US20130114433A1 - Scaling for fractional systems in wireless communication - Google Patents

Scaling for fractional systems in wireless communication Download PDF

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US20130114433A1
US20130114433A1 US13/359,423 US201213359423A US2013114433A1 US 20130114433 A1 US20130114433 A1 US 20130114433A1 US 201213359423 A US201213359423 A US 201213359423A US 2013114433 A1 US2013114433 A1 US 2013114433A1
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subsystem
time
scaling factor
wireless communications
utilizing
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US13/359,423
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Edwin C. Park
Samir Salib Soliman
Soumya Das
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Qualcomm Inc
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Qualcomm Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/02Resource partitioning among network components, e.g. reuse partitioning
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/16Central resource management; Negotiation of resources or communication parameters, e.g. negotiating bandwidth or QoS [Quality of Service]
    • H04W28/18Negotiating wireless communication parameters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/14Spectrum sharing arrangements between different networks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/16Central resource management; Negotiation of resources or communication parameters, e.g. negotiating bandwidth or QoS [Quality of Service]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/04Wireless resource allocation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W76/00Connection management
    • H04W76/10Connection setup
    • H04W76/12Setup of transport tunnels

Abstract

Methods, systems, and devices are described for utilizing scaling factors and/or fractional bandwidth and waveforms for wireless communication. Scaling factors may be utilized to relate aspects of one subsystem with aspects of another subsystem. Embodiments may utilize portions of spectrum that may not be big enough to fit a standard waveform. Scaling factors may be utilized to generate fractional waveforms to fit these portions of spectrum. A fractional subsystem may be generated with respect to a normal subsystem or other fractional subsystem through dilating, or scaling, time, frequency, state, or other aspects of the fractional subsystem with respect to time, frequency, state, or other aspects of the normal subsystem or the other fractional subsystem. The fractional subsystem may be aligned with a normal system at different times and/or different frequencies. Scaling information may be utilized to perform measurements on another subsystem, perform handoffs to another subsystem, perform reselection, align, etc.

Description

    CROSS-RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present application for patent claims priority to Provisional Application No. 61/556,777 entitled “FRACTIONAL SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS” filed Nov. 7, 2011, and assigned to the assignee hereof and hereby expressly incorporated by reference herein.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Wireless communications systems are widely deployed to provide various types of communication content such as voice, video, packet data, messaging, broadcast, and so on. These systems may be multiple-access systems capable of supporting communication with multiple users by sharing the available system resources (e.g., time, frequency, and power). Examples of such multiple-access systems include code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems, time-division multiple access (TDMA) systems, frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) systems, 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems, and orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) systems.
  • Generally, a wireless multiple-access communications system may include a number of base stations, each simultaneously supporting communication for multiple mobile terminals. Base stations may communicate with mobile terminals on downstream and upstream links. Each base station has a coverage range, which may be referred to as the coverage area of the cell. In cellular deployments, the macrocell is used to describe a cell serving a wide region such as rural, suburban, and urban areas. A femtocell is a smaller cell, typically deployed for use in a home, small business, building, or other limited region. It often is connected to a service provider's network via a broadband connection. In 3GPP terms, femtocells may be referred to as Home NodeBs (HNB) for UMTS (WCDMA, or High Speed Packet Access (HSPA)) and Home eNodeBs (HeNB) for LTE. In some cases, the wireless communications system may not utilize portions of the spectrum because the portions are not big enough to fit a standard waveform.
  • SUMMARY
  • Methods, systems, and devices are described for providing fractional bandwidth and waveforms for wireless communication. Embodiments may utilize portions of spectrum that may not be big enough to fit a standard, normal, and/or legacy waveform. Scaling may be utilized to generate fractional waveforms to fit these portions of spectrum. In some embodiments, a fractional subsystem may be generated with respect to a normal subsystem through dilating, or scaling down, the time of the fractional subsystem with respect to the time of the normal subsystem. The fractional subsystem may be aligned with a normal subsystem at different times and/or different frequencies. Scaling information may be utilized to perform measurements on the other subsystem, perform handoffs to the other subsystem, perform reselection, align, etc. Fractional bandwidth may also be utilized to generate waveforms that are larger, or take more bandwidth, than standard waveforms in some cases.
  • Some embodiments may utilize parts of spectrum that may not currently be used by operators because they are not big enough to fit a standard waveform. Depending on the width of each portion of spectrum, different scaling factors may be utilized for the different portions of spectrum.
  • Some embodiments include systems, methods, and/or devices for wireless communication utilizing scaling factors. A first subsystem and a second subsystem of the wireless communications system may be identified. A scaling factor may be determined with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem. One or more aspects of the first subsystem may be related with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor. Some embodiments may utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem. An underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem may be related by the scaling factor.
  • Some embodiments include systems, methods, and/or devices for generating fractional subsystems for a wireless communications system. For example, a method for generating fractional subsystems for a wireless communications system may include: identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system; determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem; and/or generating a second subsystem within the wireless communications system, where the second subsystem may be a first fractional subsystem and one or more aspects of the second subsystem may be related to one or more aspects of the first subsystem using the scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a time-scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a state-scaling factor. Other scaling factors may also be utilized in some embodiments including, but not limited to, frequency-scaling factors.
  • Some embodiments may further include: identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and/or generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, where the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • Some embodiments may further include determining at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. Some embodiments may further include performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • Some embodiments may further include aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time. Some embodiments may further include offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value. Some embodiments may further include: determining a state; identifying a first base station; and/or combining the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate a new base station identifier. The state may be a PN state. The state may be the frame number (e.g., SFN). The state may be a cycle number.
  • Some embodiments may further include utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure. Some embodiments may further include determining at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem.
  • Some embodiments may further include aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem on a periodic basis. Some embodiments may further include offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a second offset value different from the first offset value.
  • The scaling factor may include an integer value, a rational value, and/or an irrational value. The first subsystem may include a normal subsystem in some embodiments. The first subsystem may include another fractional subsystem in some embodiments. The first subsystem and the second subsystem may be co-located or not be co-located.
  • Some embodiments include a method for utilizing scaling factors for a wireless communications system that may include: identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system; identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system; determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and/or relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem is a fractional subsystem. The method may include identifying a portion of spectrum. A first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem may exceed a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum. A first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system may be generated utilizing the scaling factor. The first fractional waveform of the second subsystem may fit within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • In some embodiments, relating the one or more aspects of the first system with the one or more aspects of the second system utilizing the scaling factor may include determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. Some embodiments may include performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor. Some embodiments may include utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure.
  • Some embodiments may include utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless in some embodiments. A value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem may be the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem in some embodiments.
  • In some embodiments, the scaling factor includes at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor. Some embodiments may include implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
  • Some embodiments may include aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time. Some embodiments may include offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value. Some embodiments may include determining a state identifying a first base station; and/or combining the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate an additional base station identifier. The state may be a PN state. The state may be a time. Some embodiments may include aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem multiple times, which may be on a periodic basis. Some embodiments may include offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a second offset value different from the first offset value.
  • Some embodiments may include aligning a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem, where the time alignment results in no state change. The state may refer to a state of at least a short PN code or a long PN code in some embodiments. Some embodiments may include aligning a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem, where the time alignment results in a state change. The state refers to a state of at least a short PN code or a long PN code in some embodiments. In some embodiments, the state change results in a PN offset change. The PN offset change may be equivalent to an implicit handoff to a mobile device. The PN offset change may be determined by the mobile device on its own from at least knowledge of one or more time alignment instants, a state before the alignment, or the scaling factor. The PN offset change may be communicated to the mobile device from at least a base station or a core network. The PN offset change may be determined jointly by at least the mobile device and at least a base station or a core network.
  • In some embodiments, the first subsystem includes a normal subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is a second fractional subsystem. In some embodiments, the method is performed at a mobile device. In some embodiments, the method is performed at a base station.
  • The above method may also be implemented through a wireless communications system configured for utilizing scaling factors, a computer program product for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system, and/or a wireless communications device configured for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system.
  • Some embodiments include a wireless communications system configured for utilizing scaling factors. The wireless communications system may include: a means for identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system; a means for identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system; a means for determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and/or a means for relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • The wireless communications system may further include: a means for identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and/or a means for generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, wherein the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • In some embodiments, the means for relating the one or more aspects of the first system with the one or more aspects of the second system utilizing the scaling factor includes a means for determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. In some embodiments, the wireless communications system may include a means for utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure. The wireless communications system may include a means for performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor in some embodiments. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor.
  • The wireless communications system may include a means for implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
  • The wireless communications system may include a means for utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless. In some embodiments, a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
  • In some embodiments, the first subsystem includes a normal subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is a second fractional subsystem.
  • Some embodiments include a computer program product for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system that includes a non-transitory computer-readable medium that includes: code for identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system; code for identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system; code for determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and/or code for relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include: code for identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and/or code for generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, where the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include code for determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include code for utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure. The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include code for performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, the scaling factor may include at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor. The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include code for implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
  • The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include code for utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless. In some embodiments, a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem may be the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
  • Some embodiments include wireless communications devices configured for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system. The wireless communications device includes at least one processor configured to: identify a first subsystem within the wireless communications system; identify a second subsystem within the wireless communications system; determine a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and/or relate one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor. The wireless communications device may also include at least one memory coupled with the at least one processor.
  • The at least one processor may be further configured to align the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time. The at least one processor may be further configured to offset the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value. The at least one processor may be further configured to: determine a state identifying a first base station; and/or combine the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate a new base station identifier.
