US20130082074A1 - Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of making - Google Patents

Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of making Download PDF

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Publication number
US20130082074A1
US20130082074A1 US13251830 US201113251830A US2013082074A1 US 20130082074 A1 US20130082074 A1 US 20130082074A1 US 13251830 US13251830 US 13251830 US 201113251830 A US201113251830 A US 201113251830A US 2013082074 A1 US2013082074 A1 US 2013082074A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
portion
aerosol
finish
container
plastic
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
US13251830
Inventor
Ralph Armstrong
Thomas E. Nahill
Keith J. Barker
Brian A. Lynch
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Graham Packaging Co LP
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Graham Packaging Co LP
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65DCONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR; PACKAGING ELEMENTS; PACKAGES
    • B65D83/00Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents
    • B65D83/14Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents for delivery of liquid or semi-liquid contents by internal gaseous pressure, i.e. aerosol containers comprising propellant for a product delivered by a propellant
    • B65D83/38Details of the container body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C49/00Blow-moulding, i.e. blowing a preform or parison to a desired shape within a mould; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C49/02Combined blow-moulding and manufacture of the preform or the parison
    • B29C49/06Injection blow-moulding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B65CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
    • B65DCONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR; PACKAGING ELEMENTS; PACKAGES
    • B65D83/00Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents
    • B65D83/14Containers or packages with special means for dispensing contents for delivery of liquid or semi-liquid contents by internal gaseous pressure, i.e. aerosol containers comprising propellant for a product delivered by a propellant
    • B65D83/44Valves specially adapted therefor; Regulating devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS
    • B29K2067/00Use of polyesters or derivatives thereof as moulding material
    • B29K2067/003PET, i.e. poylethylene terephthalate

