US20130073466A1 - Use of Media Storage Structure with Multiple Pieces of Content in a Content-Distribution System - Google Patents

Use of Media Storage Structure with Multiple Pieces of Content in a Content-Distribution System Download PDF

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US20130073466A1
US20130073466A1 US13/612,747 US201213612747A US2013073466A1 US 20130073466 A1 US20130073466 A1 US 20130073466A1 US 201213612747 A US201213612747 A US 201213612747A US 2013073466 A1 US2013073466 A1 US 2013073466A1
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Prior art keywords
content
device
storage structure
set
keys
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Abandoned
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US13/612,747
Inventor
Augustin J. Farrugia
Thomas Dowdy
Gianpaolo Fasoli
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Augustin J. Farrugia
Thomas Dowdy
Gianpaolo Fasoli
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Priority to US11/249,123 priority Critical patent/US8306918B2/en
Application filed by Augustin J. Farrugia, Thomas Dowdy, Gianpaolo Fasoli filed Critical Augustin J. Farrugia
Priority to US13/612,747 priority patent/US20130073466A1/en
Publication of US20130073466A1 publication Critical patent/US20130073466A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/08Payment architectures
    • G06Q20/12Payment architectures specially adapted for electronic shopping systems
    • G06Q20/123Shopping for digital content
    • G06Q20/1235Shopping for digital content with control of digital rights management [DRM]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F21/00Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F21/10Protecting distributed programs or content, e.g. vending or licensing of copyrighted material
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F21/00Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F21/60Protecting data
    • G06F21/62Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules
    • G06F21/6218Protecting access to data via a platform, e.g. using keys or access control rules to a system of files or objects, e.g. local or distributed file system or database
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q2220/00Business processing using cryptography
    • G06Q2220/10Usage protection of distributed data files
    • G06Q2220/12Usage or charge determination

Abstract

A method for distributing content. The method distributes a single media storage structure to a device (e.g., a computer, portable player, etc.). The media storage structure includes first and second pieces of encrypted content. Based on whether the device is allowed to access the first piece of content, the second piece of content, or both, the method provides the device with a set of keys for decrypting the pieces of the content that the device is able to access. The provided set of keys might include one or more keys for decrypting only one of the two encrypted pieces of content. Alternatively, it might include one or more keys for decrypting both encrypted pieces of content. For instance, the selected set of keys might include a first key for decrypting the first encrypted piece and a second key for decrypting the second encrypted piece.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to the use of a single media storage structure with multiple pieces of content in a digital rights management system.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The protection of digital content transferred between computers over a network is fundamentally important for many enterprises today. Enterprises attempt to secure this protection by implementing some form of Digital Rights Management (DRM) process. The DRM process often involves encrypting the piece of content (e.g., encrypting the binary form of the content) to restrict usage to those who have been granted a right to the content.
  • Cryptography is the traditional method of protecting data in transit across a network. In its typical application, cryptography protects communications between two mutually trusting parties from an attack on the data in transit. However, for many digital file transfer applications today (e.g., for the transfer of audio or video content), the paradigm has shifted, as a party that receives the content (i.e., the “receiving party”) might try to break the DRM encryption that the party that supplied the content (i.e., the “distributing party”) applied to the content. In addition, with the proliferation of network penetration attacks, a third party may obtain access to the receiving party's computer and thus to the protected content.
  • Some pieces of content that are distributed in existing DRM systems are related to one another. However, existing DRM system often do not allow content recipients to flexibly purchase or license a subset of the contents from a related set of DRM contents. For instance, one existing DRM system distributes certain songs along with their associated music videos. In distributing a song along with its associated music video, this DRM system rigidly requires a recipient either (1) to purchase both the song and its associated music video, or (2) to forego access to both the song and its associated music video. Therefore, there is a need in the art for a DRM system that flexibly allows content recipients to purchase or license a subset of the content from a related set of DRM contents.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Some embodiments of the invention provide a method for distributing content over a network. The method distributes a single media storage structure to a device (e.g., a computer, portable player, etc.) that connects to the network. The media storage structure includes first and second pieces of encrypted content. Based on whether the device is allowed to access the first piece of content, the second piece of content, or both, the method provides the device with a set of keys for decrypting the pieces of the content that the device is able to access.