  • The at least one processor may be further configured to determine at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. The at least one processor may be further configured to: align the first subsystem and the second subsystem on a periodic basis. The at least one processor may be further configured to offset the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a second offset value different from the first offset value.
  • The at least one processor may be further configured to utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, where an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless. In some embodiments, a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
  • The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of examples according to disclosure in order that the detailed description that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages will be described hereinafter. The conception and specific examples disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the present disclosure. Such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the appended claims. Features which are believed to be characteristic of the concepts disclosed herein, both as to their organization and method of operation, together with associated advantages will be better understood from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying figures. Each of the figures is provided for the purpose of illustration and description only, and not as a definition of the limits of the claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be realized by reference to the following drawings. In the appended figures, similar components or features may have the same reference label. Further, various components of the same type may be distinguished by following the reference label by a dash and a second label that distinguishes among the similar components. If only the first reference label is used in the specification, the description is applicable to any one of the similar components having the same first reference label irrespective of the second reference label.
  • FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of a wireless communications system in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 2A shows an example of a wireless communications system where a fractional waveform fits into a portion of spectrum not broad enough to fit a normal waveform in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 2B shows an example of a wireless communications system where a fractional waveform fits into a portion of spectrum near an edge of a band in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 3 shows an example of system clocks in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C show examples of scaling time by filtering means in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 5A shows examples of PN states for various time scaling values of N in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 5B shows examples of a time alignment between two systems in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIGS. 6A, 6B, and 6C show examples of a possible alignment between a normal and a fractional system in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIGS. 7A, 7B, and 7C show examples of possible alignment times between a normal and a fractional system in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 8 shows an example of moving between different fractional systems in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 9 shows a block diagram of a device that includes fractional bandwidth functionality in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 10 is a block diagram of a mobile device configured to utilize fractional bandwidth in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 11 shows a block diagram of a communications system that may be configured for utilizing fractional waveforms in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 12 shows a block diagram of a wireless communications system that includes a base station and a mobile device in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 13 shows a flow diagram of a method for wireless communication in accordance with various embodiments;
  • FIG. 14 shows a flow diagram of a method for wireless communication in accordance with various embodiments; and
  • FIG. 15 shows a flow diagram of a method for wireless communication in accordance with various embodiments.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Methods, systems, and devices are described for providing fractional bandwidth and waveforms for wireless communication. Embodiments may utilize portions of spectrum that may not be wide enough to fit a standard, normal, and/or legacy waveform. Scaling factors may be utilized to generate fractional waveforms to fit these portions of spectrum. In some embodiments, a fractional subsystem may be generated with respect to a normal subsystem through dilating, or scaling down, the time of the fractional subsystem with respect to the time of the normal subsystem. Scaling factors may also be utilized to relate aspects of one subsystem to another, such as the states and/or frequencies of a fractional subsystem with a normal subsystem or another fractional subsystem. The fractional subsystem may be aligned with a normal subsystem or another fractional subsystem at different times and/or different frequencies. Scaling information may be utilized to perform measurements on the other subsystem, perform handoffs to the other subsystem, perform reselection, align, etc. Fractional bandwidth may also be utilized to generate waveforms that are larger, or take more bandwidth, than standard waveforms in some cases.
  • Scaling factors in general may be utilized to relate one or more aspects of one subsystem with one or more aspects of another subsystem. The subsystems may include fractional and/or normal subsystems. Some embodiments may utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to two or more subsystems. An underlying value of the scaled measurement unit with respect to the two or more subsystems may be related by the scaling factor.
  • Some embodiments may utilize parts of spectrum that may not currently be used by operators because they are not big enough to fit a standard, normal, and/or legacy waveform. Depending on the width of each portion of spectrum, different scaling factors may be utilized for the different portions of spectrum.
  • Techniques described herein may be used for various wireless communications systems such as CDMA, TDMA, FDMA, OFDMA, SC-FDMA, and other systems. The terms “system” and “network” are often used interchangeably. A CDMA system may implement a radio technology such as CDMA2000, Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA), etc. CDMA2000 may cover IS-2000, IS-95, IS-856 standards, and successor standards. IS-2000 Releases 0 and A are commonly referred to as CDMA2000 1X, 1X, etc. IS-856 (TIA-856) is commonly referred to as CDMA2000 1xEV-DO, High Rate Packet Data (HRPD), etc. UTRA includes Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) and other variants of CDMA. A TDMA system may implement a radio technology such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). An OFDMA system may implement a radio technology such as Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA), IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX), IEEE 802.20, Flash-OFDM, etc. UTRA and E-UTRA are part of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) are new releases of UMTS that use E-UTRA. UTRA, E-UTRA, UMTS, LTE, LTE-A, and GSM are described in documents from an organization named “3rd Generation Partnership Project” (3GPP). CDMA2000 and UMB are described in documents from an organization named “3rd Generation Partnership Project 2” (3GPP2). The techniques described herein may be used for the systems and radio technologies mentioned above, as well as other systems and radio technologies.
  • Thus, the following description provides examples, and is not limiting of the scope, applicability, or configuration set forth in the claims. Changes may be made in the function and arrangement of elements discussed without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. Various embodiments may omit, substitute, or add various procedures or components as appropriate. For instance, the methods described may be performed in an order different from that described, and various steps may be added, omitted, or combined. Also, features described with respect to certain embodiments may be combined in other embodiments.
  • Referring first to FIG. 1, a block diagram illustrates an example of a wireless communications system 100 in accordance with various embodiments. The system 100 includes base stations 105, mobile devices 115, a base station controller 120, and a core network 130 (the controller 120 may be integrated into the core network 130 in some embodiments; in some embodiments, controller 120 may be integrated into base stations 105). The system 100 may support operation on multiple carriers (waveform signals of different frequencies). Multi-carrier transmitters can transmit modulated signals simultaneously on the multiple carriers. Each modulated signal may be a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) signal, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signal, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) signal, Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA) signal, Single-Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) signal, etc. Each modulated signal may be sent on a different carrier and may carry control information (e.g., pilot signals), overhead information, data, etc. The system 100 may be a multi-carrier LTE network capable of efficiently allocating network resources.
  • The mobile devices 115 may be any type of mobile station, mobile device, access terminal, subscriber unit, or user equipment. The mobile devices 115 may include cellular phones and wireless communications devices, but may also include personal digital assistants (PDAs), smartphones, other handheld devices, netbooks, notebook computers, etc. Thus, the term mobile device should be interpreted broadly hereinafter, including the claims, to include any type of wireless or mobile communications device.
  • The base stations 105 may wirelessly communicate with the mobile devices 115 via a base station antenna. The base stations 105 may be configured to communicate with the mobile devices 115 under the control of the controller 120 via multiple carriers. Each of the base station 105 sites can provide communication coverage for a respective geographic area. In some embodiments, base stations 105 may be referred to as a NodeB, eNodeB, Home NodeB, and/or Home eNodeB. The coverage area for each base station 105 here is identified as 110-a, 110-b, or 110-c. The coverage area for a base station may be divided into sectors (not shown, but making up only a portion of the coverage area). The system 100 may include base stations 105 of different types (e.g., macro, micro, femto, and/or pico base stations). As used herein, the term “cell” may refer to 1) a sector, or 2) a site (e.g., a base station 105). Thus, the term “macrocell” may refer to 1) a macrocell sector, 2) a macrocell base station (e.g., macrocell base station 105), and/or 3) a macrocell controller. Thus, the term “femtocell” may refer to 1) a femtocell sector, or 2) a femtocell base station (e.g., femtocell access point).
  • For the discussion below, the mobile devices 115 may operate on (are “camped on”) a macro or similar network facilitated by multiple base stations 105. Each base station 105 may cover a relatively large geographic area (e.g., hundreds of meters to several kilometers in radius) and may allow unrestricted access by terminals with service subscription. A portion of the mobile devices 115 may also be registered to operate (or otherwise allowed to operate) in femtocell coverage area (e.g., communicating with femtocell base station 105, which may be referred to as a femtocell access point (FAP) in some cases), within the coverage area of a macrocell base station 105.
  • By way of example, the femtocell base station 105 may be implemented as a Home NodeB (“HNB”) or Home eNodeB (HeNB), and located in a user premises, such as a residence, an office building, etc. A macrocell base station may be implemented by a NodeB or eNodeB in some embodiments.
  • The different aspects of system 100, such as the mobile devices 115, the base stations 105, the core network 130, and/or the controller 120 may be configured to utilize fractional bandwidth and waveforms in accordance with various embodiments. System 100, for example, shows transmissions 125 between mobile devices 115 and base stations 115. The transmissions 125 may include uplink transmission, from a mobile device 115 to a base station 105, and/or downlink transmissions, from a base station 105 to a mobile device 115. The transmissions 125 may include fractional and/or normal waveforms. Normal waveforms may also be referred to as legacy and/or standard waveforms.
  • Different aspects of system 100 may utilize portions of spectrum that may not be big enough to fit a standard waveform. Devices such as the mobile devices 115, the base stations 105, the core network 130, and/or the controller 120 may be configured to utilize scaling factors to generate and/or utilize fractional bandwidth and/or waveforms. In some cases, these devices may generate fractional waveforms to fit these portions of spectrum that a normal, legacy, and/or standard waveform may not fit. Some aspects of system 100 may form a fractional subsystem (such as certain mobile devices 115 and/or base stations 105) that may be generated with respect to a normal subsystem (that may be implemented using other mobile devices 115 and/or base stations 105) through dilating, or scaling down, the time of the fractional subsystem with respect to the time of the normal subsystem. Scaling may also be applied to states and/or frequencies of the different subsystems. The timing and/or transmissions 125 for devices of the fractional subsystem (e.g., mobile devices 115 and/or base stations 105) may be aligned with timing and/or transmissions from other devices (e.g., mobile devices 115 and/or base stations 105) of a normal subsystem at different times and/or different frequencies. Scaling information may be utilized to perform measurements on the other subsystem, perform handoffs to the other subsystem, perform reselection, align, etc with respect to different aspects of system 100.
