US20120266602A1 - Aerodynamic Fuel Nozzle - Google Patents

Aerodynamic Fuel Nozzle Download PDF

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Publication number
US20120266602A1
US20120266602A1 US13/092,345 US201113092345A US2012266602A1 US 20120266602 A1 US20120266602 A1 US 20120266602A1 US 201113092345 A US201113092345 A US 201113092345A US 2012266602 A1 US2012266602 A1 US 2012266602A1
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United States
Prior art keywords
combustor
fuel
flow
stages
fueled
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Abandoned
Application number
US13/092,345
Inventor
Joel Meier Haynes
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General Electric Co
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General Electric Co
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Publication date
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Priority to US13/092,345 priority Critical patent/US20120266602A1/en
Assigned to GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY reassignment GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HAYNES, JOEL MEIER
Publication of US20120266602A1 publication Critical patent/US20120266602A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/02Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the air-flow or gas-flow configuration
    • F23R3/04Air inlet arrangements
    • F23R3/10Air inlet arrangements for primary air
    • F23R3/12Air inlet arrangements for primary air inducing a vortex
    • F23R3/14Air inlet arrangements for primary air inducing a vortex by using swirl vanes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/28Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply
    • F23R3/286Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply having fuel-air premixing devices

Abstract

The present application and the resultant patent provide a combustor for a turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles with one or more of the fuel nozzles including a swirler assembly. The swirler assembly may include a number of stages with a number of fueled structures and a number of unfueled structures.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The present application relates generally to gas turbine engines and more particularly relates to an aerodynamic fuel nozzle with a triple stage swirler for late lean injection and turndown.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Dry Low NOx technology may be applied for emissions control with gaseous fuel combustion in industrial gas turbines using annular can combustion systems and the like. These known Dry Low NOx combustion systems provide premixing of the fuel and the air for a generally uniform rate of combustion with relatively constant reaction zone temperatures. Through careful air management, these reaction zone temperatures may be optimized for very low production of nitrogen oxides (“NOx”), carbon monoxide (“CO”), unburned hydrocarbons (“UHC”), and other types of undesirable emissions. Specifically, the modulation of a center premix fuel nozzle may expand the range of operation by allowing the fuel-air ratio and the corresponding reaction rates of the outer nozzles to remain relatively constant while varying the fuel input into the turbine.
  • Fuel staging allows for higher turbine inlet temperatures with a uniform heat release. Axially staged systems generally employ multiple planes of fuel injection along the combustor flow path. Even with advances in materials and heat transfer methods, however, current combustor designs are challenged to produce low nitrogen oxide emissions at full load conditions. Likewise, carbon monoxide emissions at part load conditions pose a challenge in reducing combustion firing temperatures. By firing only selected nozzles, the adjacent unfired nozzles may quench the reaction and produce carbon monoxide. The fired nozzle also may cause significant thermal stresses in the combustor liner so as to reduce component life time.
  • There is thus a desire for improved fuel nozzle and combustor designs and/or methods of staging fuel therein so as to lower peak fuel temperatures. Such improved designs should maintain adequate system output and efficiency with correspondingly low production of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other types of emissions.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present application and the resultant patent thus provide a combustor for a turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles with one or more of the fuel nozzles including a swirler assembly. The swirler assembly may include a number of stages with a number of fueled structures and a number of unfueled structures.
  • The present application and the resultant patent further provide a method of operating a combustor for late lean injection. The method may include the steps of providing a flow of air to a fuel nozzle, providing a flow of fuel through one or more fueled structures of a swirler assembly, swirling the flow of air and the flow of fuel through multiple stages of the swirler assembly, establishing a primary recirculation zone about the fuel nozzle for low emissions, and establishing a secondary recirculation zone downstream of the fuel nozzle for high temperatures.
  • The present application and the resultant patent further provide a swirler assembly for use with a combustor. The swirler assembly may include a number of stages, a number of vanes, and a number of blocks. Each of the stages may include one or more of the vanes and/or the blocks.
  • These and other features and improvements of the present application and the resultant patent will become apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the several drawings and the appended claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a known gas turbine engine,
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a known combustor.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic front view of an end cover and fuel nozzle assembly of the combustor of FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 4 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a fuel nozzle with a swirler as may be described herein.
  • FIG. 5 is a partial side cross-sectional view of a fuel nozzle with an alternative embodiment of a swirler as may be described herein.
  • FIG. 6 is a front plan view of a radial embodiment of the swirler of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic view of a block embodiment of the swirler of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 8 is a partial side view of the block embodiment of the swirler of FIG. 7.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • Referring now to the drawings, in which like numerals refer to like elements throughout the several views, FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of a turbo-machine such as a gas turbine engine 10 as may be described herein. The gas turbine engine 10 may include a compressor 15. The compressor 15 compresses an incoming flow of air 20. The compressor 15 delivers the compressed flow of air 20 to a combustor 25. The combustor 25 mixes the compressed flow of air 20 with a compressed flow of fuel 30 and ignites the mixture to create a flow of combustion gases 35. Although only a single combustor 25 is shown, the gas turbine engine 10 may include any number of combustors 25. The flow of combustion gases 35 is delivered in turn to a turbine 40. The flow of combustion gases 35 drives the turbine 40 so as to produce mechanical work. The mechanical work produced in the turbine 40 drives the compressor 15 via a shaft 45 and an external load 50 such as an electrical generator and the like.
