US20130002715A1 - Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets - Google Patents

Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20130002715A1
US20130002715A1 US13534414 US201213534414A US2013002715A1 US 20130002715 A1 US20130002715 A1 US 20130002715A1 US 13534414 US13534414 US 13534414 US 201213534414 A US201213534414 A US 201213534414A US 2013002715 A1 US2013002715 A1 US 2013002715A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
image
sequence
measurements
light
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US13534414
Inventor
James M. Tidman
Tyler H. Weston
Matthew A. Herman
Lenore McMackin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
InView Tech Corp
Original Assignee
InView Tech Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/222Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment ; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices, e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles
    • H04N5/225Television cameras ; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules specially adapted for being embedded in other devices, e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles
    • H04N5/232Devices for controlling television cameras, e.g. remote control ; Control of cameras comprising an electronic image sensor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/90Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using coding techniques not provided for in groups H04N19/10-H04N19/85, e.g. fractals
    • H04N19/97Matching pursuit coding

Abstract

A compressive imaging mechanism for increasing the rate at which images can be acquired and reconstructed. An incident light stream is modulated with a time sequence of spatial patterns using a light modulator. The modulated light stream is sensed with a light sensor to obtain a time sequence (stream) of measurements. Overlapping subsets of the measurements are generated at a rate that equals a desired image rate. Each of the subsets is processed to algorithmically reconstruct a corresponding image, preferably with bounded latency. The resulting images are displayed at the desired image rate. The modulation, sensing, subset generation, reconstruction and display may be arranged as a continuous pipeline process. Different images rates may be achieved by changing the amount of overlap between the subsets.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION DATA
  • This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/502,153, filed on Jun. 28, 2011, entitled “Various Compressive Sensing Mechanisms”, invented by Tidman, Weston, Bridge, McMackin, Chatterjee, Woods, Baraniuk and Kelly, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety as though fully and completely set forth herein.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to the field of compressive imaging, and more particularly, to mechanisms for accelerating the rate at which compressive imaging devices can acquire and reconstruct sequences of images.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
  • According to Nyquist theory, a signal x(t) whose signal energy is supported on the frequency interval [−B,B] may be reconstructed from samples {x(nT)} of the signal x(t), provided the rate fS=1/TS at which the samples are captured is sufficiently high, i.e., provided that fS is greater than 2B. Similarly, for a signal whose signal energy is supported on the frequency interval [A,B], the signal may be reconstructed from samples captured with sample rate greater than B−A. A fundamental problem with any attempt to capture a signal x(t) according to Nyquist theory is the large number of samples that are generated, especially when B (or B−A) is large. The large number of samples is taxing on memory resources and on the capacity of transmission channels.
  • Nyquist theory is not limited to functions of time. Indeed, Nyquist theory applies more generally to any function of one or more real variables. For example, Nyquist theory applies to functions of two spatial variables such as images, to functions of time and two spatial variables such as video, and to the functions used in multispectral imaging, hyperspectral imaging, medical imaging and a wide variety of other applications. In the case of an image I(x,y) that depends on spatial variables x and y, the image may be reconstructed from samples of the image, provided the samples are captured with sufficiently high spatial density. For example, given samples {I(nΔx,mΔy)} captured along a rectangular grid, the horizontal and vertical densities 1/Δx and 1/Δy should be respectively greater than 2Bx and 2By, where Bx and By are the highest x and y spatial frequencies occurring in the image I(x,y). The same problem of overwhelming data volume is experienced when attempting to capture an image according to Nyquist theory. The modern theory of compressive sensing is directed to such problems.
  • Compressive sensing relies on the observation that many signals (e.g., images or video sequences) of practical interest are not only band-limited but also sparse or approximately sparse when represented using an appropriate choice of transformation, for example, a transformation such as a Fourier transform, a wavelet transform or a discrete cosine transform (DCT). A signal vector v is said to be K-sparse with respect to a given transformation T when the transformation of the signal vector, Tv, has no more than K non-zero coefficients. A signal vector v is said to be sparse with respect to a given transformation T when it is K-sparse with respect to that transformation for some integer K much smaller than the number L of components in the transformation vector Tv.
  • A signal vector v is said to be approximately K-sparse with respect to a given transformation T when the coefficients of the transformation vector, Tv, are dominated by the K largest coefficients (i.e., largest in the sense of magnitude or absolute value). In other words, if the K largest coefficients account for a high percentage of the energy in the entire set of coefficients, then the signal vector v is approximately K-sparse with respect to transformation T. A signal vector v is said to be approximately sparse with respect to a given transformation T when it is approximately K-sparse with respect to the transformation T for some integer K much less than the number L of components in the transformation vector Tv.
  • Given a sensing device that captures images with N samples per image and in conformity to the Nyquist condition on spatial rates, it is often the case that there exists some transformation and some integer K very much smaller than N such that the transform of each captured image will be approximately K sparse. The set of K dominant coefficients may vary from one image to the next. Furthermore, the value of K and the selection of the transformation may vary from one context (e.g., imaging application) to the next. Examples of typical transforms that might work in different contexts include the Fourier transform, the wavelet transform, the DCT, the Gabor transform, etc.
  • Compressive sensing specifies a way of operating on the N samples of an image so as to generate a much smaller set of samples from which the N samples may be reconstructed, given knowledge of the transform under which the image is sparse (or approximately sparse). In particular, compressive sensing invites one to think of the N samples as a vector v in an N-dimensional space and to imagine projecting the vector v onto each vector in a series of M vectors {R(i): i=1, 2, . . . , M} in the N-dimensional space, where M is larger than K but still much smaller than N. Each projection gives a corresponding real number S(i), e.g., according to the expression

  • S(i)=<v,R(i)>,
  • where the notation <v,R(i)> represents the inner product (or dot product) of the vector v and the vector R(i). Thus, the series of M projections gives a vector U including M real numbers: Ui=S(i). Compressive sensing theory further prescribes methods for reconstructing (or estimating) the vector v of N samples from the vector U of M real numbers. For example, according to one method, one should determine the vector x that has the smallest length (in the sense of the L1 norm) subject to the condition that ΦTx=U, where Φ is a matrix whose rows are the transposes of the vectors R(i), where T is the transformation under which the image is K sparse or approximately K sparse.
  • Compressive sensing is important because, among other reasons, it allows reconstruction of an image based on M measurements instead of the much larger number of measurements N recommended by Nyquist theory. Thus, for example, a compressive sensing camera would be able to capture a significantly larger number of images for a given size of image store, and/or, transmit a significantly larger number of images per unit time through a communication channel of given capacity.
  • As mentioned above, compressive sensing operates by projecting the image vector v onto a series of M vectors. As discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 8,199,244, issued Jun. 12, 2012 (invented by Baraniuk et al.) and illustrated in FIG. 1A, an imaging device (e.g., camera) may be configured to take advantage of the compressive sensing paradigm by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) 40. An incident lightfield 10 passes through a lens 20 and then interacts with the DMD 40. The DMD includes a two-dimensional array of micromirrors, each of which is configured to independently and controllably switch between two orientation states. Each micromirror reflects a corresponding portion of the incident light field based on its instantaneous orientation. Any micromirrors in a first of the two orientation states will reflect their corresponding light portions so that they pass through lens 50. Any micromirrors in a second of the two orientation states will reflect their corresponding light portions away from lens 50. Lens 50 serves to concentrate the light portions from micromirrors in the first orientation state onto a photodiode (or photodetector) situated at location 60. Thus, the photodiode generates a signal whose amplitude at any given time represents a sum of the intensities of the light portions from the micromirrors in the first orientation state.
  • The compressive sensing is implemented by driving the orientations of the micromirrors through a series of spatial patterns. Each spatial pattern specifies an orientation state for each of the micromirrors. The output signal of the photodiode is digitized by an A/D converter 70. In this fashion, the imaging device is able to capture a series of measurements {S(i)} that represent inner products (dot products) between the incident light field and the series of spatial patterns without first acquiring the incident light field as a pixelized digital image. The incident light field corresponds to the vector v of the discussion above, and the spatial patterns correspond to the vectors R(i) of the discussion above.
  • The incident light field may be modeled by a function I(x,y,t) of two spatial variables and time. Assuming for the sake of discussion that the DMD comprises a rectangular array, the DMD implements a spatial modulation of the incident light field so that the light field leaving the DMD in the direction of the lens 50 might be modeled by

  • {I(nΔx,mΔy,t)*M(n,m,t)}
  • where m and n are integer indices, where I(nΔx,mΔy,t) represents the portion of the light field that is incident upon that (n,m)th mirror of the DMD at time t. The function M(n,m,t) represents the orientation of the (n,m)th mirror of the DMD at time t. At sampling times, the function M(n,m,t) equals one or zero, depending on the state of the digital control signal that controls the (n,m)th mirror. The condition M(n,m,t)=1 corresponds to the orientation state that reflects onto the path that leads to the lens 50. The condition M(n,m,t)=0 corresponds to the orientation state that reflects away from the lens 50.
  • The lens 50 concentrates the spatially-modulated light field