Abstract

A plastic aerosol container assembly includes a plastic container that has a main body portion defining an interior space and a finish portion that defines an opening. A pressurized aerosol mixture is maintained within the interior space. The finish portion has an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein. An aerosol valve assembly is mounted to the plastic container so that a portion thereof engages the inner surface of the finish portion so as to be retained by the undercut. The plastic container is preferably fabricated from material including polyethylene terephthalate. At least one location in the finish portion may be crystallized in order to provide enhanced resistance to stress cracking.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    This invention relates broadly to the field of containers that are adapted to hold highly pressurized contents, such as aerosol mixtures, and more particularly to a blow molded plastic aerosol container having a finish portion that is constructed and arranged to provide an optimal seal to an aerosol valve assembly.
  • [0003]
    2. Description of the Related Technology
  • [0004]
    Aerosol containers have conventionally been fabricated from metal, and are conventionally formed as a cylindrical tube having upper and lower end closures. The bottom end closure is typically shaped as a concave dome, and the upper end closure typically includes a manually actuatable valve for dispensing the pressurized aerosol contents of the container.
  • [0005]
    Metallic containers have certain inherent disadvantages, such as a tendency to rust over time and to scratch surfaces with which they may come into contact.
  • [0006]
    Efforts have been made in the past to develop plastic aerosol containers, but have encountered difficulties, mainly relating to controlling the deformation of the plastic material as a result of the significant internal pressurization that is necessary in an aerosol container. Aerosol containers commonly require internal pressures of the magnitude of 50-300 psi, which is significantly greater than pressures that are typically encountered in other packaging applications for which plastic material has been used, such as the packaging of carbonated beverages. Accordingly, design considerations for plastic aerosol containers are quite different than they are for lower pressure packaging applications such as plastic beverage containers.
  • [0007]
    One common type of plastic container is fabricated from a material such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is manufactured from an injection molded preform having a threaded finish portion using the reheat stretch blow molding process. While such containers hold some promise for aerosol applications, they are susceptible to stress cracking in the finish portion while under pressurization. In addition, the finish portion of such containers has a tendency to deform when the container is pressurized, possibly resulting in a loss of sealing integrity between the container and the aerosol dispensing closure.
  • [0008]
    The preforms that are used in the reheat stretch blow molding process typically include a finish portion that remains substantially unchanged in shape as a result of the blow molding process. The finish portion includes the upper rim of the container that defines the container opening. Typically, the aerosol valve assembly that is required in plastic aerosol containers has been attached to the outer surface of the finish portion, which may be provided with external threading or one or more mounting flanges. In metal aerosol containers, it is considered preferable to mount the valve assembly to an inside surface of the upper portion of the container. An inside seal has inherent mechanical advantages over an outside seal, but those in the field have considered an inside seal to be impractical for plastic aerosol containers because of the difficulty of mounting a valve assembly to the inner surface of the finish portion of a blow molded plastic container. The inner surface of the finish portion in such a container tends to be smooth, with no features that would enable a valve assembly to gain the necessary purchase in order to prevent dislodgement.
  • [0009]
    A need exists for an improved blow molded plastic aerosol container assembly that provides a more effective mount and seal between the finish portion of the plastic container and an aerosol valve assembly.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an improved blow molded plastic aerosol container assembly that achieves a more effective mount and seal between the finish portion of the plastic container and an aerosol valve assembly.
  • [0011]
    In order to achieve the above and other objects of the invention, a plastic aerosol container assembly according to a first aspect of the invention includes a plastic container having a main body portion defining an interior space and a finish portion that defines an opening. The finish portion has an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein. The container assembly further includes an aerosol valve assembly mounted to the plastic container that has a portion that engages the inner surface of the finish portion so as to be retained by the undercut.
  • [0012]
    A plastic aerosol container according to a second aspect of the invention includes a main body portion defining an interior space; and a finish portion that is unitary with the main body portion and has an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein.
  • [0013]
    A plastic aerosol container according to a third aspect of the invention includes a main body portion defining an interior space; and a finish portion that is unitary with the main body portion. The main body portion and the finish portion are fabricated from a material comprising polyethylene terephthalate. At least a portion of the finish portion is crystallized.
  • [0014]
    A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to a fourth aspect of the invention includes steps of (a) providing a preform having a finish portion; (b) blow molding a plastic container from the preform; and (c) reforming the finish portion so that an inner surface thereof has an undercut defined therein, and wherein step (c) is performed at some point after step (a).
  • [0015]
    These and various other advantages and features of novelty that characterize the invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed hereto and forming a part hereof. However, for a better understanding of the invention, its advantages, and the objects obtained by its use, reference should be made to the drawings which form a further part hereof, and to the accompanying descriptive matter, in which there is illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0016]
    FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a plastic aerosol container assembly that is constructed according to a preferred embodiment of the invention;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a first step in a method that is performed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a second step in a method that is performed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 4 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a third step in a method that is performed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 5 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a fourth step in a method that is performed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention; and
  • [0021]
    FIG. 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a portion of the plastic aerosol container assembly that is depicted in FIG. 1.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)
  • [0022]
    Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate corresponding structure throughout the views, and referring in particular to FIG. 1, a plastic aerosol container assembly 10 that is constructed according to a preferred embodiment of the invention includes a main body portion 12 that defines an interior space in which a pressurized aerosol mixture 30 is preferably provided.
  • [0023]
    The plastic aerosol container assembly 10 further includes a neck finish portion 14 and a bottom portion 18. Both the finish portion 14 and the bottom portion 18 are preferably unitary with the main body portion 12. The main body portion 12 and the bottom portion 18 are preferably blow molded from a plastic preform using the reheat stretch blow molding process.
  • [0024]
    The main body portion 12, finish portion 14 and bottom portion 18 are preferably fabricated from a plastic material such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), acrilonitrile (AN), polycarbonate (PC), polyamide (Nylon), or a blend containing some combination of the same from a plastic preform using a conventional blow molding process such as the reheat stretch blow molding process. In the preferred embodiment, the plastic container is fabricated from a high intrinsic viscosity polyethylene terephthalate material, which most preferably has an intrinsic viscosity that is substantially within a range of about 0.76 to about 0.95.
  • [0025]
    The main body portion 12 is preferably constructed and arranged to withstand aerosol pressurization within a range of about 50 psig to about 300 psig. More preferably, the main body portion 12 is constructed and arranged to withstand aerosol pressurization within a range of about 120 psig to about 180 psig. The container assembly 10 is preferably pressurized with an aerosol mixture 30 at a range of pressurization that is substantially between about 50 psig to about 300 psig, and more preferably substantially within a range of about 120 psig to about 180 psig.
  • [0026]
    The aerosol mixture 30 preferably includes a propellant, which could be a liquefied gas propellant or a compressed or soluble gas propellant. Liquefied gas propellants that could be used include hydrocarbon propellants such as propane, isobutene, normal butane, isopentane, normal pentane and dimethyl ether, and hydrofluorocarbon propellants such as difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a). Compressed and soluble gas propellants that could be used include carbon dioxide (C02), nitrous oxide (N20), nitrogen (N2) and compressed air.
  • [0027]
    The finish portion 14 preferably has an inner surface 20 that has an undercut 22 defined therein, as is best shown in FIG. 4. An aerosol valve assembly 24 is seated against the undercut 22, as is best shown in FIG. 6. Accordingly, the aerosol valve assembly 24 forms an inside seal with respect to the finish portion 14. The aerosol valve assembly 24 in the preferred embodiment is not directly secured to an outer surface of the finish portion 14.
  • [0028]
    The finish portion 14 has a longitudinal axis 32, and the undercut 22 is preferably oriented within a volume that is equidistant about a transverse plane 28 that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 32. In other words, the undercut 22 preferably has a substantially horizontal orientation. This is best shown in FIG. 4. In addition, the undercut 22 preferably extends substantially along an entire inner circumference of the inner surface 20 of the finish portion 14.
  • [0029]
    Preferably, the plastic material forming the finish portion 14 is crystallized in at least one location within the finish portion 14. The crystallization could be throughout the entire finish portion 14, or in selected portions of the finish portion 14. For example, crystallization could be performed so that substantial crystallization is achieved in at least a first portion of the finish portion 14, substantially no crystallization in a second portion of finish portion 14 and graded crystallization between the first and second portions of the finish portion 14. The term “graded crystallization” refers to a gradual transition between substantial crystallization and substantially no crystallization, as distinguished from a sharp or distinct non-graded pattern of contrast between crystallized and uncrystallized portions of the neck finish. The gradation of crystallization is continuous, and may be either linear or non-linear with distance. Such crystallization in a container neck finish is taught in U.S. Pat. 7,033,656 to Nahill et al., the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference as if set forth fully herein.
  • [0030]
    A method of forming a plastic aerosol container assembly 10 according to a preferred embodiment of the invention is depicted in FIGS. 2-6. Referring to FIG. 2, the finish portion 14 of the container after it has been shaped by the blow molding process typically has an inner surface 40 that is substantially smooth and vertical, with an upper rim 42. Advantageously, the finish portion 14 shown in FIG. 2 is reformed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention so that the inner surface will have the undercut that is shown in FIG. 4.
  • [0031]
    Heat is preferably applied to the finish portion 14 that is shown in FIG. 2 in order to soften the plastic material. The finish portion 14 is preferably heated to a temperature that is substantially within a range of about 280 degrees F. to about 370 degrees F., and more preferably substantially within a range of about 300 degrees F. to about 350 degrees F. Heating time is preferably substantially within a range of about 20 seconds to about 65 seconds, and more preferably substantially within a range of about 30 seconds to about 55 seconds.
  • [0032]
    Subsequently, a shaping tool 46 is used to urge the upper rim 42 radially inwardly and downward, so that the upper rim 42 and the inside surface 40 achieve the shape that is depicted in FIG. 4. As FIG. 4 shows, the finish portion 14 at this stage of the process includes an upper rim 33 that transitions to the inner surface 20 so as to define a radially inwardly extending convex lip 34 and a radially outwardly extending concave recess 36 that is positioned immediately beneath the radially inwardly extending convex lip 34.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 5 depicts a blank aerosol valve assembly 24 being inserted into the opening defined by the upper lip 33 of the finish portion 14 that is shown in FIG. 4. The aerosol valve assembly 24 preferably includes a metallic panel 48 to which an aerosol valve stem 26 is mounted. The metallic panel 48 includes an annular downwardly extending portion 50 that includes an outer wall portion 52, which is oriented so as to be substantially straight and vertical, permitting convenient insertion of the blank aerosol valve assembly 24 into the opening. The metallic panel 48 also preferably includes a flange portion 54 that is congruent with and seals against the upper rim 33 and the convex lip 34 of the finish portion 14.
  • [0034]
    A tool is used to crimp the outer wall portion 52 outwardly into the position that is shown in FIG. 6, in which the inward crimp 56 is seated securely against the undercut 22, firmly securing the aerosol valve assembly 24 against dislodgement from the finish portion 14 as a result of the internal pressurization of the container. Such an inside seal is mechanically preferable to outside seals that have heretofore been used in plastic aerosol container assemblies.
  • [0035]
    It is to be understood, however, that even though numerous characteristics and advantages of the present invention have been set forth in the foregoing description, together with details of the structure and function of the invention, the disclosure is illustrative only, and changes may be made in detail, especially in matters of shape, size and arrangement of parts within the principles of the invention to the full extent indicated by the broad general meaning of the terms in which the appended claims are expressed.

