US20140000199A1 - Internally Braced Insulated Wall and Method of Constructing Same - Google Patents

Internally Braced Insulated Wall and Method of Constructing Same Download PDF

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Publication number
US20140000199A1
US20140000199A1 US13540007 US201213540007A US20140000199A1 US 20140000199 A1 US20140000199 A1 US 20140000199A1 US 13540007 US13540007 US 13540007 US 201213540007 A US201213540007 A US 201213540007A US 20140000199 A1 US20140000199 A1 US 20140000199A1
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Prior art keywords
wall
spar
interior
space
icfs
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Abandoned
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US13540007
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Roy Gary Black
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Integrated Structures Inc
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Integrated Structures Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/842Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf
    • E04B2/845Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf the form leaf comprising a wire netting, lattice or the like
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/7604Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only fillings for cavity walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/842Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf
    • E04B2/847Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ by projecting or otherwise applying hardenable masses to the exterior of a form leaf the form leaf comprising an insulating foam panel
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8647Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties going through the forms
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B2/00Walls, e.g. partitions, for buildings; Wall construction with regard to insulation; Connections specially adapted to walls
    • E04B2/84Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ
    • E04B2/86Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms
    • E04B2/8652Walls made by casting, pouring, or tamping in situ made in permanent forms with ties located in the joints of the forms

Abstract

A high thermal resistant vertical wall on a base foundation in which stacked ICFs define an interior wall space that is filled with foam and concrete membranes coat the exteriors of the ICFs.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to wall structures and methods of constructing same and, in particular, to wall structures having internal bracing during construction and superior thermal resistance.
  • [0002]
    Approximately 50% of the energy consumed in the operation of a building is used to maintain the temperature of the interior spaces. In the cold months, the energy is used for heating, while in the hotter months, the energy is used for cooling. Walls with exceptional thermal resistance, such as those of the present invention, have the potential to significantly reduce the operating energy of a building.
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates to systems and methods for constructing very high thermal resistivity (“R value”) building walls having interior and exterior membrane surfaces typically of concrete and applied under pressure.
  • [0004]
    One of the difficulties of constructing such walls is keeping them in place and plumb while they are being erected and while the membranes are being applied.
  • [0005]
    The prior art practice for keeping walls in place during construction is to use external bracing, primarily using wood or pipe members. The disadvantages of external bracing (regardless of the materials used) is that the bracing makes the application of the outer membrane difficult, requiring substantial effort and time, which translates directly into added expense. External bracing also consumes materials that are typically discarded. Even if some of the bracing materials are reused or recycled, they add nothing to the structural integrity of the wall after it is fully constructed.
  • [0006]
    U.S. Pat. No. 7,461,488 teaches an internal bracing system using straw bales. While that system has been successfully implemented and is an advance over the prior art, straw bales are inherently non-uniform in size, cumbersome to work with and at risk of attracting and retaining moisture. The present invention provides the advantages of internal bracing without the disadvantages accompanying straw bales and provides a much higher level of thermal resistivity and earthquake stability.
  • [0007]
    The present invention teaches a wall structure and method for its construction that can provide exceptionally high thermal resistivity and stability under earthquake conditions using internal bracing during construction that permits walls of 30 feet and more to be constructed with little or no external bracing. The ability to construct a wall of the present invention using only internal bracing eliminates the difficulties of applying the outer wall membrane and incorporates members that provide that bracing as internal structural elements of the finished wall.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The high thermal resistance wall of the present invention comprises a pair of generally parallel spaced apart concrete membranes connected by spars with insulated concrete forms (ICFs) having spaced apart ICF panels disposed adjacent to and between the membranes defining an internal wall space and insulating foam filling the internal wall space. In addition, internal bracing structures disposed in the internal wall space during construction remain as structural elements of the finished wall.
