosenyl, tricosenyl, tetracosenyl, pentacosenyl, hexacosenyl, heptacosenyl, octacosenyl, nonacosenyl, triacontenyl, propynyl, butyryl, pentynyl, hexynyl, heptynyl, octynyl, nonynyl, decynyl, undecynyl, dodecynyl, tridecynyl, tetradecynyl, pentadecynyl, hexadecynyl, heptadecynyl, octadecynyl, nonadecynyl, eicosynyl, heneicosynyl, docosynyl, tricosynyl, tetracosynyl, pentacosynyl, hexacosynyl, heptacosynyl, octacosynyl, nonacosynyl, and triacontynyl.
  • For purposes herein, hydrocarbyl radicals may also include isomers of saturated, partially unsaturated and aromatic cyclic structures wherein the radical may additionally be subjected to the types of substitutions described above. The term “aryl”, “aryl radical”, and/or “aryl group” refers to aromatic cyclic structures, which may be substituted with hydrocarbyl radicals and/or functional groups as defined herein. Examples of aryl radicals include: acenaphthenyl, acenaphthylenyl, acridinyl, anthracenyl, benzanthracenyls, benzimidazolyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzofluoranthenyls, benzofuranyl, benzoperylenyls, benzopyrenyls, benzothiazolyl, benzothiophenyls, benzoxazolyl, benzyl, carbazolyl, carbolinyl, chrysenyl, cinnolinyl, coronenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, methylcyclohexyl, dibenzoanthracenyls, fluoranthenyl, fluorenyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, indazolyl, indenopyrenyls, indolyl, indolinyl, isobenzofuranyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolinyl, isoxazolyl, methyl benzyl, methylphenyl, naphthyl, oxazolyl, phenanthrenyl, phenyl, purinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrenyl, pyridazinyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolonyl, quinoxalinyl, thiazolyl, thiophenyl, and the like.
  • It is to be understood that for purposes herein, when a radical is listed, it indicates that the base structure of the radical (the radical type) and all other radicals formed when that radical is subjected to the substitutions defined above. Alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl radicals listed include all isomers including where appropriate cyclic isomers, for example, butyl includes n-butyl, 2-methylpropyl, 1-methylpropyl, tert-butyl, and cyclobutyl (and analogous substituted cyclopropyls); pentyl includes n-pentyl, cyclopentyl, 1-methylbutyl, 2-methylbutyl, 3-methylbutyl, 1-ethylpropyl, and nevopentyl (and analogous substituted cyclobutyls and cyclopropyls); butenyl includes E and Z forms of 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, 1-methyl-1-propenyl, 1-methyl-2-propenyl, 2-methyl-1-propenyl, and 2-methyl-2-propenyl (and cyclobutenyls and cyclopropenyls). Cyclic compounds having substitutions include all isomer forms, for example, methylphenyl would include ortho-methylphenyl, meta-methylphenyl and para-methylphenyl; dimethylphenyl would include 2,3-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, 2,5-dimethylphenyl, 2,6-diphenylmethyl, 3,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl.
  • Likewise the terms “functional group”, “group” and “substituent” are also used interchangeably throughout this document unless otherwise specified. For purposes herein, a functional group includes both organic and inorganic radicals and moieties comprising elements from Groups 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 of the periodic table of elements. Suitable functional groups may include hydrocarbyl radicals, e.g., alkyl radicals, alkene radicals, aryl radicals, and/or halogen (Cl, Br, I, F), O, S, Se, Te, NR*x, OR*, SeR*, TeR*, PR*x, AsR*x, SbR*x, SR*, BR*x, SiR*x, GeR*x, SnR*x, PbR*x, and/or the like, wherein R is a C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl as defined above and wherein x is the appropriate integer to provide an electron neutral moiety. Other examples of functional groups include those typically referred to as amines, imides, amides, ethers, alcohols (hydroxides), sulfides, sulfates, phosphides, halides, phosphonates, alkoxides, esters, carboxylates, aldehydes, and the like.
  • For purposes herein an “olefin,” alternatively referred to as “alkene,” is a linear, branched, or cyclic compound comprising carbon and hydrogen having at least one double bond. For purposes of this specification and the claims appended thereto, when a polymer or copolymer is referred to as comprising an olefin, the olefin present in such polymer or copolymer is the polymerized form of the olefin. For example, when a copolymer is said to have an “ethylene” content of 35 wt % to 55 wt %, it is understood that the mer unit in the copolymer is derived from ethylene in the polymerization reaction and said derived units are present at 35 wt % to 55 wt %, based upon the weight of the copolymer.
  • For purposes herein a “polymer” has two or more of the same or different “mer” units. A “homopolymer” is a polymer having mer units that are the same. A “copolymer” is a polymer having two or more mer units that are different from each other. A “terpolymer” is a polymer having three mer units that are different from each other. “Different” in reference to mer units indicates that the mer units differ from each other by at least one atom or are different isomerically. Accordingly, the definition of copolymer, as used herein, includes terpolymers and the like. An oligomer is typically a polymer having a low molecular weight, such an Mn of less than 25,000 g/mol, or in an embodiment less than 2,500 g/mol, or a low number of mer units, such as 75 mer units or less. An “ethylene polymer” or “ethylene copolymer” is a polymer or copolymer comprising at least 50 mole % ethylene derived units, a “propylene polymer” or “propylene copolymer” is a polymer or copolymer comprising at least 50 mole % propylene derived units, and so on.
  • For the purposes of this disclosure, the term “α-olefin” includes C2-C22 olefins. Non-limiting examples of α-olefins include ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, 1-nonene, 1-decene, 1-undecene 1-dodecene, 1-tridecene, 1-tetradecene, 1-pentadecene, 1-hexadecene, 1-heptadecene, 1-octadecene, 1-nonadecene, 1-eicosene, 1-heneicosene, 1-docosene, 1-tricosene, 1-tetracosene, 1-pentacosene, 1-hexacosene, 1-heptacosene, 1-octacosene, 1-nonacosene, 1-triacontene, 4-methyl-1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-pentene, 5-methyl-1-nonene, 3,5,5-trimethyl-1-hexene, vinylcyclohexane, and vinylnorbornane. Non-limiting examples of cyclic olefins and diolefins include cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclononene, cyclodecene, norbornene, 4-methylnorbornene, 2-methylcyclopentene, 4-methylcyclopentene, vinylcyclohexane, norbornadiene, dicyclopentadiene, 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene, vinylcyclohexene, 5-vinyl-2-norbornene, 1,3-divinylcyclopentane, 1,2-divinylcyclohexane, 1,3-divinylcyclohexane, 1,4-divinylcyclohexane, 1,5-divinylcyclooctane, 1-allyl-4-vinylcyclohexane, 1,4-diallylcyclohexane, 1-allyl-5-vinylcyclooctane, and 1,5-diallylcyclooctane.
  • The terms “catalyst”, “catalyst compound”, and “transition metal compound” are defined to mean a compound capable of initiating polymerization catalysis under the appropriate conditions. In the description herein, the catalyst may be described as a catalyst precursor, a pre-catalyst compound, or a transition metal compound, and these terms are used interchangeably. A catalyst compound may be used by itself to initiate catalysis or may be used in combination with an activator to initiate catalysis. When the catalyst compound is combined with an activator to initiate catalysis, the catalyst compound is often referred to as a pre-catalyst or catalyst precursor. A “catalyst system” is combination of at least one catalyst compound, at least one activator, an optional co-activator, and an optional support material, where the system can polymerize monomers to polymer. For the purposes of this invention and the claims thereto, when catalyst systems are described as comprising neutral stable forms of the components it is well understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the ionic form of the component is the form that reacts with the monomers to produce polymers.
  • For purposes herein the term “catalyst productivity” is a measure of how many grams of polymer (P) are produced using a polymerization catalyst comprising W g of catalyst (cat), over a period of time of T hours; and may be expressed by the following formula: P/(T×W) and expressed in units of gPgcat−1 hr−1. Conversion is the amount of monomer that is converted to polymer product, and is reported as mol % and is calculated based on the polymer yield and the amount of monomer fed into the reactor. Catalyst activity is a measure of how active the catalyst is and is reported as the mass of product polymer (P) produced per mole of catalyst (cat) used (kg P/mol cat).
  • An “anionic ligand” is a negatively charged ligand which donates one or more pairs of electrons to a metal ion. A “neutral donor ligand” is a neutrally charged ligand which donates one or more pairs of electrons to a metal ion.
  • A scavenger is a compound that is typically added to facilitate oligomerization or polymerization by scavenging impurities. Some scavengers may also act as activators and may be referred to as co-activators. A co-activator, that is not a scavenger, may also be used in conjunction with an activator in order to form an active catalyst. In an embodiment a co-activator can be pre-mixed with the catalyst compound to form an alkylated catalyst compound.
  • A propylene polymer is a polymer having at least 50 mol % of propylene. As used herein, Mn is number average molecular weight as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) unless stated otherwise, Mw is weight average molecular weight determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and Mz is z average molecular weight determined by GPC, wt % is weight percent, and mol % is mole percent. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) is defined to be Mw divided by Mn. Unless otherwise noted, all molecular weight units, e.g., Mw, Mn, Mz, are g/mol.
  • The following abbreviations may be used through this specification: Me is methyl, Ph is phenyl, Et is ethyl, Pr is propyl, iPr is isopropyl, n-Pr is normal propyl, Bu is butyl, iso-butyl is isobutyl, sec-butyl refers to secondary butyl, tert-butyl, refers to tertiary butyl, n-butyl is normal butyl, pMe is para-methyl, Bz is benzyl, THF is tetrahydrofuran, Mes is mesityl, also known as 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, Tol is toluene, TMS is trimethylsilyl, TIBAL is triisobutylaluminum, TNOAL is triisobutyl n-octylaluminum, MAO is methylalumoxane, and MOMO is methoxymethoxy (also referred to as methoxymethyl ether).
  • For purposes herein, RT is room temperature, which is defined as 25° C. unless otherwise specified. All percentages are weight percent (wt %) unless otherwise specified.
  • In the description herein, the Salan catalyst may be described as a catalyst precursor, a pre-catalyst compound, Salan catalyst compound or a transition metal compound, and these terms are used interchangeably.
  • Catalyst Compounds
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst comprises Group 3, 4, 5 and/or 6 disubstituted compounds supported by a non-symmetric tetradentate di-anionic Salan ligand, useful to polymerize olefins and/or α-olefins to produce polyolefins and/or poly(α-olefins).
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst compounds are represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00005
  • wherein:
  • A is a heteroaryl radical;
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R5 and R14 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof, subject to the proviso that R19 is not identical to A; and
  • Y and Z together form a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • In an embodiment, A comprises a heteroaryl radical comprising nitrogen. In an embodiment A comprises a carbazolyl radical. In an embodiment, R19 is a carbazole that is substituted differently than R6-R13 of the carbazolyl radical A. E.g., if all of R6 through R13 of the carbazolyl radical A are hydrogen (unsubstituted), then in an embodiment, R19 comprises a carbazole ring wherein one or more of the substitutents of the R19 carbazole ring are substituted. In an embodiment, if one or more of R6 through R13 of the carbazolyl radical A are substituted, then the corresponding substituents of an R19 carbazole ring are unsubstituted, each have different substituents, or the substituents are located at different positions relative to the ring structure. In an embodiment, R19 is not a nitrogen containing heteroaryl. In an embodiment, R19 is a nitrogen containing heteroaryl other than carbazole. In an embodiment, R19 comprises hydrogen or a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl.