  • The gas turbine engine 10 may use natural gas, various types of syngas, and/or other types of fuels. The gas turbine engine 10 may be any one of a number of different gas turbine engines such as those offered by General Electric Company of Schenectady, N.Y. and the like. The gas turbine engine 10 may have different configurations and may use other types of components. Other types of gas turbine engines also may be used herein. Multiple gas turbine engines, other types of turbines, and other types of power generation equipment also may be used herein together.
  • FIGS. 2 and 3 show an example of a known combustor 25. Generally described, the combustor includes an outer casing 55. The outer casing 55 may be bolted. to the turbine 40 or otherwise attached. One end of the outer casing 55 may be enclosed by an end cover 60. The end cover 60 receives supply tubes, manifolds, and associated valves for feeding gaseous fuel, liquid fuel, air, and water. The end cover 60 supports a number of outer fuel nozzles 65 that surround a center nozzle 70. Other components and other configurations may be used herein.
  • A combustion zone 75 may be positioned within the outer casing 55 downstream of the end cover 60 and the fuel nozzles 65, 70. The combustion zone 75 may be enclosed via a combustion liner 80. A flow sleeve 85 may surround the combustion liner 80 and define a flow path 90 therebetween. The flow of air 20 from the compressor 15 flows through the flow path 90, reverses direction about the end cover 60, and flows into the fuel nozzle 65, 70. A transition piece 95 may extend about the downstream end of the outer casing 55. The transition piece 95 may be in communication with the turbine 10 for directing the flow of combustion gases 35 thereto. Other components and other configurations may be used herein.
  • The combustor 25 may be late lean injection compatible. A late lean injection compatible combustor may be any combustor with either an exit temperatures that exceeds about 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit (about 1,371 degrees Celsius) or handles fuels with components that are more reactive than, for example, methane with a hot side residence time greater than about 10 milliseconds. Examples of late lean injection compatible combustors include a DLN-1 (“Dry-Low NOx”) combustor, a DLN-2 combustor, and a DLN-2.6 combustor offered by General Electric Company of Schenectady, N.Y. , Other types of late lean injection compatible combustors may be used herein. Such late lean injection compatible combustors may have a number of fuel injectors (not shown) positioned about the transition piece 95 or otherwise for fuel staging and the like. These downstream fuel injectors, however, may increase the overall complexity of the combustor 25. Other components and other configurations may be used herein.
  • FIG. 4 shows an example of a portion of a combustor 100 as may be described herein. The combustor 100 includes a number of fuel nozzles 110. Any number of the fuel nozzles 110 may be used. In this example, at least a center nozzle 120 may include a swirler assembly 130. The swirler assembly 130 may be a swirler with three stages 140. The three stages 140 thus include a first stage 150, a second stage 160, and a third stage 170. Any number of stages 140 may be used herein. The stages 140 may be positioned in an axial direction 180 as is shown in FIG. 4, in a circumferential direction 190 as shown in FIG. 5, or in combinations thereof. The outer swirler may have a swirl number S3>0.6 and the inner swirlers may have a swirl number S2>S3 and a swirl number S1>S3. The swirl number characterizes combustor recirculation with a swirl number greater than 0.6 indicating good recirculation. Other components and other configurations may be used herein.
  • The stages 140 of the swirler assembly 130 may take many different forms. For example, the swirlers 130 may include a number of radial vanes 200 as is shown in FIG. 6, a number of blocks 210 as shown in FIG. 7, and/or combinations thereof. Other shapes also may be used herein. In the block embodiment of FIG. 7, a number of fixed blocks 220 and a number of movable blocks 230 may be used so as to provide a variable swirler. In either embodiment, a number of injection ports 240 may be used as are shown in FIG. 8 for a fueled structure 245. The injection ports 240 may be positioned in radial, axial, and/or circumferential directions. For example, three (3) different directions may be used in the vane 200 of FIG. 7. The vanes 200 and blocks 210 also may be unfueled structures 250. Other configurations and other components may be used herein.
  • Combinations of the vanes 200 and the blocks 210 may be used together. Specifically, different types of swirlers with different types of vanes 200, blocks 210, or other shapes may be used herein. The following chart shows several examples of differing embodiments of the swirler assemblies 130:
  • Embodiment Swirler 1 Swirler 2 Swirler 3
    1 Radial Vane, Radial Vane, Fueled Block Vane, Unfueled
    Fueled
    2 Radial Vane, Block Vane, Fueled Block Vane, Unfueled
    Fueled
    3 Radial Vane, Radial Vane, Fueled Radial Vane, Unfueled
    Fueled
    4 Radial Vane, Radial Vane, Radial Vane, Fueled
    Fueled Unfueled
    5 Block Vane, Block Vane, Fueled Block Vane, Fueled
    Fueled
  • The examples shown herein are not exclusive. As one can appreciate, any number of different combinations of vanes 200 and blocks 210 being fueled or unfueled may be used herein.
  • The fuel nozzle 110 thus creates a primary recirculation zone 260 near the nozzle 120 and a secondary recirculation zone 270 downstream. With late lean injection operations, the primary recirculation zone 260 operates near the flammability limits (about Phi˜2.5 or about Phi˜0.4) and the combustion products travel downstream without forming significant nitrogen oxides or other emissions. In the secondary recirculation zone 270, the core and tertiary air mix at overall lean conditions and raise the overall temperature of the hot combustion gases so as to reduce fuel staging aerodynamic means.
  • For high turndown, the primary recirculation zone 260 may be fired at moderately lean temperatures (about Phi˜0.5 to 0.6). This may accomplish good fuel burnout and maintain low emissions. Further downstream, the inner products mix with the tertiary stream in the secondary recirculation zone 270 so as to bring the mixture to overall lean conditions. The fuel nozzle 110 thus is able to form turndown while maintaining low carbon monoxide in the presence of unfired nozzles.
  • The nozzle 110 thus enables increased combustion firing temperatures without increasing nitrogen oxides by effectively implementing late lean injection performance without significant hardware changes. The nozzle 110 also enables high combustion turndown without producing significant levels of carbon monoxide. The nozzle 110 may be used in conjunction with existing nozzles that may remain unfired without impacting on the low carbon monoxide performance.
  • The use of the swirler assembly 130 with a center nozzle 120 thus provides fuel staging so as to create a downstream aero-staged flame. Fuel staging herein thus may be maximized. Moreover, such fuel staging may dampen combustion dynamics.
  • It should be apparent that the foregoing relates only to certain embodiments of the present application and the resultant patent. Numerous changes and modifications may be made herein by one of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the general spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims and the equivalents thereof.

