US20130336809A1 - Fastener-driving device and controlling method - Google Patents

Fastener-driving device and controlling method Download PDF

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Publication number
US20130336809A1
US20130336809A1 US13/918,346 US201313918346A US2013336809A1 US 20130336809 A1 US20130336809 A1 US 20130336809A1 US 201313918346 A US201313918346 A US 201313918346A US 2013336809 A1 US2013336809 A1 US 2013336809A1
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Prior art keywords
driving
pump
piston
compressed air
pressure chamber
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US13/918,346
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Chafic Abu Antoun
Peter Bruggmueller
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Hilti AG
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Hilti AG
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Priority to DE102012210347A priority patent/DE102012210347A1/en
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Assigned to HILTI AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT reassignment HILTI AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BRUGGMUELLER, PETER, ANTOUN, CHAFIC ABU
Publication of US20130336809A1 publication Critical patent/US20130336809A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B19/00Machines or pumps having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F04B1/00 - F04B17/00
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25CHAND-HELD NAILING OR STAPLING TOOLS; MANUALLY OPERATED PORTABLE STAPLING TOOLS
    • B25C1/00Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices
    • B25C1/04Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices operated by fluid pressure, e.g. by air pressure
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25CHAND-HELD NAILING OR STAPLING TOOLS; MANUALLY OPERATED PORTABLE STAPLING TOOLS
    • B25C1/00Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices
    • B25C1/06Hand-held nailing tools; Nail feeding devices operated by electric power

