US20130340743A1 - Apparatus for particle disintegration for energy production - Google Patents

Apparatus for particle disintegration for energy production Download PDF

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Publication number
US20130340743A1
US20130340743A1 US13/507,381 US201213507381A US2013340743A1 US 20130340743 A1 US20130340743 A1 US 20130340743A1 US 201213507381 A US201213507381 A US 201213507381A US 2013340743 A1 US2013340743 A1 US 2013340743A1
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plates
apparatus
electrons
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particle
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US13/507,381
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Josef C. Shaw
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Josef C. Shaw
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H15/00Methods or devices for acceleration of charged particles not otherwise provided for
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K27/00Plants for converting heat or fluid energy into mechanical energy, not otherwise provided for
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F22STEAM GENERATION
    • F22BMETHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS
    • F22B1/00Methods of steam generation characterised by form of heating method
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21DNUCLEAR POWER PLANT
    • G21D9/00Arrangements to provide heat for purposes other than conversion into power, e.g. for heating buildings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater

Abstract

An apparatus is described that disintegrates single particles or pairs of oppositely charged particles, such a protons and electrons. Gamma ray energy produced by the disintegration is collected in lead shields, which are heated by absorption of the gamma rays. Heat from the lead shields is converted to steam which is in turn used to generate electricity.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • None
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • None
  • THE NAMES OF PARTIES TO A JOINT RESEARCH AGREEMENT
  • None
  • INCORPORATION-BY-REFERENCE OF MATERIAL SUBMITTED ON A COMPACT DISK
  • None
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • It has long been held that lepton particles are annihilated, or disintegrated, only through collision with leptons of the opposite state of matter, such as the collision of an electron, considered classically as matter, and the opposite corresponding anti-matter particle, a positron.
  • When a low-energy electron annihilates a low-energy positron (antielectron), according to classical theory, they can only produce two or more gamma ray photons, since the electron and positron do not carry enough mass-energy to produce heavier particles and conservation of energy and linear momentum forbid the creation of only one photon. When an electron and a positron collide to annihilate and create gamma rays, energy is given off. Both particles have a rest energy of 0.511 mega electron volts (MeV). When the mass of the two particles are converted entirely into energy, this rest energy is what is given off. The energy is given off in the form of the aforementioned gamma rays. Each of the gamma rays has an energy of 0.511 MeV. Since the positron and electron are both briefly at rest during this annihilation, the system has no momentum during that moment. This is the reason that two gamma rays are created. Conservation of momentum would not be achieved if only one photon was created in this particular reaction. Momentum and energy are both conserved with 1.022 MeV of gamma rays (accounting for the rest energy of the particles) moving in opposite directions (accounting for the total zero momentum of the system). However, if one or both particles carry a larger amount of kinetic energy, various other particle pairs can be produced. The annihilation (or decay) of an electron-positron pair into a single photon, cannot occur in free space because momentum would not be conserved in this process. The reverse reaction is also impossible for this reason, except in the presence of another particle that can carry away the excess momentum. However, in quantum field theory this process is allowed as an intermediate quantum state. Some authors justify this by saying that the photon exists for a time which is short enough that the violation of conservation of momentum can be accommodated by the uncertainty principle. Others choose to assign the intermediate photon a non-zero mass. (The mathematics of the theory are unaffected by which view is taken.) This opens the way for virtual pair production or annihilation in which a one-particle quantum state may fluctuate into a two-particle state and back again (coherent superposition). These processes are important in the vacuum state and renormalization of a quantum field theory. It also allows neutral particle mixing.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It has been discovered that leptons, fundamental particles such as electrons and positrons, and baryons, composed of three particles, such as protons and anti-protons, can be annihilated as single particles, producing gamma rays. The purpose of this invention is the commercial production and marketing of energy. Heat generated from the annihilation can be used directly, or converted into electricity for transportation of energy.
  • No persistent radiation source is required; nor is any persistent radiation produced. That is, no radioactive particles are produced, only gamma rays. Appropriate shielding of the process equipment is all that is necessary to prevent exposure to environmentally hazardous gamma rays.
  • It is preferred to use equal numbers of protons and electrons in the annihilation process, in order to preserve charge balance. Because electrons and protons are readily derivable from hydrogen, an almost limitless source of energy could be achieved.
  • According to the present invention, elementary particles, or mass itself, can only exist in a mass-like state above a certain threshold velocity. It is believed that space itself is undergoing a translational velocity, referred to herein as a system velocity. The invention herein is not dependent upon or limited to any theoretical considerations of system velocity, however, and relies on purely objective observations of particle annihilation. By presenting a particle in equal and opposite velocity to the system velocity, the absolute velocity of the particle is reduced to zero. It has been discovered that the particle annihilates to puke gamma ray energy at an absolute velocity of zero.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL FIGURES OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows the range of the system velocity as a function of the celestial coordinates of right ascension (RA) on the abscissa and declination (DEC) on the ordinate.
  • FIG. 2 shows an energy production system in block diagram form according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 3 shows a combination of two parallel plates used for particle or on disintegration.
  • FIG. 4 shows a plate charging system that utilizes an integrated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based switch.
  • FIG. 5 shows a plate charging system mounted in a lead sphere.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • As used herein, absolute velocity is the velocity relative to the system velocity. That is when a particle is traveling at the same velocity as the system velocity, and in the same direction as the system velocity, the particle has an absolute velocity of zero.
  • A charged particle or ion can be caused to disintegrate in two ways through the use of electrostatic or magnetic forces. The electrostatic or magnetic forces are applied in such a manner to cause the appropriate acceleration or deceleration of the particle or ion. The first way is to accelerate the charged particle or ion in the direction opposite to the system velocity to a value that is equal and opposite to the system velocity. In that manner, the particle or ion is at a velocity relative to the system velocity which is at or near enough to the system velocity that the particle or ion essentially has achieved an absolute velocity of zero. Although the invention is not limited to any particular theoretical explanation, it is believed that no matter can exist below a threshold absolute velocity. Regardless of the underlying physical laws, or our incomplete understanding thereof, it has been found that when a particle or ion achieves a velocity within certain upper and lower values, at particular directions, the particle emits gamma radiation which can only be explained as a annihilation.