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst compounds are represented by the following structure:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00006
  • where:
  • each solid line represents a covalent bond and each dashed line represents a bond having varying degrees of covalency and a varying degree of coordination;
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal covalently bonded to each oxygen atom, and bonded with varying degrees of covalency and coordination to each of nitrogen atoms N1 and N2;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof, subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical; and
  • Y is a divalent hydrocarbyl radical covalently bonded to and bridging between both of the nitrogen atoms N1 and N2. In an embodiment, two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure. Accordingly, the instant disclosure is directed to non-symmetrical Salan catalysts. The Salan catalysts disclosed herein are devoid of a symmetry element, having a non-symmetric or non-palindromic structure. By non-symmetric, it is meant that the two phenol moieties of the Salan compound are substituted differently when comparing the substitutions of one phenol, which comprises a carbazole or substituted carbazole radical, and the other phenol which does not comprise a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical at position R19 (i.e., subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical), as is shown in the above structure.
  • In an embodiment, M is a Group 4 metal, or M is Hf, Ti and/or Zr, or M is Hf or Zr. In an embodiment, each of X1 and X2 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbyl radicals having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, hydrides, amides, alkoxides having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, sulfides, phosphides, halides, amines, phosphines, ethers, and combinations thereof.
  • In an embodiment, X1 and X2 together form a part of a fused ring or a ring system having from 4 to 62 carbon atoms.
  • In an embodiment, each of X1 and X2 is independently selected from the group consisting of halides, alkyl radicals having from 1 to 7 carbon atoms, benzyl radicals, or a combination thereof.
  • In an embodiment, Y is a divalent C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical comprising a portion that comprises a linker backbone comprising from 1 to 18 carbon atoms linking or bridging between nitrogen atoms N1 and N2. In an embodiment, Y is a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical comprising a portion that comprises a linker backbone comprising from 1 to 18 carbon atoms linking the nitrogen atoms N1 and N2 wherein the hydrocarbyl comprises O, S, S(O), S(O)2, Si(R*)2, P(R*), N or N(R*), wherein each R* is independently a C1-C18 hydrocarbyl. In an embodiment, Y is selected from the group consisting of ethylene (—CH2CH2—) and 1,2-cyclohexylene, and/or —CH2CH2CH2— derived from propylene. In an embodiment, Y is —CH2CH2CH2— derived from propylene.
  • In an embodiment, each X is, independently, a halogen or a C1 to C7 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • In an embodiment, each X is a benzyl radical. In an embodiment, each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, hydrogen, a halogen, or a C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl radical, or a C1 to C10 hydrocarbyl radical, subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical. In an embodiment, one or more of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is a methyl radical, a bromine, an adamantyl radical, or a combination thereof.
  • In an embodiment, M is Zr; X1 and X2 are benzyl; R1 and R14 are methyl; R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen; R17 and R19 are bromine; and Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • In an embodiment, M is Zr; X1 and X2 are benzyl; R1, R14 and R17 are methyl; R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen; R19 is 1-adamantl; and Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • In an embodiment, M is Hf; X1 and X2 are benzyl; R1 and R14 are methyl; R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen; R17 is methyl; R19 is 1-adamantyl; and Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • In an embodiment, two or more different catalyst compounds are present in the catalyst system used herein. In an embodiment, two or more different catalyst compounds are present in the reaction zone where the process(es) described herein occur. When two transition metal compound based catalysts are used in one reactor as a mixed catalyst system, the two transition metal compounds are chosen such that the two are compatible. Compatible catalysts are those catalysts having similar kinetics of termination and insertion of monomer and comonomer(s) and/or do not detrimentally interact with each other. For purposes herein, the term “incompatible catalysts” refers to and means catalysts that satisfy one or more of the following:
  • 1) those catalysts that when present together reduce the activity of at least one of the catalysts by greater than 50%;
  • 2) those catalysts that under the same reactive conditions produce polymers such that one of the polymers has a molecular weight that is more than twice the molecular weight of the other polymer; and
  • 3) those catalysts that differ in comonomer incorporation or reactivity ratio under the same conditions by more than about 30%. A simple screening method such as by 1H or 13C NMR, known to those of ordinary skill in the art, can be used to determine which transition metal compounds are compatible. In an embodiment, the catalyst systems use the same activator for the catalyst compounds. In an embodiment, two or more different activators, such as a non-coordinating anion activator and an alumoxane, can be used in combination. If one or more catalyst compounds contain an X1 or X2 ligand which is not a hydride, or a hydrocarbyl, then in an embodiment the alumoxane is contacted with the catalyst compounds prior to addition of the non-coordinating anion activator.
  • In an embodiment, when two transition metal compounds (pre-catalysts) are utilized, they may be used in any ratio. In an embodiment, a molar ratio of a first transition metal compound (A) to a second transition metal compound (B) will fall within the range of (A:B) 1:1000 to 1000:1, or 1:100 to 500:1, or 1:10 to 200:1, or 1:1 to 100:1, or 1:1 to 75:1, or 5:1 to 50:1. The particular ratio chosen will depend on the exact pre-catalysts chosen, the method of activation, and the end product desired. In an embodiment, when using two pre-catalysts, where both are activated with the same activator, useful mole percents, based upon the total moles of the pre-catalysts, are 10:90 to 0.1:99, or 25:75 to 99:1, or 50:50 to 99.5:0.5, or 50:50 to 99:1, or 75:25 to 99:1, or 90:10 to 99:1.
  • Methods to Prepare the Catalyst Compounds.
  • The compounds listed may be prepared by a step-wise synthetic route. The parent Salan ligands are prepared by reaction of the salicylaldehyde with the diamine, followed by reduction with NaBH4. The asymmetric ligand is then formed by an HBr elimination reaction with a bromomethylphenol (Reaction A). The ligand is then converted into the metal dibenzyl catalyst precursor by reaction with the metal tetra-aryl starting material, e.g., tetrabenzyl to yield the finished complex (Reaction B).
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00007
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00008
  • Activators
  • The terms “cocatalyst” and “activator” are used interchangeably to describe activators and are defined to be any compound which can activate any one of the catalyst compounds described above by converting the neutral catalyst compound to a catalytically active catalyst compound cation. Non-limiting activators, for example, include alumoxanes, aluminum alkyls, ionizing activators, which may be neutral or ionic, and conventional-type cocatalysts. Activators may include alumoxane compounds, modified alumoxane compounds, and ionizing anion precursor compounds that abstract a reactive, σ-bound, metal ligand making the metal complex cationic and providing a charge-balancing noncoordinating or weakly coordinating anion.
  • In one embodiment, alumoxane activators are utilized as an activator in the catalyst composition. Alumoxanes are generally oligomeric compounds containing —Al(R1)—O— sub-units, where R1 is an alkyl radical. Examples of alumoxanes include methylalumoxane (MAO), modified methylalumoxane (MMAO), ethylalumoxane and isobutylalumoxane. Alkylalumoxanes and modified alkylalumoxanes are suitable as catalyst activators, particularly when the catalyst precursor compound comprises an abstractable ligand which is an alkyl, halide, alkoxide or amide. Mixtures of different alumoxanes and modified alumoxanes may also be used. In an embodiment, visually clear methylalumoxane may be used. A cloudy or gelled alumoxane can be filtered to produce a clear solution or clear alumoxane can be decanted from the cloudy solution. A useful alumoxane is a modified methyl alumoxane (MMAO) described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,041,584 and/or commercially available from Akzo Chemicals, Inc. under the trade designation Modified Methylalumoxane type 3A. Solid alumoxanes may also be used.
  • When the activator is an alumoxane (modified or unmodified), in an embodiment, the maximum amount of activator at a 5000-fold molar excess Al/M over the catalyst compound (per metal catalytic site). In an embodiment, the minimum activator-to-catalyst-compound, which is determined according to molar concentration of the transition metal M, in an embodiments is 1 mole aluminum or less to mole of transition metal M. In an embodiment, the activator comprises alumoxane and the alumoxane is present at a ratio of 1 mole aluminum or more to mole of catalyst compound. In an embodiment, the minimum activator-to-catalyst-compound molar ratio is a 1:1 molar ratio. Other embodiments of Al:M ranges include from 1:1 to 500:1, or from 1:1 to 200:1, or from 1:1 to 100:1, or from 1:1 to 50:1.
  • In an embodiment, little or no alumoxane (i.e., less than 0.001 wt %) is used in the polymerization processes described herein. In an embodiment, alumoxane is present at 0.00 mole %, or the alumoxane is present at a molar ratio of aluminum to catalyst compound transition metal less than 500:1, or less than 300:1, or less than 100:1, or less than 1:1.
  • The term “non-coordinating anion” (NCA) refers to an anion which either does not coordinate to a cation, or which is only weakly coordinated to a cation thereby remaining sufficiently labile to be displaced by a neutral Lewis base. “Compatible” non-coordinating anions are those which are not degraded to neutrality when the initially formed complex decomposes. Further, the anion will not transfer an anionic substituent or fragment to the cation so as to cause it to form a neutral transition metal compound and a neutral by-product from the anion. Non-coordinating anions useful in accordance with this invention are those that are compatible with the polymerization or catalyst system, stabilize the transition metal cation in the sense of balancing its ionic charge at +1, and yet are sufficiently labile to permit displacement during polymerization.
  • In an embodiment, an ionizing or stoichiometric activator may be used, which may be neutral or ionic, such as tri (n-butyl) ammonium boron metalloid precursor, polyhalogenated heteroborane anions (WO 98/43983), boric acid (U.S. Pat. No. 5,942,459), or a combination thereof. In an embodiment, neutral or ionic activators alone or in combination with alumoxane or modified alumoxane activators may be used.
  • Examples of neutral stoichiometric activators include tri-substituted boron, tellurium, aluminum, gallium, and indium, or mixtures thereof. The three substituent groups or radicals can be the same or different and in an embodiment are each independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted alkyls, alkenyls, alkyns, aryls, alkoxy, and halogens. In an embodiment, the three groups are independently selected from halogen, mono or multicyclic (including halosubstituted) aryls, alkyls, and alkenyl compounds, and mixtures thereof; or independently selected from alkenyl radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, alkyl radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, alkoxy radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms and aryl or substituted aryl radicals having 3 to 20 carbon atoms. In an embodiment, the three substituent groups are alkyl radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, phenyl, naphthyl, or mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, the three groups are halogenated aryl groups, e.g., fluorinated aryl groups. In an embodiment the neutral stoichiometric activator is tris perfluorophenyl boron or tris perfluoronaphthyl boron.
