US20130315710A1 - Gas turbine engine components with cooling hole trenches - Google Patents

Gas turbine engine components with cooling hole trenches Download PDF

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Publication number
US20130315710A1
US20130315710A1 US13477883 US201213477883A US2013315710A1 US 20130315710 A1 US20130315710 A1 US 20130315710A1 US 13477883 US13477883 US 13477883 US 201213477883 A US201213477883 A US 201213477883A US 2013315710 A1 US2013315710 A1 US 2013315710A1
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Prior art keywords
cooling hole
cooling
trench
engine component
cross
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
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US13477883
Inventor
Vighneswara Rao Kollati
Balamurugan Srinivasan
Jyothishkumar Venkataramanan
Sujatha Guntu
Jong Liu
Daniel Cregg Crites
Luis Tapia
Malak Fouad Malak
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Honeywell International Inc
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Honeywell International Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/12Blades
    • F01D5/14Form or construction
    • F01D5/18Hollow blades, i.e. blades with cooling or heating channels or cavities; Heating, heat-insulating or cooling means on blades
    • F01D5/186Film cooling
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/60Efficient propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/67Relevant aircraft propulsion technologies
    • Y02T50/675Enabling an increased combustion temperature by cooling
    • Y02T50/676Blades cooling

Abstract

An engine component includes a body having an interior surface and an exterior surface; a cooling hole formed in the body and extending from the interior surface; and a nonconcave trench extending from the cooling hole to the exterior surface of the body in a downstream direction such that cooling air flow from within the body flow through the cooling hole, through the trench, and onto the exterior surface.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present invention generally relates to gas turbine engines, and more particularly relates to air cooled components of gas turbine engines, such as turbine and combustor components.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Gas turbine engines are generally used in a wide range of applications, such as aircraft engines and auxiliary power units. In a gas turbine engine, air is compressed in a compressor, and mixed with fuel and ignited in a combustor to generate hot combustion gases, which flow downstream into a turbine section. In a typical configuration, the turbine section includes rows of airfoils, such as stator vanes and rotor blades, disposed in an alternating sequence along the axial length of a generally annular hot gas flow path. The rotor blades are mounted at the periphery of one or more rotor disks that are coupled in turn to a main engine shaft. Hot combustion gases are delivered from the engine combustor to the annular hot gas flow path, thus resulting in rotary driving of the rotor disks to provide an engine output.
  • Due to the high temperatures in many gas turbine engine applications, it is desirable to regulate the operating temperature of certain engine components, particularly those within the mainstream hot gas flow path, in order to prevent overheating and potential mechanical issues attributable thereto. As such, it is desirable to cool the rotor blades and stator vanes in order to prevent damage and extend useful life. One mechanism for cooling turbine airfoils is to duct cooling air through internal passages and then vent the cooling air through holes formed in the airfoil. The holes are typically formed uniformly along a line substantially parallel to the leading edge of the airfoil and at selected distances from the leading edge to provide a film of cooling air over the convex side of the airfoil when the cooling air flows through them during engine operation. Other rows of cooling holes or an array of holes may be formed in the airfoil components depending upon design constraints. Film cooling attempts to maintain the airfoils at temperatures that are suitable for their material and stress level.
  • A typical film cooling hole is a cylindrical aperture inclined relative to the surface of the airfoil. In many conventional engines, however relatively high disadvantageous cooling air flows have been used to obtain satisfactory temperature control of engine components.
  • Accordingly, it is desirable to provide a gas turbine engine with improved film cooling. In addition, it is desirable to provide air-cooled turbine components with improved hole configurations. Furthermore, other desirable features and characteristics of the present invention will become apparent from the subsequent detailed description of the invention and the appended claims, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and this background of the invention.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY
  • In accordance with an exemplary embodiment, an engine component includes a body having an interior surface and an exterior surface; a cooling hole formed in the body and extending from the interior surface; and a nonconcave trench extending from the cooling hole to the exterior surface of the body in a downstream direction such that cooling air flow from within the body flow through the cooling hole, through the trench, and onto the exterior surface.
  • In accordance with another exemplary embodiment, a turbine section of a gas turbine engine includes a housing defining a hot gas flow path; a plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils disposed in the hot gas flow path; a plurality of cooling holes arranged within at least one of the plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils; and a plurality of trenches, each of the plurality of trenches being associated with one of the plurality of cooling holes. Each of the trenches is defined by a straight bottom wall extending downstream of the respective cooling hole to an exterior surface of the respective airfoil.