Claims (20)

1. A combustor for a turbine engine, comprising:
a plurality of fuel nozzles; and
one or more of the plurality of fuel nozzles comprising a swirler assembly;
wherein the swirler assembly comprises a plurality of stages; and
wherein the plurality of stages comprises a plurality of fueled structures and a plurality of unfueled structures.
2. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of fuel nozzles comprises a central fuel nozzle.
3. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of stages comprises a first stage, a second stage, and a third stage.
4. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of stages extend in an axial direction.
5. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of stages extend in a circumferential direction.
6. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of stages comprises a plurality of radial vanes.
7. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of stages comprises a plurality of blocks.
8. The combustor of claim 7, wherein the plurality of blocks comprises a plurality of fixed blocks and a plurality of movable blocks.
9. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of fueled structures comprises a plurality of radial vanes and a plurality of blocks.
10. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of fueled structures comprises a plurality of injection ports.
11. The combustor of claim 10, wherein the plurality of injection ports comprises an axial direction and/or a circumferential direction.
12. The combustor of claim her comprising a primary recirculation zone about the plurality of fuel nozzles and a secondary recirculation zone downstream of the plurality of fuel nozzles.
13. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of fueled structures comprises a plurality of vanes.
14. The combustor of claim 1, wherein the plurality of fueled structures comprises a plurality of movable blocks.
15. A method of operating a combustor for late lean injection, comprising:
providing a flow of air to a fuel nozzle;
providing a flow of fuel through one or more fueled structures of a swirler assembly;
swirling the flow of air and the flow of fuel through multiple stages of the swirler assembly;
establishing a primary recirculation zone about the fuel nozzle for low emissions; and
establishing a secondary recirculation zone downstream of the fuel nozzle for high temperatures.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the step of establishing a primary recirculation zone comprises combusting the flow of fuel and the flow of air near a flammability limit.
17. The method of claim 15, wherein the step of establishing a primary recirculation zone comprises combusting the flow of fuel and the flow of air without forming nitrogen oxides.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein the step of establishing a secondary recirculation zone comprises lean mixing of the flow of fuel and the flow of air.
19. The method of claim 15, wherein the step of establishing a secondary recirculation zone downstream of the fuel nozzle for high temperatures comprises combusting the flow of fuel and the flow of air at higher combustion temperatures as compared to the primary recirculation zone.
20. A swirler assembly for use with a combustor, comprising:
a plurality of stages;
a plurality of vanes; and
a plurality of blocks;
wherein each of the plurality of stages comprises one or more of the plurality of vanes and/or one more of the plurality of blocks.
US13/092,345 2011-04-22 2011-04-22 Aerodynamic Fuel Nozzle Abandoned US20120266602A1 (en)