  • The provided set of keys might include one or more keys for decrypting only one of the two encrypted pieces of content. Alternatively, it might include one or more keys for decrypting both encrypted pieces of content. For instance, the selected set of keys might include a first key for decrypting the first encrypted piece and a second key for decrypting the second encrypted piece. Based on the provided set of keys, the device can then decrypt and access either one of the two pieces of content in the media storage structure or both pieces of encrypted content in the media storage structure.
  • The media storage structure includes a first content section that stores the first piece of encrypted content, and a second content section that stores the second piece of encrypted content. In some embodiments, the media storage structure also includes first and second key sections respectively for storing first and second keys for decrypting the first and second pieces of encrypted content. The method of some embodiments distributes the media storage structure with the encrypted first and second content pieces from a computer that is separate from the computer or computers that distribute the first and second keys. In some embodiments, the device that receives the media storage structure inserts the first and second keys in the first and second key sections of the media storage structure.
  • One piece of encrypted content might be audio content (e.g., an audio track, a song, a sound track, etc.) related to a particular presentation (e.g., a music video, a film, etc.), while the other piece of encrypted content might be video content (e.g., a video track, a video clip, etc.) related to the particular presentation. Alternatively, both pieces of content can be video content (e.g., video clips from different angles of one or more scenes) or audio content (e.g., different versions or mixes of a song or different languages for the dialogue in a movie). In addition, content other than audio or video might be stored in the media storage structure. For instance, one piece of content might be audio or video content, while the other piece of content might be lyrics or dialogue associate with the audio or video content piece.
  • The method in some embodiments distributes a media storage structure that contains more than two pieces of content. For instance, in some cases, the media storage structure includes one piece of audio content and two pieces of video content, which can be two different video clips associated with the audio content (e.g., can be two different music videos that are associated with a song).
  • In some embodiments, the device (e.g., the computer) that receives the media storage structure transfers the media storage structure to another device (e.g., to a portable player). In this transfer, one of the pieces of content from the media storage structure might be removed in the transfer of the media storage structure to the other device (e.g., in the portable player). In some cases, content is removed from the media storage structure in order to reduce the consumption of resources on the other device. In other cases, content is removed from the media storage structure because the other device does not have rights to access this other content.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The novel features of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. However, for purpose of explanation, several embodiments are set forth in the following figures.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an example of such a media storage structure.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates an example where the selected set of keys includes a first key for decrypting the first encrypted piece of content and a second key for decrypting the second encrypted piece of content.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates another example of the media storage structure.
  • FIGS. 4-10 illustrate various examples of related pieces of content in a media storage structure of some embodiments.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a content-distribution system of some embodiments.
  • FIG. 12 conceptually illustrates an example of one possible set of interactions between the computer, the DRM server, and the content-caching server.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates another example of a computer acquiring a media file.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates a computer's storage of the two keys that it receives in the example illustrated in FIG. 11.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates a computer's storage of the key that it receives in the example illustrated in FIG. 13.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates an example of the computer synchronizing its DRM content with a portable player.
  • FIG. 17 conceptually illustrates a process that a computer performs in some embodiments to synchronize a set of content with a portable player.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • In the following description, numerous details are set forth for the purpose of explanation. However, one of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the invention may be practiced without the use of these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order not to obscure the description of the invention with unnecessary detail.
  • I. Media Storage Structure
  • Some embodiments of the invention provide a content-distribution system for distributing unitary media storage structures to devices (e.g., computers, portable players, etc.) that connect to a network. Each unitary media storage structure includes a set of related pieces of content. In at least some unitary media storage structures of some embodiments, each piece of content is separately encrypted to protect it from unauthorized use. Examples of pieces of content include video, audio, text, sound, etc.
  • FIG. 1 conceptually illustrates an example of a unitary media storage structure 100 of some embodiments. As shown in this figure, the media storage structure includes first and second pieces 105 and 110 of encrypted content. It also includes first and second sections 115 and 120 for containing first and second cryptographic keys for decrypting the first and second pieces 105 and 110 of content. The media storage structure also includes a header 125 that includes metadata regarding the content in the media storage structure.
  • Based on whether the device is allowed to access the first piece of content 105, the second piece of content 110, or both, the system provides the device with a set of keys for decrypting the pieces of the content that the device is able to access. The provided set of keys might include only one key for decrypting only one of the two encrypted pieces of content. Alternatively, it might include two keys for decrypting both encrypted pieces of content.