  • In accordance with yet another exemplary embodiment, a turbine section of a gas turbine engine includes a housing defining a hot gas flow path; a plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils disposed in the hot gas flow path; a plurality of cooling holes arranged within at least one of the plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils; and a plurality of trenches, each of the plurality of trenches being associated with one of the plurality of cooling holes. Each of the trenches is defined by a convex bottom wall extending downstream of the respective cooling hole to an exterior surface of the respective airfoil.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The present invention will hereinafter be described in conjunction with the following drawing figures, wherein like numerals denote like elements, and wherein:
  • FIG. 1 is a partial, sectional elevation view illustrating a portion of a turbine section of a gas turbine engine in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 2 is a top cross-sectional view of an airfoil that may be incorporated into the turbine section of FIG. 1 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 3 is a more detailed view of a section of the airfoil of FIG. 2 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 5 is a top view of the cooling hole of FIG. 3 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the cooling hole through line 6-6 of FIG. 5 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 7 is a more detailed view of a section of the airfoil of FIG. 2 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 9 is a top view of the cooling hole of FIG. 8 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment;
  • FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment; and
  • FIG. 14 is a top view of the cooling hole of FIG. 13 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The following detailed description is merely exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the invention or the application and uses of the invention. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any theory presented in the preceding background or the following detailed description.
  • Broadly, exemplary embodiments discussed herein include gas turbine engines with turbine components having improved film cooling. The turbine components have a number of circular or non-circular cooling holes. Additionally, the cooling holes have a nonconcave trench at the surface of the turbine component that extends in a downstream direction to improve film cooling.
  • FIG. 1 is a partial sectional elevation view illustrating a portion of a turbine section 100 of a gas turbine engine formed in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The turbine section 100 and gas turbine engine in general have an overall construction and operation that is understood by persons skilled in the art. In general terms, the turbine section 100 has a housing 102 with an annular duct wall 104 that defines a mainstream hot gas flow path 106 for receiving mainstream gas flow 108 from an engine combustor (not shown). The mainstream hot gas flow 108 flows past axially spaced circumferential rows of airfoils 120, which include stator vanes 122 and rotor blades 124 formed from suitable materials capable of withstanding the high temperature environment within the mainstream hot gas flow path 106.
  • The stator vanes 122 project radially outwardly from a circumferential platform 126 to the annular duct wall 104. The rotor blades 124 project radially outwardly from a circumferential platform 128 that is adapted for appropriate connection to the rotor disk (not shown) at the periphery thereof. The rotor disk is generally positioned within the internal engine cavity and is coupled to a main engine shaft for rotation therewith. As shown, the rotor blade 124 and stator vane 122 may form one stage of a multistage turbine. As such, multiple rows of the stator vanes 122 and the rotor blades 124 may be provided in the turbine section 100, with the rotor blades 124 and associated rotor disks being rotatably driven by the hot gas flow 108 for power extraction. A supply of cooling air, typically obtained as a bleed flow from the compressor (not shown), may pass through cooling holes in the stator vane 122 and rotor blade 124 to form a surface cooling film. Although the cooling holes are discussed with reference to turbine components, the cooling holes may also be incorporated into other engine components, such as combustor components. The cooling holes are discussed in greater detail below.
  • FIG. 2 is a top cross-sectional view of an airfoil 200 that can be incorporated into the turbine section 100 of FIG. 1 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In general, the airfoil 200 may correspond to the stator vane 122 or rotor blade 124 of FIG. 1, and the cross-sectional view of FIG. 2 generally corresponds to a horizontal cross-sectional view from the perspective of FIG. 1.
  • The airfoil 200 generally has a body 201 with a leading edge 202 and an opposite trailing edge 204. The airfoil 200 also includes a pressure sidewall 206 that is generally concave and an opposite, suction sidewall 208 that is generally convex and is spaced-apart from the pressure sidewall 206. The pressure sidewall 206 and suction sidewall 208 extend from leading edge 202 to trailing edge 204. The airfoil 200 has a hollow interior cavity 210 such that the airfoil 200 has an inner surface 212 and an outer surface 214. Airfoils 200 used in high performance gas turbine engines, such as those used for aircraft propulsion, can be made from high heat and high stress resistant aerospace alloys, such as nickel based alloys, Rene 88, Inconel 718, single crystal materials, steels, titanium alloys or the like.
