Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20120203466A1
US20120203466A1 US13408334 US201213408334A US2012203466A1 US 20120203466 A1 US20120203466 A1 US 20120203466A1 US 13408334 US13408334 US 13408334 US 201213408334 A US201213408334 A US 201213408334A US 2012203466 A1 US2012203466 A1 US 2012203466A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
individuals
script
gene
server
individual
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US13408334
Inventor
Stephen J. Brown
Original Assignee
Brown Stephen J
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0002Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/48Other medical applications
    • A61B5/4836Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods
    • A61B5/4839Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods combined with drug delivery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6887Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient mounted on external non-worn devices, e.g. non-medical devices
    • A61B5/6896Toys
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F19/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications
    • G06F19/30Medical informatics, i.e. computer-based analysis or dissemination of patient or disease data
    • G06F19/34Computer-assisted medical diagnosis or treatment, e.g. computerised prescription or delivery of medication or diets, computerised local control of medical devices, medical expert systems or telemedicine
    • G06F19/3418Telemedicine, e.g. remote diagnosis, remote control of instruments or remote monitoring of patient carried devices
    • G16H10/20
    • G16H40/40
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2560/00Constructional details of operational features of apparatus; Accessories for medical measuring apparatus
    • A61B2560/04Constructional details of apparatus
    • A61B2560/0443Modular apparatus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/02Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
    • A61B5/0205Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/08Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
    • A61B5/087Measuring breath flow
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/74Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means
    • A61B5/742Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient ; user input means using visual displays
    • A61B5/743Displaying an image simultaneously with additional graphical information, e.g. symbols, charts, function plots
    • G16H10/60

Abstract

A system and method for using individuals' behavioral and environmental information in conjunction with their gene sequences to find drug candidates and drug targets. Individuals designated as having a high risk for developing a particular disease are each given a remotely programmable apparatus. Queries related to the individuals' behavior and environment are sent from a server to the remotely programmable apparatuses. The individuals' responses to the queries and any physiological information are sent back to the server. The process of collecting individuals' information can take place over a period of time to ensure accurate data and to allow researchers to observe progression of the disease. A data mining program on the server analyzes the individuals' behavioral and environmental information, as well as their gene sequences.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 13/303,622, filed Nov. 23, 2011, which is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 09/496,893, filed Feb. 2, 2000, which are each herein incorporated by reference.
  • RELATED APPLICATION INFORMATION
  • [0002]
    This application is related to copending patent application Ser. No. 08/946,341 filed Oct. 7, 1997 which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • FIELD OF INVENTION
  • [0003]
    This invention relates generally to the fields of genomics, bioinformatics, and drug development. More specifically, it relates to a database containing phenotypic and environmental data on groups of individuals for use in conjunction with gene sequences to identify disease-influencing genes and substances.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    The physical makeup of an individual is determined by his or her genes. Genes are comprised of DNA, which in turn consists of four nucleotides known as adenine(A), thymine(T), cytosine(C), and guanine(G). A particular series of nucleotides
  • [0005]
    is known as a gene sequence. Each gene sequence codes for a protein. A defective or mutant gene sequence will not produce a working protein. The protein may not perform its purpose, the protein may carry out a different purpose than intended, too much protein may be made, too little protein may be made, or the protein may not be made at all. If the protein is essential to one or more functions of the body, disease will result.
  • [0006]
    Mutant gene sequences are either inherited or acquired. An inherited gene sequence is received from an individual's parents, while an acquired gene sequence results from an event in the individuals lifetime which changes the original gene sequence.
  • [0007]
    A classic example of an inherited mutant gene sequence is the sickle cell anemia gene. Sickle cell anemia is caused by the substitution of a single nucleotide (A to T) in the gene sequence of an individual. This single substitution results in the substitution of a single amino acid (glutamic acid to valine) in the resulting hemoglobin protein. The mutant hemoglobin protein produces crescent-shaped or sickled red blood cells in affected individuals, causing a decrease in the amount of oxygen that can be transported throughout the body. The lack of oxygen often results in kidney and heart failure, paralysis, and rheumatism, which are common symptoms of anemic individuals.