Abstract

The driving device 1, in accordance with the invention, has a ram 3, which, driven by compressed air, drives in the fastener 2. A pump device 5 produces the compressed air. The pump device 5 has a pump cylinder 23, a pump piston 22, and an annular magnet arrangement 28, 46 around the pump cylinder 23. The pump piston 22 can move in the pump cylinder 23, along an axis 11. An axial closure 25 of the pump cylinder 23 closes off, with the pump piston 22, a pump volume 27 within the pump cylinder 23. The annular magnet arrangement 28, 46 has a magnetic coil 28, which encloses the pump cylinder 23 and which overlaps, along the axis 11, at least in part, with the magnetizable closure 25 and, in part, with the magnetizable pump piston 22.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The invention under consideration concerns a driving device for the driving of fasteners, such as nails, rivets, pins, braces, clamps, or other, preferably, pin-like fastening elements. Furthermore, the invention concerns a controlling method for a driving device.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The driving device, in accordance with the invention, has a ram, which drives in the fastener, driven by compressed air. A pump device produces the compressed air. The pump device has a pump cylinder, a pump piston, and an annular magnet arrangement around the pump cylinder. The pump piston can move in the pump cylinder, along an axis. An axial closure of the pump cylinder closes off, with the pump piston, a pump volume within the pump cylinder. The annular magnet arrangement has a magnetic coil, which encloses the pump cylinder and which, along the axis, overlaps, at least in part, with the magnetizable closure, and in part, with the magnetizable pump piston.
  • The pump cylinder, with its half side closed by the closure, forms, together with the pump piston, a linear piston stroke pump. The drive of the piston stroke pump is carried out by the magnetic coil, which can draw the magnetizable pump piston into the center of the magnetic coil and thereby can compress the air in the pump volume.
  • The arrangement of the closure within the magnet arrangement, preferably, within the magnetic coil, has proved to be efficient for the compression of the air. The necessary force for the compression of the air rises more or less inversely to the diminishing distance between the pump piston and the closure. As a result of the arrangement of the magnetizable closure within the magnet arrangement, the force exerted by the magnetic coil on the pump piston is also increased more or less inversely to the distance between the closure and the pump piston. The energy can be transferred optimally by the magnetic coil onto the volume work of the pump volume via the entire movement of the pump piston.
  • The closure and the pump piston are preferably formed from a soft magnetic material. As soon as the magnetic coil is not energized, the closure and the pump piston are largely unpolarized and are depolarized by the surrounding stray fields. Without the magnetic coil, the closure and the pump piston are not attracted to each other.
  • One development provides for the closure to overlap with at least 10% of the magnet arrangement, preferably, the magnetic coil, along the axis. The pump piston preferably overlaps, in each position, for at least 10% with the magnet arrangement, preferably, the magnetic coil, along the axis.
  • One development provides for a pressure chamber to have intermediate storage for the compressed air produced by the pump device. The pump device does not drive the ram directly. A volume of the pressure chamber is dimensioned to hold an air quantity for one driving operation or for fewer than five driving operations. An air quantity held by the pump volume is advantageously less than the air quantity provided for one driving operation. The pump piston requires several strokes, until an air quantity needed for the driving operation is made available.
  • One development provides for the ram to be rigidly connected with a driving piston, the driving piston to close off a working volume within a hollow guide cylinder, and for it to be possible to feed the compressed air into the working volume. The compressed air, which is produced by the pump device and held, in the interim, in the pressure chamber, accelerates the driving piston in the guide cylinder. The ram is carried along by the driving piston and drives in the nail or another fastening means.
  • A controlling method for the driving device has the following steps: generation of the compressed air, in that a current pulse is fed into a magnetic coil, and the magnetic field produced moves a magnetizable pump piston within the magnetic coil in a pump cylinder, and acceleration of a ram with the compressed air onto a fastener arranged in the driving direction. The driving device converts electrical energy into a magnetic field, into a compression of air, and subsequently, into the kinetic energy of the ram. The conversion of the energy from the magnetic field into compression is particularly efficient using the pump piston, conducted within the magnetic coil.
  • A development provides fir a pressure chamber to be loaded with the compressed air and, as a response to an actuation of an operating element by the user, for the ram to be accelerated with the compressed air from the pressure chamber. The loading of the pressure chamber is carried out by energizing the magnetic coil with a sequence of current pulses for the multiple back and forth movement of the pump piston. One single stroke to make available the air quantity for the driving operation has the obvious advantage that the additional pressure chamber and an intermediate storage of the compressed air are omitted. The driving device is lighter and has fewer loss channels. The multiple stroke has nevertheless proved to be more efficient, since the pump device works in an especially efficient manner, in particular with a short stroke, and thus the disadvantages of the additional pressure chamber are more than compensated for.
  • An amplitude and/or a duration of the current pulses can increase within one sequence. The pump device does more volume work, in particular by attaining a higher pressure, with increasing air quantity in the pressure chamber per stroke, so as to further load the pressure chamber.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The following description explains the invention with the aid of the exemplary embodiments and figures. The figures show the following:
  • FIG. 1, a driving device
  • FIG. 2, a pump device of the driving device
  • FIG. 3, a succession of switching sequences
  • FIG. 4, a section of the driving device