  • In an embodiment, ionic stoichiometric activator compounds may include an active proton, or some other cation associated with, but not coordinated to, or only loosely coordinated to the remaining ion of the ionizing compound. Suitable examples include compounds and the like described in European publications EP 0 570 982 A; EP 0 520 732 A; EP 0 495 375 A; EP 0 500 944 B1; EP 0 277 003 A; EP 0 277 004 A; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,153,157; 5,198,401; 5,066,741; 5,206,197; 5,241,025; 5,384,299; 5,502,124; and WO 1996/04319; all of which are herein fully incorporated by reference.
  • In an embodiment compounds useful as an activator comprise a cation, which is, for example, a Bronsted acid capable of donating a proton, and a compatible non-coordinating anion which anion is relatively large (bulky), capable of stabilizing the active catalyst species (the Group 4 cation, e.g.) which is formed when the two compounds are combined and said anion will be sufficiently labile to be displaced by olefinic, diolefinic or acetylenically unsaturated substrates or other neutral Lewis bases, such as ethers, amines, and the like. Two classes of useful compatible non-coordinating anions are disclosed in EP 0 277,003 A1, and EP 0 277,004 A1, which include anionic coordination complexes comprising a plurality of lipophilic radicals covalently coordinated to and shielding a central charge-bearing metal or metalloid core; and anions comprising a plurality of boron atoms such as carboranes, metallacarboranes, and boranes.
  • In an embodiment, the stoichiometric activators include a cation and an anion component, and may be represented by the following formula (1):

  • (Z)d +(Ad−)  (1)
  • wherein Z is (L-H) or a reducible Lewis Acid, L is a neutral Lewis base; H is hydrogen; (L-H)+ is a Bronsted acid; Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge d−; and d is an integer from 1 to 3.
  • When Z is (L-H) such that the cation component is (L-H)d +, the cation component may include Bronsted acids such as protonated Lewis bases capable of protonating a moiety, such as an alkyl or aryl, from the catalyst precursor, resulting in a cationic transition metal species, or the activating cation (L-H)d + is a Bronsted acid, capable of donating a proton to the catalyst precursor resulting in a transition metal cation, including ammoniums, oxoniums, phosphoniums, silyliums, and mixtures thereof, or ammoniums of methylamine, aniline, dimethylamine, diethylamine, N-methylaniline, diphenylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, N,N-dimethylaniline, methyldiphenylamine, pyridine, p-bromo N,N-dimethylaniline, p-nitro-N,N-dimethylaniline, phosphoniums from triethylphosphine, triphenylphosphine, and diphenylphosphine, oxoniums from ethers, such as dimethyl ether diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and dioxane, sulfoniums from thioethers, such as diethyl thioethers and tetrahydrothiophene, and mixtures thereof.
  • When Z is a reducible Lewis acid it may be represented by the formula: (Ar3C+), where Ar is aryl or aryl substituted with a heteroatom, or a C1 to C40 hydrocarbyl, the reducible Lewis acid may be represented by the formula: (Ph3C+), where Ph is phenyl or phenyl substituted with a heteroatom, and/or a C1 to C40 hydrocarbyl. In an embodiment, the reducible Lewis acid is triphenyl carbenium.
  • Embodiments of the anion component Ad− include those having the formula [Mk+Qn]d− wherein k is 1, 2, or 3; n is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, or 3, 4, 5 or 6; n−k=d; M is an element selected from Group 13 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, or boron or aluminum, and Q is independently a hydride, bridged or unbridged dialkylamido, halide, alkoxide, aryloxide, hydrocarbyl radicals, said Q having up to 20 carbon atoms with the proviso that in not more than one occurrence is Q a halide, and two Q groups may form a ring structure. Each Q may be a fluorinated hydrocarbyl radical having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, or each Q is a fluorinated aryl radical, or each Q is a pentafluoryl aryl radical. Examples of suitable Ad− components also include diboron compounds as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,447,895, which is fully incorporated herein by reference.
  • In an embodiment, this invention relates to a method to polymerize olefins comprising contacting olefins (e.g., ethylene) with a Salan catalyst compound, a chain transfer agent (CTA) and a boron containing NCA activator represented by the formula (1) where: Z is (L-H) or a reducible Lewis acid; L is an neutral Lewis base (as further described above); H is hydrogen; (L-H) is a Bronsted acid (as further described above); Ad− is a boron containing non-coordinating anion having the charge d (as further described above); d is 1, 2, or 3.
  • In an embodiment in any of the NCA's represented by Formula 1 described above, the anion component Ad− is represented by the formula [M*k*+Q*n*]d* wherein k* is 1, 2, or 3; n* is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 (or 1, 2, 3, or 4); n*−k*=d*; M* is boron; and Q* is independently selected from hydride, bridged or unbridged dialkylamido, halogen, alkoxide, aryloxide, hydrocarbyl radicals, said Q* having up to 20 carbon atoms with the proviso that in not more than 1 occurrence is Q* a halogen.
  • This invention also relates to a method to polymerize olefins comprising contacting olefins (such as ethylene) with a Salan catalyst compound as described above, optionally with a CTA and an NCA activator represented by the Formula (2):

  • RnM**(ArNHal)4-n  (2)
  • where R is a monoanionic ligand; M** is a Group 13 metal or metalloid; ArNHal is a halogenated, nitrogen-containing aromatic ring, polycyclic aromatic ring, or aromatic ring assembly in which two or more rings (or fused ring systems) are joined directly to one another or together; and n is 0, 1, 2, or 3. Typically the NCA comprising an anion of Formula 2 also comprises a suitable cation that is essentially non-interfering with the ionic catalyst complexes formed with the transition metal compounds, or the cation is Zd + as described above.
  • In an embodiment in any of the NCA's comprising an anion represented by Formula 2 described above, R is selected from the group consisting of C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl radicals. In an embodiment, C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl radicals may be substituted with one or more C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radicals, halide, hydrocarbyl substituted organometalloid, dialkylamido, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkysulfido, arylsulfido, alkylphosphido, arylphosphide, or other anionic substituent; fluoride; bulky alkoxides, where bulky means C4 to C20 hydrocarbyl radicals; —SR1, —NR2 2, and —PR3 2, where each R1, R2, or R3 is independently a C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl as defined above; or a C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl substituted organometalloid.
  • In an embodiment in any of the NCA's comprising an anion represented by Formula 2 described above, the NCA also comprises cation comprising a reducible Lewis acid represented by the formula: (Ar3C+), where Ar is aryl or aryl substituted with a heteroatom, and/or a C1 to C40 hydrocarbyl, or the reducible Lewis acid represented by the formula: (Ph3C+), where Ph is phenyl or phenyl substituted with one or more heteroatoms, and/or C1 to C40 hydrocarbyls.
  • In an embodiment in any of the NCA's comprising an anion represented by Formula 2 described above, the NCA may also comprise a cation represented by the formula, (L-H)d +, wherein L is an neutral Lewis base; H is hydrogen; (L-H) is a Bronsted acid; and d is 1, 2, or 3, or (L-H)d + is a Bronsted acid selected from ammoniums, oxoniums, phosphoniums, silyliums, and mixtures thereof.
  • Further examples of useful activators include those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,297,653 and 7,799,879, which are fully incorporated by reference herein.
  • In an embodiment, an activator useful herein comprises a salt of a cationic oxidizing agent and a noncoordinating, compatible anion represented by the Formula (3):

  • (OXe+)d(Ad−)e  (3)
  • wherein OXe+ is a cationic oxidizing agent having a charge of e+; e is 1, 2, or 3; d is 1, 2 or 3; and Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge of d− (as further described above). Examples of cationic oxidizing agents include: ferrocenium, hydrocarbyl-substituted ferrocenium, Ag+, or Pb+2. Suitable embodiments of Ad− include tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate.
  • In an embodiment, the Salan catalyst compounds, CTA's, and/or NCA's described herein can be used with bulky activators. A “bulky activator” as used herein refers to anionic activators represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00009
  • where:
    each R1 is, independently, a halide, or a fluoride;
    each R2 is, independently, a halide, a C6 to C20 substituted aromatic hydrocarbyl radical or a siloxy group of the formula —O—S1—Ra, where Ra is a C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl or hydrocarbylsilyl radical (or R2 is a fluoride or a perfluorinated phenyl radical);
    each R3 is a halide, C6 to C20 substituted aromatic hydrocarbyl radical or a siloxy group of the formula —O—Si—Ra, where Ra is a C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical or hydrocarbylsilyl group (or R3 is a fluoride or a C6 perfluorinated aromatic hydrocarbyl radical); wherein R2 and R3 can form one or more saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted rings (or R2 and R3 form a perfluorinated phenyl ring);
    L is an neutral Lewis base; (L-H)+ is a Bronsted acid; d is 1, 2, or 3;
    wherein the anion has a molecular weight of greater than 1020 g/mol; and
    wherein at least three of the substituents on the B atom each have a molecular volume of greater than 250 cubic Å, or greater than 300 cubic Å, or greater than 500 cubic Å.
  • “Molecular volume” is used herein as an approximation of spatial steric bulk of an activator molecule in solution. Comparison of substituents with differing molecular volumes allows the substituent with the smaller molecular volume to be considered “less bulky” in comparison to the substituent with the larger molecular volume. Conversely, a substituent with a larger molecular volume may be considered “more bulky” than a substituent with a smaller molecular volume.
  • Molecular volume may be calculated as reported in “A Simple “Back of the Envelope” Method for Estimating the Densities and Molecular Volumes of Liquids and Solids,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 71, No. 11, November 1994, pp. 962-964. Molecular volume (MV), in units of cubic Å, is calculated using the formula: MV=8.3Vs, where Vs is the scaled volume. Vs is the sum of the relative volumes of the constituent atoms, and is calculated from the molecular formula of the substituent using the following table of relative volumes. For fused rings, the Vs is decreased by 7.5% per fused ring.
  • Element Relative Volume
    H 1
    1st short period, Li to F 2
    2nd short period, Na to Cl 4
    1st long period, K to Br 5
    2nd long period, Rb to I 7.5
    3rd long period, Cs to Bi 9
  • Exemplary bulky substituents of activators suitable herein and their respective scaled volumes and molecular volumes are shown in the table below. The dashed bonds indicate binding to boron, as in the general formula above.
  • Molecular
    Formula of MV Total
    each Per subst. MV
    Activator Structure of boron substituents substituent (Å3) (Å3)
    Dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00010
    C10F7 261 1044
    Dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00011
    C12F9 349 1396
    [4-tButyl-PhNMe2H] [(C6F3(C6F5)2)4B]
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00012
    C18F13 515 2060
  • Exemplary bulky activators useful in catalyst systems herein include:
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • [4-tert-butyl-PhNMe2H][(C6F3(C6F5)2)4B], and the types disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,297,653, which is fully incorporated by reference herein.
  • Illustrative, but not limiting, examples of boron compounds which may be used as an activator in the processes according to the instant disclosure include:
    • trimethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • triethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tripropylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetraphenylborate,
    • tropillium tetraphenylborate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetraphenylborate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate,
    • triethylsilylium tetraphenylborate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetraphenylborate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(sec-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluoro-phenyl)borate,
    • dimethyl(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate, and
      dialkyl ammonium salts, such as:
      di-(i-propyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate, and dicyclohexylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate; and additional tri-substituted phosphonium salts, such as tri(o-tolyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate, and tri(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate.