  • [0008]
    An example of an acquired mutant gene sequence is malignant melanoma, or skin cancer. Cancer results when normal cells in an individual's body either lose or gain certain functions, resulting in the unchecked growth of non-normal cells. These non-normal cells often form tumors and spread throughout the body, disrupting normal cell functions. A cancer such as malignant melanoma is caused when the original gene sequence in epidermal cells is changed or mutated by an environmental factor, such as UV radiation. Our cells contain repair mechanisms to fix such problems, but over time the gene sequences in epidermal cells acquire more and more mutations. Mutant proteins are then produced and cellular functions are disrupted. The individual then has skin cancer.
  • [0009]
    Although an individual's environment generally precipitates the development of cancer, many individuals have been found to have a predisposition to cancer. These individuals have gene sequences which are more likely to become mutated over a shorter period of time. Examples of such gene sequences are the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women carrying these gene sequences have a higher probability of,developing breast and ovarian cancer than women who carry normal gene sequences. Thus, although the affected women's original gene sequences may not be mutated, they are more likely to become mutated due to their sequence or location on a chromosome.
  • [0010]
    Another factor that should be considered when discussing genetic diseases is whether they are monogenic or polygenic in nature. Sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are examples of monogenic diseases, as they are caused by a single gene sequence. Most types of cancer, asthma, and diabetes are examples of polygenic diseases, as they are caused by a variety of genes. Polygenic diseases are also more likely to be influenced by an individual's environment. Not surprisingly, polygenic diseases are more difficult to diagnose and treat. Thus, the use of gene sequences in developing new drugs is dependent the monogenic or polygenic nature of genetic diseases.
  • [0011]
    Typically, individuals with diseases caused by inherited or acquired gene sequences have only their symptoms treated. Diabetes patients receive insulin shots to regulate their blood glucose levels, asthma patients use inhalers to allow normal respiratory functions, and cancer patients undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy to remove cancerous tumors. Although these treatments are often able to alleviate or eliminate the symptoms, they are unable to remove the genetic bases of the diseases.
  • [0012]
    The genetic bases of many diseases were discovered in the 1940's by scientists such as Beadle and Tatum, who discovered that each gene codes for a protein. Researchers then rationalized that study of the relevant gene sequences could lead to effective drug treatments for genetic diseases. The technology was inadequate, however, until the 1970-80's, when Boyer and Cohen cloned DNA; Maxam, Gilbert, and Sanger figured out how to sequence DNA; and Mullis developed the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to quickly amplify DNA sequences. Using genetics to find drug candidates soon became a practical option.
  • [0013]
    Before these techniques became available, the pharmaceutical industry's main method of finding new drugs was trial and error. Compounds that were found to mimic the body's natural compounds were tested in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical trials to see if they had a desirable effect in treating disease. This method is still used and has resulted in many well-known drugs, but it is expensive and time-consuming.
  • [0014]
    With the advent of improved genetic techniques, however, the pharmaceutical industry has begun concentrating on genetics as the most effective route to new drug discovery. Genomics companies can typically be classified into one of two groups.
  • [0015]
    The first group concentrates on gene sequencing in order to find both drug targets and drug candidates, usually in the form of proteins expressed by the gene sequences. Gene sequencing can either be in the form of random discovery, whereby genes are sequenced without regard to their functions, or in the form of targeted discovery, whereby a certain region of the genome which is tentatively associated with a disease is sequenced. In random discovery gene sequencing, potentially useful gene sequences are identified and assayed to determine if they can be used in drug development. One problem with random discovery gene sequencing is that the majority of the human genome contains introns, or gene sequences which do not code for proteins. One way to circumvent this problem is to sequence complementary DNA (cDNA) instead. cDNA is produced from messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA, in turn, is transcribed from DNA and processed by certain enzymes which remove the introns. cDNA sequences thus code for un-interrupted proteins.