  • The same or functionally similar elements are shown with the same reference symbols in the figures, unless otherwise indicated.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 shows an exemplary driving device 1 for nails 2 or similar pin-like fastening elements. The driving device 1 has a compressed air-driven ram 3, which drives the nail 2 into a workpiece. The compressed air for one driving operation is kept in the pressure chamber 4. A pump device 5 in the driving device 1 loads the pressure chamber 4 with an air quantity sufficient for the driving operation and to the needed pressure level.
  • The components of the driving device 1 that are essential for the functionality are located within a housing 6, in particular, the ram 3, the pressure chamber 4, and the pump device 5. The user can conduct the driving device 1 with a handle 7 and can hold it while driving the nails 2. The handle 7 is not detachably connected with a housing 6 of the driving device 1, but it is rigidly connected or with dampening elements. The driving device 1 is primarily supplied with electrical energy, for example, by means of a battery packet 8, which can be affixed, in a nondetachable or preferably in a detachable manner, to the handle 7 or the housing 6, by the user. A triggering switch 9 is on or near the handle 7; it triggers a driving operation upon actuation by the user. Preferably, in addition to the actuation of the triggering switch 9, there is also the release of a safety mechanism, for example, by pressing the driving device to a wall.
  • The ram 3 has an impact head 10, which is adapted, in its form, to the nails 2 used. The impact head 10 has typically, approximately, the same diameter as a head of the nails 2. The impact head 10 is conducted along a work axis 11 within a nail guide 12. The nail 2 is placed, for the driving operation, into an essentially tubular nail holder 12. The placing of the nail can be done manually by the user, semiautomatically or automatically, by a feeder. The impact head 10 strikes the nail 2 within the nail guide 12 and drives the nail 2 in the driving direction 13, along the work axis 11 from the nail guide 12, perhaps into a workpiece.
  • On its back end, turned away from the nail, the ram 3 is provided with a driving piston 14. The driving piston 14 preferably has an essentially larger diameter than the impact head 10, so as to drive the ram 3 efficiently with the compressed air.
  • The driving piston 14 is inserted into a guide cylinder 15, closed on half its side. The driving piston 14 lies, all-round, on the inner jacket surface 16 of the guide cylinder 15, pressure-tight, and is conducted by the jacket surface along the work axis 11. An end of the guide cylinder 15, turned away from the nail 2, is closed by a bottom 17. The driving piston 14 thus closes off a pneumatic work volume 18 in the driving direction 13 within the guide cylinder 15.
  • The pressure chamber 4 is connected with the work volume 18 via a controllable supply line 19. The supplying through the supply line 19 is preferably carried out via an opening in the bottom 17. The supply line 19 comprises a switchable valve 20, which is opened as a response to an actuation of the triggering switch 9.
  • The pressure chamber 4 has a sufficient volume, so as to store an air quantity for preferably precisely one driving operation. The volume is, for example, in the range of 100 cm3 to 300 cm3. With a fully loaded pressure chamber 4 for one driving operation, the pressure is between 7 bar and 10 bar. The pressure chamber 4 is surrounded with a thermally insulating jacket 21, which, for example, a wall of the pressure chamber 4 lines on the inside or is placed on the outside surface. The jacket 21 is, for example, made of a plastic, preferably, of a foamed plastic.
  • The pump device 5 (FIG. 2) fills the pressure chamber 4 with air, until the air quantity needed for the driving operation and/or the pressure needed for the driving operation are attained. The pump device 5 has a linearly moved pump piston 22. In the embodiment shown, the pump piston 22 is conducted along the work axis 11; the pump piston 22, however, can also be conducted along another axis 11. The pump piston 22 moves within a hollow pump cylinder 23. The cross section of the pump piston 22 and the inside cross section of the pump cylinder 23 fit exactly, so as to guarantee a pressure-tight closure. Sealing rings on the pump piston 22 can reconcile tolerances in production. Opposite a front surface 24 of the pump piston 22, the pump cylinder 23 is closed by a stationary closure 25. The front surface 24 of the pump piston 22 and the front surface 26 of the closure 25, facing it, enclose air in a pump volume 27.
  • The pump piston 22 is moved by a magnetic coil 28 along the axis 11. The magnetic coil 28 is located around the pump cylinder 23; preferably, the magnetic coil 28 is coaxial to the axis 11 of the pump cylinder 23. The drive is based on reluctance forces which act on the pump piston 22. The pump piston 22 is made of a magnetic, preferably, ferromagnetic material. The magnetic field produced by the magnetic coil 28 in the pump cylinder 23 pulls the pump piston 22 into the pump cylinder 23.
  • The pump piston 22 is made of a soft magnetic material, whose coercive field strength is less than 1000 A/m. A weak external magnetic field can already change or cancel an existing polarization in the pump piston 22. The magnetic polarization impressed by the magnetic coil 28 therefore essentially remains contained in the pump piston 22 only for the duration of the field applied by the magnetic coil 28. The pump piston 22 is, for example, made of ferromagnetic steel, preferably, a soft-annealed steel.
  • The closure 25 is made of a soft magnetic material, for example, the same material as the pump piston 22. The magnetic field produced by the magnetic coil 28 is introduced by the closure 25 into the pump cylinder 23. The magnetic field fins between the front surface 24 of the pump piston 22 and the front surface 26 of the closure 25, parallel to the axis 11. The closure 25 projects along the axis 11 into the magnetic coil 28. A front end section 29 of the magnetic coil 28 thus overlaps with the closure 25. The front end section 29 assumes at least 10% of the magnetic coil 28. A length 30 of the front end section 29 preferably is between 10% and 30% of the length 31 of the magnetic coil 28. The pump piston 22 never comes out completely from the magnetic coil 28. In the basic position of the pump piston 22—that is, in its position moved out the furthest from the pump cylinder 23—the pump piston 22 overlaps with a back end section 32 of the magnetic coil 28. The back end section 32 has a length 33 of at least 10% of the length 31 of the magnetic coil 28, preferably, up to 20% of the length 31 of the magnetic coil 28. The pump volume 27 is completely within the magnetic coil 28, with a length 34 of at most 80% of the magnetic coil 28.