  • As noted above, the airfoil 200 is subject to high temperatures because high velocity hot gases are ducted from the combustor (not shown) onto the airfoil 200. If unaddressed, the extreme heat may affect the useful life of an airfoil. As such, film cooling is provided for the airfoil 200 to provide a cooling film of fluid onto the surface of the airfoil 200, particularly in the area of the leading edge 202 and areas immediately aft of the leading edge 202. As noted above, cooling air is bled from the compressor (not shown) or other source and passes into the interior cavity 210 and through cooling holes 220 to the outer surface 214 of the airfoil 200. The cooling holes 220 are formed at locations on the airfoil 200, particularly the pressure sidewall 206, suction sidewall 208, and leading edge 202, to provide optimum cooling of the engine component.
  • The cooling holes 220 may be formed in a selected pattern or array to provide optimum cooling. The cooling holes 220 may be disposed at any angle relative to the outer surface, such as about 20° to about 40°, although the cooling holes 220 may be oriented at lesser or greater angles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can additionally be used to optimize the location and orientation of the cooling holes 220. The cooling holes 220 may be formed by casting, abrasive water jet, Electron Discharge Machining (EDM), laser drilling, or any suitable process.
  • In general, the cooling holes 220 may be considered to have an upstream portion 222 adjacent the inner surface 212 and a downstream portion 224 adjacent the outer surface 214. The upstream portion of each cooling hole 220, lying closer to the inner surface 212, is substantially cylindrical or circular, and the downstream portion lying closer to the outer surface 214 may have a cross-sectional shape as discussed below with reference to FIGS. 3-14, particularly at the outer surface 214. Additionally and as also described below, the cooling holes 220 may have associated trenches formed in the outer surface 214 of the airfoil 200 to further enhance film cooling. The performance of the airfoil 200 may be directly related to the ability to provide adequate cooling of its surfaces with a limited amount of cooling air. In particular, the size and shape of each hole 220 contribute to the distribution of the air flow across the downstream surface. Consequently, the cooling holes 220, particularly their cross-sectional and surface configurations, are important design considerations.
  • FIG. 3 is a more detailed view of a section 300 of the airfoil 200 of FIG. 2 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In particular, FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of one of the cooling holes 220. FIGS. 4-6 are additional views of the cooling hole 220 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. In particular, FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the cooling hole 220 through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment, and FIG. 5 is a top or outer surface view of the cooling hole 220 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the cooling hole 220 through line 6-6 of FIGS. 3 and 5. The cooling hole 220 will now be described in greater detail with reference to FIGS. 3-6.
  • As noted above and best shown in FIG. 3, the cooling holes 220 may be considered to have an interior or upstream portion 222 adjacent the inner surface 212 and a downstream portion 224 adjacent the outer surface 214. The cooling hole 220 is oriented relative to the inner and outer surfaces 212, 214 at an angle 320. The angle 320 may be, for example, about 35°, although any suitable angle may be selected. The curvature of the exterior surface airfoil 200 relative to the hole 220 is shown by dashed line 316.
  • The downstream portion 312 of each cooling hole 220 is at least partially defined by or otherwise fluidly coupled to a trench 350. In general, the trench 350 provides improved film cooling at the surface 214 of the airfoil 200. The trench 350 enables the cooling air to remain attached to the surface 214 for a longer period of time and minimizes mixing of the cooling air and mainstream gas flow, thereby resulting in a more effective film. Relative to conventional arrangements, the trench 350 reduces the radial velocity (i.e., perpendicular to the surface 214) of the cooling air as it exits the cooling hole 220 to prevent surface separation. Typically, each cooling hole 220 is associated with a single trench 350, e.g., each trench 350 is only in fluid communication with a single hole and not other cooling holes or trenches. In general, and as discussed below, the trench 350 is arranged at the exit of the cooling hole 220 and is typically very close to the outer surface 214 of the airfoil 200.
  • In this embodiment, the trench 350 is defined in the outer surface 214 by a convex bottom wall 352 and extends in a downstream direction relative to the main gas flow to a length 354. In one exemplary embodiment, the bottom wall 352 is continuously convex for the length of the trench 350 (e.g., from the termination of the hole 220 to the exterior surface). The length 354 may be a function of a diameter 330 of the cooling hole 220. For example, the length 354 may be at least four times greater than the length 330. The length 354, may be, for example, six times the diameter (length 330 or width 340) of the hole; but it could be smaller or larger depending on the pitch of the holes.