  • {I(nΔx,mΔy,t)*M(n,m,t)}
  • onto a light sensitive surface of the photodiode. Thus, the lens and the photodiode together implement a spatial summation of the light portions in the spatially-modulated light field:
  • S ( t ) = n , m I ( n Δ x , m Δ y , t ) M ( n , m , t ) .
  • Signal S(t) may be interpreted as the intensity at time t of the concentrated spot of light impinging upon the light sensing surface of the photodiode. The A/D converter captures measurements of S(t). In this fashion, the compressive sensing camera optically computes an inner product of the incident light field with each spatial pattern imposed on the mirrors. The multiplication portion of the inner product is implemented by the mirrors of the DMD. The summation portion of the inner product is implemented by the concentrating action of the lens and also the integrating action of the photodiode.
  • SUMMARY
  • In a compressive imaging system, an incident light stream from a scene under observation is modulated with a time sequence of spatial patterns, and the modulated light stream is sensed with a light detector. The electrical signal generated by the light detector is sampled by an analog-to-digital converter to acquire a sequence of samples. The sequence of samples may comprise a compressed representation of a sequence of images carried by the incident light stream. The samples may be partitioned into non-overlapping subsets of M samples each. As shown in FIG. 1B, each sample subset may be processed by a computational algorithm to reconstruct a corresponding N-pixel image, where N is greater than M. (Each image is said to be “reconstructed” because it is recognized as having previously existed, although only transiently, in the incident light stream. By use of the term “reconstructing”, we do not mean to suggest that the image has existed in stored digital form prior to the acquisition of the samples.) For example, the first set of M samples of the sample sequence may be used to reconstruct the image F1. The second set of M samples of the sample sequence may be used to reconstruct the image F2, and so on.
  • One of the challenges in compressive imaging is acquiring the sample subsets fast enough to compete with conventional cameras that employ array-based light sensors (such as focal plane arrays, CCD arrays, etc.), and therefore, are able to non-compressively acquire images at video rates. In a compressive imaging system, the rate of acquisition of the sample subsets may be limited by the rate at which the light modulator can be reconfigured. For example, one of the digital micromirror devices (DMDs) supplied by Texas Instruments has a maximum pattern modulation rate of about 32,000 patterns per second. Under the assumption of a 10% compressive sensing ratio, the compressive imaging system would have to collect 100,000 samples in order to effectively capture a one megapixel image. The 100,000 samples would be algorithmically processed to reconstruct the one mega-pixel image. However, approximately three seconds (100K/32 KHz) are required to collect the 100,000 samples, assuming the 32 KHz pattern modulation rate. Thus, there exists a need for mechanisms capable of increasing the rate at which reconstructed images can be generated.
  • It should be understood that the specific numbers (32,000 KHz, 100000 samples, one megapixel, 10% compression ratio) given above are only for the sake of illustration and are not meant to be limiting to the scope of the inventions herein claimed.
  • A method for reconstructing a sequence of images from compressively-acquired sequence of measurements may involve the following operations.
  • The method may include modulating an incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream, where the modulation includes applying the spatial patterns to the incident light stream successively in time. A sequence of measurements is acquired from a light sensing device. The sequence of measurements represents intensity of the modulated light stream over time. Each of the measurements is acquired in response to the application of a respective one of the spatial patterns to the incident light stream.
  • The method may also include generating a sequence of subsets of the intensity measurements. Each consecutive pair of the subsets overlap by a nonzero amount. Each of the subsets corresponds to a respective group of the spatial patterns.
  • The method may also include reconstructing a sequence of images, where each of the images is reconstructed from a respective input data set including a respective one of the subsets of intensity measurements and a respective one of the groups of the spatial patterns. The sequence of images may be displayed using a display device.
  • In some embodiments, the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence may also include a previously-reconstructed image of the image sequence. The previously-reconstructed image serves as an initial estimate for the current image, and, may allow the reconstruction algorithm to converge faster to its final estimate for the current image than if no initial estimate were provided.
  • In some embodiments, the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence may also include a partially-reconstructed version of a previous image of the image sequence.
  • Various additional embodiments are described in U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/502,153, filed on Jun. 28, 2011, entitled “Various Compressive Sensing Mechanisms”.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • A better understanding of the present invention can be obtained when the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments is considered in conjunction with the following drawings.
  • FIG. 1A illustrates a compressive sensing camera according to the prior art.
  • FIG. 1B illustrates a scheme for generating a sequence of images from a sequence of non-overlapping subsets of a measurement stream.
  • FIG. 2A illustrates one embodiment of a system 100 that is operable to capture compressive imaging samples and also samples of background light level. (LMU is an acronym for “light modulation unit”. MLS is an acronym for “modulated light stream”. LSD is an acronym for “light sensing device”.)
  • FIG. 2B illustrates an embodiment of system 100 that includes a processing unit 150.
  • FIG. 2C illustrates an embodiment of system 100 that includes an optical subsystem 105 to focus received light L onto the light modulation unit 110.
  • FIG. 2D illustrates an embodiment of system 100 that includes an optical subsystem 117 to direct or focus or concentrate the modulated light stream MLS onto the light sensing device 130.
  • FIG. 2E illustrates an embodiment where the optical subsystem 117 is realized by a lens 117L.
  • FIG. 2F illustrates an embodiment of system 100 that includes a control unit that is configured to supply a series of spatial patterns to the light modulation unit 110.
  • FIG. 3A illustrates system 200, where the light modulation unit 110 is realized by a plurality of mirrors (collectively referenced by label 110M).
  • FIG. 3B shows an embodiment of system 200 that includes the processing unit 150.
  • FIG. 4 shows an embodiment of system 200 that includes the optical subsystem 117 to direct or focus or concentrate the modulated light stream MLS onto the light sensing device 130.
  • FIG. 5A shows an embodiment of system 200 where the optical subsystem 117 is realized by the lens 117L.
  • FIG. 5B shows an embodiment of system 200 where the optical subsystem 117 is realized by a mirror 117M and lens 117L in series.
  • FIG. 5C shows another embodiment of system 200 that includes a TIR prism pair 107.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates one embodiment of a method for operating a compressive imaging system, involving the reconstruction of images from overlapping subsets of a compressively-acquired stream of measurements.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates an example of the overlap between successive subsets of the measurement stream, where the overlap ratio is 75%.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a generic model for the overlapping subsets, where the overlap ratio is r.
  • FIG. 9A illustrates an example of the arrangement in time of subset acquisition and image reconstruction for three successive subsets of the measurement stream.
  • FIG. 9B illustrates an example of the arrangement in time of subset acquisition and image reconstruction for successive subsets of the measurement stream in the case where the overlap ratio is 75%.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates one embodiment of a system 1000 configured to reconstruct images based on overlapping subsets of the measurements captured from light sensing device 1020.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates one embodiment of the system 1000 where image reconstruction is performed at a location separate from the location of the compressive acquisition hardware (i.e., the light modulation unit 1010 and light sensing device 1020).
  • FIG. 12 illustrates one embodiment of the system 1000 that includes a user interface 1050 for controlling a target image rate of the reconstructed image sequence.
  • FIG. 13 illustrates one embodiment of a compressive imaging system 1300 including one or more detector channels.
  • FIG. 14 illustrates one embodiment of a compressive imaging system 1400 where separate portions of the modulated light stream MLS are delivered to respective light sensing devices.
  • While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the drawings and detailed description thereto are not intended to limit the invention to the particular form disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Terminology
  • A memory medium is a non-transitory medium configured for the storage and retrieval of information. Examples of memory media include: various kinds of semiconductor-based memory such as RAM and ROM; various kinds of magnetic media such as magnetic disk, tape, strip and film; various kinds of optical media such as CD-ROM and DVD-ROM; various media based on the storage of electrical charge and/or any of a wide variety of other physical quantities; media fabricated using various lithographic techniques; etc. The term “memory medium” includes within its scope of meaning the possibility that a given memory medium might be a union of two or more memory media that reside at different locations, e.g., on different chips in a system or on different computers in a network.
  • A computer-readable memory medium may be configured so that it stores program instructions and/or data, where the program instructions, if executed by a computer system, cause the computer system to perform a method, e.g., any of a method embodiments described herein, or, any combination of the method embodiments described herein, or, any subset of any of the method embodiments described herein, or, any combination of such subsets.
  • A computer system is any device (or combination of devices) having at least one processor that is configured to execute program instructions stored on a memory medium. Examples of computer systems include personal computers (PCs), workstations, laptop computers, tablet computers, mainframe computers, server computers, client computers, network or Internet appliances, hand-held devices, mobile devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), tablet computers, computer-based television systems, grid computing systems, wearable computers, computers implanted in living organisms, computers embedded in head-mounted displays, computers embedded in sensors forming a distributed network, etc.
  • A programmable hardware element (PHE) is a hardware device that includes multiple programmable function blocks connected via a system of programmable interconnects. Examples of PHEs include FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), PLDs (Programmable Logic Devices), FPOAs (Field Programmable Object Arrays), and CPLDs (Complex PLDs). The programmable function blocks may range from fine grained (combinatorial logic or look up tables) to coarse grained (arithmetic logic units or processor cores).
  • As used herein, the term “light” is meant to encompass within its scope of meaning any electromagnetic radiation whose spectrum lies within the wavelength range [λL, λU], where the wavelength range includes the visible spectrum, the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, infrared (IR) spectrum and the terahertz (THz) spectrum. Thus, for example, visible radiation, or UV radiation, or IR radiation, or THz radiation, or any combination thereof is “light” as used herein.
  • In some embodiments, a computer system may be configured to include a processor (or a set of processors) and a memory medium, where the memory medium stores program instructions, where the processor is configured to read and execute the program instructions stored in the memory medium, where the program instructions are executable by the processor to implement a method, e.g., any of the various method embodiments described herein, or, any combination of the method embodiments described herein, or, any subset of any of the method embodiments described herein, or, any combination of such subsets.
  • System 100 for Operating on Light
  • A system 100 for operating on light may be configured as shown in FIG. 2A. The system 100 may include a light modulation unit 110, a light sensing device 130 and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) 140.
  • The light modulation unit 110 is configured to modulate a received stream of light L with a series of spatial patterns in order to produce a modulated light stream (MLS). The spatial patterns of the series may be applied sequentially to the light stream so that successive time slices of the light stream are modulated, respectively, with successive ones of the spatial patterns. (The action of sequentially modulating the light stream L with the spatial patterns imposes the structure of time slices on the light stream.) The light modulation unit 110 includes a plurality of light modulating elements configured to modulate corresponding portions of the light stream. Each of the spatial patterns specifies an amount (or extent or value) of modulation for each of the light modulating elements. Mathematically, one might think of the light modulation unit's action of applying a given spatial pattern as performing an element-wise multiplication of a light field vector (xij) representing a time slice of the light stream L by a vector of scalar modulation values (mij) to obtain a time slice of the modulated light stream: (mij)*(xij)=(mij*xij). The vector (mij) is specified by the spatial pattern. Each light modulating element effectively scales (multiplies) the intensity of its corresponding light stream portion by the corresponding scalar factor.
  • The light modulation unit 110 may be realized in various ways. In some embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by a plurality of mirrors (e.g., micromirrors) whose orientations are independently controllable. In another set of embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by an array of elements whose transmittances are independently controllable, e.g., as with an array of LCD shutters. An electrical control signal supplied to each element controls the extent to which light is able to transmit through the element. In yet another set of embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by an array of independently-controllable mechanical shutters (e.g., micromechanical shutters) that cover an array of apertures, with the shutters opening and closing in response to electrical control signals, thereby controlling the flow of light through the corresponding apertures. In yet another set of embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by a perforated mechanical plate, with the entire plate moving in response to electrical control signals, thereby controlling the flow of light through the corresponding perforations. In yet another set of embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by an array of transceiver elements, where each element receives and then immediately retransmits light in a controllable fashion. In yet another set of embodiments, the LMU 110 may be realized by a grating light valve (GLV) device. In yet another embodiment, the LMU 110 may be realized by a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) device.
  • In some embodiments, the light modulating elements are arranged in an array, e.g., a two-dimensional array or a one-dimensional array. Any of various array geometries are contemplated. For example, in some embodiments, the array is a square array or rectangular array. In another embodiment, the array is hexagonal. In some embodiments, the light modulating elements are arranged in a spatially random fashion.
  • Let N denote the number of light modulating elements in the light modulation unit 110. In various embodiments, the number N may take a wide variety of values. For example, in different sets of embodiments, N may be, respectively, in the range [64, 256], in the range [256, 1024], in the range [1024,4096], in the range [212,214], in the range [214,216], in the range [216,218], in the range [218,220], in the range [220,222], in the range [222,224] in the range [224,226], in the range from 226 to infinity. The particular value used in any given embodiment may depend on one or more factors specific to the embodiment.
  • The light sensing device 130 may be configured to receive the modulated light stream MLS and to generate an analog electrical signal IMLS(t) representing intensity of the modulated light stream as a function of time.
  • The light sensing device 130 may include one or more light sensing elements. The term “light sensing element” may be interpreted as meaning “a transducer between a light signal and an electrical signal”. For example, a photodiode is a light sensing element. In various other embodiments, light sensing elements might include devices such as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, phototransistors, phototubes and photomultiplier tubes.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 includes one or more amplifiers (e.g., transimpedance amplifiers) to amplify the analog electrical signals generated by the one or more light sensing elements.
  • The ADC 140 acquires a sequence of samples {IMLS(k)} of the analog electrical signal IMLS(t). Each of the samples may be interpreted as an inner product between a corresponding time slice of the light stream L and a corresponding one of the spatial patterns. The set of samples {IMLS(k)} comprises an encoded representation, e.g., a compressed representation, of an image (or a video sequence) and may be used to reconstruct the image (or video sequence) based on any reconstruction algorithm known in the field of compressive sensing. (For video sequence reconstruction, the samples may be partitioned into contiguous subsets, and then the subsets may be processed to reconstruct corresponding images.)
  • In some embodiments, the samples {IMLS(k)} may be used for some purpose other than, or in addition to, image (or video) reconstruction. For example, system 100 (or some other system) may operate on the samples to perform an inference task, such as detecting the presence of a signal or object, identifying a signal or an object, classifying a signal or an object, estimating one or more parameters relating to a signal or an object, tracking a signal or an object, etc. In some embodiments, an object under observation by system 100 may be identified or classified by virtue of its sample set {IMLS(k)} (or parameters derived from that sample set) being similar to one of a collection of stored sample sets (or parameter sets).
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 includes exactly one light sensing element. (For example, the single light sensing element may be a photodiode.) The light sensing element may couple to an amplifier (e.g., a TIA) (e.g., a multi-stage amplifier).
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may include a plurality of light sensing elements (e.g., photodiodes). Each light sensing element may convert light impinging on its light sensing surface into a corresponding analog electrical signal representing intensity of the impinging light as a function of time. In some embodiments, each light sensing element may couple to a corresponding amplifier so that the analog electrical signal produced by the light sensing element can be amplified prior to digitization. System 100 may be configured so that each light sensing element receives, e.g., a corresponding spatial portion (or spectral portion) of the modulated light stream.
  • In one embodiment, the analog electrical signals produced, respectively, by the light sensing elements may be summed to obtain a sum signal. The sum signal may then be digitized by the ADC 140 to obtain the sequence of samples {IMLS(k)}. In another embodiment, the analog electrical signals may be individually digitized, each with its own ADC, to obtain corresponding sample sequences. The sample sequences may then be added to obtain the sequence {IMLS(k)}. In another embodiment, the analog electrical signals produced by the light sensing elements may be sampled by a smaller number of ADCs than light sensing elements through the use of time multiplexing. For example, in one embodiment, system 100 may be configured to sample two or more of the analog electrical signals by switching the input of an ADC among the outputs of the two or more corresponding light sensing elements at a sufficiently high rate.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may include an array of light sensing elements. Arrays of any of a wide variety of sizes, configurations and material technologies are contemplated. In one embodiment, the light sensing device 130 includes a focal plane array coupled to a readout integrated circuit. In one embodiment, the light sensing device 130 may include an array of cells, where each cell includes a corresponding light sensing element and is configured to integrate and hold photo-induced charge created by the light sensing element, and to convert the integrated charge into a corresponding cell voltage. The light sensing device may also include (or couple to) circuitry configured to sample the cell voltages using one or more ADCs.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may include a plurality (or array) of light sensing elements, where each light sensing element is configured to receive a corresponding spatial portion of the modulated light stream, and each spatial portion of the modulated light stream comes from a corresponding sub-region of the array of light modulating elements. (For example, the light sensing device 130 may include a quadrant photodiode, where each quadrant of the photodiode is configured to receive modulated light from a corresponding quadrant of the array of light modulating elements. As another example, the light sensing device 130 may include a bi-cell photodiode. As yet another example, the light sensing device 130 may include a focal plane array.) Each light sensing element generates a corresponding signal representing intensity of the corresponding spatial portion as a function of time. Each signal may be digitized (e.g., by a corresponding ADC, or perhaps by a shared ADC) to obtain a corresponding sequence of samples. Thus, a plurality of sample sequences are obtained, one sample sequence per light sensing element. Each sample sequence may be processed to reconstruct a corresponding sub-image (or sub-video sequence). The sub-images may be joined together to form a whole image (or whole video sequence). The sample sequences may be captured in response to the modulation of the incident light stream with a sequence of M spatial patterns, e.g., as variously described above. By employing any of various reconstruction algorithms known in the field of compressive sensing, the number of pixels (voxels) in each reconstructed image (sub-video sequence) may be greater than (e.g., much greater than) M. To reconstruct each sub-image (sub-video), the reconstruction algorithm uses the corresponding sample sequence and the restriction of the spatial patterns to the corresponding sub-region of the array of light modulating elements.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 includes a small number of light sensing elements (e.g., in respective embodiments, one, two, less than 8, less than 16, less the 32, less than 64, less than 128, less than 256). Because the light sensing device of these embodiments includes a small number of light sensing elements (e.g., far less than the typical modern CCD-based or CMOS-based camera), an entity interested in producing any of these embodiments may afford to spend more per light sensing element to realize features that are beyond the capabilities of modern array-based image sensors of large pixel count, e.g., features such as higher sensitivity, extended range of sensitivity, new range(s) of sensitivity, extended dynamic range, higher bandwidth/lower response time. Furthermore, because the light sensing device includes a small number of light sensing elements, an entity interested in producing any of these embodiments may use newer light sensing technologies (e.g., based on new materials or combinations of materials) that are not yet mature enough to be manufactured into focal plane arrays (FPA) with large pixel count. For example, new detector materials such as super-lattices, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and graphene can significantly enhance the performance of IR detectors by reducing detector noise, increasing sensitivity, and/or decreasing detector cooling requirements.
  • In one embodiment, the light sensing device 130 is a thermo-electrically cooled InGaAs detector. (InGaAs stands for “Indium Gallium Arsenide”.) In other embodiments, the InGaAs detector may be cooled by other mechanisms (e.g., liquid nitrogen or a Sterling engine). In yet other embodiments, the InGaAs detector may operate without cooling. In yet other embodiments, different detector materials may be used, e.g., materials such as MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride), InSb (Indium Antimonide) and VOx (Vanadium Oxide).
  • In different embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may be sensitive to light at different wavelengths or wavelength ranges. In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may be sensitive to light over a broad range of wavelengths, e.g., over the entire visible spectrum or over the entire range [λLu] as defined above.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 130 may include one or more dual-sandwich photodetectors. A dual sandwich photodetector includes two photodiodes stacked (or layered) one on top of the other.
  • In one embodiment, the light sensing device 130 may include one or more avalanche photodiodes.
  • In one embodiment, the light sensing device 130 may include one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).
  • In some embodiments, a filter may be placed in front of the light sensing device 130 to restrict the modulated light stream to a specific range of wavelengths or specific polarization. Thus, the signal IMLS(t) generated by the light sensing device 130 may be representative of the intensity of the restricted light stream. For example, by using a filter that passes only IR light, the light sensing device may be effectively converted into an IR detector. The sample principle may be applied to effectively convert the light sensing device into a detector for red or blue or green or UV or any desired wavelength band, or, a detector for light of a certain polarization.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 includes a color wheel whose rotation is synchronized with the application of the spatial patterns to the light modulation unit. As it rotates, the color wheel cyclically applies a number of optical bandpass filters to the modulated light stream MLS. Each bandpass filter restricts the modulated light stream to a corresponding sub-band of wavelengths. Thus, the samples captured by the ADC 140 will include samples of intensity in each of the sub-bands. The samples may be de-multiplexed to form separate sub-band sequences. Each sub-band sequence may be processed to generate a corresponding sub-band image. (As an example, the color wheel may include a red-pass filter, a green-pass filter and a blue-pass filter to support color imaging.)
  • In some embodiments, the system 100 may include a memory (or a set of memories of one or more kinds).
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include a processing unit 150, e.g., as shown in FIG. 2B. The processing unit 150 may be a digital circuit or a combination of digital circuits. For example, the processing unit may be a microprocessor (or system of interconnected of microprocessors), a programmable hardware element such as a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or any combination such elements. The processing unit 150 may be configured to perform one or more functions such as image/video reconstruction, system control, user interface, statistical analysis, and one or more inferences tasks.
  • The system 100 (e.g., the processing unit 150) may store the samples {IMLS(k)} in a memory, e.g., a memory resident in the system 100 or in some other system.
  • In one embodiment, processing unit 150 is configured to operate on the samples {IMLS(k)} to generate the image or video sequence. In this embodiment, the processing unit 150 may include a microprocessor configured to execute software (i.e., program instructions), especially software for performing an image/video reconstruction algorithm. In one embodiment, system 100 is configured to transmit the compensated samples to some other system through a communication channel. (In embodiments where the spatial patterns are randomly-generated, system 100 may also transmit the random seed(s) used to generate the spatial patterns.) That other system may operate on the samples to reconstruct the image/video. System 100 may have one or more interfaces configured for sending (and perhaps also receiving) data through one or more communication channels, e.g., channels such as wireless channels, wired channels, fiber optic channels, acoustic channels, laser-based channels, etc.
  • In some embodiments, processing unit 150 is configured to use any of a variety of algorithms and/or any of a variety of transformations to perform image/video reconstruction. System 100 may allow a user to choose a desired algorithm and/or a desired transformation for performing the image/video reconstruction.
  • In some embodiments, the system 100 is configured to acquire a set ZM of samples from the ADC 140 so that the sample set ZM corresponds to M of the spatial patterns applied to the light modulation unit 110, where M is a positive integer. The number M is selected so that the sample set ZM is useable to reconstruct an n-pixel image or n-voxel video sequence that represents the incident light stream, where n is a positive integer less than or equal to the number N of light modulating elements in the light modulation unit 110. System 100 may be configured so that the number M is smaller than n. Thus, system 100 may operate as a compressive sensing device. (The number of “voxels” in a video sequence is the number of images in the video sequence times the number of pixels per image, or equivalently, the sum of the pixel counts of the images in the video sequence.)
  • In various embodiments, the compression ratio M/n may take any of a wide variety of values. For example, in different sets of embodiments, M/n may be, respectively, in the range [0.9,0.8], in the range [0.8,0.7], in the range [0.7,0.6], in the range [0.6,0.5], in the range [0.5,0.4], in the range [0.4,0.3], in the range [0.3,0.2], in the range [0.2,0.1], in the range [0.1,0.05], in the range [0.05,0.01], in the range [0.001,0.01].
  • Superpixels for Modulation at Lower Spatial Resolution
  • As noted above, the image reconstructed from the sample subset ZM may be an n-pixel image with n≦N. The spatial patterns may be designed to support a value of n less than N, e.g., by forcing the array of light modulating elements to operate at a lower effective resolution than the physical resolution N. For example, the spatial patterns may be designed to force each 2×2 cell of light modulating elements to act in unison. At any given time, the modulation state of the four elements in a 2×2 cell will agree. Thus, the effective resolution of the array of light modulating elements is reduced to N/4. This principle generalizes to any cell size, to cells of any shape, and to collections of cells with non-uniform cell size and/or cell shape. For example, a collection of cells of size kH×kV, where kH and kV are positive integers, would give an effective resolution equal to N/(kHkV). In one alternative embodiment, cells near the center of the array may have smaller sizes than cells near the periphery of the array.
  • The “cells” of the above discussion are referred to herein as “superpixels”. When the reconstruction algorithm generates an image (video frame) from the acquired sample data, each superpixel corresponds to one pixel in the reconstructed image (video frame).
  • Restricting the Spatial Patterns to a Subset of the Modulation Array
  • Another way the spatial patterns may be arranged to support the reconstruction of an n-pixel image with n less than N is to allow the spatial patterns to vary only within a subset (or region) of the array of light modulating elements. In this mode of operation, the spatial patterns are null (take the value zero) outside the subset. (Control unit 120 may be configured to implement this restriction of the spatial patterns.) Light modulating elements corresponding to positions outside of the subset do not send any light (or send only the minimum amount of light attainable) to the light sensing device. Thus, the reconstructed image is restricted to the subset. In some embodiments, each spatial pattern (e.g., of a measurement pattern sequence) may be multiplied element-wise by a binary mask that takes the one value only in the allowed subset, and the resulting product pattern may be supplied to the light modulation unit. In some embodiments, the subset is a contiguous region of the array of light modulating elements, e.g., a rectangle or a circular disk or a hexagon. In some embodiments, the size and/or position of the region may vary (e.g., dynamically). The position of the region may vary in order to track a moving object. The size of the region may vary in order to dynamically control the rate of image acquisition or video frame rate. In some embodiments, the size of the region may be determined by user input. For example, system 100 may provide an input interface (GUI and/or mechanical control device) through which the user may vary the size of the region over a continuous range of values (or alternatively, a discrete set of values), thereby implementing a digital zoom function. Furthermore, in some embodiments, the position of the region within the field of view may be controlled by user input.
  • Oversampling Relative to Pattern Modulation Rate
  • In some embodiments, the A/D converter 140 may oversample the electrical signal generated by the light sensing device 130, i.e., acquire samples of the electrical signal at a rate higher than (e.g., a multiple of) the pattern modulation rate. The pattern modulation rate is the rate at which the spatial patterns are applied to the incident light stream L by the light modulation unit 110. Thus, the A/D converter may generate a plurality of samples per spatial pattern. The plurality of samples may be averaged to obtain a single averaged sample per spatial pattern. The averaging tends to reduce noise, and thus, to increase quality of image reconstruction. The averaging may be performed by processing unit 150 or some other processing agent. The oversampling ratio may be controlled by setting the pattern modulation rate and/or setting the A/D sampling rate.
  • In one embodiment, system 100 may include a light transmitter configured to generate a light beam (e.g., a laser beam), to modulate the light beam with a data signal and to transmit the modulated light beam into space or onto an optical fiber. System 100 may also include a light receiver configured to receive a modulated light beam from space or from an optical fiber, and to recover a data stream from the received modulated light beam.
  • In one embodiment, system 100 may be configured as a low-cost sensor system having minimal processing resources, e.g., processing resources insufficient to perform image (or video) reconstruction in user-acceptable time. In this embodiment, the system 100 may store and/or transmit the samples {IMLS(k)} so that another agent, more plentifully endowed with processing resources, may perform the image/video reconstruction based on the samples.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include an optical subsystem 105 that is configured to modify or condition the light stream L before it arrives at the light modulation unit 110, e.g., as shown in FIG. 2C. For example, the optical subsystem 105 may be configured to receive the light stream L from the environment and to focus the light stream onto a modulating plane of the light modulation unit 110. The optical subsystem 105 may include a camera lens (or a set of lenses). The lens (or set of lenses) may be adjustable to accommodate a range of distances to external objects being imaged/sensed/captured. The optical subsystem 105 may allow manual and/or digital control of one or more parameters such as focus, zoom, shutter speed and f-stop.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include an optical subsystem 117 to direct the modulated light stream MLS onto a light sensing surface (or surfaces) of the light sensing device 130.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 may include one or more lenses, and/or, one or more mirrors.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 is configured to focus the modulated light stream onto the light sensing surface (or surfaces). The term “focus” implies an attempt to achieve the condition that rays (photons) diverging from a point on an object plane converge to a point (or an acceptably small spot) on an image plane. The term “focus” also typically implies continuity between the object plane point and the image plane point (or image plane spot); points close together on the object plane map respectively to points (or spots) close together on the image plane. In at least some of the system embodiments that include an array of light sensing elements, it may be desirable for the modulated light stream MLS to be focused onto the light sensing array so that there is continuity between points on the light modulation unit LMU and points (or spots) on the light sensing array.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 may be configured to direct the modulated light stream MLS onto the light sensing surface (or surfaces) of the light sensing device 130 in a non-focusing fashion. For example, in a system embodiment that includes only one photodiode, it may not be so important to achieve the “in focus” condition at the light sensing surface of the photodiode since positional information of photons arriving at that light sensing surface will be immediately lost.
  • In one embodiment, the optical subsystem 117 may be configured to receive the modulated light stream and to concentrate the modulated light stream into an area (e.g., a small area) on a light sensing surface of the light sensing device 130. Thus, the diameter of the modulated light stream may be reduced (possibly, radically reduced) in its transit from the optical subsystem 117 to the light sensing surface (or surfaces) of the light sensing device 130. For example, in some embodiments, the diameter may be reduced by a factor of more than 1.5 to 1. In other embodiments, the diameter may be reduced by a factor of more than 2 to 1. In yet other embodiments, the diameter may be reduced by a factor of more than 10 to 1. In yet other embodiments, the diameter may be reduced by factor of more than 100 to 1. In yet other embodiments, the diameter may be reduced by factor of more than 400 to 1. In one embodiment, the diameter is reduced so that the modulated light stream is concentrated onto the light sensing surface of a single light sensing element (e.g., a single photodiode).
  • In some embodiments, this feature of concentrating the modulated light stream onto the light sensing surface (or surfaces) of the light sensing device allows the light sensing device to sense at any given time the sum (or surface integral) of the intensities of the modulated light portions within the modulated light stream. (Each time slice of the modulated light stream comprises a spatial ensemble of modulated light portions due to the modulation unit's action of applying the corresponding spatial pattern to the light stream.)
  • In some embodiments, the modulated light stream MLS may be directed onto the light sensing surface of the light sensing device 130 without concentration, i.e., without decrease in diameter of the modulated light stream, e.g., by use of photodiode having a large light sensing surface, large enough to contain the cross section of the modulated light stream without the modulated light stream being concentrated.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 may include one or more lenses. FIG. 2E shows an embodiment where optical subsystem 117 is realized by a lens 117L, e.g., a biconvex lens or a condenser lens.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 may include one or more mirrors. In one embodiment, the optical subsystem 117 includes a parabolic mirror (or spherical mirror) to concentrate the modulated light stream onto a neighborhood (e.g., a small neighborhood) of the parabolic focal point. In this embodiment, the light sensing surface of the light sensing device may be positioned at the focal point.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include an optical mechanism (e.g., an optical mechanism including one or more prisms and/or one or more diffraction gratings) for splitting or separating the modulated light stream MLS into two or more separate streams (perhaps numerous streams), where each of the streams is confined to a different wavelength range. The separate streams may each be sensed by a separate light sensing device. (In some embodiments, the number of wavelength ranges may be, e.g., greater than 8, or greater than 16, or greater than 64, or greater than 256, or greater than 1024.) Furthermore, each separate stream may be directed (e.g., focused or concentrated) onto the corresponding light sensing device as described above in connection with optical subsystem 117. The samples captured from each light sensing device may be used to reconstruct a corresponding image (or video sequence) for the corresponding wavelength range. In one embodiment, the modulated light stream is separated into red, green and blue streams to support color (R,G,B) measurements. In another embodiment, the modulated light stream may be separated into IR, red, green, blue and UV streams to support five-channel multi-spectral imaging: (IR, R, G, B, UV). In some embodiments, the modulated light stream may be separated into a number of sub-bands (e.g., adjacent sub-bands) within the IR band to support multi-spectral or hyper-spectral IR imaging. In some embodiments, the number of IR sub-bands may be, e.g., greater than 8, or greater than 16, or greater than 64, or greater than 256, or greater than 1024. In some embodiments, the modulated light stream may experience two or more stages of spectral separation. For example, in a first stage the modulated light stream may be separated into an IR stream confined to the IR band and one or more additional streams confined to other bands. In a second stage, the IR stream may be separated into a number of sub-bands (e.g., numerous sub-bands) (e.g., adjacent sub-bands) within the IR band to support multispectral or hyper-spectral IR imaging.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include an optical mechanism (e.g., a mechanism including one or more beam splitters) for splitting or separating the modulated light stream MLS into two or more separate streams, e.g., where each of the streams have the same (or approximately the same) spectral characteristics or wavelength range. The separate streams may then pass through respective bandpass filters to obtain corresponding modified streams, where each modified stream is restricted to a corresponding band of wavelengths. Each of the modified streams may be sensed by a separate light sensing device. (In some embodiments, the number of wavelength bands may be, e.g., greater than 8, or greater than 16, or greater than 64, or greater than 256, or greater than 1024.) Furthermore, each of the modified streams may be directed (e.g., focused or concentrated) onto the corresponding light sensing device as described above in connection with optical subsystem 117. The samples captured from each light sensing device may be used to reconstruct a corresponding image (or video sequence) for the corresponding wavelength band. In one embodiment, the modulated light stream is separated into three streams which are then filtered, respectively, with a red-pass filter, a green-pass filter and a blue-pass filter. The resulting red, green and blue streams are then respectively detected by three light sensing devices to support color (R,G,B) acquisition. In another similar embodiment, five streams are generated, filtered with five respective filters, and then measured with five respective light sensing devices to support (IR, R, G, B, UV) multi-spectral acquisition. In yet another embodiment, the modulated light stream of a given band may be separated into a number of (e.g., numerous) sub-bands to support multi-spectral or hyper-spectral imaging.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include an optical mechanism for splitting or separating the modulated light stream MLS into two or more separate streams. The separate streams may be directed to (e.g., concentrated onto) respective light sensing devices. The light sensing devices may be configured to be sensitive in different wavelength ranges, e.g., by virtue of their different material properties. Samples captured from each light sensing device may be used to reconstruct a corresponding image (or video sequence) for the corresponding wavelength range.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include a control unit 120 configured to supply the spatial patterns to the light modulation unit 110, as shown in FIG. 2F. The control unit may itself generate the patterns or may receive the patterns from some other agent. The control unit 120 and the ADC 140 may be controlled by a common clock signal so that ADC 140 can coordinate (synchronize) its action of capturing the samples {IMLS(k)} with the control unit's action of supplying spatial patterns to the light modulation unit 110. (System 100 may include clock generation circuitry.)
  • In some embodiments, the control unit 120 may supply the spatial patterns to the light modulation unit in a periodic fashion.
  • The control unit 120 may be a digital circuit or a combination of digital circuits. For example, the control unit may include a microprocessor (or system of interconnected of microprocessors), a programmable hardware element such as a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or any combination such elements.
  • In some embodiments, the control unit 120 may include a random number generator (RNG) or a set of random number generators to generate the spatial patterns or some subset of the spatial patterns.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 is battery powered. In some embodiments, the system 100 includes a set of one or more solar cells and associated circuitry to derive power from sunlight.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 includes its own light source for illuminating the environment or a target portion of the environment.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include a display (or an interface configured for coupling to a display) for displaying reconstructed images/videos.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may include one or more input devices (and/or, one or more interfaces for input devices), e.g., any combination or subset of the following devices: a set of buttons and/or knobs, a keyboard, a keypad, a mouse, a touch-sensitive pad such as a trackpad, a touch-sensitive display screen, one or more microphones, one or more temperature sensors, one or more chemical sensors, one or more pressure sensors, one or more accelerometers, one or more orientation sensors (e.g., a three-axis gyroscopic sensor), one or more proximity sensors, one or more antennas, etc.
  • Regarding the spatial patterns that are used to modulate the light stream L, it should be understood that there are a wide variety of possibilities. In some embodiments, the control unit 120 may be programmable so that any desired set of spatial patterns may be used.
  • In some embodiments, the spatial patterns are binary valued. Such an embodiment may be used, e.g., when the light modulating elements are two-state devices. In some embodiments, the spatial patterns are n-state valued, where each element of each pattern takes one of n states, where n is an integer greater than two. (Such an embodiment may be used, e.g., when the light modulating elements are each able to achieve n or more modulation states). In some embodiments, the spatial patterns are real valued, e.g., when each of the light modulating elements admits a continuous range of modulation. (It is noted that even a two-state modulating element may be made to effectively apply a continuous range of modulation by duty cycling the two states during modulation intervals.)
  • Coherence
  • The spatial patterns may belong to a set of measurement vectors that is incoherent with a set of vectors in which the image/video is approximately sparse (“the sparsity vector set”). (See “Sparse Signal Detection from Incoherent Projections”, Proc. Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech Signal Processing—ICASSP, May 2006, Duarte et al.) Given two sets of vectors A={ai} and B={bi} in the same N-dimensional space, A and B are said to be incoherent if their coherence measure μ(A,B) is sufficiently small. Assuming that the vectors {ai} and {bi} each have unit L2 norm, then coherence measure may be defined as:
  • μ ( A , B ) = max i , j a i , b j .
  • The number of compressive sensing measurements (i.e., samples of the sequence {IMLS(k)} needed to reconstruct an N-pixel image (or N-voxel video sequence) that accurately represents the scene being captured is a strictly increasing function of the coherence between the measurement vector set and the sparsity vector set. Thus, better compression can be achieved with smaller values of the coherence.
  • In some embodiments, the measurement vector set may be based on a code. Any of various codes from information theory may be used, e.g., codes such as exponentiated Kerdock codes, exponentiated Delsarte-Goethals codes, run-length limited codes, LDPC codes, Reed Solomon codes and Reed Muller codes.
  • In some embodiments, the measurement vector set corresponds to a randomized or permuted basis, where the basis may be, for example, the DCT basis (DCT is an acronym for Discrete Cosine Transform) or Hadamard basis.
  • In some embodiments, the spatial patterns may be random or pseudo-random patterns, e.g., generated according to a random number generation (RNG) algorithm using one or more seeds. In some embodiments, the elements of each pattern are generated by a series of Bernoulli trials, where each trial has a probability p of giving the value one and probability 1−p of giving the value zero. (For example, in one embodiment p=½.) In some embodiments, the elements of each pattern are generated by a series of draws from a Gaussian random variable.)
  • The system 100 may be configured to operate in a compressive fashion, where the number of the samples {IMLS(k)} captured by the system 100 is less than (e.g., much less than) the number of pixels in the image (or video) to be reconstructed from the samples. In many applications, this compressive realization is very desirable because it saves on power consumption, memory utilization and transmission bandwidth consumption. However, non-compressive realizations are contemplated as well.
  • In some embodiments, the system 100 is configured as a camera or imager that captures information representing an image (or a series of images) from the external environment, e.g., an image (or a series of images) of some external object or scene. The camera system may take different forms in different application domains, e.g., domains such as visible light photography, infrared photography, ultraviolet photography, high-speed photography, low-light photography, underwater photography, multi-spectral imaging, hyper-spectral imaging, etc. In some embodiments, system 100 is configured to operate in conjunction with (or as part of) another system, e.g., in conjunction with (or as part of) a microscope, a telescope, a robot, a security system, a surveillance system, a fire sensor, a node in a distributed sensor network, etc.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 is configured as a spectrometer.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 is configured as a multi-spectral or hyper-spectral imager.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may configured as a single integrated package, e.g., as a camera.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 may also be configured to operate as a projector. Thus, system 100 may include a light source, e.g., a light source located at or near a focal point of optical subsystem 117. In projection mode, the light modulation unit 110 may be supplied with an image (or a sequence of images), e.g., by control unit 120. The light modulation unit may receive a light beam generated by the light source, and modulate the light beam with the image (or sequence of images) to obtain a modulated light beam. The modulated light beam exits the system 100 and is displayed on a display surface (e.g., an external screen).
  • In one embodiment, the light modulation unit 110 may receive the light beam from the light source and modulate the light beam with a time sequence of spatial patterns (from a measurement pattern set). The resulting modulated light beam exits the system 100 and is used to illuminate the external scene. Light reflected from the external scene in response to the modulated light beam is measured by a light sensing device (e.g., a photodiode). The samples captured by the light sensing device comprise compressive measurements of external scene. Those compressive measurements may be used to reconstruct an image or video sequence as variously described above.
  • In some embodiments, system 100 includes an interface for communicating with a host computer. The host computer may send control information and/or program code to the system 100 via the interface. Furthermore, the host computer may receive status information and/or compressive sensing measurements from system 100 via the interface.
  • In one realization 200 of system 100, the light modulation unit 110 may be realized by a plurality of mirrors, e.g., as shown in FIG. 3A. (The mirrors are collectively indicated by the label 110M.) The mirrors 110M are configured to receive corresponding portions of the light L received from the environment, albeit not necessarily directly from the environment. (There may be one or more optical elements, e.g., one or more lenses along the input path to the mirrors 110M.) Each of the mirrors is configured to controllably switch between at least two orientation states. In addition, each of the mirrors is configured to (a) reflect the corresponding portion of the light onto a sensing path 115 when the mirror is in a first of the two orientation states and (b) reflect the corresponding portion of the light away from the sensing path when the mirror is in a second of the two orientation states.
  • In some embodiments, the mirrors 110M are arranged in an array, e.g., a two-dimensional array or a one-dimensional array. Any of various array geometries are contemplated. For example, in different embodiments, the array may be a square array, a rectangular array, a hexagonal array, etc. In some embodiments, the mirrors are arranged in a spatially-random fashion.
  • The mirrors 110M may be part of a digital micromirror device (DMD). For example, in some embodiments, one of the DMDs manufactured by Texas Instruments may be used.
  • The control unit 120 may be configured to drive the orientation states of the mirrors through the series of spatial patterns, where each of the patterns of the series specifies an orientation state for each of the mirrors.
  • The light sensing device 130 may be configured to receive the light portions reflected at any given time onto the sensing path 115 by the subset of mirrors in the first orientation state and to generate an analog electrical signal IMLS(t) representing a cumulative intensity of the received light portions as function of time. As the mirrors are driven through the series of spatial patterns, the subset of mirrors in the first orientation state will vary from one spatial pattern to the next. Thus, the cumulative intensity of light portions reflected onto the sensing path 115 and arriving at the light sensing device will vary as a function time. Note that the term “cumulative” is meant to suggest a summation (spatial integration) over the light portions arriving at the light sensing device at any given time. This summation may be implemented, at least in part, optically (e.g., by means of a lens and/or mirror that concentrates or focuses the light portions onto a concentrated area as described above).
  • System realization 200 may include any subset of the features, embodiments and elements discussed above with respect to system 100. For example, system realization 200 may include the optical subsystem 105 to operate on the incoming light L before it arrives at the mirrors 110M, e.g., as shown in FIG. 3B.
  • In some embodiments, system realization 200 may include the optical subsystem 117 along the sensing path as shown in FIG. 4. The optical subsystem 117 receives the light portions reflected onto the sensing path 115 and directs (e.g., focuses or concentrates) the received light portions onto a light sensing surface (or surfaces) of the light sensing device 130. In one embodiment, the optical subsystem 117 may include a lens 117L, e.g., as shown in FIG. 5A.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 117 may include one or more mirrors, e.g., a mirror 117M as shown in FIG. 5B. Thus, the sensing path may be a bent path having more than one segment. FIG. 5B also shows one possible embodiment of optical subsystem 105, as a lens 105L.
  • In some embodiments, there may be one or more optical elements intervening between the optical subsystem 105 and the mirrors 110M. For example, as shown in FIG. 5C, a TIR prism pair 107 may be positioned between the optical subsystem 105 and the mirrors 110M. (TIR is an acronym for “total internal reflection”.) Light from optical subsystem 105 is transmitted through the TIR prism pair and then interacts with the mirrors 110M. After having interacted with the mirrors 110M, light portions from mirrors in the first orientation state are reflected by a second prism of the pair onto the sensing path 115. Light portions from mirrors in the second orientation state may be reflected away from the sensing path.
  • Rolling Window Reconstruction
  • In one set of embodiments, a method 600 for reconstructing a sequence of images from a stream of compressive-imaging measurements may involve the operations shown in FIG. 6. Furthermore, method 600 may include any subset of the features, embodiments and elements described above in connection with system 100 and system realization 200 and described below in connection with system 1000, in the section “Rolling Reconstruction from a Mathematical Viewpoint” and in the section “Acceleration of Matching Pursuit”.
  • Operation 610 involves modulating an incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns {aj} to obtain a modulated light stream, e.g., as variously described above in connection with system 100 and system realization 200. (Index j is the sequence index.) The action of modulating the incident light stream includes applying the spatial patterns successively in time to the incident light stream.
  • Operation 615 involves acquiring a sequence of measurements {I(j)} representing intensity of the modulated light stream over time. (See the above description of the light sensing device 130 in connection with system 100 and system realization 200.) Each of the measurements I(j) is acquired in response to the application of a respective one of the spatial patterns to the incident light stream, and represents the intensity of the modulated light stream during the application of the respective spatial pattern. In some embodiments, the acquisition of the sequence of measurements may include oversampling and averaging as described above in the section entitled “Oversampling Relative to Pattern Modulation Rate”.
  • Operation 620 involves generating a sequence of subsets of the measurements, where each consecutive pair of the subsets overlaps by a nonzero amount. Each of the subsets corresponds to a respective group of the spatial patterns. Because each measurement I(j) of the measurement sequence corresponds to a respective pattern aj of the sequence of spatial patterns, the spatial pattern groups will overlap in time by the same amount that the measurement subsets do.
  • FIG. 7 shows the process of generating the sequence of subsets, denoted S1, S2, S3, . . . , from the sequence of measurements {I(k)} in the case where each subset overlaps the previous subset by 75%. The subsets, each being M measurements in length, may be generated by acquiring the measurements from the light sensing device and storing them into a memory buffer in blocks of size M/4 measurements, and then composing each four consecutive blocks into a corresponding subset Sk. For example, subset S1 is composed of the blocks P1, P2, P3 and P4. Furthermore, subset Sk is composed of the blocks Pk, Pk+1, Pk+2 and Pk+3.
  • More generally, FIG. 8 shows a sequence of subsets S1, S2, S3, . . . being generated from the sequence of measurements {I(k)} for an arbitrary value r of the overlap ratio. (The overlap ratio r is the number of measurement in the overlap divided by the number of measurement in the generic subset.) Each of the subsets may be of length M measurements. A first subset S1 may be composed from the first M measurements of the sequence of measurements. Then, for each succeeding group of (1−r)M measurements in the sequence of measurements, a corresponding subset Sk may be composed. For example, a second subset S2 may be composed from the last rM measurements that contributed to subset S1 and the (1−r)M measurements that follow subset S1 in the sequence of measurements. The subset Sk+1 may be composed from the last rM measurements that contributed to subset Sk and the (1−r)M measurements that follow subset Sk in the sequence of measurements.
  • In some embodiments, action of generating the subsets may involve receiving each measurement from the light sensing device, and storing the measurement into a buffer, e.g., a FIFO buffer. The subsets may be generated periodically in time, with each subset being composed from the most recent M measurements in the buffer. (FIFO is an acronym for “first in, first out”.)
  • Referring once again to FIG. 6, operation 625 involves reconstructing a sequence of images, where each of the images is reconstructed from a respective input data set including a respective one of the subsets of intensity measurements and a respective one of the groups of the spatial patterns. Each image of the image sequence represents the incident light stream as it impinges upon the surface of the light modulation array over the period of time that the spatial patterns of the respective spatial pattern group were being asserted on the array of light modulating elements.
  • The reconstruction of each image may be started as soon as the corresponding subset of measurements becomes available. For example, as shown in FIG. 9A, reconstruction of the first image F1 may be started as soon as the subset S1 is completed, e.g., as soon as the measurements composing the subset S1 have been acquired from the light sensing device. Similarly, the reconstruction of image Fk may be started as soon as the subset Sk is completed. FIG. 9B shows a special case where each subset overlaps the previous subset by 75%, i.e., r=¾.
  • While the subsets shown in FIGS. 7, 8, 9A and 9B are all contiguous subsets of measurements, in some embodiments, one or more or all of the subsets may be non-contiguous subsets. For example, subset generation process skip excessively noisy measurements when forming a subset. As another example, the sequence of spatial patterns used to modulate the incident light stream may include measurement patterns and non-measurement patterns. (Non-measurement patterns might include, e.g., calibration patterns and/or hot spot search patterns.) The subset generation process may incorporate into the subsets only those measurements that correspond to the measurement patterns, skipping over the measurements that correspond to the non-measurement patterns.
  • The reconstruction algorithm used to reconstruct each image of the image sequence may be any reconstruction algorithm known in the field of compressive sensing.
  • Operations 610 through 625 may be performed as a pipeline process, i.e., each of the operations may be performed continuously, and each of the operations continuously consumes the output of the previous operation.
  • Operation 630 involves displaying the images of the image sequence using a display device. The display device may include a display screen conforming to any desired type of display technology. In some embodiments, the display device may include a video projector for projecting the image sequence on a display surface.
  • In some embodiments, the input data set used for the reconstruction of the current image of the image sequence also includes a previously-reconstructed image of the image sequence. The image reconstruction algorithm may be configured to converge upon an estimate of the current image in an iterative fashion. Thus, a previously-reconstructed image of the image sequence may provide a warm start for the reconstruction of the current image, i.e., may decrease the time to convergence for the reconstruction of the current image.
  • If the reconstruction algorithm takes more than (1−r)MTS units of times to reconstruct a given image, where TS is the measurement period (i.e., the reciprocal of the measurement rate fS), then the reconstruction of the next image may start before the reconstruction of the current image is completed. For example, in FIG. 9A, the reconstruction of the second image F2 starts before the reconstruction of the first image F1 is complete. Thus, there is a time interval 910 over which two or more image reconstructions are being performed simultaneously, i.e., two or more instances of the reconstruction algorithm are being executed simultaneously. In fact, if the reconstruction algorithm generates an image with maximum latency TMAX, then up to