  • [0009]
    The method of constructing the wall comprises: stacking spaced apart ICF panels onto the foundation base wherein each panel has an interior surface and an exterior surface where the interior surfaces define an internal wall space; securing a plurality of bracing ladders at spaced apart locations on the base foundation in the internal wall space adjacent the ICFs; disposing a plurality of spar members across the internal wall space and through the ICF panels; filling the internal wall space with insulating foam; and applying a concrete membrane onto the exterior surfaces of the ICF panels to a thickness that covers portions of the spar members. In a preferred embodiment, the membranes are only applied after the entire wall is otherwise constructed.
  • [0010]
    The invention achieves its outstanding results by the strategic placement (both vertically and horizontally) and interconnection of a plurality of ladder structures (truss-like members) and various spar members. The ladder structures give the walls sufficient out-of-plane strength to remain erect and plumb during construction both before the outer membrane is applied and while the outer membrane is applied.
  • [0011]
    The present invention permits the membranes to be applied without the need to work around external bracing, greatly simplifying that process.
  • [0012]
    It follows, of course, that erecting and dismantling external bracing is eliminated, as are the substantial costs and waste associated therewith.
  • [0013]
    One of the outstanding features of the present invention is that a wall of any height (from 8 feet to 35 feet or more) can be assembled from small parts that are easily transported to the site. Spars and rebar members are tied or tack welded to form a stiff truss-like system that stabilizes the wall during and after construction.
  • [0014]
    Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide internal bracing systems and methods for constructing a high R-value wall. It is another object of the present invention to provide internal bracing and methods for constructing a high R-value wall to a height of 35 feet or more without the need for external bracing.
  • [0015]
    Yet another object of the present invention is to provide systems and methods for constructing a high R-value wall in which permanent internal structural elements act as bracing during construction.
  • [0016]
    The foregoing and other objectives, features and advantages of the invention will be more readily understood upon consideration of the following detailed description of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0017]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a partial wall according to the present invention with portions broken away to expose certain parts of the internal structure of the wall in relation to its foundation;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 2; is a sectional view of the lower part of a wall of the present invention showing internal elements as well as the outer membrane;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 3 is a section view of the lower part of a wall of the present invention showing a bracing ladder in relation to some of the other internal elements;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 4 is perspective view of stacked ICFs in relation to spacers and spar sets as employed in the present invention;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 5 is a perspective view (with a portion enlarged) showing a spar set and connecting rods with which it forms a wall truss element of the present invention; and
  • [0022]
    FIG. 6 is a section view of a wall of the present invention showing the positions of two spar sets relative to the wall top and bottom.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0023]
    The following description includes some specific measurements for purposes of illustration only and, except where otherwise indicated, such specific measurements are not to be taken as limitations of the invention. While these dimensions will change for walls of different thicknesses and heights, what does not change is the functional relationship of the various structural members to one another.
  • [0024]
    Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, a wall 11 (only a portion of which is shown), according to the present invention, is constructed on a base foundation 12 and comprises as main structural and insulating elements: a plurality of insulated concrete forms (ICFs) 13 comprised of spaced apart ICF panels 14 stacked onto the base foundation 12 and defining an interior wall space 18; a plurality of bracing ladders 23 spaced along the length 12L of base foundation 12; a plurality of spar members 28, 37 and 38 that comprise spar member sets 33 that span the interior wall space 18 and extend through the ICFs 13 placing their respective end sections 30, 31, 37 b and 38 b outside of the exterior surface 14 a of ICF panels 14; a plurality of anchor dowels 17 anchored in and spaced along the base foundation 12 outside of the exterior surface 14 b of ICF panels 14 and extending vertically a distance beyond one or two stacked ICFs 13; connecting rods 22 in overlapping adjacent relation to anchor dowels 17 and extending vertically to or near the top (not shown) of the wall 11 and secured to end sections 30, 31, 37 b and 38 b of spar sets 33; an interior concrete membrane 44; an exterior concrete membrane 48; and insulating foam 53 (FIG. 1) filling the interior wall space 18 surrounding the bracing ladders 23 and the portions of the spar member sets 33 within the interior wall space 18.