  • In one exemplary embodiment, the radius of curvature of the trench bottom wall 352 may have approximately the same radius of curvature of the outer surface 316 of the section 300 of airfoil 200. In other words, the bottom wall 352 may have a shape that corresponds to the shape of the outer surface 316 rotated about an end point of the trench 350 (e.g., point 355 in FIG. 3). As an example, such radii of curvature may be, for example about 0.34 inches, which corresponds to about 6-7° about an axis corresponding to point 355. However, any configuration may be provided.
  • The trench 350 may have a first depth 360 at an upstream end that corresponds to the maximum depth of the trench 350, although in other embodiments, the maximum depth may be further downstream. In one exemplary embodiment, the first depth 360 is measured from beginning of the trench 350 normal to the surface of the outer surface 316. In some exemplary embodiments, the depth 360 may be a function of a diameter 330 of the cooling hole 220. As an example, the depth 360 may be approximately equal to the diameter 330 or less than, or approximately equal to, the diameter 330. As such, the length 354 of the trench 350 may be at least four times greater than the depth 360 of the trench 350 at the exit of hole 220. In other embodiments, the length 354 of the trench 350 may be at least seven to nine times greater than the depth 360. In one exemplary embodiment, the trench 350 may extend to a length 354 and lateral width 358 (FIG. 5) such that the downstream edge of a respective trench 350 may be immediately adjacent to or otherwise intersect with an adjacent trench 350 in a lateral direction.
  • In general, the convex bottom wall 352 of the trench 350 may provide enhanced film fooling for a given air flow. For example, the convex bottom wall 352 may provide a smoother transition on the outer surface 214 of the airfoil 200 while reducing the radial velocity of the air flow. This results in the cooling flow maintaining attachment to the bottom wall 352 of the trench 350, and subsequently, the outer surface 214 in both the streamwise and lateral directions, e.g., by not separating and creating recirculation vortices that draw heated air onto the surface. Although the trench 350 in FIG. 3 is convex, other embodiments may have a trench with a straight bottom wall, as discussed below.
  • As most clearly shown in FIG. 4, the downstream portion 224 of each cooling hole 220 is substantially oval. The downstream portion 224 has a cross-sectional diameter (or length) 330 along the major axis of the oval shape that is generally parallel to the mainstream gas flow and a cross-sectional diameter (or width) 340 along the minor axis of the oval shape. In other embodiments, the cooling hole 220 may be circular or elliptical.
  • As most clearly shown in the top view of FIG. 5, the leading edge 362 of the trench 350 is the same cross-sectional shape as the downstream portion 224. In other words, the leading edge 362 of the trench 350 and the leading edge of the cooling hole 220 may be coincident. As such, in the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 5, the leading edge 362 is oval shaped. As also shown in FIG. 5, the trench 350 transitions from a first width 356 that generally corresponds to the cross-sectional diameter 340 of the downstream portion 224 to a second, maximum width 358 at the downstream end. In the depicted embodiment, the trench 350 transitions from the first width 356 to the second width 358 in a constant manner such that the trench 350 has a generally fan shape as viewed from a top view such as shown in FIG. 5. The lateral angle of the trench 350 may be, for example, 12°, although other angles are possible. The maximum width 358 may be, for example, four times the diameter or greater, as discussed above; however this may be a function of the space between two rows and also the pitch of the holes.
  • FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the cooling hole 220 through line 6-6 of FIGS. 3 and 5. In particular, FIG. 6 illustrates the bottom wall 352 that forms the trench 350 in the surface 214 of the airfoil 200. As shown in the depicted embodiment, the wall 352 forms the entire trench 350. However, in other embodiment, additional walls may be used, including straight and curved portions.