  • N R=ceiling{T MAX/(M(1−r)T S)}
  • image reconstructions may be executing simultaneously at any given time.
  • In some embodiments, the action of reconstructing the images of the image sequence includes invoking execution of a current instance of a reconstruction algorithm in order to reconstruct a current image of the image sequence before one or more previous instances of the reconstruction algorithm (corresponding respectively to one or more previous images of the image sequence) have completed execution. The current instance and the one or more previous instances of the reconstruction algorithm may execute at least partially in parallel.
  • In some embodiments, the input data set used for the reconstruction of the current image of the image sequence also includes a partially-reconstructed version of a previous image of the image sequence. As described above, the reconstruction of a previous image may be still in progress when the reconstruction of the current image is started. However, the partially-completed previous image may nevertheless be useful information for the current image reconstruction, i.e., useful in decreasing the time to convergence for the current image reconstruction.
  • In some embodiments, the amount of overlap (between each consecutive pair of subsets in the sequence of subsets) may be set to achieve a target image rate for the image sequence. If the reconstruction of each image has maximum latency TMAX and each image reconstruction is started within a maximum latency of TRS after the corresponding subset of the sequence of measurements becomes available, then the image rate fimage of the reconstructed image sequence will be governed by the rate at which the measurement subsets are generated, i.e., by the product (1−r)M and the measurement rate fS:

  • f image =f s/((1−r)M),
  • where r is the overlap ratio, and M is the number of measurements in each measurement subset. Thus, the image rate fimage is controllable by selection of the overlap ratio r and/or the subset size M. In the extreme r=1−(1/M), the image rate fimage equals the measurement rate fM. In the opposite extreme r=0, the image rate fimage=fS/M. Any image rate between those two extremes may be achieved by appropriate choice of overlap ratio r.
  • In some embodiments, the image rate fimage may be set to a value sufficiently large so that the displayed image sequence achieves flicker fusion, i.e., appears to be continuous in time to the human observer.
  • In some embodiments, the image rate fimage may be set to a value sufficiently large so that the displayed image sequence can be regarded as a video sequence.
  • In some embodiments, the target image rate is dynamically controllable by user input. A user input device may be monitored to determine if the user has made any changes to a target image rate value. If so, the amount of overlap (or the overlap ratio r) may be changed dynamically in response to each such change in the target image rate value.
  • In some embodiments, the method 600 may also include transmitting the sequence of measurements to a remote computer, where the action 620 of generating the subsets and the action 625 of reconstructing the image sequence are performed on the remote computer.
  • Each of the subsets of the sequence of measurements preferably has fewer measurements than the number of pixels in the respective image of the image sequence. Thus, each subset comprises a compressed representation of the respective image.
  • As described above, the reconstruction of each image of the image sequence from the corresponding subset of measurements and the corresponding group of spatial patterns may be performed with latency less than or equal to a maximum value TMAX. In some embodiments, the reconstruction algorithm may output its current estimate of the image if the TMAX deadline is reached before convergence has been achieved. In some embodiments, the latency bound TMAX is determined by user input.
  • As described above, the incident light stream is modulated with a sequence of spatial patterns. The spatial patterns are preferably drawn from a measurement pattern set that is incoherent with respect to a dictionary of patterns in which each image of the image sequence is sparse (or compressible).
  • In a playback mode (or replay mode), operations 620, 625 and 630 may be started after operations 651 and 615 have completed (or alternatively, after operations 650 and 615 have started). Thus, the sequence of measurements acquired by operation 615 may be stored in a memory for later access. In some embodiments, the method 600 may include: accessing the sequence of measurements from the memory (e.g., in response to a user request for playback of the image sequence); generating 620 the overlapping subsets from the accessed measurement sequence, performing the reconstruction 625 on the overlapping subsets; and displaying 630 the reconstructed image sequence. The accessing, generating, reconstructing and displaying operations may form a pipeline process, where each operation continuously consumes the output of the preceding operation. The frame rate of the displayed image sequence may be controlled by adjusting the overlap ratio, e.g., in response to user input.
  • In some embodiments, the sequence of measurements may be accessed from memory at a rate higher than the rate fM at which the measurements were acquired from the light sensing device. This super-speed access of the measurement sequence may be used to reconstruct and display the images of the image sequence at a rate higher than would be possible if reconstruction and display were performed in real time (i.e., while the modulation 610 was being performed.)
  • In one set of embodiments, a system 1000 for reconstructing a sequence of images from compressively-acquired measurements of an incident light stream may be configured as shown in FIG. 10. The system 1000 may include a light modulation unit 1010, a light sensing device 1020, a processing unit 1030 and a display device 1040. Furthermore, the system 1000 may include any subset of the features, embodiments and elements described above in connection with system 100, system realization 200 and method 600 and described below in the section “Rolling Reconstruction from a Mathematical Viewpoint” and the section “Acceleration of Matching Pursuit”.
  • The light modulation unit 1010 may be configured to modulate an incident light stream L with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream MLS, e.g., as variously described above. The light modulation unit is configured to apply the spatial patterns to the incident light stream L successively in time. In some embodiments, the light modulation unit 1010 may be realized by the light modulation unit 110 or mirrors 110M as variously described above.
  • The light sensing device 1020 may be configured to acquire a sequence of measurements representing intensity of the modulated light stream MLS over time. Each of the measurements is acquired in response to the application of a respective one of the spatial patterns to the incident light stream L. In some embodiments, the light sensing device 1020 may be realized the light sensing device 130 as variously described above.
  • The processing unit 1030 may be configured to generate a sequence of subsets of the intensity measurements, e.g., as described above in connection with method 600. Each consecutive pair of the subsets overlap by a nonzero amount. Each of the subsets corresponds to a respective group of the spatial patterns. The processing unit 1030 may also reconstruct a sequence of images, where each of the images is reconstructed from a respective input data set including a respective one of the subsets of intensity measurements and a respective one of the groups of the spatial patterns.
  • In some embodiments, the processing unit 1030 may be configured to execute up to NR image reconstructions in parallel, where NR is greater than one. For example, the processing unit may include NR parallel processing channels (or pipelines), each configured to execute an image reconstruction. The NR parallel processing channels may be realized by one or more processors that are configured to execute program instructions, by dedicated digital circuitry such as one or more application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), by one or more programmable hardware elements such as FPGAs, or by any combination of the foregoing. In one embodiment, the processing unit may include NR processor cores each capable of executing an independent stream of program code.
  • The display device 1040 may be configured to display the sequence of images. The display device 1040 may be realized by any desired type of display technology. In some embodiments, the display device 1040 may be a computer monitor, or the display of a mobile device or handheld device, or a video projector, or the display of a laptop or notebook computer, or a head-mounted display.
  • In some embodiments, system 1000 may be realized as a single integrated package, e.g., as a camera device.
  • In some embodiments, system 1000 may include the optical subsystem 105 described above in connection with system 100 and system realization 200. The optical subsystem 105 may be configured to allow adjustable focus, e.g., in response to user input. In one embodiment, the processing unit 1030 may be configured to increase the amount of overlap (or the overlap ratio), and thereby, increase the image rate fimage when the system 1000 is being focused. A user may prefer to have a higher image rate while adjusting the focus setting, especially in contexts where the baseline image rate (i.e., the image rate without any overlap) is on the order of seconds per image.
  • In some embodiments, the processing unit 1030 is located remotely from the light modulation unit 1010 and the light sensing device 1020, in which case the system 1000 may also include a transmitter 1022 and a receiver 1024, e.g., as shown in FIG. 11. The transmitter 1022 is configured to transmit the sequence of measurements over a communication channel. The receiver 1024 receives the sequence of measurements and provides the sequence of measurements to the processing unit 1030.
  • In different embodiments, the transmitter 1022 may be configured to transmit respectively different kinds of signals over respectively different kinds of communication channel. For example, in some embodiments, the transmitter transmits electromagnetic signals (e.g., radio signals or optical signals) through a wireless or wired channel. In one embodiment, the transmitter transmits electromagnetic signals through an electrical cable. In another embodiment, the transmitter transmits electromagnetic waves through free space (e.g., the atmosphere). In yet another embodiment, the transmitter transmits through free space or through an optical fiber using modulated light signals or modulated laser signals. In yet another embodiment, the transmitter transmits acoustic signals through an acoustic medium, e.g., a body of water. The transmitter may be any type of transmitter known in the art of telecommunications. Likewise, the receiver may be any type of receiver known in the art of telecommunications.
  • In some embodiments, the amount of overlap (or the overlap ratio) may be set to achieve a target image rate for the image sequence. In some embodiment, the system 1000 may includes a user interface 1050 for receiving user input that controls the target image rate, e.g., as illustrated in FIG. 12. In one embodiment, the target image rate is dynamically controllable by the user input. The user interface 1050 may include one or more mechanical input devices such a button, a slider or a knob and/or one or more graphical user interface (GUI) elements.
  • In some embodiments, system 1000 includes a snapshot mode in which a single image is compressively acquired in response to the user's action of pressing a shutter button. (The button may be a mechanical button or a graphical user interface element/icon.) The user may wish to acquire a number of images in quick succession, and thus, may press the shutter button repeatedly. The methods described herein for increasing the rate of image sequence acquisition and reconstruction are useful even when the sequence of images are acquired in the snapshot mode. Each press of the shutter button may initiate the acquisition of a corresponding subset of measurements for the reconstruction of a corresponding image. The overlap ratio between successive images may be determined by the time between successive presses of the shutter button. In some embodiments, the processing unit 1030 (or processing unit 150 of system 100) may capture timestamps indicating times when the user presses the shutter button (or otherwise initiates the acquisition of images). Each timestamp may be used to control the start time of a corresponding subset of the sequence of measurements. The number of measurements in each subset may be determined an image quality setting, e.g., one controlled by user input.
  • In some embodiments, the light sensing device 1020 may include a plurality (e.g., an array) of light sensing elements. Each light sensing element may be configured to receive a corresponding spatial portion (or spectral portion) of the modulated light stream and to generate a corresponding electrical signal representing intensity of the spatial portion (or spectral portion) as a function of time. The light sensing device 1020 (i.e., A/D conversion circuitry of the light sensing device 1020) may then sample each of the electrical signals to obtain a plurality of measurement sequences, i.e., one measurement sequence per electrical signal. In these embodiments, each of the measurement sequences may be treated as variously described above. In particular, each of the measurement sequences may be processed to reconstruct a corresponding image sequence representing a corresponding spatial portion (or spectral portion) of the field of view. The reconstruction of each image sequence may employ the overlapping-subset methodology as variously described above. The plurality of image sequences may be concatenated together to obtain a global image sequence representing the entirety of the field of view. For more information on compressive imaging systems including such light sensing devices as just described, please refer to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/197,304 (U.S. Pub. No. 20120038786), filed on Aug. 3, 2011, entitled “Decreasing Image Acquisition Time for Compressive Imaging Devices”, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • Rolling Reconstruction from a Mathematical Viewpoint
  • Suppose that one is interested in obtaining compressive measurements of a signal xt. Here the superscript t highlights the fact that the signal may be different at different moments of time. For simplicity, assume that the signal of interest is in the form of a column vector with N elements. The column vector xt represents the light intensities of portions of the incident light stream incident upon the array of light modulating elements at time t. See the above discussion of modulation given in connection with system 100 and system realization 200. At time t, the signal of interest xt is measured by taking its inner product with a test function at (also referred to herein as a “spatial pattern”) as variously described above. The test function at may be represented as a row vector of length N. The measurement yt is the scalar value resulting from this inner product plus a noise term. (Below we assume that the signals under discussion are real. However, the principles discussed here naturally extend to complex-valued signals and measurements.) Mathematically, the measurement can be represented as