  • Suitable activators include:
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate,
    • [Ph3C+][B(C6F5)4 ], [Me3NH+][B(C6F5)4 ]; 1-(4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrrolidinium; and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate, 4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine.
  • In an embodiment, the activator comprises a triaryl carbonium (such as
    • triphenylcarbenium tetraphenylborate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate).
  • In an embodiment, the activator comprises one or more of trialkylammonium
    • tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trialkylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trialkylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • trialkylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • trialkylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dialkyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • di-(i-propyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
      (where alkyl is methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, or tert-butyl).
  • In an embodiment, any of the activators described herein may be mixed together before or after combination with the catalyst compound and/or CTA and/or NCA, or before being mixed with the catalyst compound and/or CTA, and/or NCA.
  • In an embodiment two NCA activators may be used in the polymerization and the molar ratio of the first NCA activator to the second NCA activator can be any ratio. In an embodiment, the molar ratio of the first NCA activator to the second NCA activator is 0.01:1 to 10,000:1, or 0.1:1 to 1000:1, or 1:1 to 100:1.
  • In an embodiment, the NCA activator-to-catalyst ratio is a 1:1 molar ratio, or 0.1:1 to 100:1, or 0.5:1 to 200:1, or 1:1 to 500:1 or 1:1 to 1000:1. In an embodiment, the NCA activator-to-catalyst ratio is 0.5:1 to 10:1, or 1:1 to 5:1.
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst compounds can be combined with combinations of alumoxanes and NCA's (see for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,157, U.S. Pat. No. 5,453,410, EP 0 573 120 B1, WO 94/07928, and WO 95/14044 which discuss the use of an alumoxane in combination with an ionizing activator, all of which are incorporated by reference herein).
  • Scavengers or Co-Activators
  • In an embodiment the catalyst system may further include scavengers and/or co-activators. Suitable aluminum alkyl or organoaluminum compounds which may be utilized as scavengers or co-activators include, for example, trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-hexylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and the like. Other oxophilic species such as diethyl zinc may be used. In an embodiment, the scavengers and/or co-activators are present at less than 14 wt %, or from 0.1 to 10 wt %, or from 0.5 to 7 wt %, by weight of the catalyst system.
  • Catalyst Supports
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst system may comprise an inert support material. In an embodiment, the support material comprises a porous support material, for example, talc, and/or inorganic oxides. Other suitable support materials include zeolites, clays, organoclays, or any other organic or inorganic support material and the like, or mixtures thereof.
  • In an embodiment, the support material is an inorganic oxide in a finely divided form. Suitable inorganic oxide materials for use in catalyst systems herein include Groups 2, 4, 13, and 14 metal oxides, such as silica, alumina, and mixtures thereof. Other inorganic oxides that may be employed either alone or in combination with the silica, and/or alumina include magnesia, titania, zirconia, montmorillonite, phyllosilicate, and/or the like. Other suitable support materials include finely divided functionalized polyolefins, such as finely divided polyethylene.
  • In an embodiment, the support material may have a surface area in the range of from about 10 to about 700 m2/g, pore volume in the range of from about 0.1 to about 4.0 cc/g and average particle size in the range of from about 5 to about 500 μm, or the surface area of the support material is in the range of from about 50 to about 500 m2/g, pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 3.5 cc/g and average particle size of from about 10 to about 200 μm. In an embodiment, a majority portion of the surface area of the support material is in the range is from about 100 to about 400 m2/g, pore volume from about 0.8 to about 3.0 cc/g and average particle size is from about 5 to about 100 μm. In an embodiment, the average pore size of the support material is in the range of from 10 to 1000 Å, or 50 to about 500 Å, or 75 to about 350 Å. In an embodiment, the support material is a high surface area, amorphous silica having a surface area greater than or equal to about 300 m2/gm, and/or a pore volume of 1.65 cm3/gm. Suitable silicas are marketed under the tradenames of Davison 952 or Davison 955 by the Davison Chemical Division of W.R. Grace and Company. In an embodiment the support may comprise Davison 948.
  • In an embodiment, the support material should be essentially dry, that is, essentially free of absorbed water. Drying of the support material can be effected by heating or calcining at about 100° C. to about 1000° C., or at a temperature of at least about 400° C., or 500° C., or 600° C. When the support material is silica, it is heated to at least 200° C., or about 200° C. to about 850° C., or at least 600° C. for a time of about 1 minute to about 100 hours, or from about 12 hours to about 72 hours, or from about 24 hours to about 60 hours. In an embodiment, the calcined support material must have at least some reactive hydroxyl (OH) groups to produce supported catalyst systems according to the instant disclosure.
  • In an embodiment, the calcined support material is contacted with at least one polymerization catalyst comprising at least one catalyst compound and an activator. In an embodiment, the support material, having reactive surface groups, typically hydroxyl groups, is slurried in a non-polar solvent and the resulting slurry is contacted with a solution of a catalyst compound and an activator. In an embodiment, the slurry of the support material is first contacted with the activator for a period of time in the range of from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, or from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours. The solution of the catalyst compound is then contacted with the isolated support/activator. In an embodiment, the supported catalyst system is generated in situ. In alternate embodiment, the slurry of the support material is first contacted with the catalyst compound for a period of time in the range of from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, or from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours. The slurry of the supported catalyst compound is then contacted with the activator solution.
  • In an embodiment, the mixture of the catalyst, activator and support is heated to about 0° C. to about 70° C., or to about 23° C. to about 60° C., or to room temperature. Contact times typically range from about 0.5 hours to about 24 hours, or from about 2 hours to about 16 hours, or from about 4 hours to about 8 hours.
  • Suitable non-polar solvents are materials in which all of the reactants used herein, i.e., the activator and the catalyst compound are at least partially soluble and which are liquid at reaction temperatures. Suitable non-polar solvents include alkanes, such as isopentane, hexane, n-heptane, octane, nonane, and decane, although a variety of other materials including cycloalkanes, such as cyclohexane, aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, may also be employed.
  • Polymerization Processes
  • In an embodiment, a polymerization processes includes contacting monomers (such as ethylene and propylene), and optionally comonomers, with a catalyst system comprising an activator and at least one catalyst compound, as described above. In an embodiment, the catalyst compound and activator may be combined in any order, and may be combined prior to contacting with the monomer. In an embodiment, the catalyst compound and/or the activator are combined after contacting with the monomer.
  • Monomers useful herein include substituted or unsubstituted C2 to C40 alpha olefins, or C2 to C20 alpha olefins, or C2 to C12 alpha olefins, or ethylene, propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene and isomers thereof. In an embodiment of the invention, the monomer comprises propylene and an optional comonomers comprising one or more ethylene or C4 to C40 olefins, or C4 to C20 olefins, or C6 to C12 olefins. The C4 to C40 olefin monomers may be linear, branched, or cyclic. The C4 to C40 cyclic olefins may be strained or unstrained, monocyclic or polycyclic, and may optionally include heteroatoms and/or one or more functional groups. In an embodiment, the monomer comprises ethylene or ethylene and a comonomer comprising one or more C3 to C40 olefins, or C4 to C20 olefins, or C6 to C12 olefins. The C3 to C40 olefin monomers may be linear, branched, or cyclic. The C3 to C40 cyclic olefins may be strained or unstrained, monocyclic or polycyclic, and may optionally include heteroatoms and/or one or more functional groups.
  • Exemplary C2 to C40 olefin monomers and optional comonomers include ethylene, propylene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, undecene, dodecene, norbornene, norbornadiene, dicyclopentadiene, cyclopentene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclooctadiene, cyclododecene, 7-oxanorbornene, 7-oxanorbornadiene, substituted derivatives thereof, and isomers thereof, or hexene, heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene, cyclooctene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1-hydroxy-4-cyclooctene, 1-acetoxy-4-cyclooctene, 5-methylcyclopentene, cyclopentene, dicyclopentadiene, norbornene, norbornadiene, and their respective homologs and derivatives, or norbornene, norbornadiene, and dicyclopentadiene.
  • In an embodiment one or more dienes are present in the polymer produced herein at up to 10 weight %, or at 0.00001 to 1.0 weight %, or 0.002 to 0.5 weight %, or 0.003 to 0.2 weight %, based upon the total weight of the composition. In an embodiment 500 ppm or less of diene is added to the polymerization, or 400 ppm or less, or 300 ppm or less. In an embodiment at least 50 ppm of diene is added to the polymerization, or 100 ppm or more, or 150 ppm or more.
  • Diolefin monomers useful in this invention include any hydrocarbon structure, or C4 to C30, having at least two unsaturated bonds, wherein at least two of the unsaturated bonds are readily incorporated into a polymer by either a stereospecific or a non-stereospecific catalyst(s). In an embodiment, the diolefin monomers may be selected from alpha, omega-diene monomers (i.e. di-vinyl monomers). More or, the diolefin monomers are linear di-vinyl monomers, most or those containing from 4 to 30 carbon atoms. Examples of dienes include butadiene, pentadiene, hexadiene, heptadiene, octadiene, nonadiene, decadiene, undecadiene, dodecadiene, tridecadiene, tetradecadiene, pentadecadiene, hexadecadiene, heptadecadiene, octadecadiene, nonadecadiene, icosadiene, heneicosadiene, docosadiene, tricosadiene, tetracosadiene, pentacosadiene, hexacosadiene, heptacosadiene, octacosadiene, nonacosadiene, triacontadiene, 1,6-heptadiene, 1,7-octadiene, 1,8-nonadiene, 1,9-decadiene, 1,10-undecadiene, 1,11-dodecadiene, 1,12-tridecadiene, 1,13-tetradecadiene, and low molecular weight polybutadienes (Mw less than 1000 g/mol). Cyclic dienes include cyclopentadiene, vinylnorbornene, norbornadiene, ethylidene norbornene, divinylbenzene, dicyclopentadiene or higher ring containing diolefins with or without substituents at various ring positions.
  • In an embodiment, where butene is the comonomer, the butene source may be a mixed butene stream comprising various isomers of butene. The 1-butene monomers are expected to be preferentially consumed by the polymerization process. Use of such mixed butene streams will provide an economic benefit, as these mixed streams are often waste streams from refining processes, for example, C4 raffinate streams, and can therefore be substantially less expensive than pure 1-butene.
  • Polymerization processes according to the instant disclosure may be carried out in any manner known in the art. Any suspension, homogeneous, bulk, solution, slurry, or gas phase polymerization process known in the art can be used. Such processes can be run in a batch, semi-batch, or continuous mode. Homogeneous polymerization processes and slurry processes are suitable for use herein, wherein a homogeneous polymerization process is defined to be a process where at least 90 wt % of the product is soluble in the reaction media. A bulk homogeneous process is suitable for use herein, wherein a bulk process is defined to be a process where monomer concentration in all feeds to the reactor is 70 volume % or more. In an embodiment, no solvent or diluent is present or added in the reaction medium, (except for the small amounts used as the carrier for the catalyst system or other additives, or amounts typically found with the monomer; e.g., propane in propylene). In an embodiment, the process is a slurry process. As used herein the term “slurry polymerization process” means a polymerization process where a supported catalyst is employed and monomers are polymerized on the supported catalyst particles. At least 95 wt % of polymer products derived from the supported catalyst are in granular form as solid particles (not dissolved in the diluent).