  • Although not shown, the interior portion 302 may have other cross-sectional shapes in positions further upstream to the view of FIG. 3, i.e., in positions closer to the inner surface 212. For example, these cross-sectional shapes may be circular or cylindrical and transition into the cross-sectional shape shown in FIG. 4. Additionally, the length 330 and width 340 of the cooling holes 220 may vary. For example, the length 330 and width 340 may increase as the cooling hole 220 approaches the exterior surface 214 and the trench 350. The cooling holes 220 may be manufactured in any suitable manner including casting or electrical discharge machining (EDM). Additionally, the cooling hole 220 may be formed in one step or multiple steps. For example, the interior portion 302 may be formed in a first step, and the trench 350 may be formed as an additional step. Additional manufacturing and construction techniques may be found, for example, in application Ser. No. 12/652,854 filed Nov. 25, 2009, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • As noted above, other nonconcave trench arrangements may be provided. FIG. 7 is a more detailed view of a section of the airfoil 200 of FIG. 2 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment. In particular, FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of a cooling hole 720 (e.g., cooling hole 220) that may be implemented in the airfoil 200 of FIG. 2. The view of FIG. 7 is analogous to the view of FIG. 3, discussed above, although an alternate embodiment. In general and except as described below, the embodiment shown in FIG. 7 has features similar to the features discussed above in reference to FIGS. 4-6.
  • As best shown in FIG. 7, the cooling holes 720 may be considered to have an interior or upstream portion 722 adjacent the inner surface 712 and a downstream portion 724 adjacent the outer surface 714.
  • The downstream portion 724 of each cooling hole 720 is at least partially defined by a trench 750. In general, the trench 750 provides improved film cooling at the surface 714 of the airfoil 700. The trench 750 enables the cooling air to remain attached to the surface 714 for a longer period of time and minimizes mixing of the cooling air and mainstream gas flow, thereby resulting in a more uniform film. Relative to conventional arrangements, the trench 750 reduces the radial velocity (i.e., perpendicular to the surface 714) of the cooling air as it exits the cooling hole 720 to prevent surface separation.
  • The trench 750 is defined in the outer surface 714 by a straight or flat bottom wall 752 and extends in a downstream direction relative to the main gas flow to a length 754. In one exemplary embodiment, the bottom wall 752 is continuously straight for the length of the trench 750 (e.g., from the termination of the hole 720 to the exterior surface). The length 754 may be a function of a diameter of the cooling hole 720. For example, the length 754 may be at least four times greater than the length. The length 754 may be, for example, six times the diameter (length or width) of the hole; but it could be smaller or larger depending on the pitch of the holes.
  • The trench 750 may have a first depth at an upstream end that corresponds to the maximum depth of the trench 750, although in other embodiments, the maximum depth may be further downstream. In some exemplary embodiments, the depth may be a function of a diameter of the cooling hole 720. As an example, the depth may be approximately equal to the diameter. In other embodiments, the depth may be based on other criteria.
  • As noted above, the downstream portion 724 of each cooling hole 720 is substantially oval. The downstream portion 724 has a cross-sectional diameter (or length) along the major axis of the oval shape that is generally parallel to the mainstream gas flow and a cross-sectional diameter (or width) along the minor axis of the oval shape. In other embodiments, the cooling hole 720 may be circular or elliptical, e.g., such as the shapes discussed below.
  • In one exemplary embodiment, the angle 716 between the longitudinal axis or side wall of the downstream portion 724 of the cooling hole 720 and the bottom wall 752 of the trench 750 may be, for example, about 25-45°, e.g., 35°. However, the angle 716 may be any suitable angle.
  • FIGS. 8-14 are depictions of cooling holes 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 in accordance with alternate embodiments that may be incorporated into the airfoil 200 of FIG. 2. In general, the cooling holes 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 may have a cross-sectional configuration relative to main stream gas flow similar to the cooling holes 220 or 720 depicted in FIG. 3 or FIG. 7. As such, the cooling holes 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 of FIGS. 8-14 generally include a trench (e.g., trench 350 or 750) formed by a nonconcave (e.g., straight or convex) wall extending in a downstream direction. The cooling holes 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 of FIGS. 8-14 will now be discussed in greater detail.
  • FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a downstream portion of a cooling hole 600 and generally corresponds to the view through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with an alternate exemplary embodiment. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 8, the cooling hole 600 is bean-shaped. The cooling hole 600 may be considered to have a first axis 610 and a second axis 620, and the cooling hole 600 may be oriented in any suitable manner. In one exemplary embodiment, the cooling hole 600 is oriented such that the first axis 610 is parallel to the local streamlines of the combustion gases. In such an embodiment, the cooling hole 600 has a leading edge 630 and a trailing edge 640. The leading edge 630 generally has a convex portion 632, a concave portion 634, and a convex portion 636. In one exemplary embodiment, the convex portion 632 transitions directly into the concave portion 634, which transitions directly into the convex portion 636. The trailing edge 640 is generally convex. As such, the cooling hole 600 generally has no straight portions. The cooling hole 600 is generally symmetrical about the first axis 610 and asymmetrical about the second axis 620. As also shown in FIG. 8, the cooling hole may have a width 680 and a length 690. Although the cross-sectional shape of the cooling hole 600 has the shape shown in FIG. 8, the cross-sectional shape of the hole 600 may be different in areas further upstream (i.e., closer to the interior surface of the airfoil), including shapes such as round or oval.