  • The pump volume 27 is clearly smaller than the volume of the pressure chamber 4. For example, the pump volume 27 contains less than 20%, preferably, between 5% and 10% of the air quantity needed for a driving operation. The efficiency of the pump device 5 rises greatly, in a nonlinear manner, with increasing approximation of the pump piston 22 to the closure 25. The efficiency of the total system of the driving device 1 is increased by the small pump volume 27, instead of a pump volume in the order of magnitude of the pressure chamber 4, in spite of the additional expense of making available the pressure chamber 4 and the losses resulting from the pressure chamber 4.
  • The pump device 5 is controlled by a control device 35. The control device 35 loads the pressure chamber 4 upon the start of the operation or after a driving operation. The loading is carried out by a sequence 36 of current pulses 37, which are fed into the magnetic coil 28 (FIG. 3). With each of the current pulses 37, the pump piston 22 is drawn from its basic position into the magnetic coil 28 and compresses the air in the pump volume 27. A large part of the compressed air flows into the pressure chamber 4. A spring 39 and/or an additional magnetic coil 40 can draw out the pump piston 22 from the pump cylinder 23 into the basic position. The pump volume 27 is ventilated before the next current pulse 37. For example, the pump piston 22 releases a ventilating channel 41, as soon as the pump piston 22 is moved back to the basic position. Preferably, the ventilating channel 41 is opened, as soon as the pump piston 22 begins its backward movement. A position sensor can determine whether the pump piston 22 has reached the basic position.
  • The sequence 36 preferably comprises at least 5 current pulses 37, preferably, at most 30 current pulses 37. The pressure chamber 4 is completely pumped by the pump device 5, corresponding to 5 to 30 strokes. The introduction of energy of the current pulses 37 increases during the sequence 36; preferably, the duration 42 of the current pulses 37 is increased; alternatively or additionally, the amplitude 43 of the current pulses 37 can be increased. The duration 42 and the current strength/amplitude 43 can be definitively prespecified. The current pulses 37 are coordinated in such a way that the pump piston 22 is drawn from its basic position to the closure 25, preferably without touching the closure 25 at the end. The force exerted by the magnetic coil 40 on the pump piston 22 rises with the selected buildup during its movement to the closure 25. The characteristic curve of this increase is similar to the characteristic curve of the increase of the counterforce being built up by the compressed air. The current strength 43 can be maintained constant during a current pulse 37.
  • The closure 25 is provided with an outlet valve 44, for example, a nonreturn valve. The outlet valve 44 preferably opens as soon as the pressure in the pump volume 27 exceeds the pressure in the pressure chamber 4. The pump device 5 increases the pressure within the pump volume only slightly above the pressure in the pressure chamber 4, so as to shift the air quantity from the pump volume 27 into the pressure chamber 4. The thermal losses appearing during the compression can be kept small in this way. The outlet valve 44 closes as soon as the pump piston 22 moves back to the basic position.
  • The user can actuate the triggering switch 9, so as to trigger the driving operation. The control device 35 preferably first tests whether the pressure chamber 4 is loaded. If the pressure chamber 4 is not loaded, for example, after a long inactivity of the driving device 1, the control device 35 loads the pressure chamber 4. The pressure chamber 4 is loaded with the complete sequence 36 of the current pulses 37. The control device 35 shortens the sequence 36, if the pressure chamber 4 is partially loaded. For example, the control device 35 determines, by means of a pressure sensor, the pressure in the pressure chamber 4. For each pressure, a notation is made in a control table as to how many of the first current pulses 37 of the sequence 36 are to be skipped—that is, with which of the current pulses 37 of the sequence 36, one is to begin. If the pressure chamber 4 is loaded, the control device 35 opens the controllable valve 20. The air quantity under pressure in the pressure chamber 4 accelerates, by means of the driving piston 14, the ram 3. After the driving operation, the driving piston 14 is retrieved—for example, by means of a pump, a spring, a motor, the user—and the switchable valve 20 is closed. The work volume 18 is preferably ventilated for the retrieval of the driving piston 14. The control device 35 loads the pressure chamber 4 by means of the sequence 36 of current pulses 37.
  • The magnetic coil 28 is preferably surrounded by a magnet yoke 46. The magnet yoke 46 covers, with a ring 47 in each case, the two front sides 48 of the magnetic coil 28. The magnet yoke 46 extends, in a radial direction, to the pump piston 22 or the closure 25. Ribs 49 of the magnet yoke 46, running parallel to the axis 11, connect the two rings 47. The magnet yoke 46 is, for example, formed from individual plates of a ferromagnetic steel.
  • The pump piston 22 has a shell-like structure consisting of an outer shell 50 and a core 51. The radially outermost shell 50 is made of a ferromagnetic material. The magnetic field is conducted within the outer shell 50. A wall thickness of the outer shell 50 is in the range between 5% and 25% of the diameter of the pump piston 22. A core 51 of the pump piston 22 can be hollow or it can be filled with a nonmetal material, for example, plastic. The front surface 26 is preferably a plate of steel, so that it is not deformed during the compression. Alternatively, the pump piston 22 can be a massive cylinder made of a ferromagnetic material, for example, steel.
  • FIG. 4 shows a development of the guide cylinder 15 for the driving piston 14 and the pressure chamber 4. The pressure chamber 4 is permanently open to the work volume 18 in the guide cylinder 15. The driving piston 14 forms the switchable valve 20 and prevents the air in the pressure chamber 4 from flowing out, until a driving operation is triggered. A blocking mechanism 52, for example, a ratchet element, holds the driving piston 14 in its basic position. The blocking mechanism 52 can be released by the control device 35, whereupon the driving piston 14, acted on by pressure, is accelerated in the driving direction 13.