  • Suitable diluents/solvents for polymerization include non-coordinating, inert liquids. Examples include straight and branched-chain hydrocarbons, such as isobutane, butane, pentane, isopentane, hexanes, isohexane, heptane, octane, dodecane, and mixtures thereof; cyclic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, methylcycloheptane, and mixtures thereof, such as can be found commercially (Isopar™); perhalogenated hydrocarbons, such as perfluorinated C4-10 alkanes, chlorobenzene, and aromatic and alkyl substituted aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene, and xylene. Suitable solvents also include liquid olefins which may act as monomers or comonomers including ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-pentene, 4-methyl-1-pentene, 1-octene, 1-decene, and mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents are used as the solvent, such as isobutane, butane, pentane, isopentane, hexanes, isohexane, heptane, octane, dodecane, and mixtures thereof; cyclic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, methylcycloheptane, and mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, the solvent is not aromatic, or aromatics are present in the solvent at less than 1 wt %, or less than 0.5 wt %, or less than 0.0 wt % based upon the weight of the solvents.
  • In an embodiment, the feed concentration of the monomers and comonomers for the polymerization is 60 vol % solvent or less, or 40 vol % or less, or 20 vol % or less, based on the total volume of the feedstream. Or the polymerization is run in a bulk process.
  • Polymerizations can be run at any temperature and/or pressure suitable to obtain the desired ethylene polymers. Suitable temperatures and/or pressures include a temperature in the range of from about 0° C. to about 300° C., or about 20° C. to about 200° C., or about 35° C. to about 150° C., or from about 40° C. to about 120° C., or from about 45° C. to about 80° C.; and at a pressure in the range of from about 0.35 MPa to about 10 MPa, or from about 0.45 MPa to about 6 MPa, or from about 0.5 MPa to about 4 MPa.
  • In an embodiment, the run time of the reaction is from about 0.1 minutes to about 24 hours, or up to 16 hours, or in the range of from about 5 to 250 minutes, or from about 10 to 120 minutes.
  • In an embodiment, hydrogen is present in the polymerization reactor at a partial pressure of 0.001 to 50 psig (0.007 to 345 kPa), or from 0.01 to 25 psig (0.07 to 172 kPa), or 0.1 to 10 psig (0.7 to 70 kPa).
  • In an embodiment, the activity of the catalyst is at least 50 g/mmol/hour, or 500 or more g/mmol/hour, or 5000 or more g/mmol/hr, or 50,000 or more g/mmol/hr. In an alternate embodiment, the conversion of olefin monomer is at least 10%, based upon polymer yield and the weight of the monomer entering the reaction zone, or 20% or more, or 30% or more, or 50% or more, or 80% or more.
  • In an embodiment, the polymerization conditions include one or more of the following: 1) temperatures of 0 to 300° C. (or 25 to 150° C., or 40 to 120° C., or 45 to 80° C.); 2) a pressure of atmospheric pressure to 10 MPa (or 0.35 to 10 MPa, or from 0.45 to 6 MPa, or from 0.5 to 4 MPa); 3) the presence of an aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent (such as isobutane, butane, pentane, isopentane, hexanes, isohexane, heptane, octane, dodecane, and mixtures thereof; cyclic and alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, cycloheptane, methylcyclohexane, methylcycloheptane, and mixtures thereof; or where aromatics are or present in the solvent at less than 1 wt %, or less than 0.5 wt %, or at 0 wt % based upon the weight of the solvents); 4) wherein the catalyst system used in the polymerization comprises less than 0.5 mol %, or 0 mol % alumoxane, or the alumoxane is present at a molar ratio of aluminum to transition metal less than 500:1, or less than 300:1, or less than 100:1, or less than 1:1; 5) the polymerization or occurs in one reaction zone; 6) the productivity of the catalyst compound is at least 80,000 g/mmol/hr (or at least 150,000 g/mmol/hr, or at least 200,000 g/mmol/hr, or at least 250,000 g/mmol/hr, or at least 300,000 g/mmol/hr); 7) scavengers (such as trialkyl aluminum compounds) are absent (e.g., present at zero mol %) or the scavenger is present at a molar ratio of scavenger to transition metal of less than 100:1, or less than 50:1, or less than 15:1, or less than 10:1; and/or 8) optionally hydrogen is present in the polymerization reactor at a partial pressure of 0.007 to 345 kPa (0.001 to 50 psig) (or from 0.07 to 172 kPa (0.01 to 25 psig), or 0.7 to 70 kPa (0.1 to 10 psig)).
  • In an embodiment, the catalyst system used in the polymerization comprises no more than one catalyst compound. A “reaction zone” also referred to as a “polymerization zone” is a vessel where polymerization takes place, for example a batch reactor. When multiple reactors are used in either series or parallel configuration, each reactor is considered as a separate polymerization zone. For a multi-stage polymerization in both a batch reactor and a continuous reactor, each polymerization stage is considered as a separate polymerization zone. In an embodiment, the polymerization occurs in one reaction zone.
  • Polyolefin Products
  • The instant disclosure also relates to compositions of matter produced by the methods described herein.
  • In an embodiment, the process described herein produces propylene homopolymers or propylene copolymers, such as propylene-ethylene and/or propylene-α-olefin (or C3 to C20) copolymers (such as propylene-hexene copolymers or propylene-octene copolymers) having a Mw/Mn of greater than 1 to 4 (or greater than 1 to 3).
  • Likewise, the process of this invention produces olefin polymers, or polyethylene and polypropylene homopolymers and copolymers. In an embodiment, the polymers produced herein are homopolymers of ethylene or propylene, are copolymers of ethylene or having from 0 to 25 mole % (or from 0.5 to 20 mole %, or from 1 to 15 mole %, or from 3 to 10 mole %) of one or more C3 to C20 olefin comonomer (or C3 to C12 alpha-olefin, or propylene, butene, hexene, octene, decene, dodecene, or propylene, butene, hexene, octene), or are copolymers of propylene or having from 0 to 25 mole % (or from 0.5 to 20 mole %, or from 1 to 15 mole %, or from 3 to 10 mole %) of one or more of C2 or C4 to C20 olefin comonomer (or ethylene or C4 to C12 alpha-olefin, or ethylene, butene, hexene, octene, decene, dodecene, or ethylene, butene, hexene, octene).
  • In an embodiment, the monomer is ethylene and the comonomer is hexene, or from 1 to 15 mole % hexene, or 1 to 10 mole % hexene.
  • In an embodiment, the polymers produced herein have an Mw of 5,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol (e.g., 25,000 to 750,000 g/mol, or 50,000 to 500,000 g/mol), and/or an Mw/Mn of greater than 1 to 40, or 1.2 to 20, or 1.3 to 10, or 1.4 to 5, or 1.5 to 4, or 1.5 to 3.
  • In an embodiment, the polymer produced herein has a unimodal or multimodal molecular weight distribution as determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). By “unimodal” is meant that the GPC trace has one peak or inflection point. By “multimodal” is meant that the GPC trace has at least two peaks or inflection points. An inflection point is that point where the second derivative of the curve changes in sign (e.g., from negative to positive or vice versa).
  • Unless otherwise indicated Mw, Mn, MWD are determined by GPC as described in US 2006/0173123 page 24-25, paragraphs [0334] to [0341].
  • In an embodiment, the polymers may be linear in character, which may be determined by elution fractionation, wherein non-linear polymers have a CDBI of less than 45%, whereas linear polyethylene types refer to polyethylene having a CDBI of greater than 50%, the CDBI being determined as described in WO93/03093 (U.S. Pat. No. 5,206,075). In an embodiment the polymer produced herein has a composition distribution breadth index (CDBI) of 50% or more, or 60% or more, or 70% or more. CDBI is a measure of the composition distribution of monomer within the polymer chains and is measured by the procedure described in PCT publication WO 93/03093, published Feb. 18, 1993, specifically columns 7 and 8 as well as in Wild et al, J. Poly. Sci., Poly. Phys. Ed., Vol. 20, p. 441 (1982) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,008,204, including that fractions having a weight average molecular weight (Mw) below 15,000 are ignored when determining CDBI.
  • Polymers with an Mw/Mn of 4.5 or less may include a significant level of long chain branching. The long chain branching is understood to be the result of the incorporation of terminally unsaturated polymer chains (formed by the specific termination reaction mechanism encountered with single site catalysts) into other polymer chains in a manner analogous to monomer incorporation. The branches are hence believed to be linear in structure and may be present at a level where no peaks can be specifically attributed to such long chain branches in the 13C NMR spectrum. In an embodiment, the polymers produced according to the instant disclosure comprise a significant amount of long chain branching, defined as having a ratio of long chain branching of at least 7 carbons per 1000 carbon atoms as determined according to the 13C NMR spectrum of greater than 0.5. In an embodiment, the ratio of long chain branching with branches having at least 7 carbons, per 1000 carbon atoms as determined according to the 13C NMR spectrum is greater than 1, or greater than 1.5, or greater than 2.
  • In an embodiment, the polymers produced according to the instant disclosure include a significant amount of vinyl termination, defined as a ratio of vinyl groups per molecule of greater than or equal to 0.2. In an embodiment, the polymers according to the instant disclosure comprise a ratio of vinyl groups per molecule of greater than or equal to 0.5, or 0.7, or 0.8, or 0.9, or 0.95, when determined according to the description provided in the J. American Chemical Soc., 114, 1992, pp. 1025-1032, or an equivalent thereof.
  • Blends
  • In an embodiment, the polymer (or the polyethylene or polypropylene) produced herein is combined with one or more additional polymers prior to being formed into a film, molded part or other article. Other useful polymers include polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, highly isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, random copolymer of propylene and ethylene, and/or butene, and/or hexene, polybutene, ethylene vinyl acetate, LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene methyl acrylate, copolymers of acrylic acid, polymethylmethacrylate or any other polymers polymerizable by a high-pressure free radical process, polyvinylchloride, polybutene-1, isotactic polybutene, ABS resins, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), vulcanized EPR, EPDM, block copolymer, styrenic block copolymers, polyamides, polycarbonates, PET resins, cross linked polyethylene, copolymers of ethylene and vinyl alcohol (EVOH), polymers of aromatic monomers such as polystyrene, polyesters, polyacetal, polyvinylidine fluoride, polyethylene glycols, and/or polyisobutylene.
  • In an embodiment, the polymer (or the polyethylene or polypropylene) is present in the above blends, at from 10 to 99 wt %, based upon the weight of the polymers in the blend, or 20 to 95 wt %, or at least 30 to 90 wt %, or at least 40 to 90 wt %, or at least 50 to 90 wt %, or at least 60 to 90 wt %, or at least 70 to 90 wt %.