  • For instance, FIG. 2 illustrates an example where the selected set of keys includes a first key 215 for decrypting the first encrypted piece of content 105 and a second key 220 for decrypting the second encrypted piece of content 110. FIG. 3 illustrates another example of the media storage structure 100. In this example, the media storage structure 100 includes only the second key 220 for decrypting the second piece of encrypted content 110.
  • Based on the set of keys that the system provides to the device, the device can decrypt and access either one of the two pieces of content 105 and 110 or both pieces of encrypted content. The system of some embodiments distributes the media storage structure with the encrypted first and second content pieces 105 and 110 from a computer that is separate from the computer or computers that distribute the first and second keys 215 and 220 for decrypting the first and second pieces of encrypted content.
  • While this application describes receiving, storing, manipulating and using a “key,” it will be understood that a host of know techniques can be used to disguise the key. For example, key hiding, key encryption, splitting the key into more than one piece to be stored separately, and obfuscation of read/write operations, can all be used and are considered within the general concept of receiving, storing, and using a “key.”
  • As mentioned above, the single media storage structure that is distributed by some embodiments includes a set of related pieces of content. In some embodiments, two pieces of content are related when they relate to the same audio and/or video presentation (e.g., song, movie, music video, etc.). In some cases, two pieces of related content can be viewed or played simultaneously. In other cases, two pieces of related content can be viewed or player independently.
  • FIGS. 4-10 illustrate various examples of related pieces of content in a media storage structure of some embodiments. FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a storage structure 400 where one piece of encrypted content is audio content 405 (e.g., an audio track, a song, a sound track) related to a particular presentation (e.g., a music video, a film, etc.), while the other piece of encrypted content is video content 410 (e.g., a video track, a video clip, etc.) related to the particular presentation.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a storage structure 500 that includes two pieces of video content. One example of two such pieces of video content would be two video clips that are shot from different angles to cover one or more scenes in a movie. A piece of video content might also include audio content associated with its video content or might only include video data. FIG. 6 illustrates a storage structure 600 that includes two pieces of audio content. One example of two such pieces of audio content would be two different versions or mixes of a song.
  • Content other than audio or video might be stored in the media storage structure of the some embodiments of the invention. For instance, FIG. 7 illustrates a media storage structure 700 that stores one piece of audio content 705 and another piece of textual content 710, which might be lyrics, dialogue, or other data associated with the audio content 705. Similarly, FIG. 8 illustrates a media storage structure 800 that stores one piece of video content 805 and another piece of textual content 810, which might be dialogue associate with the video content 805.
  • In some cases, the system distributes a media storage structure that contains more than two pieces of content. For instance, FIG. 9 illustrates a media storage structure 900 that includes one piece of audio content (e.g., a song) along with two pieces of video content, which can be two different video clips associated with the audio content (e.g., can be two different music videos that are associated with the song). Similarly, FIG. 10 illustrates a media storage structure 1000 that includes one piece of video content (e.g., a movie) along with two pieces of audio content, which can be the video's audio component in two different languages.
  • In the various examples illustrated in FIGS. 4-10, the media storage structure includes a key for decrypting each piece of content stored in the media storage structure. As mentioned above, the content-distribution system of some embodiments allows different set of keys to be acquired (e.g., purchased or licensed) for accessing a media storage structure on a particular device. In some embodiments, the device stores the acquired set of keys in the media storage structure, and uses the acquired set of keys to decrypt and access the media storage structure's content that has been purchased or licensed for access on the device. Once decrypted, the device can individually or simultaneously view or play the decrypted pieces of content.
  • In some embodiments, the device (e.g., the computer) that receives the media storage structure transfers the media storage structure to another device (e.g., to a portable player). In this transfer, one of the pieces of content from the media storage structure might be removed in the transfer of the media storage structure to the other device (e.g., in the portable player). In some cases, one of the pieces of content is removed in order to reduce the consumption of resources on the other device.
  • Some embodiments above were illustrated by reference to a media storage structure that itself includes a plurality of sections available for storage of keys. Such storage sections can be incorporated into many media file formats, including the Quicktime file format, Windows Media file format, Real media format, ISO/IEC 14496-12, Motion JPEG, etc. One of ordinary skill will realize that in some embodiments the keys are alternatively stored and transferred separately from the unitary media files to which they pertain.