  • [0025]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, a pair of spaced apart channel tracks 56 are secured to the base foundation 12 along its length 12L as guides for positioning and aligning the panels 14 of ICFs 13 on the base foundation 12 and setting the width 13W of the interior wall space 18. Bracing ladders 23 are disposed at spaced apart locations along the length 12L of foundation 12 and sized to fit within the interior wall space 18 abutting the interior walls 14 a of the ICF panels 14. Once positioned, the ladders 23 are secured to the foundation 12 in any one of several known ways of securing a metal structure to concrete, such as by purlin anchors 24 cast into the foundation 12. In one embodiment, the ladders 23 are located along the foundation 12 at intervals of about every 12 feet; however, that distance can vary depending on the size of the wall. The ladders 23 are oriented on the base foundation 12 such that the plane of the ladders 23 (the plane containing the ladder cross-members 23 b) is transverse to the length 12L of the foundation 12. The height of ladders 21 is approximately equal to the height (11H) of the wall 11 (FIG. 6), which can be 35 feet or more.
  • [0026]
    Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3, bracing ladders 23 are comprised of a pair of spaced apart parallel rails 23 a rigidly held together by attached cross members 23 b that unify the ladder 23 into a single Pratt truss. The ladders 23 can be constructed from a variety of materials including wood as well as metal. In a preferred embodiment, the ladders 23 are constructed from recycled sheet metal.
  • [0027]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 4, insulated concrete forms (ICFs) 13 are well known in the construction industry and widely used as forming systems for concrete foundations and the like. Each ICF comprises spaced apart panel members 14, each panel having an interior surface 14 a and an exterior surface 14 b. Typically and according to the prior art, ICFs are interlocking modular units that are dry-stacked (without mortar) and filled with concrete. One popular ICF structure includes interlocking pegs 19 and pockets 20 (FIG. 2) that lock together somewhat like Lego® bricks and are used in the prior art to create concrete forms for structural walls of a building. ICFs are currently manufactured from any of the following materials: Polystyrene foam (expanded or extruded—most common), Polyurethane foam (including soy-based), cement-bonded polystyrene beads and other foam materials.
  • [0028]
    ICFs are used in prior art systems to form a cavity into which concrete is pumped to form the core structural element of a foundation or wall, with reinforcing steel (rebar) disposed between the panel members 14 before concrete placement to give the concrete flexural strength, similar to bridges and high-rise buildings made of concrete.
  • [0029]
    While there are a number of different brands and configurations of ICFs, those used in the present invention are those available brands that are stackable, constructed from a lightweight foam material and can be adjusted to vary the distance between panel members 14 to create interior wall spaces 18 of different widths 13W. As will be seen by what follows, ICFs 13 are not used in the present invention as concrete forms at all, but rather in a way and for a purpose that enables a novel wall structure to be built having the same or better load-bearing capabilities as a concrete core wall and superior thermal resistance and earthquake stability, as well as other advantages.
  • [0030]
    As best seen by reference FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, in one embodiment, ICF panels 14 are stacked on foundation 12 in channels 56 (see also FIG. 1) in a running bond (the ends 14 c of each panel member 14 is located approximately midway between the panel ends 14 c of the panel 14 immediately above and below) stacked to the height of the wall. The bracing ladders 23 abut the internal surface 14 a of panel members 14 that are held apart at a fixed spacing by spacers 16 that are typically made of plastic but can also be made of other materials, as is known in the art. The spacers 16 maintain the spacing 13W against internal forces that would push panel members 14 apart.
  • [0031]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, and 5, spar member sets 33 are comprised of cross spar members 28 and 32 and U-shaped spars member 37 and 38 which are disposed to span the interior wall space 18 and pass through ICF panels 14. Spar cross members 28 and 32 are identical but disposed in mirror opposing relationship to each other. Spar members 28 and 32 are each in their preferred embodiment a contiguous structure having a generally straight midsection 29 terminating at ends 29 a and 29 b. A first end section 30 is generally straight and extends from end 29 a and forms an obtuse angle 25 with the spar midsection 29. A second end section 31 extends from end 29 b and curves back on itself, forming a U-shape with the adjacent portion 29 c of the midsection 29. The spars 28 and 32 span the interior wall space 18 and extend through the ICF panels 14 locating the first end sections 30 and second end section 31 outside of the ICFs 13 (and outside of interior wall space 18).