Claims (23)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A plastic aerosol container assembly, comprising:
    a plastic container having a main body portion defining an interior space and a finish portion defining an opening, the finish portion having an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein; and
    an aerosol valve assembly mounted to the plastic container, the aerosol valve assembly having a portion that engages the inner surface of the finish portion so as to be retained by the undercut.
  2. 2. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, wherein the aerosol valve assembly is seated against the undercut.
  3. 3. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, wherein the plastic container is fabricated from a material comprising polyethylene terephthalate.
  4. 4. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 3, wherein the material comprising polyethylene terephthalate is crystallized at least one location within the finish portion.
  5. 5. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, wherein the finish portion has a longitudinal axis, and wherein the undercut is oriented within a transverse plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
  6. 6. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, wherein the undercut extends substantially along an entire inner circumference of the inner surface of the finish portion.
  7. 7. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, wherein the aerosol valve assembly is not directly secured to an outer surface of the finish portion.
  8. 8. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 1, further comprising a pressurized aerosol mixture within the plastic container.
  9. 9. A plastic aerosol container, comprising:
    a main body portion defining an interior space; and
    a finish portion that is unitary with the main body portion and has an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein.
  10. 10. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 9, wherein the main body portion and a finish portion are fabricated from a material comprising polyethylene terephthalate.
  11. 11. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 10, wherein the material comprising polyethylene terephthalate is crystallized at least one location within the finish portion.
  12. 12. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 9, wherein the finish portion has a longitudinal axis, and wherein the undercut is oriented within a transverse plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
  13. 13. A plastic aerosol container assembly according to claim 9, wherein the undercut extends substantially along an entire inner circumference of the inner surface of the finish portion.
  14. 14. A plastic aerosol container, comprising:
    a main body portion defining an interior space; and
    a finish portion that is unitary with the main body portion, and wherein the main body portion and the finish portion are fabricated from a material comprising polyethylene terephthalate, and wherein at least a portion of the finish portion is crystallized.
  15. 15. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 14, wherein the finish portion has an inner surface that has an undercut defined therein.
  16. 16. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 15, wherein the finish portion has a longitudinal axis, and wherein the undercut is oriented within a transverse plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
  17. 17. A plastic aerosol container according to claim 15, wherein the undercut extends substantially along an entire inner circumference of the inner surface of the finish portion.
  18. 18. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container, comprising steps of:
    (a) providing a preform having a finish portion;
    (b) blow molding a plastic container from the preform; and
    (c) reforming the finish portion so that an inner surface thereof has an undercut defined therein, and wherein step (c) is performed at some point after step (a).
  19. 19. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to claim 18, wherein step (c) is performed after step (b).
  20. 20. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to claim 18, wherein the preform having the finish portion is formed by injection molding, and wherein step (c) is performed by reheating the finish portion and reshaping the finish portion using a mechanical tool.
  21. 21. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to claim 18, wherein step (c) is performed by shaping the undercut so that it is oriented within a transverse plane that is substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the finish portion.
  22. 22. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to claim 18, wherein step (c) is performed by shaping the undercut so that the undercut extends substantially along an entire circumference of the inner surface of the finish portion.
  23. 23. A method of forming a plastic aerosol container according to claim 18, wherein the preform is fabricated from a material comprising polyethylene terephthalate.
US13251830 2011-10-03 2011-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of making Pending US20130082074A1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13251830 US20130082074A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2011-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of making

