US20130258634A1 - Optical beam shaping and polarization selection on led with wavelength conversion - Google Patents

Optical beam shaping and polarization selection on led with wavelength conversion Download PDF

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US20130258634A1
US20130258634A1 US13807269 US201113807269A US2013258634A1 US 20130258634 A1 US20130258634 A1 US 20130258634A1 US 13807269 US13807269 US 13807269 US 201113807269 A US201113807269 A US 201113807269A US 2013258634 A1 US2013258634 A1 US 2013258634A1
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light
light source
wavelength conversion
conversion material
layer
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US13807269
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US9759843B2 (en )
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Li Xu
Bo Pi
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AXLEN Inc
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AXLEN Inc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/04Prisms
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V9/00Elements for modifying spectral properties, polarisation or intensity of the light emitted, e.g. filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V9/00Elements for modifying spectral properties, polarisation or intensity of the light emitted, e.g. filters
    • F21V9/14Elements for modifying spectral properties, polarisation or intensity of the light emitted, e.g. filters for producing polarised light
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/02Diffusing elements; Afocal elements
    • G02B5/0205Diffusing elements; Afocal elements characterised by the diffusing properties
    • G02B5/021Diffusing elements; Afocal elements characterised by the diffusing properties the diffusion taking place at the element's surface, e.g. by means of surface roughening or microprismatic structures
    • G02B5/0231Diffusing elements; Afocal elements characterised by the diffusing properties the diffusion taking place at the element's surface, e.g. by means of surface roughening or microprismatic structures the surface having microprismatic or micropyramidal shape
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/02Diffusing elements; Afocal elements
    • G02B5/0273Diffusing elements; Afocal elements characterized by the use
    • G02B5/0278Diffusing elements; Afocal elements characterized by the use used in transmission

Abstract

Techniques, devices and materials for light source devices that convert excitation light into different light via wavelength conversion materials. One example of a light source includes an excitation light source; a wavelength conversion material that absorbs light from the excitation light source and emits a longer wavelength light; and a layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material to receive the emitted light from the wavelength conversion material and to modify the received light to produce output light with a desired spatial pattern associated with the plural optical structures.