  • [0032]
    U-shaped spar member 37 has a generally straight midsection 37 a and end sections 37 b at approximate right angles to midsection 37 a. In its preferred embodiment, the spar 37 is a contiguous structure that spans the interior wall space at a location that disposes its end sections 37 b outside of the ICFs 14 (outside of interior wall space 18) and around end sections 30 of cross spar members 28 and 32 (see FIG. 5). U-shaped spar member 38, which is identical to member 37, has a generally straight midsection 38 a and end sections 38 b at approximate right angles to midsection 38 a. In its preferred embodiment, the spar 38 is a contiguous structure that spans the interior wall space at a location that disposes its end sections 38 b outside of the ICFs 14 (outside of interior wall space 18) and around end sections 31 of cross spar members 28 and 32 (see FIG. 5). The spars 37 and 38 restrain the end sections 30 and 31 of cross spar members 28 and 32 from flexing outwardly (away from the ICF panels 14) when the cross member midsections 29 are put under load.
  • [0033]
    Because the spar members 28, 32, 37 and 38 span the interior wall space 18, they create a thermal conductivity path. Even when only two spar sets 33 are used in each location (see below), the amount of heat that can travel through these spar members is surprisingly high when the spars sets 33 are made of a high thermal conductance material such as steel rebar. The use of such high thermal conductivity materials can result in a significant amount of heat transfer and a concomitant reduction in the overall R-value of the wall. In order to prevent this degradation in the R-value, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, all of the spars that comprise spar sets 33 are formed from fiberglass, which is a low heat conductance material compared to steel. Using fiberglass in place of steel rebar has a dramatic reduction in heat transfer across the wall 11 without compromising structural performance.
  • [0034]
    Referring to FIGS. 1 and 6, the spar sets 33 are disposed between bracing ladders 23 at between 4 and 8 feet spacing along the length 12L of foundation 12 (not all ladders shown). In one embodiment of the invention, only two spar sets 33—a lower spar set 33 a and an upper spar set 33 b (FIG. 6)—are disposed at a given location for walls 11 having heights 11H of thirty feet or more. Upper spar set 33 b is located near the top 11 b of the wall 11 directly above lower spar set 33 a near the bottom 11 a of the wall 11. Surprisingly, a wall with only two spar sets 33 a and 33 b at locations near the bottom and top of the wall 11 is as strong and performs as well, if not better, than a wall having more than two spar sets 33 at a given foundation location. The distance between the wall bottom 11 a and lower spar set 33 a and the wall top 11 b and the upper spar set 33 b can range from a 1 or 2 feet to 5 or 6 feet, depending on the overall height 11H of the wall 11. In order to keep the membranes 44 and 48 from buckling under heavy loads, tie rods 41 span and extend beyond internal wall space 18 with their ends embedded in the membranes 44 and 48. In one embodiment, tie rods 41 have the same shape as spars 37 and 38 and are placed between spar sets 33 every 3 to 4 feet along the height 11H of the wall 11.
  • [0035]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, anchor dowels 17 are cast into the concrete base foundation 12 and extend vertically above the base foundation approximately the same height as between one and two stacked ICF panels 14 (see FIG. 3). The anchor dowels 17 terminate in the foundation in a standard hook 17 a and are distributed along the length of the base foundation 12 in opposing pairs 17 p, with each dowel 17 near one edge of the base foundation 12. The dowels 17 of a given pair 17 p are spaced apart a greater distance than the width of ICF 13, by 1 to 3 inches and preferably 2 inches (these number could change with walls having thicker membranes). Anchor dowel pairs 17 p are spaced along the length of the base foundation 12 to match the locations of the spar members sets 33 which are typically spaced every 4 to 8 feet.