Claims (20)

1. A driving device to drive in fasteners, comprising a compressed air driven ram, and a pump device producing the compressed air, wherein the pump device comprises a pump cylinder having a pump volume, a magnetizable pump piston that moves in the pump cylinder along an axis, a magnetizable axial closure, which, with the pump piston, closes off the pump volume within the pump cylinder, and an annular magnet arrangement with a magnetic coil, wherein the magnet arrangement encloses the pump cylinder and the magnet arrangement overlaps, along the axis, at least in part, the magnetizable closure and, at least in part, the magnetizable pump piston.
2. The driving device according to claim 1, wherein the closure and the pump piston each comprise a soft magnetic material.
3. The driving device according to claim 1, wherein the closure overlaps, along the axis, at least 10% of the magnetic arrangement.
4. The driving device according to claim 1, wherein the pump piston overlaps, along the axis, at least 10% of the magnetic arrangement.
5. The driving device according to claim 1, further comprising a pressure chamber, which provides intermediate storage for the compressed air produced by the pump device.
6. The driving device according to claim 5, wherein the pressure chamber has a volume dimensioned to hold an air quantity for one driving operation to fewer than five driving operations.
7. The driving device according to claim 5, wherein an air quantity held by the pump volume is less than the air quantity provided for the driving operation.
8. The driving device according to claim 1, wherein the ram is rigidly connected with a driving piston and the driving piston is arranged to be capable of closing off a work volume within a hollow guide cylinder, and the compressed air can be fed into the work volume.
9. A control method for a driving device, the method comprising:
producing compressed air by feeding a current pulse into a magnetic coil, producing a magnetic field that moves a magnetizable pump piston within the magnetic coil in a pump cylinder; and accelerating a ram with the compressed air, such that the ram drives a fastener in a driving direction.
10. The control method according to claim 9, comprising loading a pressure chamber with compressed air, actuating an operating element by a user, and accelerating the ram with the compressed air from the pressure chamber.
11. The control method according to claim 10, wherein loading of the pressure chamber comprises energizing the magnetic coil with a sequence of current pulses, for multiple back and forth movement of the pump piston.
12. The control method according to claim 11,
wherein an amplitude and/or a duration of the current pulses increase within a sequence.
13. The driving device according to claim 2, wherein the closure overlaps, along the axis, at least 10% of the magnetic arrangement.
14. The driving device according to claim 2, wherein the pump piston overlaps, along the axis, at least 10% of the magnetic arrangement.
15. The driving device according to claim 3, wherein the pump piston overlaps, along the axis, at least 10% of the magnetic arrangement.
16. The driving device according to claim 2, further comprising a pressure chamber, which provides intermediate storage for the compressed air produced by the pump device.
17. The driving device according to claim 3, further comprising a pressure chamber, which provides intermediate storage for the compressed air produced by the pump device.
18. The driving device according to claim 4, further comprising a pressure chamber, which provides intermediate storage for the compressed air produced by the pump device.
19. The driving device according to claim 6, wherein an air quantity held by the pump volume is less than an air quantity provided by the driving operation.
20. The driving device according to claim 2, wherein the ram is rigidly connected with a driving piston and the driving piston is arranged to be capable of closing off a work volume within a hollow guide cylinder, and the compressed air can be fed into the work volume.
US13/918,346 2012-06-19 2013-06-14 Fastener-driving device and controlling method Abandoned US20130336809A1 (en)

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DE102012210347A DE102012210347A1 (en) 2012-06-19 2012-06-19 Setting tool and control method

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EP (1) EP2676773B1 (en)
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TW201404551A (en) 2014-02-01
JP2014000671A (en) 2014-01-09
EP2676773A1 (en) 2013-12-25
DE102012210347A1 (en) 2013-12-19
CN103507030A (en) 2014-01-15
TWI624336B (en) 2018-05-21
EP2676773B1 (en) 2014-11-05
AU2013206295A1 (en) 2014-01-16

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