  • Different aspects of system 100 may utilize scaling factors in general to relate one or more aspects of one subsystem with one or more aspects of another subsystem within system 100. The subsystems may include fractional and/or normal subsystems. Some embodiments may utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to two or more subsystems. An underlying value of the scaled measurement unit with respect to the two or more subsystems may be related by the scaling factor.
  • As mentioned above, fractional subsystems may be utilized to generate fractional waveforms that occupy less bandwidth than a normal waveform. For example, at a band edge, there may not be enough available spectrum to place a normal waveform. For a fractional subsystem, as time gets dilated, the frequency occupied by a waveform goes down, thus making it possible to fit a fractional waveform into spectrum that may not be broad enough to fit a normal waveform. In some embodiments, fractional subsystems may also be utilized to generate additional PN offsets in order to provide additional base station identifiers. Scaling information may be utilized to perform measurements on the other subsystem, perform handoffs to the other subsystem, perform reselection, align, etc. FIG. 2A shows an example of a wireless communications system 200-a, which may be an example of system 100 of FIG. 1, with a base station 105-a and a mobile device 115-a, where a fractional waveform 210-a fits into a portion of spectrum not broad enough to fit a normal waveform, such as normal waveforms 215-a and/or 215-b. These waveforms may be part of one or more transmissions 125 as shown in FIG. 1, for example. FIG. 2B shows an example of a wireless communications system 200-b, which may be an example of system 100 of FIG. 1, with a base station 105-b and a mobile device 115-b, where a fractional waveform 210-b that may fit into a portion of spectrum near an edge of a band, which may be a guard band, where a normal waveform such as waveform 215-c may not fit. These waveforms may be part of one or more transmissions 125 as shown in FIG. 1, for example.
  • As discussed above, a fractional waveform may be a waveform that occupies less bandwidth than a normal waveform. Thus, in a fractional bandwidth system, the same number of symbols and bits may be transmitted over a longer duration compared to normal bandwidth system. This may result in time stretching, whereby slot duration, frame duration, etc., may increase by a scaling factor N. Scaling factor N may represent the ratio of the normal bandwidth to fractional bandwidth (BW). Thus, data rate in a fractional bandwidth system may equal (Normal Rate×1/N), and delay may equal (Normal Delay×N). In general, a fractional systems channel BW=channel BW of normal systems/N. Delay×BW may remain unchanged.
  • Some embodiments may utilize other scaling factors. For example, some embodiments may determine and/or generate dilated units D (which may be referred to as a dilated time unit) and/or reduced units R (which may be referred to as reduced frequency unit). Both the D and R unit may be unitless. Dilated unit D may have the value N. Time in the fractional system may be referred to in terms of “dilated time”. For example, a slot of say 10 ms in normal time may be 10 Dms in fractional time (note: even in normal time, this will hold true since N=1 in normal time: D has a value of 1, so 10 Dms=10 ms). In time scaling, some embodiments may replace most “seconds” with “dilated-seconds”. Some embodiments may utilize reduced unit R that may be equal to 1/N. For example, frequency may be RHz. Carrier frequency may not be scaled. For example, power control may be 800 RHz. Chip rate may be 1.2288 McpDs or 1.2288 MRHz (or RMHz), for example. Fractional subsystems may utilize dilated units D and/or reduced units R to represent and/or provide relationships between different aspects of different fractional and/or normal subsystems.
  • Throughout this specification, the term normal system, subsystem, and/or waveform may be utilized to refer to systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms that involve embodiments that may utilize a scaling factor that may be equal to one (e.g., N=1). These normal systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms may also be referred to as standard and/or legacy systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms. Furthermore, fractional systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms may be utilized to refer to systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms that involve embodiments that may utilize a scaling factor that may be not equal to one (e.g., N=2, 4, 8, ½, ¼, etc). For N>1, the bandwidth of a waveform may decrease. Some embodiments may utilize scaling factors that increase the bandwidth. For example, if N<1, then a waveform may be expanded to cover bandwidth larger than a standard waveform. Fractional systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms may also be referred to as flexible systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms in some cases. Fractional systems, subsystems, and/or waveforms may or may not change bandwidth, for example. A fractional system, subsystem, or waveform may be flexible because it may offer more possibilities than a normal system, subsystem, or waveform (e.g., N=1 system). Scaling factors may also take on irrational values in some cases. Scaling factors may also take on negative values in some situations.
  • Mobile devices and/or base stations, such as mobile devices 115 and/or base stations 105 of FIG. 1, FIG. 2A and/or FIG. 2B may be configured to operate in dual mode (normal and fractional). Upon receiving a request for service from a mobile device, for example, the base station may determine that the mobile device can use a fractional bandwidth waveform. The base station may send the center frequency and/or the scaling factor for the fractional bandwidth to the mobile device. The mobile device may tune to the new channel and utilize the scaling factor accordingly to receive service. The mobile device may configure itself to communicate on the fractional bandwidth channel. In some embodiments, a mobile device and/or base station may change the frequencies of the ADC clock 310, DAC clock 320, processing clock 330, and/or the offline clock 340 as shown in the system clocks regime 300 in FIG. 3 to utilize fractional bandwidth waveforms. System clocks regime 300 also shows an analog baseband module 350 in communication with the ADC clock and/or DAC clock 320. The analog baseband module 350 may be in communication with a baseband processing module 360 that may be in communication with the offline clock 340 and/or processing clock 330. These clocks 310-340 may control the block processing rate, interrupt rate, decimation rate, and/or interpolation rate, for example. In some embodiments, the offline clock 340 may not be changed. In some embodiments, the effective output of the ADC 310 and DAC 320 clocks may be changed by filtering and keeping the ADC clock 310 and DAC clock 320 the same. In some cases, the ADC clock 310 may be kept the same and decimate every other sample. For example, the DAC clock 320 may be kept the same and feed it 2 (e.g., repeated) of the same sample (maybe even filtered). This may have the same effect as slowing the clock down by 2 for an N=2 system. Some embodiments may not include an offline clock 340. Some implementations may include a processing clock 330. The processing clock 330 may not be in an offline mode. The processing clock 330 may be slowed down or not.
  • The base station may be simultaneously transmitting normal and fractional channels in some embodiments. Similarly, the mobile device may simultaneously transmit normal and fractional channels. The fractional channel may be generated by utilizing the scaling factor and could be of the same or different radio technology. Both channels may contain data and/or signaling. The signaling may be used to configure the mobile devices camped and/or attached to those channels. Signaling may also be used to manage the mobile device movement between the two channels.
  • The use of fractional bandwidth waveforms has many applications including, but not limited to, machine-to-machine, small cell deployment (Femto, Pico, Metro, etc.), roll out of 3G services over 2G spectrum (GSM re-framing), moderate data rate services, and/or voice services.
  • Merely by way of example, FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C show examples of scaling by means of filtering in accordance with various embodiments. Filtering can include a filter, decimation, average, etc. In FIG. 4A, a normal waveform 400-a (i.e., N=1) may be sampled at the normal rate. The sample points are shown in the filled dots. FIG. 4B shows a fractional waveform 400-b (N=2, e.g. chip length is twice as long). In FIG. 4B, the sample rate is half as in FIG. 4A. The sample points are shown in the filled dots. FIG. 4C is an embodiment of a fractional waveform 400-c where the sample rate is the same as see in FIG. 4A, the normal waveform. The filled dots are the same as in FIG. 4B. The open dots are filtered points (e.g., where the equivalent point does not exist in FIG. 4A).
  • The same concept can be applied to the received path. The counterpart would be where FIG. 4A is the sample points for a normal waveform. FIG. 4B may be the sample points for a fractional waveform. FIG. 4C is a sampled waveform for a fractional system with the sample rate as in FIG. 4A. The open dots can either be decimated or can be filtered (e.g., averaged) before being sent to the processing unit.
  • In some embodiments, states, frequencies, and/or times, for example, of the fractional subsystem may be scaled utilizing a scaling factor N. Scaling factor N may take on a variety of values including, but not limited to, integer values, rational values, and/or irrational values. In this way, states, times, frequencies, or other aspects can be calculated for a fractional subsystem from a normal subsystem and vice versa. Some embodiments may include multiple fractional subsystems. The states, times, frequencies, or other aspects of one fractional subsystem may be calculated from another fractional subsystem and vice versa. In effect, some embodiments may involve changing the sense of time in the fractional subsystem. Some embodiments may have no normal subsystem. Some embodiments may have multiple fractional subsystems. These subsystems may have a different scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, the sense of time may remain the same as that of the normal subsystem and only the code clock may be adjusted as a function of the scaling factor. In cdma2000, for example, the code clock is the combined state of the short code and the long code generators. The short code may be set to system time, measured in chips, modulo 215; the long code must be set to system time modulo 242−1. Setting the clock may include two steps. First, the remainders may be calculated after dividing the time by the two periods 215 and 242−1. These are the number of states that each generator may be offset from its zero reference state for the normal subsystem. Second, the generator state that corresponds to that number of states may be determined. The number of states that each generator may be offset from its reference state for the fractional subsystem may be obtained by further modifying by the scaling factor. In some embodiments, the state may be the frame number (e.g., SFN). The state may be a cycle number in some embodiments.