  • II. Content-Distribution System
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a content-distribution system 1100 of some embodiments. This content-distribution system distributes content in a manner that protects the digital rights (i.e., ensures the legal use) of the content. To distribute content that is related, the system distributes single media storage structures with multiple related pieces of content. In this example, the media storage structures are media files. One of ordinary skill will realize that other embodiments might use other types of storage structures.
  • As shown in FIG. 11, the content-distribution system 1100 includes a content-caching server 1105, a DRM server 1110, and a content-receiving computer 1115. The computer 1115 connects to the servers 1105 and 1110 through a computer network, such as a local area network, a wide area network, a network of networks (e.g., the Internet), etc.
  • Through this connection, the computer 1115 communicates with the DRM server 1110 to obtain content. In some embodiments, the content-distribution system 1100 does not entail the sale or licensing of content. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the DRM server 1110 simply enforces the distribution of content to authorized computers without considering any financial objectives.
  • For purposes of illustration, however, several embodiments of the content-distribution system 1100 that are described below are involved in the sale or licensing of the content. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the DRM server 1110 is the server from which the user of the computer 1115 can purchase or license content. In other words, the DRM server 1110 of some embodiments is the server that handles the financial transaction for purchasing or licensing content. In some instance, certain content can be purchased or licensed free.
  • After the DRM server 1110 determines that the computer 1115 can obtain the content, the content-distribution system 1100 uses the content caching server 1105 to provide a media storage file that contains one or more pieces of DRM content to the computer 1115 through the network 1120. In some embodiments, the system 1100 uses multiple caching servers 1105 to cache content at various locations on the network, in order to improve the speed and efficiency of downloading content across the network. For each media storage file that the DRM server 1110 directs the caching server 1105 to provide to the computer 1115, the DRM server 1110 provides a set of keys for the computer to use to decrypt the content that is stored in the media storage file.
  • FIG. 12 conceptually illustrates an example of one possible set of interactions between the computer 1115, the DRM server 1110, and the content-caching server 1105. This set of interactions represents a content-acquisition process 1200 of some embodiments of the invention. As shown in this figure, the acquisition process 1200 starts when the computer 1115 sends (at 1205) a request to the DRM server 1110 to purchase or license one or more pieces of content that are stored in a particular media file. At 1210, the DRM server receives this request.
  • The acquisition process then has the DRM server 1110 and/or purchasing computer 1115 perform one or more operations (at 1215) to complete the purchase or license transaction. After the transaction has been completed, the DRM server 1110 sends (at 1215) a request to the content-caching server 1105 to send the media file for the purchased or licensed content to the computer 1115.
  • The caching server 1105 receives this request at 1225, and in response, commences (at 1230) a download of the media file to the purchasing computer 1115. FIG. 11 illustrates an example of a media file 1125 that the content caching server 1105 downloads to the computer 1115. In this example, the media file has five sections. The first and second section 1145 and 1155 contain two pieces of encrypted content. Each piece of content is encrypted using a particular content key. The third and fourth sections 1150 and 1160 are empty sections in the file for the insertion of the content keys if such content keys are purchased or licensed by the computer 1115. Lastly, the fifth section 1165 is a header field, which contains metadata regarding the content and/or content keys.
  • The computer 1115 receives (at 1235) the media file provided by the caching server. The computer 1115 then sends (at 1240) a confirmation of the download to the DRM server 1110. After 1220, the DRM server 1110 transitions to a wait state 1245 to wait for the confirmation to be received from the computer 1115.
  • Once the DRM server 1110 receives the confirmation of the download at 1245, it sends (at 1250) to the computer 1115 a set of keys based on the pieces of content that the computer 1115 purchased or licensed. In the example illustrated in FIG. 11, the computer 1115 has acquired both pieces of content that is stored in the media file. Accordingly, in this example, the DRM server 1110 sends (at 1250) a set of keys that would allow the computer 1115 to access both pieces of content in the media file 1125.