  • [0016]
    Targeted discovery gene sequencing is typically used with positional cloning, comparative gene expression, and functional cloning techniques, which are described in the next group.
  • [0017]
    The second group of genomics companies takes a more epidemiological approach by first researching families or groups of individuals having a similar disease, and then isolating the relevant genes. In this method, also known as positional cloning, blood samples are taken from the individuals and analyzed. The blood samples contain DNA, which is studied to identify certain regions of the genome which appear to be associated with the disease. Linking a region of the genome with a disease is known as linkage analysis or genetic linkage mapping. Once a region of the genome has been identified, it is sequenced via targeted discovery gene sequencing.
  • [0018]
    The second group of genomics companies also uses comparative gene expression to discover disease gene sequences. In comparative gene expression, mRNA from both healthy and diseased tissue is isolated. The mRNA is then used to produce cDNA, which is sequenced using targeted discovery gene Sequencing. The gene sequences from both the healthy and diseased tissue are then compared. In addition, the identification of genes associated with disease can be made by studying the level of expression of genes in both the healthy and diseased tissue.
  • [0019]
    Another similar technique is functional cloning. Mutant or non-functional proteins in metabolic pathways are studied and identified. The proteins are sequenced using targeted discovery gene sequencing and these sequences are used to figure out the corresponding DNA gene sequences. Once the disease gene sequences have been identified, they can be used in drug development.
  • [0020]
    Genomics companies in the first group include Incyte Pharmaceuticals (Palo Alto, Calif.). Incyte uses random discovery gene sequencing to produce its LifeSeq™ and LifeSeq FL™ databases. These databases contain the sequences of hundreds of human genes. These databases are licensed to drug development companies who use the sequences to produce new drugs. Databases covering animals (ZooSeq™), plants (PhytoSeq™), and bacteria and fungi (PathoSeq™) are also available. Incyte has also developed bioinformatics software, which provides sequence analysis and data management for their databases. In addition, Incyte offers cDNA libraries of the gene sequences in their databases, which can be directly used in drug development.
  • [0021]
    Human Genome Sciences (Rockville, Md.) also concentrates on random discovery gene sequencing, and has sequenced an estimated 90% of the 100,000 genes in the human body. In addition to collaborating with drug development companies who use their gene sequences, HGS also has its own drug discovery and development division. A number of therapeutic proteins which appear effective in animal models are under study.
  • [0022]
    Hyseq, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) has its HvX Platform which is capable of processing and sequencing millions of blood and DNA samples. The HyX Platform includes DNA arrays of samples and probes, software-driven modules, industrial robots for screening DNA probes against DNA samples, and bioinformatic software to analyze the genetic information. Through the use of its HyX Platform, HyX believes it can carry out a variety of techniques, such as gene identification, gene expression level determination, gene interaction studies (for polygenic diseases), and genetic mapping.
  • [0023]
    Affymetrix, Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) has a GeneChip system consisting of disposable DNA probe arrays containing gene sequences on a chip, instruments to process the probe arrays, and software to analyze and manage the genetic information in the probe. The GeneChip system thus allows pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to collect gene sequences and apply them to drug development.
  • [0024]
    On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry has a number of genomics companies who first identify the genes which are likely to cause disease. After the genes are identified, they are sequenced and the gene sequences are used in drug development. Likewise, proteins implicated in disease can be identified and sequenced. The sequences can be used to discover the gene sequences, which are then used in drug development.
  • [0025]
    Myriad genetics, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) targets families with a history of genetic disease and collects their genetic material in order to identify hereditary disease-causing genes, Myriad is able to identify these genes by using positional cloning and protein interaction studies in combination with targeted discovery gene sequencing. Using these techniques, Myriad has been able to locate and identify eight disease-related gene sequences, including BRCA1 and BRCA2. These gene sequences are used by Myriad's pharmaceutical partners to develop new therapeutics.