  • In some embodiments, the sense of time may be kept in the normal subsystem. The fractional and normal subsystems may be co-located. In some embodiments, the fractional subsystem may be a fractional channel that may be a co-channel to a normal channel. As viewed by the fractional subsystem, work done per time (e.g., fractional) has not changed. However, viewed from the normal subsystem, the fractional subsystem sense of time is progressing N times slower. Furthermore, viewed from the normal subsytem, some of the states of the fractional subsystem may be progressing N times slower or state is transitioning N times slower.
  • The normal subsystem and the fractional subsystem may be aligned (or can be offset by a known value) with respect to each other. The normal and fractional subsystems may be periodically realigned (once again there can be offset, the offset can be different). For example, the subsystems may be aligned every midnight of every day. In this system, a normal subsystem's day goes from midnight to midnight (the next day). An N=2 fractional subsystem may go from midnight to noon (=midnight the next day) in its dilated or fractional time. Other alignments may also be utilized. The subsystems may be aligned every midnight, January 1st of the year, for example. Also, some embodiments may choose one point to align and let both the fractional and normal subsystem precede from that moment. Two different fractional subsystems may also be aligned and/or offset with respect to each other.
  • Aligning the time allows for the calculation of time and the ability of one subsystem to know the state (e.g., PN state, PN rollover) and/or time (e.g., slot boundary, frame boundary, frame number) of the other subsystem. This information may also be utilized to perform re-selection, handoff, inter-carrier measurements, and/or frequency measurement procedures between the subsystems. Furthermore, since the scale of time in the fractional system is changed, the implementation and standard of the fractional subsystem will be very similar to the normal subsystem with the scaled version of time. Equally, the frequency occupied by the fractional subsystem can occupy less frequency vs. the normal subsystem. Embodiments work equally well scaled up (e.g., N<1) though the example is for N>1. N may take on integer, rational, and even irrational values in some embodiments.
  • The new sense of time can propagate to the rest of the wireless communications system. For example, higher on the stack can share this sense of time and can be used until the normal sense of time may be required. For example, the application layer can remain on normal time in a fractional system. It can request a QoS of say r bytes/second. That may map to a class in the MAC. In this example, the MAC will be in the fractional sense of time. A translator may translate the request from r bytes/second to r*N bytes/(Dilated second). In this example, since the MAC is in fractional sense of time (i.e., “relative time”), it may request r*N bytes/second, which is equal to r bytes/second in the normal sense of time. One way to look at that is that D=N, so r*N bytes/Ds=r bytes/s. The MAC can proceed to find this entry in its table per the standard or implementation and continue as it would in a normal subsystem.
  • Scaling in time to create fractional subsystems can be applied to CDMA systems (e.g., IS-95, CDMA2000, EV-DO, WCDMA, HSPA), TDMA systems (e.g., GSM, EDGE, GPRS), and/or OFDM systems (e.g., WiMax, LTE, LTE-A, 802.11a, etc).
  • In some embodiments, as time gets dilated (scaled down), the bandwidth occupied by the waveform goes down. The amount of scaling may be proportional. If N is used as the scaling ratio and W is the bandwidth of the signal, then N1W1 may equal N2W2.
  • In IS-95 family, the normal waveform may be N=1, W=1.23 MHz, for example. If one scales down by a factor of two (e.g. N=2), bandwidth may be W=1.23 MHz/2=615 kHz. If one scales down by a factor of four (e.g. N=4), bandwidth may be W=1.23 MHz/4=307.5 kHz.
  • While these examples are CDMA examples, the same technique can be made to work in OFDM, TDD, TDMA, etc. With respect to these other wireless access technologies, other factors may be considered in other technologies; in OFDM, for example, one can take back some of the cyclic prefix since guard time should not scale with N. In some cases, one may get more symbols in the slot. Furthermore, although shown with simple Ns, N can be any positive number including fractions, rational numbers, etc. N may also be negative in some cases, so that a state may go backwards, for example.
  • Embodiments may involve scaling the time from the normal system (N=1). The state and/or time of the fractional system may be scaled appropriately. In this way, the state (e.g. time) can be calculated for a fractional waveform from a normal/original waveform and vice versa. State and time can be related. For example, the chip sequence (e.g., long code, short code), time boundaries (e.g., slot timing, frame timing), numbering (e.g., slot number, system frame number (SFN)) may be deduced if we know the state/time of the system. The state and/or time of the system may be useful to camp/communicate with the system. For example, if one wants to reselect from an N=1 system to an N=2 system, knowing the state/timing may allow the terminal to more easily find the N=2 system (e.g., one may know a priori where the peaks of the new system may be).
  • Some embodiments may involve setting what time the normal and fractional will be aligned (or offset by a known value). In some cases, the time where normal and “fractional” will be aligned again (can be offset, the offset can be different) may also be set. For example, some embodiments may choose to be aligned every midnight of every day. In this system, a normal system's day may go from midnight to midnight (the next day). An N=2 fractional system may go from midnight to noon (=midnight the next day). An N=4 fractional system will go from midnight to 6 am (=midnight the next day). (Note: the length of the day is shorter in a fractional system and can be known a priori).
  • Some embodiments may involve other alignments. For example, some embodiments may choose to align every Midnight, January 1st. In this case, normal system may go from Midnight, January 1st in the first year to January 1st, Midnight, of the next year. N=2 system may go (assuming non-leap year) January 1st at Midnight to 182 days (July 1st) at Noon. N=4 system may go (assuming non-leap year) to 91st day (April 1st) at 6 am.
  • Some embodiments may align at fixed time (with or without offset) (e.g., Jan. 6, 1980) and progress on N=1 and N=2 system. In many systems, leap year may or may not be taken into consideration for time scaling.
  • The time offset and alignments do not have to be the same for the entire system. It just needs to be known. For example, in WCDMA, it may be easier to have the alignment only for the co-located WCDMA carriers. The current offset can be communicated to the other parties (terminal or base station). Offsets can also be used to generate more effective cell IDs in time aligned systems. In some cases, it may be useful for non co-located fractional sites (e.g., offsets can be very small (e.g., chips) or large (e.g., days)). For example, cell ids can be PN offsets. Cells may be identified as a sequence of codes or state of that code at a particular time.
  • Since time/state of the normal system can be calculated from fractional (and vice versa, or one fractional to another fractional), base stations and/or terminals can know state in the other system. This information can be used in re-selection, handoff, inter-carrier/freq measurement, etc. An example of state is the PN state/offset. This may result in a PN state/offset change in the fractional system at the alignment time. This can be treated as an implicit handoff. Also, this may result in a jump in time in the fractional system. The jump in time in a fractional system may also come when alignment is done on a periodic basis (e.g., every midnight, every week, January 1st every year, etc.).
  • FIG. 5A shows examples of PN states for various values of N. In FIG. 5A, PN roll for the same offset are considered for N=1 system 500-a, N=2 system 500-b, N=3 system 500-c, and N=4 system 500-d as seen from an N=1 system. Four reference points 501-a, 502-a, 503-a, and 504-a on the PN circle for N=1 are considered and they correspond to different locations in the PN circle for N=2 system (501-b, 502-b, 503-b, and 504-b), N=3 system (501-c, 502-c, 503-c, and 504-c), N=4 system (501-d, 502-d, 503-d, and 504-d) as clocks are running “slower” in N>1 systems as seen by an observer in N=1 system. The clocks may run at the “correct” speed in their relative worlds. As seen from FIG. 5, if the times are reset at any point of PN roll for a fractional system, there could be a “jump” in the PN state and/or offset and also in the time depending on the location of the reference points in the PN circle. This change in PN offset during time alignment could be treated as an implicit handoff, as to a mobile device, it could appear as handoff from one PN offset to another (same frequency, same N).
  • Merely by way of example, FIG. 5B shows an example of a system 550 with an N=2 system 560 that may jump from a3 561 to a5 562 when the time alignment happens between an N=1 system 570 and the N=2 system 560 within a roll of the PN code. It is to be noted that this may be applicable for both the long and short PN codes. As the PN offset may be related to the short PN code, the following may be described in the context of short PN code. Thus for the same N (i.e., N=2), same carrier frequency, same sector, the PN offset changes as seen by the mobile and this may be equivalent to an “implicit” handoff as seen by the mobile device. In some embodiments, the base station for N=2 system 560 may direct the mobile device to handoff to the new PN offset after time alignment instant(s). In another embodiment, the mobile device may calculate on its own the PN offset change from the knowledge of time alignment instants and the PN state of N=2 system 560 before the time alignment. In yet another embodiment, the base station and mobile device together can determine the PN offset state change.
  • It is to be noted that for values of N that may be multiplied by the PN roll time for a normal system that may divide the difference in two subsequent alignment times exactly without leaving a remainder, there may be no PN state change as the time alignment also aligns with the PN roll start. As the PN roll time for an N>1 system is N times the PN roll time for an N=1 system, this may imply that for N>1 systems, if the PN roll time for N>1 system divides the difference in two subsequent alignment times exactly without leaving a remainder, there may be no PN state change as the time alignment also aligns with the PN roll start. Thus, there may be a jump in time but no jump in PN state. As noted earlier, the above may be applicable for both short and long PN codes.
  • For example, there may be no PN state change and hence no PN offset change if the time alignment also aligns with the short PN roll start of the N>1 system (i.e., the delta between the successive time alignments may be exactly divisible by N*26.667 ms). If not, then there may be a PN state change and consequently PN offset change.