  • In the example illustrated in FIG. 11, this set of keys includes two content keys 1130 and 1132. In some embodiments, each piece of content (e.g., 1145 or 1155) is encrypted based on a particular content key (e.g., 1130 or 1132). Hence, the computer 1115 uses the content key 1130 to decrypt the encrypted content 1145, and uses the content key 1132 to decrypt the encrypted content 1155.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates another example of the computer 1115 acquiring the media file 1125. In this example, the computer 1115 has only acquired the first encrypted content 1145. Accordingly, even though the caching server 1105 supplies the computer 1115 with the media file that contains both pieces of content, the DRM server 1110 only supplies the content key 1130 for the encrypted content 1145.
  • Accordingly, in this example, the computer can access the encrypted content 1145 in the media file by using the content key 1130. However, since the computer 1115 has not received the encrypted content for the encrypted content 1155 in the media file 1125, the computer cannot decrypt the encrypted content 1155.
  • As shown in FIG. 12, the computer 1115 receives (at 1255) the set of keys supplied by the DRM server 1110. As shown in FIG. 12, the computer 1115 stores (at 1260) this set of keys in the media file. FIG. 14 illustrates the computer's storage of the two keys that it receives in the example illustrated in FIG. 11. As shown in this figure, the computer 1115 initially stores the content keys 1130 and 1132 in temporary storages 1405 and 1407. It then merges these content keys with the media file 1125 that it received at 1235 and that it temporarily stored in a temporary storage 1410. The computer then stores the media file that results from this merging in a content library storage 1415.
  • FIG. 15 illustrates the computer's storage of the key that it receives in the example illustrated in FIG. 13. The storage operation illustrated in FIG. 15 is similar to the storage operation illustrated in FIG. 14, except that the merge file (stored in the content media library 1415) does not contain the content key 1132 for the second encrypted content as the computer did not acquire and receive this content key.
  • In the embodiments described above, the content-distribution system 1100 utilizes one computer to provide the encrypted content while using another computer to provide the keys necessary for decrypting the encrypted content. One of ordinary skill will realize that in other embodiments the content-distribution system utilizes one computer to provide encrypted content and the keys for decrypting the encrypted content.
  • Alternatively, in other embodiments, the content-distribution system uses more than one computer to provide the cryptographic keys for the content. For example, keys for audio content may be available from one server and keys for related video content stored in the same media storage structure may be available from a separate server. The multiple servers may even be owned and administered by different parties, as may be the rights they administer.
  • Also, in the embodiments described above, the content-distribution system 1100 provides different cryptographic keys for decrypting different pieces of content. In other embodiments, the content-distribution system might utilize different encoding schemes for encrypting different pieces of content. For instance, the system might utilize a symmetric encoding scheme to encrypt audio content but utilize an asymmetric encrypting scheme to encrypt video content. Alternatively, the system might encrypt audio content in its entirety, while encrypting only parts of the video content.
  • Also, FIG. 12 illustrates one possible set of interactions between the computer 1115, the DRM server 1110, and the caching server 1105. One of ordinary skill will realize that these computers might interact differently in other embodiments. For instance, in some embodiments, the computer 1115 does not send a confirmation of the receipt of a media file to the DRM server. In some of these embodiments, the DRM server on its own sends the set of keys to the computer 1115.
  • Although some embodiments have been described with reference to a simplified network configuration, it will be understood that many variations exist within the framework described herein. For example, the DRM server is shown as a single computer, but for the purposes of this patent, such a server could include many interconnected computers and/or memory and/or interconnecting pieces of equipment. Similarly, the content caching server could be a single computer or a collection of networked computers and memory all forming a server. Additionally, while content may be supplied from a content caching server directly or indirectly to a specific client computer, other transfer methods may result in a computer requiring keys to unlock content available to it from a peer computer, portable storage device, or some other transfer mechanism.
  • III. Synchronization with a Player
  • In some embodiments, the computer 1115 can synchronizes its DRM content with a portable player that is also allowed access to the DRM content. In some cases, this synchronization removes one or more pieces of content from a media file that the computer downloads to the portable player. In some cases, the pieces of content are removed in order to reduce the consumption of resources on the other device. In other cases, content is removed from the media storage structure because the other device does not have rights to access this other content.
  • FIG. 16 illustrates an example of the computer 1115 synchronize its DRM content with a portable player 1605. The portable player can be a music player, audio/video player, etc. When the computer 1115 synchronizes its DRM content with the player 1605, the portable player 1605 in some embodiments receives (1) DRM content from the computer 1115, and (2) a content key for decrypting each piece of DRM content that it receives. The portable then stores the received encrypted DRM content and the associated keys.