  • [0036]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 5, adjacent each anchor dowel 17 is a connecting rod 22 that extends vertically in close proximity to the end sections 30 and 31 of cross spar members 28 and 32, as well as the end sections 37 b of U-shaped spar members 37 and 38. The spar ends 30, 31 and 37 b are secured to the connecting rods 22 by connectors 36. The combination of the joined spar sets 33 and connecting rods 22 creates a truss structure, giving the wall 11 all of the structural advantages of a truss. The connectors 36 that join spars 28, 32, 37 and 38 and connecting rods 22 can be a weld, a twist tie (not illustrated), a mechanical bracket or any other known means for securing rod members together. Connecting rods 22 and anchor dowels 17 can be made from steel rebar (e.g., #4) without increasing thermal conductivity across the wall 11, since they do not span the interior wall space 18 and are connected by fiberglass spar members and thus do not create a low conductance path that could compromise the R-value of the finished wall 11.
  • [0037]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, in a manner known in the art, a wire mesh curtain 56 is disposed exteriorly of surfaces 14 b of panels 14 to facilitate the application of concrete 46 that forms exterior membrane 48 and interior membrane 44. The membranes 44 and 48 are formed by concrete (shotcrete) applied under pressure to the exterior surfaces 14 b of panels 14 to a thickness of approximately 3 inches to fully encase the anchor dowels 17, spar member end sections 30, 31 and 37 b, the connecting rods 22, the ends of tie rods 41 and wire mesh curtain 56, all in a manner well known in the art. All of the components encased in the interior membrane 44 are physically joined to the components encased in the exterior membrane 48 by spars sets 33 and tie rods 41, forming a truss of exceptional structural integrity and performance.
  • [0038]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 4 and 6, once the first few tiers of ICFs 13 are in place and the lower spar member sets 33 a in place, the interior wall space 18 formed by those tiers is filled with insulating foam 53 that surrounds the section of bracing ladders 23 and portions of spars sets 33 and tie rods 41 that are located in space 18. That same process is repeated for subsequent tiers of ICFs until the desired height of the wall is reached. Prior to filling the final few tiers with foam 53, the upper spar sets 33 b are put in place.
  • [0039]
    Unlike conventional concrete structures having a concrete core that has moderate thermal conductance, the core material of the wall 11 of the present invention is all insulating material (ICFs 13 and foam 53), both having very low thermal conductance.
  • [0040]
    Foam 53 is applied as a combination of liquids that expand when exposed to the air to fill all of space 18. Such foam systems are known in the building industry and are capable of producing foam in a range of densities. Gaco Western offers a liquid pour system: Low density, rigid polyurethane foam for cavity fill which uses as a Blowing Agent—245fa Enovate. Gaco's product designation is Polyfoam™ CF-200, which is a zero ozone depleting liquid pour system for general use in cavity fill applications. It is co-blown with HFC and water and cures to a low density rigid polyurethane closed cell foam. High density rigid polyurethane closed cell foam is also available. In either case, the closed cell structure of the foam 53 prevents the intrusion of water into the interior wall space 18 that could, if present, diminish the R-value of the wall. In the same way, foam 53 also prevents any insect infestation or other undesirable material from entering the space 18.