  • FIG. 6A shows one example of a possible alignment 600-a between a normal subsystem 601-a (N=1) and fractional subsystems 602-a (N=2) and 604-a (N=4). This example illustrates a case where time is aligned at Time T=TS 610-a. At Normal (N=1) time T=TS+T1 621-a, it corresponds to TS+T1/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=TS+T1/2 622-a; for N=4, T=TS+T1/4 624-a). At Normal (N=1) time T=TS+TE 631-a, it corresponds to TS+TE/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=TS+TE/2 632-a; for N=4, T=TS+TE/4 634-a). Other alignments are possible. An end alignment 600-b between a normal subsystem 601-b (N=1) and fractional subsystems 602-b (N=2) and 604-b (N=4) is possible as shown in FIG. 6B. This example illustrates a case where time is aligned at Time T=TS+TE 610-b. At Normal (N=1) time T=TS+T1 621-b, it corresponds to T=(N−1)(TS+TE)/N+T1/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=(TS+TE+T1)/2 622-b; for N=4, T=(3TS+3TE+T1)/4 624-b). At Normal (N=1) time T=TS 631-b, it corresponds to (N−1)(TS+TE)/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=(TS+TE)/2 632-b; for N=4, T=3(TS+TE)/4 634-b). A middle alignment 600-c between a normal subsystem 601-c (N=1) and a fractional subsystems 602-c (N=2) and 604-c (N=4) is possible as shown in FIG. 6C. A middle alignment at T=TA 610-c may have the smallest max time difference for the different Ns. At Normal (N=1) time T=TS 621-c, it corresponds to T=TS+(N−1)(TA−TS)/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=(TA+TS)/2 622-c; for N=4, T=(TA+TS)/4 624-c). At Normal (N=1) time T=TA−T1 631-c, it corresponds to T=TA−T1/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=TA−T1/2 632-c; for N=4, T=TA−T1/4 634-c). At Normal (N=1) time T=TA+T2 641-c, it corresponds to T=TA+T2/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=TA+T2/2 642-c; for N=4, T=TA+T2/4 644-c). At Normal (N=1) time T=TA+TE 651-c, it corresponds to T=TA+TE/N in the fractional relative time (i.e., for N=2, T=TA+TE/2 652-c; for N=4, T=TA+TE/4 654-c).
  • Some embodiments may have other offsets, even different offsets for different Ns. Some embodiments may have offsets that change with time. Some embodiments may have N change over time. In some embodiments, the system(s) may know exactly what the time for any N will be relative to any other N (e.g., N=1).
  • There are multiple choices to report time. For example, as shown in FIG. 6A, at normal time of TS+T1, the N=1 system can be TS+T1. The N=2 system may report TS+T1 in one embodiment (e.g., absolute time). The N=2 system may report TS+T1/2 in another embodiment (e.g., relative time).
  • An example of the time report is the sync channel message. There may be an advantage to reporting relative and absolute time. For example, with respect to absolute time, the time may be closer to absolute time. However, the current message resolution may not allow an accurate time with some Ns (e.g., not enough resolution). With respect to relative time, systems may accurately report time, without the need to change message structure. However, a terminal may have to translate to absolute time for both the UI and have to translate in preparation for reselection to different Ns.
  • FIGS. 7A, 7B, and 7C show examples of different alignment time configurations 700-a, 700-b, and 700-c, respectively. Alignment points can be different. Alignment points may occur once and let free run. Alignments points may be less frequent (e.g., year). Alignment points may occur more frequently (e.g., day, hourly). For example, configuration 700-a shows an N=1 system 701-a and an N=2 system 702-a with one alignment point. Configuration 700-b shows an N=1 system 701-b and an N=2 system 702-b with five alignment points. Configuration 700-c shows an N=1 system 701-c and an N=2 system 702-c with twelve alignment points.
  • FIG. 8 shows an example of a system 800 moving between different scaling factor Ns, or moving between different fractional systems. In this example, time is aligned at T=0 810. The example starts in N=4 system 804 at T=0. At relative time T=T1/4 824 (absolute time T1 821), move to N=2 system 802. In N=2, the relative time is T=T1/2 822. At relative time T2/2 832, move to N=1 system 801. That corresponds to absolute time T=T2 831.
  • Embodiments may provide different applications. For example, some embodiments can align the offset, so as to assist in changing of N over time or movement of terminals. For example, if a system wants to move many of the terminals from one carrier to another with different N at say 5 pm (normal time), the system could have the other fractions offset, so that its relative time is 5 pm also. This may make the handoff/reselection easier since there is no time change. Some embodiments may align the offset to a small time change on the order of several chips. This may effectively allow for additional BS offsets. This may be useful for a large number of smaller cells. This may make cell planning easier.
  • Some embodiments may utilize the following terminology. A new unit D may be utilized. The unit D is dilated. The unit is unitless and has the value of N. One can talk about time in the fractional system in terms of “dilated time”. For example, a slot of say 10 ms in normal time may be represented as 10 Dms in fractional time (note: even in normal time, this will hold true since N=1 in normal time: D has a value of 1, so 10 Dms=10 ms). In time scaling, one can replace most “seconds” with “dilated-seconds”. Note frequency in Hertz is 1/s.
  • Some embodiments may utilize another new unit R (reduced) that is unitless and equal to 1/N. For example, frequency may be RHz. Carrier frequency may not be scaled. For example, power control may be 800 RHz. Chip rate may be 1.2288 McpDs or 1.2288 MRHz (or RMHz), for example.
  • With terminology, one can quickly discern what scales and what does not scale in the fractional time system vis-à-vis a normal (e.g., full) system. This nomenclature may also be put on the time. For example, in 3:00 Dam (in N=4 system)=Noon (in N=1 system) where time is aligned every midnight. However, one may have to align to zero/aligned time to do this.
  • Turning next to FIG. 9, a block diagram illustrates a device 900 that includes scaling factor functionality. The device 900 may be an example of the mobile device 115 described with reference to FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 10, FIG. 11, and/or FIG. 12, and/or may be a device integrating the fractional bandwidth functionality (e.g., base stations 105 described with reference to FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11, and/or FIG. 12). The device 900 may also be a processor. The device 900 may include a receiver module 905, a scaling module 910, a fractional subsystem module 915, and/or a transmitter module 920. Each of these components may be in communication with each other.
  • These components of the device 900 may, individually or collectively, be implemented with one or more application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) adapted to perform some or all of the applicable functions in hardware. Alternatively, the functions may be performed by one or more other processing units (or cores), on one or more integrated circuits. In other embodiments, other types of integrated circuits may be used (e.g., Structured/Platform ASICs, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and other Semi-Custom ICs), which may be programmed in any manner known in the art. The functions of each unit may also be implemented, in whole or in part, with instructions embodied in a memory, formatted to be executed by one or more general or application-specific processors.
  • The receiver module 905 may receive information such as packet, data, and/or signaling information regarding what device 900 has received or transmitted. The received information may be utilized by the scaling module 910 and/or fractional subsystem module 915 for a variety of purposes.
  • Device 900 and its modules 905, 910, 915, and/or 920 may be configured in some embodiments for wireless communication utilizing scaling factors. In some embodiments, device 900 and its modules 905, 910, 915, and/or 920 may be configured for wireless communication utilizing fractional bandwidth. For example, device 900 may be configured to utilize scaling factors for a wireless communications system. Scaling module 910 may identify a first subsystem and a second subsystem of the wireless communications system. Scaling module 910 may determine a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem. Scaling module 910 may relate one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • For example, device 900 may be configured to generate fractional subsystems for a wireless communications system in accordance with various embodiments. Fractional subsystem module 915 may identify a first subsystem within the wireless communications system. The scaling module 910 may determine a time scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem. The fractional subsystem module 915 may generate a second subsystem within the wireless communication system. The second subsystem may include a first fractional subsystem. Aspects of the first subsystem may be related to aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a time scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a state scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor may be a frequency scaling factor. The scaling factor may be referred to as the N, D, and/or R scaling factor in some specific embodiments. For example, some embodiments may utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem. An underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem may be related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit, such as Dms, or a reduced frequency unit, such as RHz. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless, such as D and/or R. In some cases, a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 may be further configured to identify a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum. The fractional subsystem 915 may then generate a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor. The first fractional waveform bandwidth of the second subsystem may fit within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • The scaling module and/or the fractional subsystem module 915 may implement scaling factors utilizing a variety of processes including, but not limited to, filtering, averaging, decimating.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 and/or the scaling module 910 may be further configured to determine at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the time scaling factor and at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. The fractional subsystem module 915 may be further configured to perform a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 and/or the scaling module 910 may be further configured to align the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time. Aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem may be done multiple times including on a periodic basis.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 and/or the scaling module 910 may be further configured to align a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem. The time alignment may result in no state change. In some embodiments, the time alignment may result in a state change. The state may refer to a state of a short PN code or a long PN code. The state change may result in a PN offset change. In some embodiments, the state change may be a short PN code state change. The PN offset change may be equivalent to an implicit handoff to a mobile device. The PN offset change may be determined by a mobile device on its own from at least knowledge of one or more time alignment instants, a state before the alignment, or the scaling factor in some embodiments. The PN offset change may be communicated to the mobile device from at least a base station or a core network. In some embodiments, the PN offset change may be determined jointly by at least the mobile device and at least a base station or a core network.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 and/or the scaling module 910 may be further configured to offset the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value. The fractional subsystem module 915 may be further configured to determine a state identifying a first base station and/or combine the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate a new base station identifier. The state may be a PN state or a time in some embodiments. Offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem may utilize a second offset value different from the first offset value.