  • FIG. 17 conceptually illustrates a process 1700 that a computer 1115 performs in some embodiments to synchronize a set of content with a player 1605. As shown in this figure, the process 1700 starts (at 1705) when it receives a request to synchronize a set of content with the player 1605. The process then identifies (at 1710) the set of media files that is associated with a user account ID of the player.
  • Next, the process determines (at 1715) whether the computer 1115 is storing any media file for the player, which it has not yet downloaded to the player (i.e., whether there is any media file that needs to be synchronized between the computer and the player). If not, the process ends.
  • Otherwise, the process selects (at 1720) a media file that needs to be synchronized. At 1720, the process removes from the media file any piece of content that has been designated as content that should not be downloaded to the portable player. In some embodiments, the computer uses an application that allows a user to designate the content that the user wishes to synchronize with the portable player.
  • If the process removes (at 1720) any content from the media file, it also removes the content's associated content key and metadata from the media file in some embodiments of the invention. FIG. 16 illustrates an example of the removal of the video content and its associated content key from a media file 1600 that is downloaded to the portable player 1605.
  • After 1720, the process downloads (at 1725) the media file that contains only the encrypted content that has to be synchronized with the player (i.e., downloads the media file after any content that should not be downloaded to the player has been removed). In some embodiments, the downloaded media file not only contains one or more pieces of encrypted content but also contains one or more content keys that can be used to decrypt the content. In some embodiments, the set of keys that is downloaded in the media file to the player is the same set of keys that are used to decrypt the content on the computer 1115. In other embodiments, the keys in the downloaded media file are a different set of keys.
  • The player then stores (at 1725) the downloaded media file on its internal storage (e.g., its internal non-volatile storage, hard drive, flash memory, etc.). After 1725, the process determines (at 1730) whether there is any additional content for the player that it has not yet downloaded to the player (i.e., whether there is any additional content that needs to be synchronized between the computer and the player). If so, the process repeats 1720 and 1725 for a piece of content that needs to be synchronized. If not, the process ends.
  • FIG. 17 provides an illustrative example of synchronizing media files between a computer and a player in some embodiments of the invention. One of ordinary skill will realize that other embodiments use other processes for synchronizing media files. Also, in some embodiments, the portable player directly communicates with the DRM server and/or the content caching server to obtain content.
  • IV. Encryption
  • As described above, several embodiments of the invention provide DRM processes and systems for distributing content. These processes and systems encrypt and decrypt content based on cryptographic keys. Encrypting content entails transforming the content from a decipherable form (called plaintext) into an indecipherable form (called ciphertext) based on one or more cryptographic keys. Decrypting content entails transforming encrypted content into a decipherable from by using one or more cryptographic keys.
  • An encryption key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. In symmetrical encryption technology, the key that is used to encrypt content is the same key that is used to decrypt content. In asymmetric encryption technology, the same key is not used to encrypt and decrypt the content. For instance, in one scheme, an encrypting device uses a public key of a recipient to encrypt content, and the recipient uses its private key to decrypt the encrypted content.
  • Many of the features of the embodiments described above can be implemented according to a symmetrical or asymmetrical encryption approach. Also, in some embodiments, the encryption is applied to a binary format of the content. Although the unencrypted binary format of a piece of content may be hard for a human to decipher, it can be deciphered by an application or an operating system. On the other hand, encrypted binary format of a piece of content ideally should not be deciphered by any application or operating system, without first being decrypted by using one or more cryptographic keys.
  • While the invention has been described with reference to numerous specific details, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the invention can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit of the invention. For instance, even though one set of keys are described above for the media storage files of some embodiments, other embodiments provide different sets of keys for defining different levels of access on different devices to the content of a media storage file. Thus, one of ordinary skill in the art would understand that the invention is not to be limited by the foregoing illustrative details, but rather is to be defined by the appended claims.

Claims (22)

1-21. (canceled)
22. A method for distributing media content to a device, the method comprising:
from a key source, sending a request to a content source that stores protected media portions to provide a single media storage structure to the device, wherein the key source stores keys for decrypting various protected media portions, wherein the single media storage structure comprises a plurality of the protected media portions stored by the content source;
at the key source, receiving from the device a confirmation that the single media storage structure has been successfully received from the content source by the device; and
from the key source, sending to the device a key for each of the plurality of protected media portions in the single media storage structure that the device has permission to access, wherein the keys are provided in response to the confirmation that is received from the device.