  • The blends described above may be produced by mixing the polymers of the invention with one or more polymers (as described above), by connecting reactors together in series to make reactor blends or by using more than one catalyst in the same reactor to produce multiple species of polymer. The polymers can be mixed together prior to being put into the extruder or may be mixed in an extruder.
  • The blends may be formed using conventional equipment and methods, such as by dry blending the individual components and subsequently melt mixing in a mixer, or by mixing the components together directly in a mixer, such as, for example, a Banbury mixer, a Haake mixer, a Brabender internal mixer, or a single or twin-screw extruder, which may include a compounding extruder and a side-arm extruder used directly downstream of a polymerization process, which may include blending powders or pellets of the resins at the hopper of the film extruder. Additionally, additives may be included in the blend, in one or more components of the blend, and/or in a product formed from the blend, such as a film, as desired. Such additives are well known in the art, and can include, for example: fillers; antioxidants (e.g., hindered phenolics such as IRGANOX 1010 or IRGANOX 1076 available from Ciba-Geigy); phosphites (e.g., IRGAFOS 168 available from Ciba-Geigy); anti-cling additives; tackifiers, such as polybutenes, terpene resins, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon resins, alkali metal and glycerol stearates, and hydrogenated rosins; UV stabilizers; heat stabilizers; anti-blocking agents; release agents; anti-static agents; pigments; colorants; dyes; waxes; silica; fillers; talc; and the like.
  • Films
  • In an embodiment, any of the foregoing polymers, such as the foregoing polypropylenes or blends thereof, may be used in a variety of end-use applications. Applications include, for example, mono- or multi-layer blown, extruded, and/or shrink films. These films may be formed by any number of well-known extrusion or coextrusion techniques, such as a blown bubble film processing technique, wherein the composition can be extruded in a molten state through an annular die and then expanded to form a uni-axial or biaxial orientation melt prior to being cooled to form a tubular, blown film, which can then be axially slit and unfolded to form a flat film. Films may be subsequently unoriented, uniaxially oriented, or biaxially oriented to the same or different extents. One or more of the layers of the film may be oriented in the transverse and/or longitudinal directions to the same or different extents. The uniaxial orientation can be accomplished using typical cold drawing or hot drawing methods. Biaxial orientation can be accomplished using tenter frame equipment or a double bubble processes and may occur before or after the individual layers are brought together. For example, a polyethylene layer can be extrusion coated or laminated onto an oriented polypropylene layer or the polyethylene and polypropylene can be coextruded together into a film then oriented. Likewise, oriented polypropylene could be laminated to oriented polyethylene or oriented polyethylene could be coated onto polypropylene then optionally the combination could be oriented even further. Typically the films are oriented in the machine direction (MD) at a ratio of up to 15, or between 5 and 7, and in the transverse direction (TD) at a ratio of up to 15, or 7 to 9. However, In an embodiment the film is oriented to the same extent in both the MD and TD directions.
  • The films may vary in thickness depending on the intended application; however, films of a thickness from 1 to 50 μm are usually suitable. Films intended for packaging are usually from 10 to 50 μm thick. The thickness of the sealing layer is typically 0.2 to 50 μm. There may be a sealing layer on both the inner and outer surfaces of the film or the sealing layer may be present on only the inner or the outer surface.
  • In an embodiment, one or more layers may be modified by corona treatment, electron beam irradiation, gamma irradiation, flame treatment, or microwave. In an embodiment, one or both of the surface layers is modified by corona treatment.
  • Molded Products
  • The compositions described herein (or polypropylene compositions) may also be used to prepare molded products in any molding process, including but not limited to, injection molding, gas-assisted injection molding, extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, injection stretch blow molding, compression molding, rotational molding, foam molding, thermoforming, sheet extrusion, and profile extrusion. The molding processes are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
  • Further, the compositions described herein (or polypropylene compositions) may be shaped into desirable end use articles by any suitable means known in the art. Thermoforming, vacuum forming, blow molding, rotational molding, slush molding, transfer molding, wet lay-up or contact molding, cast molding, cold forming matched-die molding, injection molding, spray techniques, profile co-extrusion, or combinations thereof are typically used methods.
  • Thermoforming is a process of forming at least one pliable plastic sheet into a desired shape. Typically, an extrudate film of the composition of this invention (and any other layers or materials) is placed on a shuttle rack to hold it during heating. The shuttle rack indexes into the oven which pre-heats the film before forming. Once the film is heated, the shuttle rack indexes back to the forming tool. The film is then vacuumed onto the forming tool to hold it in place and the forming tool is closed. The tool stays closed to cool the film and the tool is then opened. The shaped laminate is then removed from the tool. The thermoforming is accomplished by vacuum, positive air pressure, plug-assisted vacuum forming, or combinations and variations of these, once the sheet of material reaches thermoforming temperatures, typically of from 140° C. to 185° C. or higher. A pre-stretched bubble step is used, especially on large parts, to improve material distribution.
  • Blow molding is another suitable forming means for use with the compositions of this invention, which includes injection blow molding, multi-layer blow molding, extrusion blow molding, and stretch blow molding, and is especially suitable for substantially closed or hollow objects, such as, for example, gas tanks and other fluid containers. Blow molding is described in more detail in, for example, CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 90-92 (Jacqueline I. Kroschwitz, ed., John Wiley & Sons 1990).
  • Likewise, molded articles may be fabricated by injecting molten polymer into a mold that shapes and solidifies the molten polymer into desirable geometry and thickness of molded articles. Sheets may be made either by extruding a substantially flat profile from a die, onto a chill roll, or by calendaring. Sheets are generally considered to have a thickness of from 254 μm to 2540 μm (10 mils to 100 mils), although any given sheet may be substantially thicker.
  • Non-Wovens and Fibers
  • The polyolefin compositions described above may also be used to prepare nonwoven fabrics and fibers of this invention in any nonwoven fabric and fiber making process, including but not limited to, melt blowing, spunbonding, film aperturing, and staple fiber carding. A continuous filament process may also be used. Or a spunbonding process is used. The spunbonding process is well known in the art. Generally it involves the extrusion of fibers through a spinneret. These fibers are then drawn using high velocity air and laid on an endless belt. A calender roll is generally then used to heat the web and bond the fibers to one another although other techniques may be used such as sonic bonding and adhesive bonding.
  • EMBODIMENTS
  • Accordingly, the instant disclosure relates to the following embodiments:
  • A. A catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00013
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical,
  • Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • B. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, wherein two or more of R1 to R21 independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
    C. The catalyst compound of embodiment A or B, wherein M is Hf, Ti, or Zr.
    D. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, or C, wherein each X is, independently, a halogen or a C1 to C7 hydrocarbyl radical.
    E. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, or D, wherein each X is a benzyl radical.
    F. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, or E, wherein each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, hydrogen, a halogen, or a C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl radical.
    G. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, or F, wherein each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, hydrogen, a halogen, or a C1 to C10 hydrocarbyl radical.
    H. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, or G, wherein one or more of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is a methyl radical, a bromide, an adamantyl radical, or a combination thereof.
    I. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, or H, wherein Y is —CH2CH2— or 1,2-cyclohexylene.
    J. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, or I, wherein Y is —CH2CH2CH2—.
    K. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, or J, wherein Y is a C1-C40 divalent hydrocarbyl radical comprising a linker backbone comprising from 1 to 18 carbon atoms bridging between nitrogen atoms N1 and N2.
    L. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, or K, wherein Y is a C1-C40 divalent hydrocarbyl radical comprising O, S, S(O), S(O)2, Si(R′)2, P(R′), N,N(R′), or a combination thereof, wherein each R′ is independently a C1-C18 hydrocarbyl radical.
    M. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, or L, wherein:
  • M is Zr;
  • X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
  • R1 and R14 are methyl radicals;
  • R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen;
  • R17 and R19 are bromine; and
  • Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • N. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, or M, wherein:
  • M is Zr;
  • X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
  • R1, R14 and R17 are methyl radicals;
  • R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20, and R21 are hydrogen;
  • R19 is a 1-adamantyl radical; and
  • Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • O. The catalyst compound of embodiment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, or N, wherein:
  • M is Hf;
  • X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
  • R1 and R14 and R17 are methyl radicals;
  • R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen;
  • R19 is a 1-adamantyl radical; and
  • Y is —CH2CH2—.
  • P. A catalyst system comprising:
    an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00014
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
    each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
    each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical, and
    Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, and/or
    wherein the catalyst compound is according to any one of embodiments A through O.
    Q. The catalyst system of embodiment P, wherein two or more of R1 to R21 independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
    R. The catalyst system of embodiment P or Q, wherein the activator comprises alumoxane, a non-coordinating anion activator, or a combination thereof.
    S. The catalyst system of embodiment P, Q, or R, wherein the activator comprises alumoxane and the alumoxane is present at a ratio of 1 mole aluminum or more to mole of catalyst compound.
    T. The catalyst system of embodiment P, Q, R, or S, wherein the activator is represented by the formula:

  • (Z)d+(Ad−)
  • wherein Z is (L-H), or a reducible Lewis Acid, wherein L is a neutral Lewis base;
  • H is hydrogen;
  • (L-H)+ is a Bronsted acid;
  • Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge d−; and
  • d is an integer from 1 to 3.
  • U. The catalyst system of embodiment P, Q, R, S, or T, wherein the activator is represented by the formula:

  • (Z)d+(Ad−)
  • wherein Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge d−;
    d is an integer from 1 to 3, and
    Z is a reducible Lewis acid represented by the formula: (Ar3C+), where Ar is aryl radical, an aryl radical substituted with a heteroatom, an aryl radical substituted with one or more C1 to C40 hydrocarbyl radicals, an aryl radical substituted with one or more functional groups comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or a combination thereof.
    V. The catalyst system of embodiment P, Q, R, S, T, or U, wherein the activator is selected from the group consisting of:
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    • [4-tert-butyl-PhNMe2H][(C6F3(C6F5)2)4B],
    • trimethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • triethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tripropylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetraphenylborate,
    • tropillium tetraphenylborate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetraphenylborate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate,
    • triethylsilylium tetraphenylborate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetraphenylborate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(sec-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluoro-phenyl)borate,
    • dimethyl(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    • trimethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tripropylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • tropillium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • triethylsilylium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    • di-(i-propyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • dicyclohexylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(o-tolyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • tri(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate,
    • 1-(4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrrolidinium,
    • tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    • 4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine,
    • triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate), and combinations thereof.
      W. A process to polymerize olefins comprising:
      contacting one or more olefins with a catalyst system at a temperature, a pressure, and for a period of time sufficient to produce a polyolefin, the catalyst system comprising an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00015
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical,
  • Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, and/or
  • wherein the catalyst compound is according to any one of embodiments A through O, and/or
    wherein the catalyst system is according to any one of embodiments P through V.
    X. The process of embodiment W, wherein two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
    Y. The process of embodiment W or X, wherein the conditions comprise a temperature of from about 0° C. to about 300° C., a pressure from about 0.35 MPa to about 10 MPa, and a time from about 0.1 minutes to about 24 hours.