Description

    PRIORITY CLAIM AND RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This patent document claims the benefits of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/398,510 entitled “OPTICAL BEAM SHAPING AND POLARIZATION SELECTION ON LED WITH WAVELENGTH CONVERSION” filed Jun. 28, 2010, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference as part of the specification of this document.
  • BACKGROUND
  • LED devices having phosphor materials for converting LED light to desired wavelengths can be configured in various packages. For example, white LED devices may be used to replace some conventional light sources such as incandescent light bulbs, florescent light sources and discharge lamps. As shown in FIG. 1, a white LED device can include a short wavelength LED (Blue or UV) with a wavelength conversion material such as phosphors located in the LED light path to convert the LED light into white light. To further improve light extraction efficiency and shape the output light distribution, additional optics is placed around LED and phosphors base. As shown in FIG. 1, some commercial white LED devices include certain optics such as reflective cups and dome lens in various shapes to modify the emitted white light for output. The packaging of such commercial white LED devices tends to be bulky and requires complicated manufacturing processes.
  • SUMMARY
  • Techniques, devices and materials for light source devices convert excitation light into different light via wavelength conversion materials. One example of a light source includes an excitation light source; a wavelength conversion material that absorbs light from the excitation light source and emits a longer wavelength light; and a layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material to receive the emitted light from the wavelength conversion material and to modify the received light to produce output light with a desired spatial pattern associated with the plural optical structures.
  • Light emitting devices with controllable light emitting distribution and improved extraction efficiency are provided. The light emitting device could be light emitting diode (LED) with wavelength conversion material such as phosphors. The light emitting device's improvement is achieved by a coating of thin layer of transparent material with defined geometric structure on the wavelength conversion material. The advantages of this approach are its compactness, material saving and Etendue reservation or improvement.
  • In one embodiment, the thin layer of wavelength conversion material is deposited on LED die surface. Then, a thin layer of transparent material is coated or attached on the wavelength conversion material with plural optical structures on the surface away from the interface between wavelength conversion material and the thin transparent layer. A thin layer of air gap (<¼th of the LED size) is between wavelength conversion material and transparent layer with plural optical structure.
  • In another embodiment, the thin layer of the wavelength conversion material with defined optical structure on its top is bonded to LED die through a high index of transparent material with index of refraction higher than 1.5 up to 2.0.
  • In another embodiment, the thin layer of wavelength conversion material is separated from the exciting light source (such as LED or laser). The wavelength conversion material is deposited on a short pass filter that passes the exciting light (from LED or laser) but reflecting longer wavelength light. On the other side of wavelength conversion material, a thin layer of transparent material with defined geometrical structure is coated or attached with thin air gap.
  • These and other features are described in detail in the drawings, the description and the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows an example of an LED device that converts LED light into different light via a phosphor material.
  • FIGS. 2-23 show various features of light sources described in this document.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Light sources can be used to produce pump light to pump one or more light conversion materials such as phosphors or quantum dots that produce light different from the pump light. For example, UV or blue light can be converted into visible light by phosphor materials that absorb the UV or blue light. Suitable excitation light sources can be light-emitting diodes (LEDs), semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) or other compact light sources that are driven by electrical control signals to emit light.
  • Various light devices are described to include one or more micro structured films used in combination with light sources and or phosphors film to produce desirable output light beam patterns. Examples below use LEDs as excitation light sources to illustrate various features. These features can be implemented with excitation light sources other than LEDs, such as LDs.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates an example of a microstructure film with a 90 degree ridge structure. Light traces are shown in the figure to illustrate light rays going through the film. The deflection effect of the film is illustrated here. A part of the light is deflected back to the incoming direction of the light. These deflected lights interact with LED source or phosphors film can create different light output patterns.
  • FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate other different patterns of microstructures for the deflection film design. In some implementations, a microstructure can be in the dimension of 1 micron to 1000 microns, the thickness of these films can be between 2 microns to 2000 microns. These structures can be made of transparent materials, such as glass, epoxy, or polymers.