23. The method of claim 22 further comprising, before sending the request to the content source, completing, at the key source, a financial transaction with the device in which the device acquires a right to access the protected media portions in the single media storage structure.
24. The method of claim 23 further comprising receiving, at the key source, a request to purchase content from the device before completing the financial transaction.
25. The method of claim 22, wherein the media storage structure further comprises a set of empty slots associated with the protected media portions and the keys sent to the device are for insertion into the empty slots at the device.
26. The method of claim 22, wherein the method does not send the keys to the device until after receipt of the confirmation from the device.
27. The method of claim 22, wherein the key source is a DRM server, the content source is one of a plurality of distributed content caching computers, and the device is a user computer.
28. A method for distributing media content to a device, the method comprising:
at a content source for storing and distributing protected media portions, receiving, from a key source, a request to provide a single media storage structure comprising a set of protected media portions to the device, wherein the key source is for storing and distributing keys that grant access to the protected media portions that are stored at the content source; and
at the content source, in response to the request received from the key source and without receiving a request from the device, providing the requested single media storage structure to the device.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the content source is one of a plurality of distributed sources for storing and distributing protected media portions.
30. The method of claim 28, wherein the request is received after a financial transaction is performed between the key source and the device, and wherein the financial transaction comprises a purchase of a license to access at least one media portion of the unitary media storage structure.
31. The method of claim 28, wherein the set of protected media portions comprises (i) a first protected media portion that is encrypted by using a symmetric encoding scheme and (ii) a second protected media portion that is encrypted by using an asymmetric encrypting scheme.
32. The method of claim 28, wherein the set of protected media portions comprises (i) a first audio media portion that is fully encrypted and (ii) a second video media portion that is partially encrypted.
33. The method of claim 28, wherein the media storage structure further comprises a set of empty slots for storing keys that grant access to the protected media portions.
34. A non-transitory machine readable medium of a device storing a program which when executed by at least one processing unit of the device acquires media content at the device, the program comprising sets of instructions for:
sending a request to purchase content to a key source that stores keys for decrypting various protected media portions;
receiving a single media storage structure from a content source that stores protected media portions, wherein the single media storage structure stores the purchased content as protected media portions;
sending a confirmation of the receipt of the single media storage structure to the key source; and
receiving a set of keys for accessing the protected media portions from the key source after sending the confirmation of the receipt of the single media storage structure.
35. The non-transitory machine readable medium of claim 34, wherein the program further comprises a set of instructions for completing a financial transaction with the key source in which the device acquires a right to access the purchased content after sending the request to purchase content to the key source.
36. The non-transitory machine readable medium of claim 34, wherein the device does not receive the set of keys until after the key source has received the confirmation of the receipt of the single media storage structure.
37. The non-transitory machine readable medium of claim 34, wherein the media storage structure further comprises a set of empty slots associated with the protected media portions.
38. The non-transitory machine readable medium of claim 37, wherein the program further comprises a set of instructions for inserting the received set of keys into the slots of the media storage structure.
39. The non-transitory machine readable medium of claim 38, wherein the program further comprises a set of instructions for accessing the protected media portions after inserting the received set of keys into the slots of the media storage structure.
40. A content-distribution system comprising:
a set of key distribution computers for (i) receiving a request, from a device, to purchase content, (ii) requesting that a set of content distribution computers provide the purchased content to the device in a protected form, and (iii) distributing a set of keys to the device in response to a confirmation received from the device that the device has received a single media storage structure comprising a set of protected media portions from a set of content distribution computers, wherein each particular key in the set of keys is for accessing a particular protected media portion in the single media storage structure;
the set of content distribution computers for distributing the single media storage structure comprising the set of protected media portions to the device; and
the device for (i) receiving the single media storage structure, (ii) sending the confirmation to the set of key distribution computers after receiving the single media storage structure, and (iii) receiving the set of keys after sending the confirmation.
41. The system of claim 40, wherein the media storage structure further comprises a set of empty slots associated with the protected media portions.
42. The method of claim 41, wherein the device is further for inserting the received set of keys into the empty slots of the single media storage structure and accessing the protected media portions by using the keys inserted into the single media storage structure.
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