  • FIG. 9 is a top view of the cooling hole 600 of FIG. 8 at the surface 670 of an airfoil component in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 600 includes a trench 650 at the surface 670 extending in a downstream direction. The leading edge 660 of the cooling hole 600 at the surface 670 is generally shaped similar to the leading edge 630 of the interior portion shown in FIG. 8. As such, the leading edge 660 includes a convex portion, a concave portion, and a convex portion. The trench 650 transitions from a first width 656 that generally corresponds to the cross-sectional width 680 (FIG. 8) of the cooling hole 600 to a second, maximum width 658 at the downstream end. In the depicted embodiment, the trench 650 transitions from the first width 656 to the second width 658 in a constant manner such that the trench 650 has a generally fan shape as viewed from a top view such as shown in FIG. 9.
  • FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of a downstream portion of a cooling hole 800 and generally corresponds to the view through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with another alternate exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 800 may be, for example, triad-shaped. The cooling hole 800 may be considered to have a first axis 810 and a second axis 820. The cooling hole 800 may be oriented in any suitable manner, and in one exemplary embodiment, the cooling hole 800 is oriented such that the first axis 810 is parallel to the local streamlines of the combustion gases. In such an embodiment, the cooling hole 800 has a leading edge 830 and a trailing edge 840. The leading edge 830 generally has a convex portion 832, a concave portion 834, and a convex portion 836. In one exemplary embodiment, the convex portion 832 transitions directly into the concave portion 834, which transitions directly into the convex portion 836. The trailing edge 840 generally has a concave portion 844, a convex portion 846, and a concave portion 848. In one exemplary embodiment, the concave portion 844 transitions directly into the convex portion 846, which transitions directly into the concave portion 848. As such, the cooling hole 800 generally has no straight portions and the concave portions 834, 844, 848 alternate with the convex portions 832, 836, 846. The cooling hole 800 is generally symmetrical about the first axis 810 and asymmetrical about the second axis 820. As also shown in FIG. 8, the cooling hole may have a width 880 and a length 890. Considering the shape of the leading edge 830, the cooling hole 800 generally has a top view (not shown) similar to that shown in FIG. 9. In other words, the top portion of the cooling hole 800 at the component surface has a leading edge 830 with the convex portion 832, the concave portion 834, and the convex portion 836 and a trench extending downstream at a length that is at least three times the length 890 of the cooling hole 800.
  • FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of a downstream portion of a cooling hole 900 and generally corresponds to the view through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with another alternate exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 900 may be, for example, a reverse B-shape. The cooling hole 900 may be considered to have a first axis 910 and a second axis 920. The cooling hole 900 may be oriented in any suitable manner, and in one exemplary embodiment, the cooling hole 900 is oriented such that the first axis 910 is parallel to the local streamlines of the combustion gases. In such an embodiment, the cooling hole 900 has a leading edge 930 and a trailing edge 940. The leading edge 930 generally has a convex portion 932, a concave portion 934, and a convex portion 936. In one exemplary embodiment, the convex portion 932 transitions directly into the concave portion 934, which transitions directly into the convex portion 936. The trailing edge 940 is generally straight. The cooling hole 900 is generally symmetrical about the first axis 910 and asymmetrical about the second axis 920. As also shown in FIG. 11, the cooling hole 900 may have a width 980 and a length 990. Considering the shape of the leading edge 930, the cooling hole 900 generally has a top view (not shown) similar to that shown in FIG. 9. In other words, the top portion of the cooling hole 900 at the component surface has a leading edge 930 with the convex portion 932, the concave portion 934, and the convex portion 936 and a trench extending downstream at a length that is at least three times the length 990 of the cooling hole 900.
  • FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of a downstream portion of a cooling hole 1000 and generally corresponds to the view through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with another alternate exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 1000 may be, for example, dumbbell-shaped. The cooling hole 1000 may be considered to have a first axis 1010 and a second axis 1020. The cooling hole 1000 may be oriented in any suitable manner, and in one exemplary embodiment, the cooling hole 1000 is oriented such that the first axis 1010 is parallel to the local streamlines of the combustion gases. In such an embodiment, the cooling hole 1000 has a leading edge 1030 and a trailing edge 1040. The leading edge 1030 generally has a convex portion 1032, a concave portion 1034, and a convex portion 1036. In one exemplary embodiment, the convex portion 1032 transitions directly into the concave portion 1034, which transitions directly into the convex portion 1036. The trailing edge 1040 generally has a convex portion 1044, a concave portion 1046, and a convex portion 1048. In one exemplary embodiment, the convex portion 1044 transitions directly into the concave portion 1046, which transitions directly into the convex portion 1048. As such, the cooling hole 600 generally has no straight portions. The cooling hole 1000 is generally symmetrical about the first axis 1010 and symmetrical about the second axis 1020. As also shown in FIG. 12, the cooling hole may have a width 1080 and a length 1090. Considering the shape of the leading edge 1030, the cooling hole 1000 generally has a top view (not shown) similar to that shown in FIG. 9. In other words, the top portion of the cooling hole 1000 at the component surface has a leading edge 1030 with the convex portion 1032, the concave portion 1034, and the convex portion 1036 and a trench extending downstream at a length that is at least three times the length 1090 of the cooling hole 1000.
  • FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a downstream portion of a cooling hole 1100 and generally corresponds to the view through line 4-4 of FIG. 3 in accordance with another alternate exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 1100 may be, for example, triangle-shaped. The cooling hole 1100 may be considered to have a first axis 1110 and a second axis 1120. The cooling hole 1100 may be oriented in any suitable manner, and in one exemplary embodiment, the cooling hole 1100 is oriented such that the first axis 1110 is parallel to the local streamlines of the combustion gases. In such an embodiment, the cooling hole 1100 has a leading edge 1130 and a trailing edge 1140. The leading edge 1130 is generally straight and forms one of the sides 1132 of the triangular shape. The trailing edge 1140 is formed by the other two sides 1142, 1144 of the triangular shape. The sides 1132, 1142, 1144 are generally straight and are joined at corners 1134, 1136, 1146, which may be formed by curves or straight edge angles. The cooling hole 1100 is generally symmetrical about the first axis 1110 and asymmetrical about the second axis 1120.
  • FIG. 14 is a top view of the cooling hole 1100 of FIG. 13 at the surface 1170 of an airfoil component in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The cooling hole 1100 includes a trench 1150 at the surface 1170 extending in a downstream direction. The leading edge 1160 of the cooling hole 1100 at the surface 1170 is generally shaped similar to the leading edge 1130 of the interior portion shown in FIG. 13. The trench 1150 transitions from a first width 1156 that generally corresponds to the cross-sectional width 1190 (FIG. 13) of the cooling hole 1100 to a second, maximum width 1158 at the downstream end. In the depicted embodiment, the trench 1150 transitions from the first width 1156 to the second width 1158 in a constant manner such that the trench 1150 has a generally fan shape as viewed from a top view such as shown in FIG. 14.
  • In general, the cross-sectional shapes and trenches of the holes 220, 720, 600, 800, 900, 1000, 1100 facilitate the distribution of the cooling air substantially completely over the outer surface of the airfoil. In particular, the cross-sectional shapes and trenches function as a diffuser to reduce the velocity and increase static pressure of the cooling airstreams exiting the holes and encourage cooling film development. The trenches additionally increase the lateral spread distribution of the exiting airflows, decrease peak velocities, and improve adiabatic effectiveness across a number of blowing ratios. These airstreams are more inclined to cling to the surface for improved cooling rather than separate from the surface. This produces an enhanced cooling effect at the surface. In one exemplary embodiment, the airfoils with straight trench bottom walls (e.g., trench 750 of FIG. 7) may provide superior performance at moderate blowing ratios and airfoils with convex trench bottom walls (e.g., trench 350 of FIG. 3) may provide superior performance at higher blowing ratios, whereas both types of trench bottom walls may provide superior performance to conventional cooling holes. Consequently, exemplary embodiments promote the service life of the airfoil (e.g., airfoils 122, 124, 200) as a result of a more uniform cooling film at the external surfaces. Since the cooling air is minimally intrusive the drag offered by such a cooled airfoil will be lower.