  • FIGS. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 illustrate different microstructure designs that are 2 dimension convex and concave diamonded cone structures. These microstructures can be in the dimension of 1 micron to 1000 microns in some implementations. These structures can be made of transparent materials, such as glass, epoxy, or polymers.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates a microstructure design made of an array of nano dimensioned metal wires. In this example, the nano wires are parallel to one another and are evenly spaced. The dimension of the nano wires is in the 10 nano meter to 200 nano meters, with a pitch of 20 nanometers to 1000 nanometers. These nano wires can be made on a transparent substrate, such as a glass or polymer film. This nano metal wire array can selectively transmit one type of polarization, and reflect another type of polarization which is orthogonal to the transmitted polarization.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates an example of a LED device that includes a microstructure film formed over a LED and a light conversion material formed over the LED and below the film. The light conversion material can include a layer of photo phosphors which may be directly deposited on the LED or may be placed on or attached to the LED as a layer of a pre-formed film. This structure can be used for white LED light devices where the light conversion material converts the LED light into white light. On the top of the structure of the LED and the light conversion material layer, a layer of a light deflection film with microstructures is formed. Photons emitted from the LED and Photons emitted at the phosphors layer due to absorption of LED light interact with the top deflection film and bounce back and forth within the structure to create a light shaping effect where light bounces between the LED and the light deflection film and exits the top deflection film in selected directions that are defined by the microstructures in the deflection film. The deflection film can also effectuate a light focusing effect on the light coming out of the deflection film and the light focusing can depend on the optical index of refraction of the deflection film. The geometry of the deflection film can also affect the light focusing.
  • FIG. 12 shows a light beam output pattern of photo phosphors under illumination of a LED light. The light beam output pattern exhibits a classical Lambertian distribution.
  • FIG. 13A shows a light beam output pattern with a layer of deflection film having a 1-dimension 90-degree angle ridge array micro structures with an optical transparent material having an optical index of refraction of 1.50. The focus effect of the film on the light beam is shown.
  • FIG. 13B shows a light beam output pattern with a layer of a deflection film having a 1-dimension 90-degree angle ridge array micro structures with an optical transparent material having an optical index of refraction of 1.90. This increased refractive index leads increases the focusing effect.
  • FIGS. 14A and 14B illustrate different light shaping effects of one dimension ridge(A) and two dimension diamond cone (B) micro structures.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates another example of a LED device that includes a microstructure layer formed over a LED and a light conversion material formed over the LED and below the microstructure layer. The microstructure layer includes two layers of deflection micro structured films.
  • FIGS. 16A and 16B show light output patterns of two LED devices with one layer of the film (A), and with two layers of the films (B), respectively. In comparison, a stronger focus effect is shown in the LED device having the two layers of films.
  • FIG. 17 illustrates a LED device that includes a microstructure layer and a light conversion material that are mixed together where a photo phosphor material is mixed in the material of the deflection film.
  • FIG. 18 illustrates a LED device where a micro structure film is used in junction of a light guide or waveguide located on top of the film to collect and receive light output by the film. This structure allows more light to be collected into the light guide because of the micro structure film focus effect.
  • FIG. 19 illustrates a LED device where a remote phosphor film that is located away from the LED die is used to perform the light conversion. A light collecting assembly (e.g., one or more lenses) is placed in the space between the LED die and the phosphor film to direct LED light to the phosphor film. A micro structure film is formed on top of the phosphor film to shape the light beam output by the phosphor film under the excitation of the LED light. A short pass filter that transmits light of short wavelengths (e.g., UV or blue light) and blocks light of long wavelengths (e.g., visible light) is placed between the phosphor film and the light collecting assembly.
  • FIG. 20 illustrates a LED device where a short pass optical filter is placed between the light conversion material and the LED, and a micro structure film is used on top of light conversion layer. The short pass optical film in combination with micro structure film, can further improve the light beam shape.
  • FIG. 21 illustrates a LED device that is similar to FIG. 20 but has a two-layer micro structure film rather than the single layer microstructure film.
  • FIG. 22 illustrates a LED device where on top of the light conversion layer, a nano wire array film is used to select one type of polarization to pass through, and other polarization beam reflect back to the conversion layer. This design creates a light beam pattern with strong component in one type of polarization.
  • FIGS. 23A and 23B illustrate LED devices where based on design from FIG. 22, a micro structured film is used for shaping the light beam output pattern (A), and both short pass filter and micro structure film are used to shape the light beam output pattern (B).
  • Only some implementations of light device designs are described. Enhancements and variations of the described implementations and other implementations can be made based on what is described and illustrated.