    Z. The process of embodiment W, X or Y, wherein the one or more olefins comprise propylene.
    AA. The process of embodiment W, X, Y, or Z, wherein the polyolefin comprises at least 50 mole % propylene.
    BB. A catalyst comprising a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00016
  • wherein:
  • A is a heteroaryl radical;
  • M is a Group 3, 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
  • each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, provided, however, where M is trivalent then X2 is not present;
  • each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof, subject to the proviso that R19 is not identical to A; and
  • Y and Z together form a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  • CC. The catalyst of embodiment BB wherein R19 is not heteroaryl.
    DD. The catalyst of embodiment BB wherein R19 comprises hydrogen or a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl.
    EE. The catalyst of embodiment BB, CC or DD wherein A comprises a carbazole radical.
  • EXAMPLES
  • The foregoing discussion can be further described with reference to the following non-limiting examples. Three illustrative catalyst compounds (A through C), each according to one or more embodiments described, were synthesized and used to polymerize olefins. All reactions were carried out under a purified nitrogen atmosphere using standard glovebox, high vacuum or Schlenk techniques, unless otherwise noted. All solvents used were anhydrous, de-oxygenated and purified according to known procedures. All starting materials were either purchased from Aldrich and purified prior to use or prepared according to procedures known to those skilled in the art. Comparative catalyst compound C1 was synthesized as described in WO 03/091292A2.
  • Synthesis of Compounds A-C
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00017
  • 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-6-(1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-yl)phenol (1)
  • In a 100 mL round bottom flask, 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)salicylaldehyde (0.573 g, 2.06 mmol) was dissolved in 30 mL of methanol and heated to 50° C. Ethylenediamine (0.176 g, 2.00 mmol) was also dissolved in 10 mL of methanol. When all of the 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)salicylaldehyde was dissolved, the solution of ethylene diamine was slowly added. After two hours, the flask was removed from the heat source and allowed to cool overnight. A precipitate was collected and used in the next step without further purification.
  • 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-6-((methyl(2-(methylamino)ethyl)amino)methyl)phenol (2)
  • A slurry of 1 from the previous synthesis was stirred at room temperature in a 100 mL round bottom flask. Sodium borohydride (0.640 g, 16.9 mmol) was added in small portions over 30 minutes. Gas evolution was observed. After three hours, the methanol was removed under vacuum and water was added. The resulting solids were filtered and washed with cold methanol. The white solids were dried under vacuum to yield 2 (0.585 g, 79% yield).
  • 2-(((2-((3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxybenzyl)(methyl)amino)ethyl)(methyl)-amino)methyl)-4,6-dibromophenol (3)
  • 2 (0.218 g, 0.606 mmol) and 2-bromomethyl-4,6-dibromophenol (0.209 g, 0.606 mmol) were dissolved in 20 mL of THF. Triethylamine (1.2 mL, 8.61 mmol) was added to the slightly pink solution. A white precipitate formed immediately. The reaction was allowed to stir overnight after which time the volatiles were removed and methanol added to make a slurry. The solids were filtered and dried under vacuum resulting in a white solid (0.215 g, 57% yield).
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00018
  • 2-hydroxy-3-(1-adamantyl)-5-methyl-benzenemethanol (4)
  • 2-(1-adamantyl)-4-methyl-salicylaldehyde (7.28 g, 26.9 mmol) was slurried in methanol (200 mL). Sodium borohydride (5.090 g, 0.135 mol) was added as a solid over 30 minutes. Gas evolution was observed. As all the NaBH4 was added, the reaction cleared to a yield a clear solution. The reaction was stirred overnight. The solvent was then removed to give a white powder which was slurried in water, filtered, and washed with cold water. The white powder was allowed to dry overnight to yield 7.06 g of 4 (96% yield).
  • 2-(bromomethyl)-4-methyl-6-(1-adamantyl)-phenol (5)
  • 4 (0.802 g, 2.94 mmol) was placed into a round bottom flask. Hydrobromic acid (18 mL of a 48 wt % aqueous solution) was added. Concentrated sulfuric acid (3 mL) was added dropwise to the stirring mixture. The reaction mixture was heated to 80° C. for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool and contents filtered. The resulting solids were dried for 30 minutes and the solid was slurried in diethyl ether. Most of the solids dissolved to give a yellow solution. The solution was dried over Mg504 and filtered. The volatiles were removed under vacuum to give a yellow sticky solid (1.01 g, 100% yield).
  • 2-(((2-((3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxybenzyl)(methyl)amino)ethyl)(methyl)-amino)methyl)-4-methyl-6-(1-adamantyl)phenol (6)
  • Since 5 was isolated as a sticky solid, a stock solution in THF (1.01 g in 10 mL=0.30 M) was made. 2 (0.367 g, 1.02 mmol) was dissolved in 15 mL of THF. Triethylamine (5 mL) was added to this solution. A solution of 5 was added (3.389 mL of the 0.3M soln) to the stirring reaction mixture. A precipitate was seen forming and the reaction was allowed to stir overnight. Reaction mixture was filtered through a 0.2 micron Acrodisc. The solution was placed under vacuum to remove the volatiles yielding a tan solid. The solid was slurried in pentane for 20 minutes, filtered, then dried under vacuum. Yield: 0.439 g (70%).
  • Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00019
  • [6,6′-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(methylazadiyl))bis(methylene)(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenolate(2-(3,5-dibromo)phenolate]dibenzylzirconium(IV) (A)
  • Under a nitrogen atmosphere, a toluene solution (5 mL) of 3 (212 mg, 0.34 mmol) was added to a yellow toluene solution (5 mL) of ZrBn4 (155 mg, 0.34 mmol), forming a deep yellow solution. After stirring at room temperature for 15 minutes, the solvent was removed to give a yellow sticky solid. The product was washed with pentane and dried under vacuum to give compound A as a yellow solid. Yield: 235 mg (80%). Compounds B and C were made in a similar manner from compound 6 and the corresponding Group IV tetrabenzyl precursors.
  • Polymerization Process:
  • Ethylene/1-octene copolymerizations were carried out in a parallel pressure reactor, which is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,306,658, 6,455,316 and 6,489,1681; WO 00/09255; and Murphy et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 4306-4317, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. A pre-weighed glass vial insert and disposable stirring paddle were fitted to each reaction vessel of the reactor, which contains 48 individual reaction vessels. The reactor was then closed and each vessel was individually heated to a set temperature (usually 70 or 100° C.) and pressurized to a pre-determined pressure of ethylene (generally 135 psi). 100 uL of 1-octene (637 umol) was injected into each reaction vessel through a valve, followed by 500 uL of isohexane. 500 equivalents of methylalumoxane solution (30 wt % in toluene) was then added to act as a co-catalyst/scavenger. Alternately, for NCA activation, 50 equivalents of tri-n-octylaluminum were added to act as a scavenger, followed by a toluene solution of a non-coordinating anion (as described previously in the Activators section). The contents of the vessel were then stirred at 800 rpm. A toluene solution of catalyst (A-C and C1, 0.20 mmol/L, 5-20 nmol) and another aliquot of isohexane (500 uL) were then added to the reactor. All runs were performed in triplicate. The reaction was then allowed to proceed until a set time limit (usually 30 min) or until a set amount of ethylene had been taken up by the reaction (ethylene pressure was maintained in each reaction vessel at the pre-set level by computer control). At this point, the reaction was quenched by exposure to air. After the polymerization reaction, the glass vial insert containing the polymer product and solvent was removed from the pressure cell and the inert atmosphere glovebox and the volatile components were removed using a Genevac HT-12 centrifuge and Genevac VC3000D vacuum evaporator operating at elevated temperature and reduced pressure. The vial was then weighed to determine the yield of the polymer product. The resultant polymer was analyzed by Rapid GPC (see below) to determine the molecular weight, by FT-IR (see below) to determine comonomer incorporation, and by DSC (see below) to determine melting point.
  • High temperature size exclusion chromatography was performed using an automated “Rapid GPC” system as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,491,816, 6,491,823, 6,475,391, 6,461,515, 6,436,292, 6,406,632, 6,175,409, 6,454,947, 6,260,407 and 6,294,388 each of which is incorporated herein by reference. This apparatus has a series of three 30 cm×7.5 mm linear columns, each containing PLgel 10 um, Mix B. The GPC system was calibrated using polystyrene standards ranging from 580-3,390,000 g/mol. The system was operated at an eluent flow rate of 2.0 mL/min and an oven temperature of 165° C. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene was used as the eluent. The polymer samples were dissolved in 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at a concentration of 0.1-0.9 mg/mL. 250 uL of a polymer solution were injected into the system. The concentration of the polymer in the eluent was monitored using an evaporative light scattering detector. The molecular weights obtained are relative to linear polystyrene standards.
  • Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed on a TA-Q100 instrument to determine the melting point of the polymers. Samples were pre-annealed at 220° C. for 15 minutes and then allowed to cool to room temperature overnight. The samples were then heated to 220° C. at a rate of 100° C./min and then cooled at a rate of 50° C./min. Melting points were collected during the heating period. The ratio of 1-octene to ethylene incorporated in the polymers (weight %) was determined by rapid FT-IR spectroscopy on a Bruker Equinox 55+ IR in reflection mode. Samples were prepared in a thin film format by evaporative deposition techniques. Weight % 1-octene was obtained from the ratio of peak heights at 1378 and 4322 cm−1. This method was calibrated using a set of ethylene/1-octene copolymers with a range of known wt. % 1-octene content. Polymerization data shown in Table 1 is intended to be representative of the catalytic behavior of compounds A-C and C1 and not comprehensive.
  • TABLE 1
    Selected High Throughput Polymerization Results
    Amount Temp Pressure Time Yield Activity Mw MWD Incorporation Tm
    Run Catalyst Activator (nmol) (° C.) (psi) (sec) (mg) (g/mmol h bar) (kDa) (Mw/Mn) (wt %) (° C.)