  • The fractional subsystem module 915 and/or the scaling module 910 may be further configured to utilize at least the determined time, the determined duration of time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the duration of time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure. The fractional subsystem module 915 may be further configured to determine at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem utilizing scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is a normal subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is another fractional subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located.
  • Scaling module 910 may also be configured in some embodiments to determine and/or generate dilated units D (which may be referred to as a dilated time unit) and/or reduced units R (which may be referred to as a reduced frequency unit). Both the D and R unit may be unitless. Dilated unit D may have the value N. Time in the fractional system may be referred to in terms of “dilated time”. For example, a slot of say 10 ms in normal time may be 10 Dms in fractional time (note: even in normal time, this will hold true since N=1 in normal time: D has a value of 1, so 10 Dms=10 ms). In time scaling, some embodiments may replace most “seconds” with “dilated-seconds”. Some embodiments may utilize reduced unit R that may be equal to 1/N. For example, frequency may be RHz. Carrier frequency may not be scaled. For example, power control may be 800 RHz. Chip rate may be 1.2288 McpDs or 1.2288 MRHz (or RMHz), for example. Fractional subsystem module 915 may utilize dilated units D and/or reduced units R to represent and/or provide relationships between different aspects of different fractional and/or normal subsystems.
  • The scaling module 910 may determine scaling factors that may include integer values, rational values, and/or irrational values.
  • FIG. 10 is a block diagram 1000 of a mobile device 115-c configured to utilize scaling factors and/or fractional bandwidth in accordance with various embodiments. The mobile device 115-c may have any of various configurations, such as personal computers (e.g., laptop computers, netbook computers, tablet computers, etc.), cellular telephones, PDAs, digital video recorders (DVRs), internet appliances, gaming consoles, e-readers, etc. The mobile device 115-c may have an internal power supply (not shown), such as a small battery, to facilitate mobile operation. In some embodiments, the mobile device 115-c may be the mobile device 115 of FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11, and/or FIG. 12 and/or the device 900 of FIG. 9. The mobile device 115-c may be a multi-mode mobile device. The mobile device 115-c may be referred to as a wireless communications device in some cases.
  • The mobile device 115-c may include antennas 1040, a transceiver module 1050, memory 1080, and a processor module 1070, which each may be in communication, directly or indirectly, with each other (e.g., via one or more buses). The transceiver module 1050 is configured to communicate bi-directionally, via the antennas 1040 and/or one or more wired or wireless links, with one or more networks, as described above. For example, the transceiver module 1050 may be configured to communicate bi-directionally with base stations 105 of FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11, and/or FIG. 12. The transceiver module 1050 may include a modem configured to modulate the packets and provide the modulated packets to the antennas 1040 for transmission, and to demodulate packets received from the antennas 1040. While the mobile device 115-c may include a single antenna, the mobile device 115-c may typically include multiple antennas 1040 for multiple links.
  • The memory 1080 may include random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). The memory 1080 may store computer-readable, computer-executable software code 1085 containing instructions that are configured to, when executed, cause the processor module 1070 to perform various functions described herein (e.g., call processing, database management, message routing, etc.). Alternatively, the software 1085 may not be directly executable by the processor module 1070 but be configured to cause the computer (e.g., when compiled and executed) to perform functions described herein.
  • The processor module 1070 may include an intelligent hardware device, e.g., a central processing unit (CPU) such as those made by Intel® Corporation or AMD®, a microcontroller, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), etc. The processor module 1070 may include a speech encoder (not shown) configured to receive audio via a microphone, convert the audio into packets (e.g., 30 ms in length) representative of the received audio, provide the audio packets to the transceiver module 1050, and provide indications of whether a user is speaking. Alternatively, an encoder may only provide packets to the transceiver module 1050, with the provision or withholding/suppression of the packet itself providing the indication of whether a user is speaking.
  • According to the architecture of FIG. 10, the mobile device 115-c may further include a communications management module 1060. The communications management module 1060 may manage communications with other mobile devices 115. By way of example, the communications management module 1060 may be a component of the mobile device 115-c in communication with some or all of the other components of the mobile device 115-c via a bus. Alternatively, functionality of the communications management module 1060 may be implemented as a component of the transceiver module 1050, as a computer program product, and/or as one or more controller elements of the processor module 1070.
  • The components for mobile device 115-c may be configured to implement aspects discussed above with respect to device 900 in FIG. 9 and may not be repeated here for the sake of brevity. For example, the scale module 910-a may be the scaling module 910 of FIG. 9. The fractional subsystem module 915-a may be the fractional subsystem module 915 of FIG. 9.
  • The mobile device 115-c may also include a spectrum identification module 1015. The spectrum identification module 1015 may be utilized to identify spectrum available for fractional waveforms. In some embodiments, a handover module 1025 may be utilized to perform handover procedures of the mobile device 115-c from one base station to another. For example, the handover module 1025 may perform a handover procedure of the mobile device 115-c from one base station to another where normal waveforms are utilized between the mobile device 115-c and one of the base stations and fractional waveforms are utilized between the mobile device and another base station. An alignment module 1010 may be configured to perform alignments and/or offsets between normal and/or fractional systems.
  • In some embodiments, the transceiver module 1050, in conjunction with antennas 1040 along with other possible components of mobile device 115-c, may transmit information regarding fractional waveforms and/or scaling factors from the mobile device 115-c to base stations or a core network. In some embodiments, the transceiver module 1050 in conjunction with antennas 1040 along with other possible components of mobile device 115-c may transmit information, such fractional waveforms and/or scaling factors, to base stations or a core network such that these devices or systems may utilize fractional waveforms.
  • FIG. 11 shows a block diagram of a communications system 1100 that may be configured for utilizing scaling factors and/or fractional waveforms in accordance with various embodiments. This system 1100 may be an example of aspects of the system 100 depicted in FIG. 1, system 200-a of FIG. 2A, system 200-b of FIG. 2B, and/or system 1200 of FIG. 12. The base station 105-c may include antennas 1145, a transceiver module 1150, memory 1170, and a processor module 1165, which each may be in communication, directly or indirectly, with each other (e.g., over one or more buses). The transceiver module 1150 may be configured to communicate bi-directionally, via the antennas 1145, with the mobile device 115-d, which may be a multi-mode mobile device. The transceiver module 1150 (and/or other components of the base station 105-c) may also be configured to communicate bi-directionally with one or more networks. In some cases, the base station 105-c may communicate with the network 130-a and/or controller 120-a through network communications module 1175. Base station 105-c may be an example of an eNodeB base station, a Home eNodeB base station, a NodeB base station, and/or a Home NodeB base station. Controller 120-a may be integrated into base station 105-c in some cases, such as with an eNodeB base station.
  • Base station 105-c may also communicate with other base stations 105, such as base station 105-m and base station 105-n. Each of the base stations 105 may communicate with mobile device 115-d using different wireless communications technologies, such as different Radio Access Technologies. In some cases, base station 105-c may communicate with other base stations such as 105-m and/or 105-n utilizing base station communication module 1115. In some embodiments, base station communication module 1115 may provide an X2 interface within an LTE wireless communication technology to provide communication between some of the base stations 105. In some embodiments, base station 105-c may communicate with other base stations through controller 120-a and/or network 130-a.
  • The memory 1170 may include random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). The memory 1170 may also store computer-readable, computer-executable software code 1171 containing instructions that are configured to, when executed, cause the processor module 1165 to perform various functions described herein (e.g., call processing, database management, message routing, etc.). Alternatively, the software 1171 may not be directly executable by the processor module 1165 but be configured to cause the computer, e.g., when compiled and executed, to perform functions described herein.
  • The processor module 1165 may include an intelligent hardware device, e.g., a central processing unit (CPU) such as those made by Intel® Corporation or AMD®, a microcontroller, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), etc. The processor module 1165 may include a speech encoder (not shown) configured to receive audio via a microphone, convert the audio into packets (e.g., 30 ms in length) representative of the received audio, provide the audio packets to the transceiver module 1150, and provide indications of whether a user is speaking. Alternatively, an encoder may only provide packets to the transceiver module 1150, with the provision or withholding/suppression of the packet itself providing the indication of whether a user is speaking.
  • The transceiver module 1150 may include a modem configured to modulate the packets and provide the modulated packets to the antennas 1145 for transmission, and to demodulate packets received from the antennas 1145. While some examples of the base station 105-c may include a single antenna 1145, the base station 105-c preferably includes multiple antennas 1145 for multiple links which may support carrier aggregation. For example, one or more links may be used to support macro communications with mobile device 115-d.
  • According to the architecture of FIG. 11, the base station 105-c may further include a communications management module 1130. The communications management module 1130 may manage communications with other base stations 105. By way of example, the communications management module 1130 may be a component of the base station 105-c in communication with some or all of the other components of the base station 105-c via a bus. Alternatively, functionality of the communications management module 1130 may be implemented as a component of the transceiver module 1150, as a computer program product, and/or as one or more controller elements of the processor module 1165.
  • The components for base station 105-c may be configured to implement aspects discussed above with respect to device 900 in FIG. 9 and may not be repeated here for the sake of brevity. For example, the scale module 910-b may be the scaling module 910 of FIG. 9. The fractional subsystem module 915-b may be the fractional subsystem module 915 of FIG. 9.
  • The base station 105-c may also include a spectrum identification module 1110. The spectrum identification module 1110 may be utilized to identify spectrum available for fractional waveforms. In some embodiments, a handover module 1125 may be utilized to perform handover procedures of the mobile device 115-c from one base station 105 to another. For example, the handover module 1125 may perform a handover procedure of the mobile device 115-d from base station 105-c to another where normal waveforms are utilized between the mobile device 115-d and one of the base stations and fractional waveforms are utilized between the mobile device and another base station. An alignment module 1105 may be configured to perform alignments and/or offsets between normal and/or fractional systems.