  • The second way to disintegrate a particle or ion is to decelerate the particle or ion in the direction opposite to our system velocity, in order to match the particle or ion velocity to the system velocity and achieve a velocity relative to the system velocity, or an absolute velocity, of zero.
  • For convenience, the instant invention is more thoroughly discussed in reference to the figures.
  • FIG. 1 shows the range of celestial tracks within which electrons have been annihilated. The abscissa represents the right ascension (RA) and the ordinate represents the declination (DEC). These values correspond to the conventional celestial coordinates used to locate celestial bodies.
  • It has been discovered that particles or ions that are accelerated or decelerated to the system velocity disintegrate. The system velocity has been found have a right ascension (RA) of 225 degrees and a declination of −20 degrees. There is an experimental uncertainty for the declination (DEC) of plus or minus 15 degrees, based on the experimental apparatus utilized by the inventor. Therefore, the system velocity vector of a particle or ion is defined by celestial coordinates from RA 45, DEC +20 to RA 225, DEC −20. It has also been discovered that particle disintegration occurs as a result of acceleration and deceleration in directions of up to about 35 degrees off the system velocity vector. FIG. 1 plots the celestial coordinates of electron velocities that have resulted in disintegration of electrons. The Earth's orbit around the sun causes annual shifts in our system velocity of up to RA 9 degrees, DEC of 4 degrees, and speed 5.9×104 meters/second (m/s). Based on astronomical observations and calculations, the speed of the system velocity has veen assessed to be between 2.5×105 m/s and 9.0×105 m/s, including the variations caused by the Earth's orbit around the sun. It is contemplated that particle disintegration occurs for particles within plus or minus 45 degrees of the system velocity vector at target speeds ranging from 1.0×105 m/s to 1.1×106 m/s.
  • It is further contemplated that disintegration can be accomplished using a cascade effect to cause particle acceleration or deceleration. The cascade effect represents the process of causing particles to decelerate below their minimum velocities using the forces emitted from another disintegrating particle. This is the technique used with a cathode ray tube to cause disintegration of electrons illustrated in FIG. 1.
  • Although a cascade effect was used for the initial tests, the most commercially feasible way to disintegrate particles is through the use of electrostatic force with two parallel charged plates. It is not commercially feasible to disintegrate protons using the cascade effect because electrostatic potential in the order of millions of volts would be required. On the other hand, it is feasible to disintegrate protons with parallel plates using electrostatic potential in the order of thousands of volts.
  • The hydrogen in one gram of water can be used to produce 935 kilowatt-hours of energy, enough energy to power an average home for about ten days. This number is derived from considerations of flow theory, which teaches the amount of force that a proton or electron emit in disintegrating is capable of performing about 2.518×10−14 joules (J) of work in accelerating an electron from rest. One kilowatt-hour (kWh) equals 3.6×106J. The average home uses about 3,000 kWh per month.
  • Each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms, which each have two protons and two electrons. Thus we can obtain (4)(2.518×10−14 J) or 1.007×10−13 J from each water molecule. The total number of water molecules required to produce 1 kWh is (3.6×106 J)/(1.007×10−13J/molecule) or 3.575×1019 molecules.
  • One mole of water has a mass of 18.015 grams (g) and contains 6.22×1023 molecules or 1.069×10−3g.
  • FIG. 2 depicts a power generation system that uses water as fuel. Electrolysis would be used to separate hydrogen atoms from the water. Next, the hydrogen atoms would be ionized into protons and electrons once each cycle. The protons would be moved to separate disintegration chambers through an electrostatic piping system. In the disintegration chamber, the electrons and protons would be accelerated below minimum velocity, resulting disintegration. A lead casing or shielding around each disintegration chamber would absorb the resulting gamma radiation created by the disintegrations. A tubing network embedded or surrounding in the lead casing would act as a heat transfer apparatus, to collect heat using a suitable heat transfer medium such as steam. It is understood that any conventional heat transfer apparatus could be used to collect heat from the lead shields or casings. It is contemplated to channel the steam or other medium to a turbine to create mechanical energy. The turbine would be coupled to a generator to create electrical energy. A regulator system and battery would convert the electrical energy to a useful potential. The monitoring and control system would regulate the hydrogen production and burn rate in accordance with the demand placed on the system.
  • Heat could also be used directly, without conversion to electricity, when this is convenient. For instance, air or other fluids could heated directly by passing the fluids over the lead shielding and used as a heat source for building heating, chemical processes, or any application requiring a heated fluid.
  • FIG. 3 depicts separate pairs of parallel charged plates used to disintegrate protons and electrons. A single pair of charged plates is shown in the FIG. 3. It is necessary to keep the plates electrically isolated from the protons and electrons. Otherwise the protons would absorb electrons from a negatively charged plate and the electrons would be absorbed into a positively charged plate. In this system, both protons and electrons are handled like charged gas molecules. An electrically non-conductive cylindrical container mechanically connects the two oppositely charged plates, while electrically insulating the plates. The combination of the charge plates and the non-conductive cylinder create a gas-tight volume. An input port is located on a side of the cylinder, where electrons and protons are supplied to the device. While FIG. 3 shows circular plates separated by a cylindrical separator, it is understood that the geometry of the plates and separator is not critical, that is other shapes such as square plates separated by a box-like separator could equally be used. Each of the two plates of course are connected to a power source in crier to charge the plates.
  • Referring again to FIG. 3, at the beginning of each cycle, plate A is positively charged for electrons and negatively charged for protons. Meanwhile, plate B is negatively charged for electrons and positively charged for protons. These charges assure that all the electrons and protons migrate to plate A at the beginning of each cycle. An electronic switch, such as an integrated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based switch is then used to reverse the charges on the plates in such a manner that the electrons and protons are accelerated from plate A to plate B, achieving system velocity relative to the plates just before arriving at plate B. When the electrons and protons approach system velocity, they begin to disintegrate. Any electrons or protons that do not disintegrate return to plate A when the charges on the plates are reset at the end of the cycle.
  • It is essential that the charged plates be oriented such that the particles accelerate in a velocity equal and a direction opposite to the system velocity, RA 225 and DEC −20, within a 60 degree radius.
  • FIG. 4 shows IGBT based switches used to charge and discharge plates. A potential as low as 2,500 volts between the two plates is sufficient to accelerate protons to 1.0×106 m/s over a distance of between plates of 0.05 m. Plates of about 0.26 m in diameter for circular plates are required t5o achieve the needed capacitance, as an example. As IGBT's require 1 to 2 microseconds to fully open and close, the operation of such a system is limited to less than 50 kilohertz. IGBT's also have power constraints that limit the number of electrons or protons that can be disintegrated each cycle. However, multiple IGBT's could be used in series to increase throughput.
  • FIG. 5 shows the mount an casing for plates. The parallel plates would be mounted in a lead sphere of sufficient thickness to comply with radiation emission laws and regulations. The plates would be mounting in the lead sphere in such a way as to rotate in a plane parallel to the equatorial plane. A control unit would be used to track RA 45 degrees while the plates would be angled to DEC 20 degrees.