  • y t =a t x t +e t,
  • where et is the noise.
  • Assume that the acquisition system (e.g., system 100 or system 1000) can take a measurement every TM seconds. (TM is the reciprocal of the rate fM at which the light modulation unit can apply the test functions, i.e., the spatial patterns.) The measurements may be continuously collected into a running list:

  • {y jT m }j=1 ={y T m ,y 2T m ,y 3T m , . . . }.
  • Given this list of measurements, suppose that we want to use M of them to reconstruct the original signal/scene, or at least, a close approximation. Suppose that we supply an algorithm ALG with M measurements, and that it takes TALG seconds for the algorithm to reconstruct an image.
  • Note: If we assume that the reconstruction algorithm achieves the latency TALG for each frame, then the reconstruction algorithm doesn't affect the frame rate. (The “frame rate” referred to here is a synonym for the image rate fimage referred to above in connection with method 600 and system 1000.) This is illustrated, e.g., in FIGS. 1A, 9A and 9B. With this perspective the frame rate of reconstructed images is determined by the rate at which groups of measurements are provided to the algorithm.
  • For k=1, 2, . . . , the conventional compressive sensing (CS) methodology gathers both the kth set of M measurements

  • y M k ={y ((k−1)M+1)T m ,y ((k−1)M+2)T m , . . . ,y ((k−1)M+M)T m }εR M
  • and the corresponding set of M test functions
  • A M k = [ a ( ( k - 1 ) M + 1 ) T M a ( ( k - 1 ) M + 2 ) T M a ( ( k - 1 ) M + M ) T M ] R MxN ,
  • and supplies them to the reconstruction algorithm ALG to generate the kth image

  • {circumflex over (x)} k ALG(y M k ,A M k).
  • Moreover, since we have to wait for M new measurements to generate each new image, the frame rate fframe=1/(MTM). This frame rate is the rate at which groups of measurements are delivered to the reconstruction algorithm.
  • According to the present invention, we can speed up the frame rate by removing the necessity of waiting for M completely new measurements. Suppose that we allow the sets of M measurements to overlap, or have redundancy r where 0≦r≦1. This means we keep the most recent rM measurements and then only have to wait for (1−r)M new measurements before reconstructing a new image. Now the frame rate has been increased to

  • f frame=1/(M(1−r)T M).
  • For large r, this can result in a significant increase in speed. We refer to this process as a “rolling reconstruction”. It is depicted, e.g., in FIGS. 9A and 9B. In general, the use of rolling reconstruction increases the frame rate by a factor of 1/(1−r) as compared to the conventional reconstruction method. For example, in FIG. 9B, the frame rate is increased by a factor of four since r=¾.
  • In rolling reconstruction, the kth set of M measurements and the corresponding set of test functions can be represented, respectively, as
  • y M k = { y ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + 1 ) T m , y ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + 2 ) T m , , y ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + M ) T m } R M and A M k = [ a ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + 1 ) T M a ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + 2 ) T M a ( ( k - 1 ) ( 1 - r ) M + M ) T M ] R MxN ,
  • where, as before, the kth reconstructed image {circumflex over (x)}k=ALG(yM k,AM k).
  • Because of the redundancy in each yM k and AM k, we can accelerate the algorithm ALG (i.e., reduce TALG) by supplying to it the last reconstructed image. Hence, the new reconstructed image {circumflex over (x)}k will also be a function of the previous reconstructed image {circumflex over (x)}k−1, i.e.,

  • {circumflex over (x)} k =ALG(y M k ,A M k ,{circumflex over (x)} k−1).
  • The rationale here is that since the measurements and corresponding test functions between two successive image reconstructions have much in common, then so too must the reconstructed images. Therefore, rather than have the algorithm start from scratch each time, it can be accelerated by providing the previous reconstructed image as a good guess for a “warm start.” Other aspects of the algorithm can also be optimized in a similar way (e.g., by saving certain tuning and convergence parameters for the algorithm, etc.).
  • This acceleration technique may be instrumental in reducing TALG to less than a desired maximum latency. For example, it may be desirable for TALC to be less than or equal to 1/fframe.
  • FIG. 9B illustrates a scenario where TALG>1/fframe. In this situation a new set of measurements is ready to be delivered while the algorithm is still working on a previous set of measurements. By employing the acceleration technique, it may be possible to reduce TALG to less than 1/fframe.
  • We can generalize the acceleration technique described above to say that