  • [0026]
    Another genomics company which uses disease inheritance patterns together with gene sequencing is Sequana (La Jolla, Calif.). Sequana uses DNA collection of individuals with inherited diseases, genotyping and linkage analysis, physical mapping, and gene sequencing to find disease gene sequences. Sequana also has a proprietary bioinformatics system which includes data mining tools to automatically sort and organize much of its data. Like Myriad, Sequana has a number of alliances with drug development companies which license Sequana's gene sequences.
  • [0027]
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) employs a broader range of technologies than Myriad and Sequana. In addition to positional cloning and targeted discovery gene sequencing, Millennium uses a number of other non-genetic techniques. cDNA libraries are prepared from mouse tissues and expressed using rapid expression of differential gene expression (RARE) technology. Different patterns of cDNA gene expression allow researchers to identify possible disease targets. Millennium also uses functional cloning techniques in order to identify the gene sequences of interesting proteins. Once a potentially useful gene sequence has been identified, biological assays and bioinformatics are used as additional analyses.
  • [0028]
    Genome Therapeutics Corporation (Waltham, Mass.) uses a combination of positional cloning techniques and targeted discovery gene sequencing, as well as random discovery gene sequencing to isolate and identify disease gene sequences. In addition, Genome Therapeutics also has pathogen programs, which sequence pathogen genomes. As many non-genetic human diseases result from infection by pathogens, Genome Therapeutics hopes to eliminate pathogens by developing drugs and vaccines using the pathogens' genomes.
  • [0029]
    Gene Logic, Inc. (Columbia, Md.) has an accelerated drug discovery system which emphasizes its restriction enzyme analysis of differentially expressed sequences (READS) technology. READS is similar in nature to comparative gene expression technology. In READS, normal and diseased tissues are compared in order to identify gene expression differences between the two. Genes which appear to be important in the diseased tissue are then analyzed. Restriction enzymes, which cut gene sequences at specific sites, are used to produce gene fragments. The gene fragments from the normal and diseased tissues will differ and can be compared. Gene Logic also has a Flow-thru Chip and genomic databases, which it licenses to drug development companies.
  • [0030]
    Progenitor (Columbus, Ohio) focuses on developmental biology. Growing cells and tissues are analyzed for their level of expression of certain genes. Study of growing cells and tissues may help discover treatments for diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth, such as cancer and osteoporosis. Progenitor also uses bioinformatics, gene mapping, and gene sequencing to isolate, identify, and sequence relevant gene sequences.
  • [0031]
    OncorMed, Inc. (Gaithersburg, Md.) has focused on the development of medical services using genetic information. Oncormed offers a number of tests for hereditary diseases such as breast and colon cancers and malignant melanoma. The medical services include measurements of replication error rates in tumors, molecular profiling of tumor suppresser genes, and gene sequencing. In addition, OncorMed has a genomics repository containing known cancer gene sequences.
  • [0032]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,642,936 issued to Evans and assigned to OncorMed describes a method for identifying human hereditary disease patterns. According to the method, data is collected on individuals having a history of disease within their families. Factors related to each disease are given weights, and the weights for each individual are summed. If the sum is above a certain predetermined threshold value, the individual is deemed to have a hereditary risk for the disease. Records from a number of individuals having a hereditary risk for a disease are collected to form a database.
  • [0033]
    The methods used by the above companies all focus on the genetic aspect of hereditary disease. Gene sequencing and positional cloning represent the two approaches generally taken. However, very little emphasis is put on the environmental aspect of hereditary disease. An individual's environment is defined as his or her physical surroundings, geographical location, diet, lifestyle, etc. For many diseases which are genetic in origin, such as most cancers, an individual's environment plays a large role in determining whether or not the individual eventually develops the disease. Some individuals who have disease gene sequences develop diseases, while others who carry the exact same disease gone sequences do not. One purpose of collecting environmental data about individuals whose gene sequences are studied is to effectively rule out any non-genetic causes of disease. Another purpose is to discover if any individuals who are carrying disease gene sequences but who do not develop the disease have other compensatory gene sequences or factors which enable them to live disease-free.