  • In some embodiments, the transceiver module 1150 in conjunction with antennas 1145, along with other possible components of base station 105-c, may transmit information regarding fractional waveforms and/or scaling factors from the base station 105-c to the mobile device 115-d, to other base stations 105-m/105-n, or core network 130-a. In some embodiments, the transceiver module 1150 in conjunction with antennas 1145, along with other possible components of base station 105-c, may transmit information to the mobile device 115-d, to other base stations 105-m/105-n, or core network 130-a, such as fractional waveforms and/or scaling factors, such that these devices or systems may utilize fractional waveforms.
  • FIG. 12 is a block diagram of a system 1200 including a base station 105-d and a mobile device 115-e in accordance with various embodiments. This system 1200 may be an example of the system 100 of FIG. 1, the system 200 of FIGS. 2A and/or 2B, and/or the system 1100 of FIG. 11. The base station 105-d may be equipped with antennas 1234-a through 1234-x, and the mobile device 115-e may be equipped with antennas 1252-a through 1252-n. At the base station 105-d, a transmit processor 1220 may receive data from a data source.
  • The transmit processor 1220 may process the data. The transmit processor 1220 may also generate reference symbols, and a cell-specific reference signal. A transmit (TX) MIMO processor 1230 may perform spatial processing (e.g., precoding) on data symbols, control symbols, and/or reference symbols, if applicable, and may provide output symbol streams to the transmit modulators 1232-a through 1232-x. Each modulator 1232 may process a respective output symbol stream (e.g., for OFDM, etc.) to obtain an output sample stream. Each modulator 1232 may further process (e.g., convert to analog, amplify, filter, and upconvert) the output sample stream to obtain a downlink (DL) signal. In one example, DL signals from modulators 1232-a through 1232-x may be transmitted via the antennas 1234-a through 1234-x, respectively. The transmitter processor 1220 may receive information from a fractional bandwidth module 1240. The fractional bandwidth module 1240 may be configured to generate fractional waveforms through utilizing a scaling factor. The fractional bandwidth module 1240 may also provide for different alignment and/or offsetting procedures. The fractional bandwidth module 1240 may also utilize scaling information to perform measurements on the other subsystems, perform handoffs to the other subsystems, perform reselection, etc. In some embodiments, the fractional bandwidth module 1240 may be implemented as part of a general processor, the transmitter processor 1220, and/or the receiver processor 1238. The transmitter processor 1220 may be configured to utilize scaling factors to relate one or more aspects of one subsystem with one or more aspects of another subsystem within system 1200.
  • At the mobile device 115-e, the mobile device antennas 1252-a through 1252-n may receive the DL signals from the base station 105-d and may provide the received signals to the demodulators 1254-a through 1254-n, respectively. Each demodulator 1254 may condition (e.g., filter, amplify, downconvert, and digitize) a respective received signal to obtain input samples. Each demodulator 1254 may further process the input samples (e.g., for OFDM, etc.) to obtain received symbols. A MIMO detector 1256 may obtain received symbols from all the demodulators 1254-a through 1254-n, perform MIMO detection on the received symbols if applicable, and provide detected symbols. A receiver processor 1258 may process (e.g., demodulate, deinterleave, and decode) the detected symbols, providing decoded data for the mobile device 115-e to a data output, and provide decoded control information to a processor 1280, or memory 1282.
  • On the uplink (UL), at the mobile device 115-e, a transmit processor 1264 may receive and process data from a data source. The transmit processor 1264 may also generate reference symbols for a reference signal. The symbols from the transmit processor 1264 may be precoded by a transmit MIMO processor 1266 if applicable, further processed by the demodulators 1254-a through 1254-n (e.g., for SC-FDMA, etc.), and be transmitted to the base station 105-d in accordance with the transmission parameters received from the base station 105-d. The transmitter processor 1264 may be configured to utilize scaling factors to relate one or more aspects of one subsystem with one or more aspects of another subsystem within system 1200. The transmitter processor 1264 may also be configured to generate fractional waveforms through utilizing a scaling factor. The transmitter processor 1264 may receive information from fractional bandwidth module 1280. The fractional bandwidth module 1280 may provide for different alignment and/or offsetting procedures. The fractional bandwidth module 1280 may also utilize scaling information to perform measurements on the other subsystems, perform handoffs to the other subsystems, perform reselection, etc. At the base station 105-d, the UL signals from the mobile device 115-e may be received by the antennas 1234, processed by the demodulators 1232, detected by a MIMO detector 1236, if applicable, and further processed by a receive processor. The receive processor 1238 may provide decoded data to a data output and to the fractional bandwidth module 1280. In some embodiments, the fractional bandwidth module 1280 may be implemented as part of a general processor, the transmitter processor 1264, and/or the receiver processor 1258.
  • Turning to FIG. 13, a flow diagram of a method 1300 for utilizing scaling factors for a wireless communications system is provided. Method 1300 may be implemented utilizing various wireless communications devices including, but not limited to: a mobile device 115 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 10, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a base station 105 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a core network 130 or controller 120 as seen in FIG. 1 and/or FIG. 11; and/or a device 600 of FIG. 6 and/or device 900 of FIG. 9.
  • At block 1305, a first subsystem may be identified within the wireless communications system. A second subsystem within the wireless communications system may be identified at block 1310. A scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem may be determined at 1315. At block 1320, one or more aspects of the first subsystem may be related with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • The first subsystem and/or the second subsystem may be fractional subsystems. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a time scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a state scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a frequency scaling factor. The scaling factor may be referred to as the N, D, and/or R scaling factor in some specific embodiments. For example, some embodiments may utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem. An underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem may be related by the scaling factor. The scaled measurement unit may be at least a dilated time unit, such as Dms, or a reduced frequency unit, such as RHz. The scaled measurement unit may be unitless, such as D and/or R. In some cases, a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
  • In some embodiments, method 1300 may further include identifying a portion of spectrum where a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum. A first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system may be generated utilizing the scaling factor. The first fractional waveform of the second subsystem may fit within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
  • Method 1300 may implement the scaling factoring utilizing a variety of processes including, but not limited to, a filtering process, an averaging process, and/or a decimating process.
  • In some embodiments, relating the one or more aspects of the first system with the one or more aspects of the second system of method 1300 may include determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem. A handover may be performed from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
  • In some embodiments, method 1300 may further include aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time. In some embodiments, method 1300 may further include offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value. A state identifying a first base station may be determined. The offset value of the second subsystem and the state may be combined to generate a new base station identifier. The state may be a PN state or a time in some embodiments.
  • Some embodiments may include utilizing at least the determined time, the determined duration of time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the duration of time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure. Some embodiments may include determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, a duration of time, or a state of the second subsystem or vice versa.
  • In some embodiments, aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem may occur on a periodic basis. In some embodiments, offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem may utilize a second offset value different from the first offset value.
  • Some embodiments of method 1300 may further include aligning a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem. The time alignment may result in no state change. In some embodiments, the time alignment may result in a state change. The state may refer to a state of a short PN code or a long PN code. The state change may result in a PN offset change. In some embodiments, the state change may be a short PN code state change. The PN offset change may be equivalent to an implicit handoff to a mobile device. The PN offset change may be determined by a mobile device on its own from at least knowledge of one or more time alignment instants, a state before the alignment, or the scaling factor in some embodiments. The PN offset change may be communicated to the mobile device from at least a base station or a core network. In some embodiments, the PN offset change may be determined jointly by at least the mobile device and at least a base station or a core network.
  • In some embodiments, the scaling factor may include an integer value, a rational value, or an irrational value. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is a normal subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is another fractional subsystem. In some embodiments, the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located. In some embodiments, method 1300 may be implemented at a base station and/or a mobile device. In some embodiments, the first subsystem is a second fractional subsystem.
  • Turning to FIG. 14, a flow diagram of a method 1400 for generating fractional subsystems for a wireless communications system is provided. Method 1400 may be implemented utilizing various wireless communications devices including, but not limited to: a mobile device 115 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 10, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a base station 105 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a core network 140 or controller 120 as seen in FIG. 1 and/or FIG. 11; and/or a device 600 of FIG. 6 and/or device 900 of FIG. 9. Method 1400 may implement one or more aspects of method 1300 FIG. 13.
  • At block 1405, a first subsystem may be identified within the wireless communications system. A scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem may be determined at 1410. A second subsystem may be generated within the wireless communications system at block 1415. The second subsystem may include a first fractional subsystem where the first subsystem is related to the second subsystem using the scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a time-scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a state-scaling factor. In some embodiments, the scaling factor is a frequency-scaling factor. The scaling factor may be referred to as the N, D, and/or R scaling factor in some specific embodiments.
  • Turning to FIG. 15, a flow diagram of a method 1500 for generating fractional subsystems for a wireless communications system is provided. Method 1500 may be implemented utilizing various wireless communications devices including, but not limited to: a mobile device 115 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 10, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a base station 105 as seen in FIG. 1, FIG. 2A, FIG. 2B, FIG. 11 and/or FIG. 12; a core network 130 or controller 120 as seen in FIG. 1 and/or FIG. 11; and/or a device 600 of FIG. 6 and/or device 900 of FIG. 9. Method 1500 may implement one or more aspects of method 1300 of FIG. 13 and/or method 1400 of FIG. 14.