    1 C1 MAO 20 75 135 40 124 60,100 15 1.6 8.0 124
    2 C1 MAO 20 75 135 37 139 72,700 15 1.7 8.4 123
    3 C1 MAO 20 75 135 37 154 80,300 15 1.6 10.1 123
    4 C1 MAO 20 100 135 24 105 84,800 13 1.6 9.0 122
    5 C1 MAO 20 100 135 1800 0 0 ND ND ND ND
    6 C1 MAO 20 100 135 19 97 99,100 13 1.7 10.9 122
    7 A MAO 20 75 135 8 180 435,000 11 1.6 21.8 119
    8 A MAO 20 75 135 8 177 427,000 10 1.6 25.5 119
    9 A MAO 20 75 135 8 191 461,000 10 1.6 24.6 118
    10 A MAO 20 100 135 8 128 310,000 10 1.6 32.5 117
    11 A MAO 20 100 135 10 133 258,000 10 1.6 18.9 116
    12 A MAO 20 100 135 8 118 284,000 10 1.5 22.9 117
    13 B MAO 20 75 135 17 110 125,000 12 1.6 10.3 121
    14 B MAO 20 75 135 17 103 117,000 12 1.6 14.0 122
    15 B MAO 20 75 135 20 108 105,000 12 1.6 11.3 121
    16 B MAO 20 100 135 18 90 97,000 11 1.6 16.5 120
    17 B MAO 20 100 135 64 28 8400 11 1.6 8.8 126
    18 B MAO 20 100 135 18 84 90,400 11 1.6 8.5 120
    19 C MAO 20 75 135 209 37 3400 63 2.0 5.1 122
    20 C MAO 20 75 135 191 34 3400 64 2.9 6.3 122
    21 C MAO 20 75 135 176 38 4100 61 2.6 6.9 122
    22 C MAO 20 100 135 179 42 4600 52 1.7 6.7 121
    23 C MAO 20 100 135 184 37 3900 53 1.6 5.9 122
    24 C MAO 20 100 135 284 53 3600 55 1.9 6.2 121
  • Larger scale lab propylene polymerizations were carried out as follows: approximately 10 mg of solid catalyst (˜0.01 mmol) and 500 equivalents of solid methylalumoxane (˜330 mg) were weighed out and placed in a 100 mL steel reaction flask. Propylene was condensed at −85° C. in a cold bath and approximately 25 g of liquid propylene was poured onto the mixture of solid catalyst and methylalumoxane. The flask was then sealed and either left to warm to room temperature with stirring for 16 hours, or heated to 70° C. for one hour. The contents of the flask were then vented and the solid polypropylene collected and weighed.
  • Molecular weight distribution was characterized using a High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatograph (Waters Alliance 2000) equipped with a differential refractive index detector (DRI). Three Polymer Laboratories PLgel 10 mm Mixed-B columns were used. The nominal flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the nominal injection volume was 300 uL. The various transfer lines, columns and differential refractometer (the DRI detector) were contained in an oven maintained at 145° C. Polymer solutions were prepared by dissolving the desired amount of dry polymer in the appropriate volume of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene to yield concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 mg/mL. The sample mixtures were heated at 160° C. with continuous agitation for ˜2 hours. The solution was filtered through a 2 micron stainless steel filter (Polymer Labs) into scintillation vials using a Polymer Labs SP260 Sample Prep Station. The separation efficiency of the column set was calibrated using a series of narrow MWD polystyrene standards (Polymer Laboratories), which reflects the expected MW range for samples and the exclusion limits of the column set. Seventeen individual polystyrene standards, ranging from Mp ˜580 to 10,000,000, were used to generate the calibration curve.
  • Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed on a Perkin Elmer Pyris 1 instrument to determine the melting point of the polymers. Samples were heated to 200° C. for 10 minutes and then cooled to −20° C. at a rate of 10° C./min. After being held at this temperature for 10 minutes, they were then heated to 200° C. at a rate of 10° C./min. Melting points were collected during the heating period.
  • TABLE 2
    Selected Batch Polymerization Results
    Amount Temp Monomer Amount Time Yield Activity
    Run Catalyst Activator (mg) (° C.) (g) (hr) (g) (g/mmol h)
    25 C1 MAO 15 70 25.7 1 0.94 62
    26 A MAO 10 70 22.8 1 12.5 1116
    27 B MAO 13 70 25.1 1 10.3 664
    28 C MAO 14 70 23.4 1 1.8 121
  • As the data show, the catalyst compounds, catalyst systems, and polymerization processes disclosed in embodiments herein provide novel and improved catalyst and systems for the polymerization of olefins, which in further embodiments can produce polymers having improved properties, such as high polymer melting point, high polymer molecular weights, an increased conversion and/or comonomer incorporation, which may further include a significant amount of long chain branching and/or a significant amount of vinyl termination.
  • The catalysts in an embodiment provide improvement in catalyst activity, produce polymers with improved properties or both. In an embodiment crystallographic techniques indicate that the appended ring system or systems (e.g., the carbazole ring systems) are oriented transversely, e.g., perpendicular, to the phenol rings. In an embodiment these catalysts have a structure to provide a broad corridor for the polymeryl moiety to reside and for the monomer to insert during the polymerization process. As such, catalysts according to one embodiment of the instant disclosure provide for an ability to control one or more characteristics of polymerization, tacticity, comonomer insertion, and the like.
  • All documents described herein are incorporated by reference herein, including any priority documents and/or testing procedures to the extent they are not inconsistent with this text, provided however that any priority document not named in the initially filed application or filing documents is NOT incorporated by reference herein. As is apparent from the foregoing general description and the specific embodiments, while forms of the invention have been illustrated and described, various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the invention be limited thereby. Likewise, the term “comprising” is considered synonymous with the term “including” for purposes of Australian law. Likewise whenever a composition, an element or a group of elements is preceded with the transitional phrase “comprising”, it is understood that we also contemplate the same composition or group of elements with transitional phrases “consisting essentially of,” “consisting of”, “selected from the group of consisting of,” or “is” preceding the recitation of the composition, element, or elements and vice versa.

Claims (27)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A catalyst compound represented by the formula:
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00020
    M is a Group 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
    each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure;
    each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical,
    Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  2. 2. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein two or more of R1 to R21 independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
  3. 3. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein M is Hf, Ti, or Zr.
  4. 4. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein each X is, independently, a halogen or a C1 to C7 hydrocarbyl radical.
  5. 5. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein each X is a benzyl radical.
  6. 6. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is independently, hydrogen, a halogen, or a C1 to C30 hydrocarbyl radical.
  7. 7. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is independently, hydrogen, a halogen, or a C1 to C10 hydrocarbyl radical.
  8. 8. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein one or more of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is a methyl radical, a bromide, an adamantyl radical, or a combination thereof.
  9. 9. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein Y is —CH2CH2— or 1,2-cyclohexylene.
  10. 10. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein Y is —CH2CH2CH2—.
  11. 11. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein Y is a C1-C40 divalent hydrocarbyl radical comprising a linker backbone comprising from 1 to 18 carbon atoms bridging between nitrogen atoms N1 and N2.
  12. 12. The catalyst compound of claim 1, wherein Y is a C1-C40 divalent hydrocarbyl radical comprising O, S, S(O), S(O)2, Si(R′)2, P(R′), N,N(R′), or a combination thereof, wherein each R′ is independently a C1-C18 hydrocarbyl radical.
  13. 13. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein:
    M is Zr;
    X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
    R1 and R14 are methyl radicals;
    R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen;
    R17 and R19 are bromine; and
    Y is —CH2CH2—.
  14. 14. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein:
    M is Zr;
    X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
    R1, R14 and R17 are methyl radicals;
    R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20, and R21 are hydrogen;
    R19 is a 1-adamantyl radical; and
    Y is —CH2CH2—.
  15. 15. The catalyst compound of claim 1 wherein:
    M is Hf;
    X1 and X2 are benzyl radicals;
    R1 and R14 and R17 are methyl radicals;
    R2 through R13, R15, R16, R18, R20 and R21 are hydrogen;
    R19 is a 1-adamantyl radical; and
    Y is —CH2CH2—.
  16. 16. A catalyst system comprising:
    an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00021
    M is a Group 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
    each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure;
    each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical, and
    Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  17. 17. The catalyst system of claim 16, wherein two or more of R1 to R21 independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
  18. 18. The catalyst system of claim 16, wherein the activator comprises alumoxane, a non-coordinating anion activator, or a combination thereof.
  19. 19. The catalyst system of claim 16, wherein the activator comprises alumoxane and the alumoxane is present at a ratio of 1 mole aluminum or more to mole of catalyst compound.
  20. 20. The catalyst system of claim 16, wherein the activator is represented by the formula:

    (Z)d +(Ad−)
    wherein Z is (L-H), or a reducible Lewis Acid, wherein L is a neutral Lewis base;
    H is hydrogen;
    (L-H)+ is a Bronsted acid;
    Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge d−; and
    d is an integer from 1 to 3.
  21. 21. The catalyst system of claim 16 wherein the activator is represented by the formula:

    (Z)d +(Ad−)
    wherein Ad− is a non-coordinating anion having the charge d−;
    d is an integer from 1 to 3, and
    Z is a reducible Lewis acid represented by the formula: (Ar3C+), where Ar is aryl radical, an aryl radical substituted with a heteroatom, an aryl radical substituted with one or more C1 to C40 hydrocarbyl radicals, an aryl radical substituted with one or more functional groups comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or a combination thereof.
  22. 22. The catalyst system of claim 16 wherein the activator is selected from the group consisting of:
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    tropillium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluoronaphthyl)borate,
    trimethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    triethylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    tripropylammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    tropillium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    triethylsilylium tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(perfluorobiphenyl)borate,
    [4-tert-butyl-PhNMe2H][(C6F3(C6F5)2)4B],
    trimethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    triethylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    tripropylammonium tetraphenylborate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetraphenylborate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetraphenylborate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetraphenylborate,
    tropillium tetraphenylborate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetraphenylborate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate,
    triethylsilylium tetraphenylborate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetraphenylborate,
    trimethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triethylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tripropylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tri(sec-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tropillium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triethylsilylium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    trimethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    triethylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    tripropylammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluoro-phenyl)borate,
    dimethyl(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    tropillium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    triethylsilylium tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetrakis-(2,3,4,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate,
    trimethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    triethylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    tripropylammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    tri(tert-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    N,N-diethylanilinium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    N,N-dimethyl-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    tropillium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    triphenylphosphonium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    triethylsilylium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    benzene(diazonium)tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate,
    di-(i-propyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    dicyclohexylammonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tri(o-tolyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    tri(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphonium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(perfluorophenyl)borate,
    1-(4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrrolidinium,
    tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate,
    4-(tris(pentafluorophenyl)borate)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoropyridine,
    triphenylcarbenium tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate), and combinations thereof.
  23. 23. A process to polymerize olefins comprising:
    contacting one or more olefins with a catalyst system at a temperature, a pressure, and for a period of time sufficient to produce a polyolefin, the catalyst system comprising an activator and a catalyst compound represented by the formula:
    Figure US20140039139A1-20140206-C00022
    M is a Group 4, 5 or 6 transition metal;
    each X is, independently, a univalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Groups 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or X1 and X2 join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure;
    each R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20, and R21 is, independently, a hydrogen, a C1-C40 hydrocarbyl radical, a functional group comprising elements from Group 13-17 of the periodic table of the elements, or two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure, or a combination thereof; subject to the proviso that R19 is not a carbazole or a substituted carbazole radical; and
    Y is a divalent C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl radical.
  24. 24. The process of claim 23, wherein two or more of R1 to R21 may independently join together to form a C4 to C62 cyclic or polycyclic ring structure.
  25. 25. The process of claim 23 wherein the conditions comprise a temperature of from about 0° C. to about 300° C., a pressure from about 0.35 MPa to about 10 MPa, and a time from about 0.1 minutes to about 24 hours.
  26. 26. The process of claim 23, wherein the one or more olefins comprise propylene.
  27. 27. The process of claim 23 wherein the polyolefin comprises at least 50 mole % propylene.
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