Claims (8)

1. An apparatus used to disintegrate electrons or atomic particles comprising two parallel plates mechanically connected and electrically separated by an electrically non-conductive surface, thereby creating two parallel plates wherein the volume between the plates is gas tight, and further including electrical means to charge the two plates to opposite charges, and including an input port for supply of protons or electrons between the plates.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 the two plates are circular and the electrically non-conductive surface is cylindrical.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein an electronic switch is included with the electrical means to charge the plates in order to control the charging of the plates.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 further including a monitoring and control system for controlling the electronic switch.
5. An apparatus for production and collection of energy, including apparatus used to disintegrate elementary atomic particles comprising two parallel plates mechanically connected and electrically separated by an electrically non-conductive surface, thereby creating two parallel plates wherein the volume between the plates is gas tight, and further including electrical means to charge the two plates to opposite charges, and including an input port for supply of electrons or atomic particles between the plates, and further including lead shielding surrounding the apparatus for energy production, where the lead shielding is adapted to absorb gamma ray radiation emanating from particle disintegration, and further including tubular heat exchanger means operatively associated with the lead shielding through which heat exchanger fluid passes and collects heat.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 the two plates are circular and the electrically non-conductive surface is cylindrical.
7. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein an electronic switch is included with the electrical means to charge the plates in order to control the charging of the plates.
8. The apparatus of claim 7 further including a monitoring and control system for controlling the electronic switch.
US13/507,381 2012-06-25 2012-06-25 Apparatus for particle disintegration for energy production Abandoned US20130340743A1 (en)

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Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7279088B2 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-10-09 Patterson James A Catalytic electrode, cell, system and process for storing hydrogen/deuterium

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7279088B2 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-10-09 Patterson James A Catalytic electrode, cell, system and process for storing hydrogen/deuterium

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