Claims (29)

  1. 1. A light source, comprising:
    an excitation light source;
    a wavelength conversion material that absorbs light from the excitation light source and emits a longer wavelength light; and
    a layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material to receive the emitted light from the wavelength conversion material and to modify the received light to produce output light with a desired spatial pattern associated with the plural optical structures.
  2. 2. The light source in claim 1, wherein the excitation light source includes one or multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs).
  3. 3. The light source in claim 1, wherein the excitation light source includes one or multiple lasers diodes (LDs).
  4. 4. The light source in claim 1, wherein the wavelength conversion material includes phosphors.
  5. 5. The light source in claim 1, wherein the wavelength conversion material includes quantum dots.
  6. 6. The light source in claim 1, wherein the excitation light source includes an LED formed on an LED die and the wavelength conversion material is optically bonded to the LED die by a high index material having an index of refraction higher than 1.4 and less than 2.4.
  7. 7. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material with plural optical structures has a size equal to or slightly larger than a size of the wavelength conversion material, and each of the plural optical structures in the transparent layer has a base and an apex that is smaller than the base.
  8. 8. The light source in claim 1, wherein each of the plural optical structures has a base that has at least one dimension larger than 1 urn but smaller than ¼th of a size of the wavelength conversion material.
  9. 9. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material with the plural optical structures is optically bonded to the wavelength conversion material.
  10. 10. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material with the plural optical structures is engaged to the wavelength conversion material through an index matching gel/epoxy.
  11. 11. The light source in claim 1, wherein the excitation light source includes an LED formed on an LED die and the transparent layer with plural optical structures is in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material with an air gap that is smaller than ¼th size of the LED die.
  12. 12. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material has plural optical structures on both sides of the layer.
  13. 13. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material has plural optical structures on both sides of the layer and the structures orientations on both sides is configured to be identical or different including orthogonal.
  14. 14. The light source in claim 1, wherein the layer of the transparent material has the plural optical structures that are identical or different.
  15. 15. The light source in claim 1, further comprising a second layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the layer of the transparent material.
  16. 16. The light source in claim 1, further comprising light collecting optics collecting majority of the output light (>55%).
  17. 17. The light source in claim 16, wherein the light collecting optics is an optical waveguide with similar optical input acceptance angle to the emission angle from the transparent layer with plural optical structure (within 75%).
  18. 18. The light source in claim 17, wherein the excitation light source includes an LED formed on an LED die and the optical waveguide input dimension is no less than 60% of the LED die dimension.
  19. 19. A light source comprising:
    an excitation light source;
    a wavelength conversion material that absorbs light from the excitation light source and emitting longer wavelength light;
    a layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material;
    a light collecting optical assembly that collects light from the excitation light source and delivers the light onto the wavelength conversion material; and
    a color filter that pass the light from excitation light source but reflects the longer wavelength light emitted from the wavelength extension material, the color filter being located near the wavelength conversion material and between the light collecting optics and the wavelength extension material.
  20. 20. The light source in claim 19, wherein the light excitation source is a single LED or LD.
  21. 21. The light source in claim 19, wherein the light excitation source includes multiple LEDs or LDs and the light collecting optics is a focusing optics device that combines multiple LED light output and condenses the light onto the light conversion material.
  22. 22. A light source comprising:
    an excitation light source;
    a wavelength conversion material that absorbs light from the excitation light source and emitting longer wavelength light; and
    a polarization device in a thin film format which selectively passes through light in one pre-selected polarization while reflecting light of another polarization.
  23. 23. The light source in claim 22, wherein the excitation light source is a single LED or LD.
  24. 24. The light source in claim 22, wherein the excitation light source includes multiple LEDs or LDs and the light collecting optics is focusing optics assembly that combines multiple LED light output and condenses the light onto the wavelength conversion material.
  25. 25. The light source of claim 22, where the polarization device is made of a nano pitched grid of metal wires.
  26. 26. The light source in claim 22, wherein the polarization device is optically bonded to the wavelength conversion material.
  27. 27. The light source in claim 22, wherein the polarization device is engaged to the wavelength conversion material through an index matching gel/epoxy.
  28. 28. The light source in claim 22, wherein the excitation light source includes an LED formed on an LED die and the polarization device is in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material with an air gap that is smaller than ⅕th size of LED die.
  29. 29. The light source of claim 22, comprising on top of the polarization device, a layer of a transparent material that has plural optical structures in contact to or in close proximity to the wavelength conversion material and to modify the received light to produce output light with a desired spatial pattern associated with the plural optical structures.
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US20160004101A1 (en) * 2013-02-20 2016-01-07 The Schepens Eye Research Institute, Inc. Vision Modification Based on a Multiplexing Prism
US20160187561A1 (en) * 2014-12-31 2016-06-30 Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co. Ltd. An Ultrathin Planar Light Source Apparatus
WO2017069964A1 (en) 2015-10-19 2017-04-27 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Wavelength converted light emitting device with textured substrate
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