  • [0041]
    The method of the present invention for constructing a wall 11 of superior structural integrity and high thermal resistance (high R-Value) onto a base foundation 12 wherein vertically extending opposing pairs 17 p of anchor dowels 17 are cast into and spaced apart along the length 12L of the base foundation 12, comprises:
  • [0042]
    (1) attaching to the base foundation 12 preassembled vertically oriented mid-wall bracing ladders 23 at spaced apart locations along the length 12L of base foundation 12;
  • [0043]
    (2) stacking a base run of ICFs 13 several panels 14 high in a running bond onto the base foundation 12 wherein the ICFs 13 define an interior wall space 18 that includes bracing ladders 23;
  • [0044]
    (3) disposing at spaced apart locations along the length 12L of base foundation 12 adjacent to the anchor dowel pairs 17 and spaced above the base foundation 12, a lower spar set 33 a of multiple spar members that span the interior wall space 18 and penetrate the ICF panels 14 locating end sections of the spar members outside of the ICFs 13;
  • [0045]
    (4) injecting rigid polyurethane foam 53 in the interior wall space 18 and thereby surround the bracing ladders 23 and the portions of the spar sets 33 within the interior wall space 18;
  • [0046]
    (5) stacking onto the existing foam filled run of ICFs 13 additional runs of ICFs 13 each to a height of several panels 14;
  • [0047]
    (6) injecting rigid polyurethane foam 53 in the interior wall space 18 of each additional run of ICFs 13 before adding an additional run of ICFs 13;
  • [0048]
    (7) repeating steps (5 and 6) until one additional run of ICFs 13 would reach within several panel heights of the top 11 b of wall 11;
  • [0049]
    (8) stacking a top run of ICFs onto the uppermost foam filled run of ICFs;
  • [0050]
    (9) disposing in the top run of ICFs in line with the lower spar sets 33 a an upper spar set 33 b that spans the interior wall space 18 and penetrates the ICFs 13 locating the end sections of the spars of the upper spar set 33 outside of ICFs 13;
  • [0051]
    (10) injecting rigid polyurethane foam 53 in the interior wall space 18 of the top run of ICFs 13;
  • [0052]
    (11) securing next to each anchor dowel 17 a connecting rod 22 that extends vertically to a height that disposes it adjacent an upper spar set 33 b;
  • [0053]
    (12) securing to each connecting rod the end sections of the spars of a lower spar set 33 a and an upper spar set 33 b;
  • [0054]
    (13) securing wire fabric 57 exteriorly of surfaces 14 b of the panels 14 of ICF 13; and
  • [0055]
    (14) applying a concrete membrane (typically pneumatically placed shotcrete or gunnite) to the exterior surfaces 14 b of the ICF panels 14 to a thickness that encapsulates the anchor dowels 17, connecting rods 22 and end sections of spar sets 33.
  • [0056]
    Of course, various changes, modifications and alterations in the teachings of the present invention may be contemplated by those skilled in the art without departing from the intended spirit and scope thereof. As such, it is intended that the present invention only be limited by the terms of the appended claims.

Claims (18)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A high thermal resistant vertical wall supported on a base foundation having a length comprising:
    a plurality of ICFs on the base foundation each comprising generally parallel spaced apart panel members wherein each said panel member has an interior surface and an exterior surface with the space between the said interior surfaces defining an interior wall space;
    foam disposed in said interior wall space and
    a concrete membrane adjacent to said exterior surface of said panel members.
  2. 2. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 1 further comprising:
    a plurality of bracing ladders supported at spaced apart locations on the base foundation within said interior wall space and surrounded by said foam.
  3. 3. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 1 further comprising:
    a plurality of spar members spanning said interior wall space and having ends that are disposed outside of said interior wall space adjacent said exterior panel surfaces in a said concrete membrane and surrounded by said foam.
  4. 4. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 2 further comprising:
    a plurality of spar members sets spanning said interior wall space and having ends that are disposed outside of said interior wall space adjacent said exterior panel surfaces in a said concrete membrane and surrounded by said foam wherein a spar member set comprises a plurality of spar members.
  5. 5. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 3 wherein said spar members are made of fiberglass.
  6. 6. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 1 wherein said foam is a rigid polyurethane closed cell foam.
  7. 7. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 6 wherein said foam is high density.
  8. 8. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 6 wherein said foam is low density.
  9. 9. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 1 wherein said foam is formed by a combination of liquids that expand when exposed to the air.
  10. 10. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 1 wherein said ICFs are stacked on the foundation in a running bond.
  11. 11. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 4 further comprising vertical connecting rods disposed adjacent to the exterior surfaces of said panel members and affixed to said spar member ends and encapsulated in a said concrete membrane.
  12. 12. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 4 wherein said spar member sets are disposed at spaced apart locations along the base foundation with only two spar sets at any given location where said spar member sets are in vertical alignment.
  13. 13. The high thermal resistant vertical wall of claim 4 wherein said spar member sets comprise two cross spar members each spanning said interior wall space at an angle to the vertical and each having end members generally that are vertical and parallel to said panel surfaces and disposed adjacent to a said exterior surface and two U-shaped spar members that span said interior wall space at generally right angles to said panel member surfaces and have end members that are generally horizontal and parallel to said panel exterior surfaces wherein said cross spar member end member lie between a said U-shaped spar member end members by which they are restrained.