  • Exemplary embodiments disclosed herein are generally applicable to air-cooled components, and particularly those that are to be protected from a thermally and chemically hostile environment. Notable examples of such components include the high and low pressure turbine nozzles and blades, shrouds, combustor liners and augmentor hardware of gas turbine engines. Additionally, the cooling holes discussed above may be incorporated into turbine components. The advantages are particularly applicable to gas turbine engine components that employ internal cooling to maintain the service temperature of the component at an acceptable level while operating in a thermally hostile environment. In other embodiments, the exemplary embodiments, including the trenches discussed above, may be incorporated into cooling holes of combustor components, including combustor liners.
  • While at least one exemplary embodiment has been presented in the foregoing detailed description of the invention, it should be appreciated that a vast number of variations exist. It should also be appreciated that the exemplary embodiment or exemplary embodiments are only examples, and are not intended to limit the scope, applicability, or configuration of the invention in any way. Rather, the foregoing detailed description will provide those skilled in the art with a convenient road map for implementing an exemplary embodiment of the invention. It being understood that various changes may be made in the function and arrangement of elements described in an exemplary embodiment without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Claims (20)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. An engine component, comprising:
    a body having an interior surface and an exterior surface;
    a cooling hole formed in the body and extending from the interior surface; and
    a nonconcave trench extending from the cooling hole to the exterior surface of the body in a downstream direction such that cooling air flow from within the body flow through the cooling hole, through the trench, and onto the exterior surface.
  2. 2. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the nonconcave trench is defined by a nonconcave bottom wall extending in the downstream direction.
  3. 3. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the nonconcave trench is defined by a straight bottom wall extending in the downstream direction.
  4. 4. The engine component of claim 3, wherein the straight bottom wall is continuously straight from the cooling hole to the exterior surface.
  5. 5. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the nonconcave trench is defined by a convex bottom wall extending in the downstream direction.
  6. 6. The engine component of claim 5, wherein the convex bottom wall is continuously convex from the cooling hole to the exterior surface.
  7. 7. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole is a first cooling hole and the trench is a first cooling trench, and wherein the engine component further comprises additional cooling holes and additional trenches, each of the trenches being associated with a single cooling hole.
  8. 8. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a first cross-sectional shape in downstream portion with a first leading edge having a first shape, and the nonconcave trench has a second leading edge having a second shape, the second shape being similar to the first shape.
  9. 9. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a first length and the nonconcave trench extends in the downstream direction at a second length, the second length being at least three times the first length.
  10. 10. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the nonconcave trench has a first width at a first position and a second width at a second position that is downstream of the first position, the second width being greater than the first width.
  11. 11. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is bean-shaped.
  12. 12. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is triad-shaped.
  13. 13. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is reverse B-shaped.
  14. 14. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is dumbbell-shaped.
  15. 15. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is a triangular.
  16. 16. The engine component of claim 1, wherein the cooling hole has a cross-sectional shape that is an oval.
  17. 17. A turbine section of a gas turbine engine, comprising:
    a housing defining a hot gas flow path;
    a plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils disposed in the hot gas flow path;
    a plurality of cooling holes arranged within at least one of the plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils; and
    a plurality of trenches, each of the plurality of trenches being associated with one of the plurality of cooling holes, wherein each of the trenches is defined by a straight bottom wall extending downstream of the respective cooling hole to an exterior surface of the respective airfoil.
  18. 18. The turbine section of claim 17, wherein each of the cooling holes has a cross-sectional area that is bean-shaped, triad-shaped, reverse-B shaped, or dumbbell-shaped.
  19. 19. A turbine section of a gas turbine engine, comprising:
    a housing defining a hot gas flow path;
    a plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils disposed in the hot gas flow path;
    a plurality of cooling holes arranged within at least one of the plurality of circumferential rows of airfoils; and
    a plurality of trenches, each of the plurality of trenches being associated with one of the plurality of cooling holes, wherein each of the trenches is defined by a convex bottom wall extending downstream of the respective cooling hole to an exterior surface of the respective airfoil.
  20. 20. The turbine section of claim 19, wherein each of the cooling holes has a cross-sectional area that is bean-shaped, triad-shaped, reverse-B shaped, or dumbbell-shaped.
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EP2666964A3 (en) 2014-01-01 application
EP2666964B1 (en) 2016-09-28 grant

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