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US13/092,345 US20120266602A1 (en) 2011-04-22 2011-04-22 Aerodynamic Fuel Nozzle
EP12164848.9A EP2515042A3 (en) 2011-04-22 2012-04-19 Aerodynamic fuel nozzle
CN2012101792348A CN102809176A (en) 2011-04-22 2012-04-20 Aerodynamic fuel nozzle

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9347378B2 (en) 2013-05-13 2016-05-24 Solar Turbines Incorporated Outer premix barrel vent air sweep
CN109812341A (en) * 2018-12-31 2019-05-28 华电电力科学研究院有限公司 A kind of DLN-2.6+ combustion system firing optimization method using the LVE method of operation
US11181274B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2021-11-23 General Electric Company Combustion system and method for attenuation of combustion dynamics in a gas turbine engine

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104406197B (en) * 2014-11-24 2017-01-18 中国科学院工程热物理研究所 Low-emission reverse flow combustor adopting radial swirl injection and fuel oil grading schemes
CN110345513B (en) * 2019-07-12 2021-04-16 中国航发沈阳发动机研究所 Cyclone atomization device for staged combustion

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5365865A (en) * 1991-10-31 1994-11-22 Monro Richard J Flame stabilizer for solid fuel burner
US6374615B1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2002-04-23 Alliedsignal, Inc Low cost, low emissions natural gas combustor
US6389815B1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-05-21 General Electric Company Fuel nozzle assembly for reduced exhaust emissions
US20050005610A1 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-01-13 Belsom Keith Cletus Turbine combustor endcover assembly
US20080078181A1 (en) * 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Mark Anthony Mueller Methods and apparatus to facilitate decreasing combustor acoustics
US20080083224A1 (en) * 2006-10-05 2008-04-10 Balachandar Varatharajan Method and apparatus for reducing gas turbine engine emissions
US20100126176A1 (en) * 2008-11-26 2010-05-27 Ik Soo Kim Dual swirler
US20100223932A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2010-09-09 Nigel Wilbraham Gas Turbine Burner and Method of Mixing Fuel and Air in a Swirling Area of a Gas Turbine Burner
US20100236252A1 (en) * 2009-03-23 2010-09-23 Michael Huth Swirl generator, method for preventing flashback in a burner having at least one swirl generator and burner

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5365865A (en) * 1991-10-31 1994-11-22 Monro Richard J Flame stabilizer for solid fuel burner
US6374615B1 (en) * 2000-01-28 2002-04-23 Alliedsignal, Inc Low cost, low emissions natural gas combustor
US6389815B1 (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-05-21 General Electric Company Fuel nozzle assembly for reduced exhaust emissions
US20050005610A1 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-01-13 Belsom Keith Cletus Turbine combustor endcover assembly
US20100223932A1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2010-09-09 Nigel Wilbraham Gas Turbine Burner and Method of Mixing Fuel and Air in a Swirling Area of a Gas Turbine Burner
US20080078181A1 (en) * 2006-09-29 2008-04-03 Mark Anthony Mueller Methods and apparatus to facilitate decreasing combustor acoustics
US7631500B2 (en) * 2006-09-29 2009-12-15 General Electric Company Methods and apparatus to facilitate decreasing combustor acoustics
US20080083224A1 (en) * 2006-10-05 2008-04-10 Balachandar Varatharajan Method and apparatus for reducing gas turbine engine emissions
US20100126176A1 (en) * 2008-11-26 2010-05-27 Ik Soo Kim Dual swirler
US20100236252A1 (en) * 2009-03-23 2010-09-23 Michael Huth Swirl generator, method for preventing flashback in a burner having at least one swirl generator and burner

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9347378B2 (en) 2013-05-13 2016-05-24 Solar Turbines Incorporated Outer premix barrel vent air sweep
US11181274B2 (en) 2017-08-21 2021-11-23 General Electric Company Combustion system and method for attenuation of combustion dynamics in a gas turbine engine
CN109812341A (en) * 2018-12-31 2019-05-28 华电电力科学研究院有限公司 A kind of DLN-2.6+ combustion system firing optimization method using the LVE method of operation

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EP2515042A2 (en) 2012-10-24
EP2515042A3 (en) 2014-01-08
CN102809176A (en) 2012-12-05

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Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HAYNES, JOEL MEIER;REEL/FRAME:026168/0896

Effective date: 20110419

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

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