  14. 14. A method of constructing a high thermal resistance wall having a top and a bottom onto a base foundation having a length comprising:
    (a) stacking a base run of ICFs onto the base foundation wherein said ICFs comprise spaced apart panel members having interior and exterior surfaces with said interior surfaces defining an interior wall space;
    (b) disposing a plurality of bracing ladders supported at spaced apart locations on the base foundation within said interior wall space extending to the top of the wall;
    (c) disposing in said base run of ICFs at spaced apart locations along the length of the base foundation a lower spar set comprising a plurality of spar members spanning said interior wall space and having spar ends that are disposed outside of said interior wall space adjacent said exterior panel surfaces; and
    (d) injecting close cell polyurethane foam forming liquids into said interior wall space in which said foam forming liquids expand to fill the space between said ICF panels and surround said bracing ladders and portions of said spar sets within said interior wall space with close cell polyurethane foam.
  15. 15. The method of claim 14 wherein said panels have a height and further comprising:
    (e) stacking onto the base run of ICFs an additional run of ICFs to a height of several said panels wherein said additional run ICFs comprise spaced apart panel members having interior and exterior surfaces with said interior surfaces defining an interior wall space and;
    (f) injecting close cell polyurethane foam forming liquids into said additional run interior wall space in which said foam forming liquids expand to fill the space between said additional run ICF panels and surround said bracing ladders with close cell polyurethane foam before stacking another additional run of said ICFs on to the previous said run of ICFs;
    (g) stacking onto the previous additional run of ICFs additional runs of ICFs each said additional run to a height of several said panels wherein said additional run ICFs comprise spaced apart panel members having interior and exterior surfaces with said interior surfaces defining an interior wall space and;
    (h) repeating steps (f) and (g) until an uppermost additional said run of ICFs reaches within several panel heights of the top of said wall.
  16. 16. The method of claim 15 further comprising:
    (i) stacking onto said uppermost said additional run of ICFs a top run of ICFs to a height of several said panels wherein said top run of ICFs comprise spaced apart panel members having interior and exterior surfaces with said interior surfaces defining an interior wall space;
    (j) disposing in said top run of ICFs at spaced apart locations along the length of the base foundation an upper spar set comprising spars having end sections wherein said spars span said interior wall space and penetrate through said top run ICF panels locating said spar end sections outside of said interior wall space and adjacent a said panel exterior surface;
    (k) injecting close cell polyurethane foam forming liquids into the interior wall space of said top run of ICFs in which said foam forming liquids expand to fill the space between said top run ICF panels and surrounds said upper spar sets and said bracing ladders with close cell polyurethane foam.
  17. 17. The method of claim 14 wherein the foundation includes embedded spaced apart anchor dowels at spaced apart locations along the foundation extending above the foundation to a height of several said ICF panels further comprising:
    (l) disposing adjacent each anchor dowel a connecting rod that extends vertically to a height that places it adjacent said spar ends of said upper spar set and adjacent said spar ends of said lower spar set;
    (m) securing said end sections of said spars of said lower spar set and said end sections of said spars of said upper spar set to a said connecting rod; and
    (n) applying a concrete membrane to said exterior surfaces of said ICF panels that comprise said base run, said additional runs and said top run to a thickness that encapsulates said anchor dowels, said connecting rods and said spar set end sections.
  18. 18. The method of claim 17 wherein said concrete membrane is applied under pressure.
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US20130326984A1 (en) * 2011-02-23 2013-12-12 Elmere Device for connecting two prefabricated construction elements together
CN104328848A (en) * 2014-09-03 2015-02-04 西安建筑科技大学 Novel connecting structure of assembly type non-bearing exterior wall and adjacent wall body

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US20130326984A1 (en) * 2011-02-23 2013-12-12 Elmere Device for connecting two prefabricated construction elements together
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CN104328848A (en) * 2014-09-03 2015-02-04 西安建筑科技大学 Novel connecting structure of assembly type non-bearing exterior wall and adjacent wall body

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