  • At block 1505, a portion of spectrum may be identified where a first waveform bandwidth of a first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum. At block 1510, a scaling factor to generate a first fractional waveform such that the first fractional waveform fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum may be determined. At block 1515, a second subsystem may be generated within a wireless communications system. The second subsystem may include a first fractional subsystem. The first subsystem may be related to the second subsystem using the scaling factor. At block 1520, a handover may be performed from the first subsystem to the second subsystem. The first fractional waveform may be transmitted at block 1525 over the second subsystem.
  • The detailed description set forth above in connection with the appended drawings describes exemplary embodiments and does not represent the only embodiments that may be implemented or that are within the scope of the claims. The term “exemplary” used throughout this description means “serving as an example, instance, or illustration,” and not “preferred” or “advantageous over other embodiments.” The detailed description includes specific details for the purpose of providing an understanding of the described techniques. These techniques, however, may be practiced without these specific details. In some instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to avoid obscuring the concepts of the described embodiments.
  • Information and signals may be represented using any of a variety of different technologies and techniques. For example, data, instructions, commands, information, signals, bits, symbols, and chips that may be referenced throughout the above description may be represented by voltages, currents, electromagnetic waves, magnetic fields or particles, optical fields or particles, or any combination thereof.
  • The various illustrative blocks and modules described in connection with the disclosure herein may be implemented or performed with a general-purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. A general-purpose processor may be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor may be any conventional processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine. A processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing devices, e.g., a combination of a DSP and a microprocessor, multiple microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such configuration.
  • The functions described herein may be implemented in hardware, software executed by a processor, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software executed by a processor, the functions may be stored on, or transmitted over, as one or more instructions or code on a computer-readable medium. Other examples and implementations are within the scope and spirit of the disclosure and appended claims. For example, due to the nature of software, functions described above can be implemented using software executed by a processor, hardware, firmware, hardwiring, or combinations of any of these. Features implementing functions may also be physically located at various positions, including being distributed such that portions of functions are implemented at different physical locations. Also, as used herein, including in the claims, “or” as used in a list of items prefaced by “at least one of” indicates a disjunctive list such that, for example, a list of “at least one of A, B, or C” means A or B or C or AB or AC or BC or ABC (i.e., A and B and C).
  • Computer-readable media includes both computer storage media and communication media including any medium that facilitates transfer of a computer program from one place to another. A storage medium may be any available medium that can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer. By way of example, and not limitation, computer-readable media can comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium that can be used to carry or store desired program code means in the form of instructions or data structures and that can be accessed by a general-purpose or special-purpose computer, or a general-purpose or special-purpose processor. Also, any connection is properly termed a computer-readable medium. For example, if the software is transmitted from a website, server, or other remote source using a coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL), or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave, then the coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, DSL, or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave are included in the definition of medium. Disk and disc, as used herein, include compact disc (CD), laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), floppy disk and blu-ray disc where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above are also included within the scope of computer-readable media.
  • The previous description of the disclosure is provided to enable a person skilled in the art to make or use the disclosure. Various modifications to the disclosure will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other variations without departing from the spirit or scope of the disclosure. Throughout this disclosure the term “example” or “exemplary” indicates an example or instance and does not imply or require any preference for the noted example. Thus, the disclosure is not to be limited to the examples and designs described herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.

Claims (69)

What is claimed is:
1. A method for utilizing scaling factors for a wireless communications system, the method comprising:
identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system;
identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system;
determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and
relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem is a fractional subsystem.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and
generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, wherein the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein relating the one or more aspects of the first system with the one or more aspects of the second system utilizing the scaling factor comprises:
determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem.
5. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the scaled measurement unit is at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit.
7. The method of claim 5, wherein the scaled measurement unit is unitless.
8. The method of claim 5, wherein a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
9. The method of claim 4, further comprising:
performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the scaling factor comprises at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
12. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time.
13. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value.
14. The method of claim 13, further comprising:
determining a state identifying a first base station; and
combining the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate an additional base station identifier.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein the state is a PN state.
16. The method of claim 14, wherein the state is time.
17. The method of claim 4, further comprising:
utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure.
18. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
aligning the first subsystem and the second subsystem on a periodic basis.
19. The method of claim 13, further comprising:
offsetting the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a second offset value different from the first offset value.
20. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
aligning a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem, wherein the time alignment results in no state change.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein the state refers to a state of at least a short PN code or a long PN code.
22. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
aligning a time between the first subsystem and the second subsystem, wherein the time alignment results in a state change.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein the state refers to a state of at least a short PN code or a long PN code.
24. The method of claim 22, wherein the state change results in a PN offset change.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein the PN offset change is equivalent to an implicit handoff to a mobile device.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein the PN offset change is determined by the mobile device on its own from at least knowledge of one or more time alignment instances(?), a state before the alignment, or the scaling factor.
27. The method of claim 25, wherein the PN offset change is communicated to the mobile device from at least a base station or a core network.
28. The method of claim 25, wherein the PN offset change is determined jointly by at least the mobile device and at least a base station or a core network.
29. The method of claim 1, wherein the first subsystem comprises a normal subsystem.
30. The method of claim 1, wherein the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located.
31. The method of claim 1, wherein the first subsystem is a second fractional subsystem.
32. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps are performed at a mobile device.
33. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps are performed at a base station.
34. A wireless communications system configured for utilizing scaling factors, the wireless communications system comprising:
a means for identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system;
a means for identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system;
a means for determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and
a means for relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
35. The wireless communications system of claim 34, further comprising:
a means for identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and
a means for generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, wherein the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
36. The wireless communications system of claim 34, wherein the means for relating the one or more aspects of the first system with the one or more aspects of the second system utilizing the scaling factor comprises:
a means for determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem.
37. The wireless communications system of claim 36, further comprising:
a means for utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter-carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure.
38. The wireless communications system of claim 34, further comprising:
a means for performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
39. The wireless communications system of claim 34, wherein the scaling factor is at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor.
40. The wireless communications system of claim 34, further comprising:
a means for utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor.
41. The wireless communications system of claim 40, wherein the scaled measurement unit is at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit.
42. The wireless communications system of claim 40, wherein the scaled measurement unit is unitless.
43. The wireless communications system of claim 40, wherein a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
44. The wireless communications system of claim 34, further comprising:
a means for implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
45. The wireless communications system of claim 34, wherein the first subsystem comprises a normal subsystem.
46. The wireless communications system of claim 34, wherein the first subsystem and the second subsystem are not co-located.
47. The wireless communications system of claim 34, wherein the first subsystem is a second fractional subsystem.
48. A computer program product for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system comprising:
a non-transitory computer-readable medium comprising:
code for identifying a first subsystem within the wireless communications system;
code for identifying a second subsystem within the wireless communications system;
code for determining a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and
code for relating one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
49. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises:
code for identifying a portion of spectrum, wherein a first waveform bandwidth of the first subsystem exceeds a bandwidth of the portion of spectrum; and
code for generating a first fractional waveform of the second subsystem of the wireless communications system utilizing the scaling factor, wherein the first fractional waveform of the second subsystem fits within the bandwidth of the portion of spectrum.
50. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises:
code for determining at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, a frequency, or a state of the first subsystem.
51. The computer program product of claim 50, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises:
code for utilizing at least the determined time, the determined frequency, or the determined state of the second subsystem and at least the time, the frequency, or the state of the first subsystem as part of at least a re-selection, a handoff, an inter carrier measurement, or a frequency measurement procedure.
52. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises
code for performing a handover from the first subsystem to the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor.
53. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the scaling factor comprises at least a time-scaling factor, a state-scaling factor, or a frequency-scaling factor.
54. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises:
code for implementing the scaling factor utilizing at least a filtering, an averaging, or a decimating process.
55. The computer program product of claim 48, wherein the non-transitory computer-readable medium further comprises:
code for utilizing a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor
56. The computer program product of claim 55, wherein the scaled measurement unit is at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit.
57. The method of claim 55, wherein the scaled measurement unit is unitless.
58. The computer program product of claim 55, wherein a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
59. A wireless communications device configured for utilizing scaling factors within a wireless communications system, the wireless communications device comprising:
at least one processor configured to:
identify a first subsystem within the wireless communications system;
identify a second subsystem within the wireless communications system;
determine a scaling factor with respect to the first subsystem and the second subsystem; and
relate one or more aspects of the first subsystem with one or more aspects of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor; and
at least one memory coupled with the at least one processor.
60. The wireless communications device of claim 59, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
align the first subsystem and the second subsystem at a first time.
61. The wireless communications device of claim 59, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
offset the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a first offset value.
62. The wireless communications device of claim 61, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
determine a state identifying a first base station; and
combine the offset value of the second subsystem and the state to generate a new base station identifier.
63. The wireless communications device of claim 59, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
determine at least a time, a duration of time, a frequency, or a state of the second subsystem utilizing the scaling factor and at least a time, frequency, or a state of the first subsystem.
64. The wireless communications device of claim 59, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
align the first subsystem and the second subsystem on a periodic basis.
65. The wireless communications device of claim 61, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
offset the second subsystem with respect to the first subsystem utilizing a second offset value different from the first offset value.
66. The wireless communications device of claim 59, wherein the at least one processor is further configured to:
utilize a scaled measurement unit with respect to at least the first subsystem or the second subsystem, wherein an underlying value of the scaled measurement unit in the first subsystem and the second subsystem is related by the scaling factor.
67. The wireless communications device of claim 66, wherein the scaled measurement unit is at least a dilated time unit or a reduced frequency unit.
68. The wireless communications device of claim 66, wherein the scaled measurement unit is unitless.
69. The wireless communications device of claim 66, wherein a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the second subsystem is the same as a value linked with the scaled measurement unit of the first subsystem.
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