  • {circumflex over (x)} k =ALG(y M k ,A M k ,{circumflex over (x)} κ),
  • where κ (Greek kappa) is a real-valued index, where κ<k. This includes the case of κ=k−1 described above, as well as other values of κ. The case of κ=k−2 would utilize the reconstructed image from two frames before, etc. In particular, κ=k−½ describes the case where we take a “half-finished” reconstructed image that the algorithm is still working on (from the previous frame), and feed that in as a best guess for the present frame based on the new set of measurements. Other, more complicated, scenarios are possible too.
  • Acceleration of Matching Pursuit
  • In this section, we describe how the previous reconstructed image (or partially reconstructed image) {circumflex over (x)}κ may be incorporated into the structure of a matching pursuit algorithm to implement the above-described acceleration given by:

  • {circumflex over (x)} k =ALG(y M k ,A M k ,{circumflex over (x)} κ).
  • Inputs: Current measurement vector yM kεRM; sparsity basis Ψ; measurement matrix AM k; and the previous reconstructed image {circumflex over (x)}κ.
  • 1. Initialize the residual vector r0=yM k−AM k{circumflex over (x)}κ and the coefficient vector {circumflex over (α)}=Ψ−1{circumflex over (x)}κεRN. Initialize an iteration counter t=1.
  • 2. Select the vector θi in the holographic basis Θ=AM kΨ that maximizes the projection of the residual vector rt−1 onto θi:
  • n t = arg max i r t - 1 , θ i θ i .
  • 3. Update the residual vector and the estimate of the coefficient vector a using the maximizing vector θn t :
  • r t = r t - 1 - ( r t - 1 , θ n t θ n t 2 ) θ n t α ^ n t = α ^ n t + r t - 1 , θ n t θ n t 2 ,
  • where {circumflex over (α)}n t denotes the element at index position nt of vector {circumflex over (α)}.
  • 4. Increment t. If t<T and ∥rt2>ε∥y∥2, then go to Step 2; otherwise go to Step 5. Parameters is a predetermined small positive constant.
  • Note that the iteration limit T may be different in different applications or for different types of images. Furthermore, T may depend on the amount of overlap r. In some embodiments, T may be set to 2K, where K is the sparsity of the images being reconstructed. While T is set to 2K, the average number of iterations through the loop comprising steps 2-4 is expected to be significantly smaller than K, due to the acceleration provided by use of the previous reconstructed image.
  • 5. Estimate the current image {circumflex over (x)}k as {circumflex over (x)}k=Ψ{circumflex over (α)}.
  • Compressive Imaging System 1300
  • In one set of embodiments, a compressive imaging system 1300 may be configured as shown in FIG. 13. The compressive imaging (CI) system may include an optical system 1310, a spatial light modulator 1315, a set 1320 of one or more photodetectors, a set 1325 of one or more amplifiers (i.e., one amplifier per detector), a set 1330 of analog-to-digital converters (one ADC per detector), and a processing element 1340.
  • The optical system 1310 focuses an incident light stream onto the spatial light modulator 1315, e.g., as variously described above. See the discussion above regarding optical subsystem 105. The incident light stream carries an image (or a spectral ensemble of images) that is to be captured by the CI system in compressed form.
  • The spatial light modulator 1315 modulates the incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream, e.g., as variously described above.
  • Each of the detectors 1320 generates a corresponding electrical signal that represents the intensity of a corresponding portion of the modulated light stream, e.g., a spatial portion or a spectral portion of the modulated light stream.
  • Each of the amplifiers 1325 (e.g., transimpedance amplifiers) amplifies the corresponding detector signal to produce a corresponding amplified signal.
  • Each of the ADCs 1330 acquires samples of the corresponding amplified signal.
  • The processing element 1340 may operate on the sample sets obtained by the respective ADCs to reconstruct respective images. The images may represent spatial portions or spectral slices of the incident light stream. Alternatively, or additionally, the processing element may send the sample sets to a remote system for image reconstruction.
  • The processing element 1340 may include one or more microprocessors configured to execute program instructions stored in a memory medium.
  • The processing element 1340 may be configured to control one or more other elements of the CI system. For example, in one embodiment, the processing element may be configured to control the spatial light modulator 1315, the transimpedance amplifiers 1325 and the ADCs 1330.
  • The processing element 1340 may be configured to perform any subset of the above-described methods on any or all of the detector channels.
  • Compressive Imaging System 1400
  • In one set of embodiments, a compressive imaging system 1400 may be configured as shown in FIG. 14. The compressive imaging system includes the light modulation unit 110 as variously described above, and also includes optical subsystem 1410, a set of L light sensing devices LSD1 through LSDL, and a set of L signal acquisition channels C1 through CL, where L in a positive integer.
  • The light modulation unit 110 receives an incident light stream and modulates the incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream MLS, e.g., as variously described above.
  • The optical subsystem 1410 delivers portions (e.g., spatial portions or spectral portions) of the modulated light stream to corresponding ones of the light sensing devices LSD1 through LDSL.
  • For information on various mechanisms for delivering spatial subsets of the modulated light stream to respective light sensing devices, please see U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/197,304, filed on Aug. 3, 2011, titled “Decreasing Image Acquisition Time for Compressive Imaging Devices”, invented by Woods et al., which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • In some embodiments, the optical subsystem 1410 includes one or more lenses and/or one or more mirrors arranged so as to deliver spatial portions of the modulated light stream onto respective ones of the light sensing devices. For example, in one embodiment, the optical subsystem 1410 includes a lens whose object plane is the plane of the array of light modulating elements and whose image plane is a plane in which the light sensing devices are arranged. (The light sensing devices may be arranged in an array.)
  • In some embodiments, optical subsystem 1410 is configured to separate the modulated light stream into spectral components and deliver the spectral components onto respective ones of the light sensing devices. For example, optical subsystem 1410 may include a grating, a spectrometer, or a tunable filter such as a Fabry-Perot Interferometer to achieve the spectral separation.
  • Each light sensing device LSDj generates a corresponding electrical signal vj(t) that represents intensity of the corresponding portion MLSj of the modulated light stream.
  • Each signal acquisition channel Cj acquires a corresponding sequence of samples {Vj(k)} of the corresponding electrical signal vj(t). Each signal acquisition channel may include a corresponding amplifier (e.g., a TIA) and a corresponding A/D converter.
  • The sample sequence {Vj(k)} obtained by each signal acquisition channel may be used to reconstruct a corresponding sub-image which represents a spatial portion or a spectral slice of the incident light stream. The number of samples m in each sample sequence {Vj(k)} may be less than (typically much less than) the number of pixels in the corresponding sub-image. Thus, each signal acquisition channel Cj may operate as a compressive sensing camera for a spatial portion or spectral portion of the incident light.
  • Each of the signal acquisition channels may include any subset of the embodiments, features, and elements described above.
  • The principles of the present invention are not limited to light. Various embodiments are contemplated where the signals being processed are, e.g., electromagnetic waves or particle beams or seismic waves or acoustic waves or surface waves on a boundary between two fluids or gravitational waves. In each case, a space-time signal is directed to an array of signal-modulating elements whose transmittances or reflectances are individually varied so as to modulate the space-time signal with a time sequence of spatial patterns. The modulated space-time signal may be sensed by a transducer to generate an electrical signal that represents intensity of the modulated space-time signal as a function of time. The electrical signal is sampled to obtain measurements. The measurements may be processed as variously described above to reconstruct the image or sequence of images carried by the original space-time signal.
  • Any of the various embodiments described herein may be combined to form composite embodiments. Furthermore, any of the various features, embodiments and elements described in U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/502,153 may be combined with any of the various embodiments described herein.
  • Although the embodiments above have been described in considerable detail, numerous variations and modifications will become apparent to those skilled in the art once the above disclosure is fully appreciated. It is intended that the following claims be interpreted to embrace all such variations and modifications.

Claims (22)

  1. 1. A method comprising:
    modulating an incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream, wherein said modulating includes applying the spatial patterns to the incident light stream successively in time;
    acquiring a sequence of measurements representing intensity of the modulated light stream over time, wherein each of the measurements is acquired in response to the application of a respective one of the spatial patterns to the incident light stream;
    generating a sequence of subsets of the measurements, wherein each consecutive pair of the subsets overlap by a nonzero amount, wherein each of the subsets corresponds to a respective group of the spatial patterns;
    reconstructing a sequence of images, wherein each of the images is reconstructed from a respective input data set including a respective one of the subsets of measurements and a respective one of the groups of the spatial patterns;
    displaying the sequence of images using a display device.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence also includes a previously-reconstructed image of the image sequence.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence also includes a partially-reconstructed version of a previous image of the image sequence.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the amount of overlap is set to achieve a target image rate for the image sequence.
  5. 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the target image rate is dynamically controllable by user input.
  6. 6. The method of claim 1, wherein said reconstructing the images of the image sequence includes invoking execution of a current instance of a reconstruction algorithm for reconstructing a current image of the image sequence before one or more previous instances of the reconstruction algorithm corresponding respectively to one or more previous images have completed execution, wherein the current instance and the one or more previous instances execute at least partially in parallel.
  7. 7. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
    transmitting the sequence of measurements to a remote computer;
    wherein said generating and reconstructing are performed on the remote computer.
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, wherein each of the subsets of the sequence of measurements has fewer measurements than the number of pixels in the respective image of the image sequence.
  9. 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said reconstruction of each image of the image sequence from the corresponding subset of measurements and the corresponding group of spatial patterns is performed with latency less than or equal to a maximum value TMAX.
  10. 10. The method of claim 9, wherein the latency TMAX is determined by user input.
  11. 11. A system comprising:
    a light modulation unit configured to modulate an incident light stream with a sequence of spatial patterns to obtain a modulated light stream, wherein the light modulation unit is configured to apply the spatial patterns to the incident light stream successively in time;
    a light sensing device configured to acquire a sequence of measurements representing intensity of the modulated light stream over time, wherein each of the measurements is acquired in response to the application of a respective one of the spatial patterns to the incident light stream;
    a processing unit configured to:
    generate a sequence of subsets of the measurements, wherein each consecutive pair of the subsets overlap by a nonzero amount, wherein each of the subsets corresponds to a respective group of the spatial patterns; and
    reconstruct a sequence of images, wherein each of the images is reconstructed from a respective input data set including a respective one of the subsets of measurements and a respective one of the groups of the spatial patterns;
    a display device configured to display the sequence of images.
  12. 12. The system of claim 11, wherein the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence also includes a previously-reconstructed image of the image sequence.
  13. 13. The system of claim 11, wherein the input data set for the reconstruction of a current image of the image sequence also includes a partially-reconstructed version of a previous image of the image sequence.
  14. 14. The system of claim 11, wherein the amount of overlap is set to achieve a target image rate for the image sequence.
  15. 15. The system of claim 14, wherein the target image rate is dynamically controllable by user input.
  16. 16. The system of claim 11, wherein said reconstructing the images of the images sequence includes invoking execution of a current instance of a reconstruction algorithm for reconstructing a current image of the image sequence before one or more previous instances of the reconstruction algorithm corresponding respectively to one or more previous images have completed execution, wherein the current instance and the one or more previous instances execute at least partially in parallel.
  17. 17. The system of claim 11, wherein each of the subsets of the sequence of measurements has fewer measurements than the number of pixels in the respective image of the image sequence.
  18. 18. The system of claim 11, wherein said reconstruction of each image of the image sequence from the corresponding subset of measurements and the corresponding group of spatial patterns is performed with latency less than or equal to a maximum value TMAX.
  19. 19. The system of claim 18, wherein the latency TMAX is determined by user input.
  20. 20. The system of claim 11, wherein the processing unit is configured to:
    access the sequence of measurements from a memory, wherein said accessing the memory is started after the light modulation unit has ended the modulation of the incident light stream and after the light sensing device has ended said acquiring the sequence of measurements; and
    generate the sequence of subsets based on the accessed sequence of measurements.
  21. 21. The system of claim 20, wherein the amount of overlap is controlled by user input.
  22. 22. The system of claim 11, wherein the processing unit is configured to generate each of the subsets in response to a corresponding user command to acquire a corresponding image.
US13534414 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets Abandoned US20130002715A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201161502153 true 2011-06-28 2011-06-28
US13534414 US20130002715A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US2012/044438 WO2013003485A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Image sequence reconstruction based on overlapping measurement subsets
US13534414 US20130002715A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20130002715A1 true true US20130002715A1 (en) 2013-01-03

Family

ID=47390199

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13534414 Abandoned US20130002715A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets
US13534249 Active 2034-04-13 US9160914B2 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 User control of the visual performance of a compressive imaging system
US13534528 Abandoned US20130002858A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Mechanisms for Conserving Power in a Compressive Imaging System

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13534249 Active 2034-04-13 US9160914B2 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 User control of the visual performance of a compressive imaging system
US13534528 Abandoned US20130002858A1 (en) 2011-06-28 2012-06-27 Mechanisms for Conserving Power in a Compressive Imaging System

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (3) US20130002715A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2013003485A1 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120038817A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Mcmackin Lenore Focusing Mechanisms for Compressive Imaging Device
US20140192023A1 (en) * 2013-01-10 2014-07-10 Samsung Display Co., Ltd. Proximity and touch sensing surface for integration with a display
US20150363914A1 (en) * 2012-10-17 2015-12-17 Cathx Research Ltd Processing survey data of an underwater scene
US20160112063A1 (en) * 2014-10-21 2016-04-21 Imec Vzw System and method for compressed sensing
US10116841B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2018-10-30 Cathx Research Ltd. Relation to underwater imaging for underwater surveys

Families Citing this family (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2564553A1 (en) * 2010-04-28 2013-03-06 Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) Monitoring broadcast and multicast streaming service
US8760542B2 (en) * 2010-08-11 2014-06-24 Inview Technology Corporation Compensation of compressive imaging measurements based on measurements from power meter
US9344736B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-05-17 Alcatel Lucent Systems and methods for compressive sense imaging
US20130002715A1 (en) * 2011-06-28 2013-01-03 Tidman James M Image Sequence Reconstruction based on Overlapping Measurement Subsets
CN104115555B (en) * 2011-10-12 2017-02-15 Dialog半导体有限公司 Programmable solid-state lamp unit
US9052331B2 (en) * 2012-08-31 2015-06-09 Dantec Dynamics A/S Optical velocimetry systems and methods for determining the velocity of a body using fringes generated by a spatial light modulator
US9319578B2 (en) 2012-10-24 2016-04-19 Alcatel Lucent Resolution and focus enhancement
JP6112872B2 (en) * 2013-01-18 2017-04-12 キヤノン株式会社 Imaging system, image processing method, and an imaging device
US10036667B2 (en) * 2013-07-14 2018-07-31 B. G. Negev Technologies And Applications Ltd., At Ben-Gurion University Thin-layered devices in compressive sensing spectroscopy
US20150097951A1 (en) * 2013-07-17 2015-04-09 Geoffrey Louis Barrows Apparatus for Vision in Low Light Environments
CN105830458A (en) * 2013-12-11 2016-08-03 基文影像公司 System and method for controlling the display of an image stream
GB201407420D0 (en) * 2014-04-28 2014-06-11 Youlapse Oy User input technique for adjusting successive image capturing

Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4770530A (en) * 1986-04-23 1988-09-13 Kollmorgen Corporation Remote spectrophotometer
US5093563A (en) * 1987-02-05 1992-03-03 Hughes Aircraft Company Electronically phased detector arrays for optical imaging
US5537492A (en) * 1992-05-27 1996-07-16 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Picture compressing and restoring system and record pattern forming method for a spatial light modulator
US5544280A (en) * 1993-06-07 1996-08-06 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Unipolar terminal-attractor based neural associative memory with adaptive threshold
US5781188A (en) * 1996-06-27 1998-07-14 Softimage Indicating activeness of clips and applying effects to clips and tracks in a timeline of a multimedia work
US6043837A (en) * 1997-05-08 2000-03-28 Be Here Corporation Method and apparatus for electronically distributing images from a panoptic camera system
US6075905A (en) * 1996-07-17 2000-06-13 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for mosaic image construction
US6133943A (en) * 1996-09-30 2000-10-17 Intel Corporation Method and apparatus for producing a composite image
US6252668B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-06-26 Zygo Corporation Systems and methods for quantifying nonlinearities in interferometry systems
US6285491B1 (en) * 1998-12-28 2001-09-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated Adaptive temporal modulation of periodically varying light sources
US6317141B1 (en) * 1998-12-31 2001-11-13 Flashpoint Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for editing heterogeneous media objects in a digital imaging device
US20010043321A1 (en) * 1997-04-18 2001-11-22 Nikon Corporation Exposure apparatus, exposure method using the same, and method of manufacture of circuit device
US6362850B1 (en) * 1998-08-04 2002-03-26 Flashpoint Technology, Inc. Interactive movie creation from one or more still images in a digital imaging device
US20020163582A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-11-07 Gruber Michael A. Self-calibrating, digital, large format camera with single or mulitiple detector arrays and single or multiple optical systems
US20020181802A1 (en) * 2001-05-03 2002-12-05 John Peterson Projecting images onto a surface
US6618511B1 (en) * 1999-12-31 2003-09-09 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Perspective correction for panoramic digital camera with remote processing
US20040056966A1 (en) * 2000-07-21 2004-03-25 Schechner Yoav Y. Method and apparatus for image mosaicing
US20040095374A1 (en) * 2002-11-14 2004-05-20 Nebojsa Jojic System and method for automatically learning flexible sprites in video layers
US20040117358A1 (en) * 2002-03-16 2004-06-17 Von Kaenel Tim A. Method, system, and program for an improved enterprise spatial system
US6757445B1 (en) * 2000-10-04 2004-06-29 Pixxures, Inc. Method and apparatus for producing digital orthophotos using sparse stereo configurations and external models
US6769131B1 (en) * 1999-11-18 2004-07-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing apparatus and method, image distribution system and storage medium
US20040161246A1 (en) * 2001-10-23 2004-08-19 Nobuyuki Matsushita Data communication system, data transmitter and data receiver
US20040264919A1 (en) * 2003-06-14 2004-12-30 Impressive Ideas Ltd. Display system for views of video item
US6885392B1 (en) * 1999-12-31 2005-04-26 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Perspective correction for preview area of panoramic digital camera
US20050104999A1 (en) * 2003-09-19 2005-05-19 Shinya Wada Image processing method and device using photo assistant tool including rotator
US6906699B1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2005-06-14 C Technologies Ab Input unit, method for using the same and input system
US20050212909A1 (en) * 2003-01-17 2005-09-29 Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation Remote video display method, video acquisition device, method thereof, and program thereof
US20050234302A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-10-20 Mackinnon Nicholas B Apparatus and methods relating to color imaging endoscope systems
US20050237383A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-10-27 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Digital camera
US20060020213A1 (en) * 2004-07-09 2006-01-26 Whitman Michael P Surgical imaging device
US7092012B2 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-08-15 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing apparatus and method, storage medium, and communication system
US7095905B1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2006-08-22 Adobe Systems Incorporated Merging images to form a panoramic image
US20060239336A1 (en) * 2005-04-21 2006-10-26 Baraniuk Richard G Method and Apparatus for Compressive Imaging Device
US7136096B1 (en) * 1998-03-11 2006-11-14 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing method and apparatus, control method therefor, and storage medium
US20060262184A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-11-23 Yissum Research Development Company Of The Hebrew University Of Jerusalem Method and system for spatio-temporal video warping
US20060268129A1 (en) * 2005-05-26 2006-11-30 Yining Deng Composite images
US20070031062A1 (en) * 2005-08-04 2007-02-08 Microsoft Corporation Video registration and image sequence stitching
US20070035707A1 (en) * 2005-06-20 2007-02-15 Digital Display Innovations, Llc Field sequential light source modulation for a digital display system
US20070081081A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Cheng Brett A Automated multi-frame image capture for panorama stitching using motion sensor
US20070138284A1 (en) * 2001-11-21 2007-06-21 Metrologic Instruments, Inc. Planar light illumination and imaging device with modulated coherent illumination that reduces speckle noise induced by coherent illumination
US20070146798A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-06-28 Fujitsu Limited Image processing system, image processing method, image processing program, image processing apparatus, and communication terminal device
US20070146529A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2007-06-28 Shoichi Suzuki Image sensing apparatus and image sensing apparatus control method
US20070268539A1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2007-11-22 Sony Corporation Apparatus and method for holographic recording and reproducing
US20070279481A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2007-12-06 Chambers Michael J Mobile Communication Device Having Panoramic Imagemaking Capability
US20070285554A1 (en) * 2005-10-31 2007-12-13 Dor Givon Apparatus method and system for imaging
US20080158679A1 (en) * 2005-07-01 2008-07-03 Luty Clifford J Image stabilization system
US20080158341A1 (en) * 2006-12-27 2008-07-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Camera for panoramic photography
US20080231808A1 (en) * 2005-07-15 2008-09-25 Van De Velde Frans J Relaxed confocal catadioptric scanning laser ophthalmoscope
US20090022422A1 (en) * 2007-07-18 2009-01-22 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for constructing a composite image
US20090028032A1 (en) * 2006-10-17 2009-01-29 Sony Corporation Hologram reproducing apparatus
US20090033623A1 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Ming-Yen Lin Three-dimensional virtual input and simulation apparatus
US20090051759A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2009-02-26 Adkins Sean M Equipment and methods for the synchronization of stereoscopic projection displays
US20090086022A1 (en) * 2005-04-29 2009-04-02 Chubb International Holdings Limited Method and device for consistent region of interest
US7535497B2 (en) * 2003-10-14 2009-05-19 Seiko Epson Corporation Generation of static image data from multiple image data
US20090152664A1 (en) * 2007-04-18 2009-06-18 Ethan Jacob Dukenfield Klem Materials, Systems and Methods for Optoelectronic Devices
US20090245653A1 (en) * 2007-08-29 2009-10-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Image measurement apparatus
US20100007754A1 (en) * 2006-09-14 2010-01-14 Nikon Corporation Image processing device, electronic camera and image processing program
US20100020190A1 (en) * 2008-07-28 2010-01-28 Fujitsu Limited Photographic device and photographing method
US20100033730A1 (en) * 2007-01-08 2010-02-11 Tae Geun Kim Optical imaging system based on coherence frequency domain reflectometry
US20100053352A1 (en) * 2008-09-02 2010-03-04 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus to capture compressed images
US7676820B2 (en) * 2003-01-06 2010-03-09 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Method and apparatus for similar video content hopping
US20100097678A1 (en) * 2007-06-27 2010-04-22 Spudnik, Inc. Servo Feedback Control Based on Designated Scanning Servo Beam in Scanning Beam Display Systems with Light-Emitting Screens
US20100141735A1 (en) * 2008-12-08 2010-06-10 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100141799A1 (en) * 2008-12-08 2010-06-10 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100149368A1 (en) * 2008-12-17 2010-06-17 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100157086A1 (en) * 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Illumina, Inc Dynamic autofocus method and system for assay imager
US20100174507A1 (en) * 2009-01-08 2010-07-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Method and system for measuring angles based on 360 degree images
US20100171810A1 (en) * 2009-01-07 2010-07-08 Mitsuharu Ohki Image Processing Apparatus, Image Processing Method and Program
US20100172546A1 (en) * 2009-01-08 2010-07-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Methods and apparatus for performing angular measurements
US20100201894A1 (en) * 2008-05-21 2010-08-12 Panasonic Corporation Projector
US20100309308A1 (en) * 2008-01-16 2010-12-09 Orbotech Ltd. Inspection of a substrate using multiple cameras
US20100321470A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2010-12-23 Fujifilm Corporation Imaging apparatus and control method therefor
US20110068699A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2011-03-24 Knapp David J Broad spectrum light source calibration systems and related methods
US20110069094A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2011-03-24 Knapp David J Illumination devices and related systems and methods
US20110080815A1 (en) * 2009-10-02 2011-04-07 Hideharu Mikami Optical recording and regenerating apparatus
US20110181690A1 (en) * 2010-01-26 2011-07-28 Sony Corporation Imaging control apparatus, imaging apparatus, imaging control method, and program
US20110181687A1 (en) * 2010-01-26 2011-07-28 Sony Corporation Imaging control apparatus, imaging control method, and program
US20110228123A1 (en) * 2010-03-19 2011-09-22 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Imaging apparatus and recording medium with program recorded therein
US20110233046A1 (en) * 2008-09-25 2011-09-29 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Devices, apparatus and method for providing photostimulation and imaging of structures
US20110234852A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-09-29 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, image processing apparatus, image processing method, and program
US20110234640A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-09-29 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, image processing apparatus, image processing method, and program
US20110249911A1 (en) * 2010-04-07 2011-10-13 Scott Determan Spectral unmixing for visualization of samples
US20120026284A1 (en) * 2010-08-02 2012-02-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Imaging apparatus and control method therefor
US20120038817A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Mcmackin Lenore Focusing Mechanisms for Compressive Imaging Device
US20120206653A1 (en) * 2011-01-28 2012-08-16 Graves Eric J Efficient Media Processing
US20120257006A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2012-10-11 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Image processing device capable of generating wide-range image
US20120263397A1 (en) * 2011-04-12 2012-10-18 Sony Corporation Image processing device, image processing method, and program
US20120294549A1 (en) * 2011-05-17 2012-11-22 Apple Inc. Positional Sensor-Assisted Image Registration for Panoramic Photography
US20120307000A1 (en) * 2011-06-01 2012-12-06 Apple Inc. Image Registration Using Sliding Registration Windows
US20130002968A1 (en) * 2011-06-28 2013-01-03 Bridge Robert F User Control of the Visual Performance of a Compressive Imaging System
US8351686B2 (en) * 2009-01-08 2013-01-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Methods and systems for determining angles and locations of points
US8355042B2 (en) * 2008-10-16 2013-01-15 Spatial Cam Llc Controller in a camera for creating a panoramic image
US20130104042A1 (en) * 2011-02-16 2013-04-25 Apple Inc. Anchor Override for a Media-Editing Application with an Anchored Timeline
US8665316B2 (en) * 2009-11-24 2014-03-04 Microsoft Corporation Multi-resolution digital large format camera with multiple detector arrays
US8675068B2 (en) * 2008-04-11 2014-03-18 Nearmap Australia Pty Ltd Systems and methods of capturing large area images in detail including cascaded cameras and/or calibration features
US8797340B2 (en) * 2012-10-02 2014-08-05 Nvidia Corporation System, method, and computer program product for modifying a pixel value as a function of a display duration estimate
US8963951B2 (en) * 2007-08-24 2015-02-24 Sony Corporation Image processing apparatus, moving-image playing apparatus, and processing method and program therefor to allow browsing of a sequence of images
US8970665B2 (en) * 2011-05-25 2015-03-03 Microsoft Corporation Orientation-based generation of panoramic fields
US9111582B2 (en) * 2009-08-03 2015-08-18 Adobe Systems Incorporated Methods and systems for previewing content with a dynamic tag cloud

Family Cites Families (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5477272A (en) * 1993-07-22 1995-12-19 Gte Laboratories Incorporated Variable-block size multi-resolution motion estimation scheme for pyramid coding
CN1085466C (en) * 1993-09-14 2002-05-22 株式会社金星社 B-frame processing apparatus including a motion compensation apparatus, in the unit of half pixel for an image decoder
US20020171377A1 (en) * 1997-08-26 2002-11-21 Mueller George G. Methods and apparatus for illumination of liquids
JP2002300581A (en) * 2001-03-29 2002-10-11 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Image-coding apparatus and image-coding program
JP3726733B2 (en) * 2001-10-16 2005-12-14 コニカミノルタフォトイメージング株式会社 Imaging system
US8245162B2 (en) * 2007-09-14 2012-08-14 Abrams Daniel S Write-pattern determination for maskless lithography
KR20090077480A (en) * 2008-01-11 2009-07-15 삼성전자주식회사 Method for providing ui to display operation guide and multimedia apparatus thereof
CA2739482C (en) * 2008-10-07 2017-03-14 Euclid Discoveries, Llc Feature-based video compression
US8860835B2 (en) 2010-08-11 2014-10-14 Inview Technology Corporation Decreasing image acquisition time for compressive imaging devices