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13251830 US20130082074A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2011-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of making
CN 201280046534 CN103826991B (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 An aerosol container assembly and method of manufacture
CA 2851083 CA2851083A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of manufacture
EP20140193843 EP2865611A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly
ES12784780T ES2559463T3 (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 Method of manufacturing a plastic container assembly aerosol
EP20120784780 EP2763912B1 (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 Method of manufacture of a plastic aerosol container assembly
PCT/US2012/058518 WO2013052522A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2012-10-03 Plastic aerosol container assembly and method of manufacture
US15787336 US20180037399A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2017-10-18 Method of making a plastic aerosol container assembly

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US15787336 Continuation US20180037399A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2017-10-18 Method of making a plastic aerosol container assembly

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US20130082074A1 true true US20130082074A1 (en) 2013-04-04

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US15787336 Pending US20180037399A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2017-10-18 Method of making a plastic aerosol container assembly

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US15787336 Pending US20180037399A1 (en) 2011-10-03 2017-10-18 Method of making a plastic aerosol container assembly

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EP (2) EP2865611A1 (en)
CN (1) CN103826991B (en)
CA (1) CA2851083A1 (en)
ES (1) ES2559463T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2013052522A1 (en)

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US20130037580A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2013-02-14 Graham Packaging Company, Lp Plastic aerosol container and method of manufacture
US9394098B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2016-07-19 Oxygon Technologies Inc. Plastic aerosol containers
US20160264344A1 (en) * 2011-07-08 2016-09-15 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Stable Pressurized System Including Plastic Container And Active(s)-Containing Composition
WO2016161338A1 (en) * 2015-04-01 2016-10-06 Graham Packaging Company, L.P. Structure and method of sealing a closure assembly onto the neck finish of a plastic pressure container
WO2017102250A1 (en) * 2015-12-18 2017-06-22 Unilever Plc Aerosol dispenser

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US20120211457A1 (en) * 2011-02-22 2012-08-23 Graham Packaging Company, L.P. Plastic aerosol container
US20130037580A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2013-02-14 Graham Packaging Company, Lp Plastic aerosol container and method of manufacture

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US20160264344A1 (en) * 2011-07-08 2016-09-15 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Stable Pressurized System Including Plastic Container And Active(s)-Containing Composition
US20130037580A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2013-02-14 Graham Packaging Company, Lp Plastic aerosol container and method of manufacture
US9394098B2 (en) 2013-06-28 2016-07-19 Oxygon Technologies Inc. Plastic aerosol containers
WO2016161338A1 (en) * 2015-04-01 2016-10-06 Graham Packaging Company, L.P. Structure and method of sealing a closure assembly onto the neck finish of a plastic pressure container
US9845186B2 (en) 2015-04-01 2017-12-19 Graham Packaging Company, L.P. Structure and method of sealing a closure assembly onto the neck finish of a plastic pressure container
WO2017102250A1 (en) * 2015-12-18 2017-06-22 Unilever Plc Aerosol dispenser

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EP2763912A1 (en) 2014-08-13 application
ES2559463T3 (en) 2016-02-12 grant
EP2763912B1 (en) 2015-12-30 grant
CA2851083A1 (en) 2013-04-11 application
EP2865611A1 (en) 2015-04-29 application
WO2013052522A1 (en) 2013-04-11 application
US20180037399A1 (en) 2018-02-08 application
CN103826991A (en) 2014-05-28 application
CN103826991B (en) 2016-08-24 grant

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