Patent Citations (106)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4770530A (en) * 1986-04-23 1988-09-13 Kollmorgen Corporation Remote spectrophotometer
US5093563A (en) * 1987-02-05 1992-03-03 Hughes Aircraft Company Electronically phased detector arrays for optical imaging
US5537492A (en) * 1992-05-27 1996-07-16 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Picture compressing and restoring system and record pattern forming method for a spatial light modulator
US5544280A (en) * 1993-06-07 1996-08-06 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Unipolar terminal-attractor based neural associative memory with adaptive threshold
US5781188A (en) * 1996-06-27 1998-07-14 Softimage Indicating activeness of clips and applying effects to clips and tracks in a timeline of a multimedia work
US6075905A (en) * 1996-07-17 2000-06-13 Sarnoff Corporation Method and apparatus for mosaic image construction
US6133943A (en) * 1996-09-30 2000-10-17 Intel Corporation Method and apparatus for producing a composite image
US7092012B2 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-08-15 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing apparatus and method, storage medium, and communication system
US20010043321A1 (en) * 1997-04-18 2001-11-22 Nikon Corporation Exposure apparatus, exposure method using the same, and method of manufacture of circuit device
US6043837A (en) * 1997-05-08 2000-03-28 Be Here Corporation Method and apparatus for electronically distributing images from a panoptic camera system
US7136096B1 (en) * 1998-03-11 2006-11-14 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing method and apparatus, control method therefor, and storage medium
US6906699B1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2005-06-14 C Technologies Ab Input unit, method for using the same and input system
US6362850B1 (en) * 1998-08-04 2002-03-26 Flashpoint Technology, Inc. Interactive movie creation from one or more still images in a digital imaging device
US6285491B1 (en) * 1998-12-28 2001-09-04 Texas Instruments Incorporated Adaptive temporal modulation of periodically varying light sources
US6317141B1 (en) * 1998-12-31 2001-11-13 Flashpoint Technology, Inc. Method and apparatus for editing heterogeneous media objects in a digital imaging device
US6769131B1 (en) * 1999-11-18 2004-07-27 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Image processing apparatus and method, image distribution system and storage medium
US6252668B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-06-26 Zygo Corporation Systems and methods for quantifying nonlinearities in interferometry systems
US6618511B1 (en) * 1999-12-31 2003-09-09 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Perspective correction for panoramic digital camera with remote processing
US6885392B1 (en) * 1999-12-31 2005-04-26 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Perspective correction for preview area of panoramic digital camera
US20040056966A1 (en) * 2000-07-21 2004-03-25 Schechner Yoav Y. Method and apparatus for image mosaicing
US7386188B2 (en) * 2000-09-08 2008-06-10 Adobe Systems Incorporated Merging images to form a panoramic image
US7095905B1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2006-08-22 Adobe Systems Incorporated Merging images to form a panoramic image
US6757445B1 (en) * 2000-10-04 2004-06-29 Pixxures, Inc. Method and apparatus for producing digital orthophotos using sparse stereo configurations and external models
US7006707B2 (en) * 2001-05-03 2006-02-28 Adobe Systems Incorporated Projecting images onto a surface
US20020181802A1 (en) * 2001-05-03 2002-12-05 John Peterson Projecting images onto a surface
US20020163582A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-11-07 Gruber Michael A. Self-calibrating, digital, large format camera with single or mulitiple detector arrays and single or multiple optical systems
US20040161246A1 (en) * 2001-10-23 2004-08-19 Nobuyuki Matsushita Data communication system, data transmitter and data receiver
US20070138284A1 (en) * 2001-11-21 2007-06-21 Metrologic Instruments, Inc. Planar light illumination and imaging device with modulated coherent illumination that reduces speckle noise induced by coherent illumination
US20040117358A1 (en) * 2002-03-16 2004-06-17 Von Kaenel Tim A. Method, system, and program for an improved enterprise spatial system
US20040095374A1 (en) * 2002-11-14 2004-05-20 Nebojsa Jojic System and method for automatically learning flexible sprites in video layers
US7676820B2 (en) * 2003-01-06 2010-03-09 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Method and apparatus for similar video content hopping
US20050212909A1 (en) * 2003-01-17 2005-09-29 Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation Remote video display method, video acquisition device, method thereof, and program thereof
US20040264919A1 (en) * 2003-06-14 2004-12-30 Impressive Ideas Ltd. Display system for views of video item
US20050104999A1 (en) * 2003-09-19 2005-05-19 Shinya Wada Image processing method and device using photo assistant tool including rotator
US20050234302A1 (en) * 2003-09-26 2005-10-20 Mackinnon Nicholas B Apparatus and methods relating to color imaging endoscope systems
US7535497B2 (en) * 2003-10-14 2009-05-19 Seiko Epson Corporation Generation of static image data from multiple image data
US20050237383A1 (en) * 2004-04-22 2005-10-27 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Digital camera
US20060020213A1 (en) * 2004-07-09 2006-01-26 Whitman Michael P Surgical imaging device
US20070279481A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2007-12-06 Chambers Michael J Mobile Communication Device Having Panoramic Imagemaking Capability
US20060262184A1 (en) * 2004-11-05 2006-11-23 Yissum Research Development Company Of The Hebrew University Of Jerusalem Method and system for spatio-temporal video warping
US20070146529A1 (en) * 2004-12-28 2007-06-28 Shoichi Suzuki Image sensing apparatus and image sensing apparatus control method
US20060239336A1 (en) * 2005-04-21 2006-10-26 Baraniuk Richard G Method and Apparatus for Compressive Imaging Device
US20090086022A1 (en) * 2005-04-29 2009-04-02 Chubb International Holdings Limited Method and device for consistent region of interest
US20060268129A1 (en) * 2005-05-26 2006-11-30 Yining Deng Composite images
US20090051759A1 (en) * 2005-05-27 2009-02-26 Adkins Sean M Equipment and methods for the synchronization of stereoscopic projection displays
US20070035707A1 (en) * 2005-06-20 2007-02-15 Digital Display Innovations, Llc Field sequential light source modulation for a digital display system
US20080158679A1 (en) * 2005-07-01 2008-07-03 Luty Clifford J Image stabilization system
US20080231808A1 (en) * 2005-07-15 2008-09-25 Van De Velde Frans J Relaxed confocal catadioptric scanning laser ophthalmoscope
US20070031062A1 (en) * 2005-08-04 2007-02-08 Microsoft Corporation Video registration and image sequence stitching
US20070081081A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Cheng Brett A Automated multi-frame image capture for panorama stitching using motion sensor
US20070285554A1 (en) * 2005-10-31 2007-12-13 Dor Givon Apparatus method and system for imaging
US20070146798A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2007-06-28 Fujitsu Limited Image processing system, image processing method, image processing program, image processing apparatus, and communication terminal device
US20070268539A1 (en) * 2006-05-16 2007-11-22 Sony Corporation Apparatus and method for holographic recording and reproducing
US20100007754A1 (en) * 2006-09-14 2010-01-14 Nikon Corporation Image processing device, electronic camera and image processing program
US20090028032A1 (en) * 2006-10-17 2009-01-29 Sony Corporation Hologram reproducing apparatus
US20080158341A1 (en) * 2006-12-27 2008-07-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Camera for panoramic photography
US20100033730A1 (en) * 2007-01-08 2010-02-11 Tae Geun Kim Optical imaging system based on coherence frequency domain reflectometry
US20090152664A1 (en) * 2007-04-18 2009-06-18 Ethan Jacob Dukenfield Klem Materials, Systems and Methods for Optoelectronic Devices
US20100097678A1 (en) * 2007-06-27 2010-04-22 Spudnik, Inc. Servo Feedback Control Based on Designated Scanning Servo Beam in Scanning Beam Display Systems with Light-Emitting Screens
US20090022422A1 (en) * 2007-07-18 2009-01-22 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for constructing a composite image
US20090033623A1 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Ming-Yen Lin Three-dimensional virtual input and simulation apparatus
US8963951B2 (en) * 2007-08-24 2015-02-24 Sony Corporation Image processing apparatus, moving-image playing apparatus, and processing method and program therefor to allow browsing of a sequence of images
US20090245653A1 (en) * 2007-08-29 2009-10-01 Kabushiki Kaisha Topcon Image measurement apparatus
US20100309308A1 (en) * 2008-01-16 2010-12-09 Orbotech Ltd. Inspection of a substrate using multiple cameras
US8675068B2 (en) * 2008-04-11 2014-03-18 Nearmap Australia Pty Ltd Systems and methods of capturing large area images in detail including cascaded cameras and/or calibration features
US20100201894A1 (en) * 2008-05-21 2010-08-12 Panasonic Corporation Projector
US20100020190A1 (en) * 2008-07-28 2010-01-28 Fujitsu Limited Photographic device and photographing method
US20100053352A1 (en) * 2008-09-02 2010-03-04 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus to capture compressed images
US20110068699A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2011-03-24 Knapp David J Broad spectrum light source calibration systems and related methods
US20110069094A1 (en) * 2008-09-05 2011-03-24 Knapp David J Illumination devices and related systems and methods
US20110233046A1 (en) * 2008-09-25 2011-09-29 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Devices, apparatus and method for providing photostimulation and imaging of structures
US8355042B2 (en) * 2008-10-16 2013-01-15 Spatial Cam Llc Controller in a camera for creating a panoramic image
US20100141799A1 (en) * 2008-12-08 2010-06-10 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100141735A1 (en) * 2008-12-08 2010-06-10 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100157086A1 (en) * 2008-12-15 2010-06-24 Illumina, Inc Dynamic autofocus method and system for assay imager
US20100149368A1 (en) * 2008-12-17 2010-06-17 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, imaging method, and program
US20100171810A1 (en) * 2009-01-07 2010-07-08 Mitsuharu Ohki Image Processing Apparatus, Image Processing Method and Program
US20100172546A1 (en) * 2009-01-08 2010-07-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Methods and apparatus for performing angular measurements
US8379929B2 (en) * 2009-01-08 2013-02-19 Trimble Navigation Limited Methods and apparatus for performing angular measurements
US8351686B2 (en) * 2009-01-08 2013-01-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Methods and systems for determining angles and locations of points
US8285512B2 (en) * 2009-01-08 2012-10-09 Trimble Navigation Limited Method and system for measuring angles based on 360 degree images
US20100174507A1 (en) * 2009-01-08 2010-07-08 Trimble Navigation Limited Method and system for measuring angles based on 360 degree images
US20100321470A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2010-12-23 Fujifilm Corporation Imaging apparatus and control method therefor
US9111582B2 (en) * 2009-08-03 2015-08-18 Adobe Systems Incorporated Methods and systems for previewing content with a dynamic tag cloud
US20110080815A1 (en) * 2009-10-02 2011-04-07 Hideharu Mikami Optical recording and regenerating apparatus
US8665316B2 (en) * 2009-11-24 2014-03-04 Microsoft Corporation Multi-resolution digital large format camera with multiple detector arrays
US20110181687A1 (en) * 2010-01-26 2011-07-28 Sony Corporation Imaging control apparatus, imaging control method, and program
US20110181690A1 (en) * 2010-01-26 2011-07-28 Sony Corporation Imaging control apparatus, imaging apparatus, imaging control method, and program
US20110228123A1 (en) * 2010-03-19 2011-09-22 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Imaging apparatus and recording medium with program recorded therein
US20110234640A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-09-29 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, image processing apparatus, image processing method, and program
US20110234852A1 (en) * 2010-03-29 2011-09-29 Sony Corporation Imaging apparatus, image processing apparatus, image processing method, and program
US20110249911A1 (en) * 2010-04-07 2011-10-13 Scott Determan Spectral unmixing for visualization of samples
US20120026284A1 (en) * 2010-08-02 2012-02-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Imaging apparatus and control method therefor
US20120038817A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Mcmackin Lenore Focusing Mechanisms for Compressive Imaging Device
US20120241597A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-09-27 Bridge Robert F Hot Spot Correction in a Compressive Imaging System
US8634009B2 (en) * 2010-08-11 2014-01-21 Inview Technology Corporation Dynamic range optimization in a compressive imaging system
US20120038789A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Kelly Kevin F Determining Light Level Variation in Compressive Imaging by Injecting Calibration Patterns into Pattern Sequence
US20120206653A1 (en) * 2011-01-28 2012-08-16 Graves Eric J Efficient Media Processing
US20130104042A1 (en) * 2011-02-16 2013-04-25 Apple Inc. Anchor Override for a Media-Editing Application with an Anchored Timeline
US20120257006A1 (en) * 2011-04-06 2012-10-11 Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Image processing device capable of generating wide-range image
US20120263397A1 (en) * 2011-04-12 2012-10-18 Sony Corporation Image processing device, image processing method, and program
US20120294549A1 (en) * 2011-05-17 2012-11-22 Apple Inc. Positional Sensor-Assisted Image Registration for Panoramic Photography
US8970665B2 (en) * 2011-05-25 2015-03-03 Microsoft Corporation Orientation-based generation of panoramic fields
US20120307000A1 (en) * 2011-06-01 2012-12-06 Apple Inc. Image Registration Using Sliding Registration Windows
US20130002968A1 (en) * 2011-06-28 2013-01-03 Bridge Robert F User Control of the Visual Performance of a Compressive Imaging System
US8797340B2 (en) * 2012-10-02 2014-08-05 Nvidia Corporation System, method, and computer program product for modifying a pixel value as a function of a display duration estimate

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20120038817A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Mcmackin Lenore Focusing Mechanisms for Compressive Imaging Device
US20120038789A1 (en) * 2010-08-11 2012-02-16 Kelly Kevin F Determining Light Level Variation in Compressive Imaging by Injecting Calibration Patterns into Pattern Sequence
US8570405B2 (en) * 2010-08-11 2013-10-29 Inview Technology Corporation Determining light level variation in compressive imaging by injecting calibration patterns into pattern sequence
US8717492B2 (en) * 2010-08-11 2014-05-06 Inview Technology Corporation Focusing mechanisms for compressive imaging device
US8717466B2 (en) 2010-08-11 2014-05-06 Inview Technology Corporation Dual-port measurements of light reflected from micromirror array
US10116842B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2018-10-30 Cathx Research Ltd. Gathering range and dimensional information for underwater surveys
US20150363914A1 (en) * 2012-10-17 2015-12-17 Cathx Research Ltd Processing survey data of an underwater scene
US10116841B2 (en) 2012-10-17 2018-10-30 Cathx Research Ltd. Relation to underwater imaging for underwater surveys
US9223442B2 (en) * 2013-01-10 2015-12-29 Samsung Display Co., Ltd. Proximity and touch sensing surface for integration with a display
US20140192023A1 (en) * 2013-01-10 2014-07-10 Samsung Display Co., Ltd. Proximity and touch sensing surface for integration with a display
US20160112063A1 (en) * 2014-10-21 2016-04-21 Imec Vzw System and method for compressed sensing
EP3012978A1 (en) * 2014-10-21 2016-04-27 IMEC vzw System and method for compressed sensing .

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US9160914B2 (en) 2015-10-13 grant
WO2013003485A1 (en) 2013-01-03 application
US20130002858A1 (en) 2013-01-03 application
US20130002968A1 (en) 2013-01-03 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6757008B1 (en) Video surveillance system
Ng et al. Mathematical analysis of super-resolution methodology
US7106374B1 (en) Dynamically reconfigurable vision system
Wakin et al. Compressive imaging for video representation and coding
Zomet et al. Lensless imaging with a controllable aperture
Welsh et al. Fast full-color computational imaging with single-pixel detectors
US20110068268A1 (en) Terahertz imaging methods and apparatus using compressed sensing
Takhar et al. A new compressive imaging camera architecture using optical-domain compression
US5737075A (en) Electronic imaging by encoded image detection
US20120200682A1 (en) Method for classifying a pixel of a hyperspectral image in a remote sensing application
US20040056966A1 (en) Method and apparatus for image mosaicing
US20090095912A1 (en) Coded aperture imaging system
Wetzstein et al. Computational plenoptic imaging
WO1998046007A1 (en) Imaging system &amp; method
CN101893552A (en) Hyperspectral imager and imaging method based on compressive sensing
Arguello et al. Colored coded aperture design by concentration of measure in compressive spectral imaging
Radwell et al. Single-pixel infrared and visible microscope
Lapray et al. Multispectral filter arrays: Recent advances and practical implementation
US20060239336A1 (en) Method and Apparatus for Compressive Imaging Device
US20020175286A1 (en) Uncooled LWIR hyperspectral imager
Drémeau et al. Reference-less measurement of the transmission matrix of a highly scattering material using a DMD and phase retrieval techniques
Jacques et al. CMOS compressed imaging by random convolution
US20120162457A1 (en) Programmable Camera and Video Reconstruction Method
US20100253941A1 (en) Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imager and Method Therefor
US20140125775A1 (en) Three-dimensional image sensors

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INVIEW TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION, TEXAS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TIDMAN, JAMES M.;WESTON, TYLER H.;HERMAN, MATTHEW A.;ANDOTHERS;REEL/FRAME:028676/0454

Effective date: 20120717