  • [0034]
    To a certain extent, the second group of genomics companies do take into account a small amount of environmental data when they select individuals whose DNA they use for positional cloning analyses. The environmental data is usually in the form of a questionnaire or survey. However, the data is typically limited in scope to lifestyle questions, and is used only to help narrow the search for the specific disease gene in question.
  • [0035]
    In addition, most genomics companies are reluctant to share their data on individuals' with others, even those genomics companies which are studying the same gene sequences. As a result, each genomics company must gather its own data on individuals having a certain disease. For example, Sequana sent its own researcher to the island of Tristan de Cunha to study hereditary asthma, while Myriad is located in Salt Lake City to take advantage of the detailed family trees of the Mormons. For genomics companies searching for gene sequences, gathering environmental data on individuals is often an expensive, time-consuming, but necessary step. Genomics companies could potentially spend more of their time and money on actual disease gene isolation if they were able to obtain necessary environmental data from another source.
  • [0036]
    Another problem lies in the fact that when genomics companies do gather environmental data on the individuals whose gene sequences are studied, the environmental data represents only a small time frame of an individual's life. Few genomics companies continually collect data over a long period of time, and as a result, are not able to definitively rule out certain environmental factors which may affect disease progression. In addition, such data collections are unlikely to provide leads for factors which may prohibit the formation of disease.
  • OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION
  • [0037]
    Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a system and method for creating a database of information about individuals' environments over a period of time. Another object of the present invention is to provide a database containing information about individuals' environments which can be used with existing genomics databases. A further object of the present invention is to provide a method of using environmental information about an individual in conjunction with the individual's genotype to find disease-influencing genes or substances. It is another object of the present invention to use the disease-influencing genes or substances to find drug candidates or drug targets.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0038]
    These objects and advantages are attained by a system and method for identifying a disease-influencing gene or protein. The method includes the step of selecting individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease. Each of the individuals is provided with a remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals and for receiving responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with a server through a communication network.
  • [0039]
    Queries relating to the individuals' environment are entered into the server and transmitted from the server to each individual's remote apparatus. After the individuals' have responded to the queries, the responses are sent back to the server and organized into a database. Data mining software is then used to distinguish the individuals into groups based on their environmental profiles. After a period of time, each group is then further divided into categories based on their disease progression. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequenced. Data mining techniques are used to find gene differences between the categories.
  • [0040]
    According to a second method of the invention, the individuals are first separated into groups according to their disease progressions. Data mining techniques are then used to further distinguish each group into categories based on the individuals' environmental profiles. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequenced, and data mining techniques are used to find gene differences between the categories.
  • [0041]
    A third embodiment of the invention provides a method for identifying disease-influencing substances. The method includes the step of selecting individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease. Each of the individuals is provided with a remotely programmable apparatus having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals and for receiving responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with a server through a communication network.
  • [0042]
    Queries relating to the individuals' environment are entered into the server and transmitted from the server to each individual's remote apparatus. After the individuals' have responded to the queries, the responses are sent back to the server and organized into a database. The genomes of all the individuals are then sequenced. The individuals are placed into groups based on their gene sequences. Each group is then separated into categories based on the individuals' disease progression. Data mining techniques are then used to find a disease-influencing substance between the categories of individuals by using the individuals environmental profiles.
  • [0043]
    The disease-influencing gene or substance isolated using these methods is preferably used to develop drug candidates or drug targets Additionally, the isolation of the disease-influencing gene is preferably used to identify a corresponding disease-influencing protein, which can also be used to develop drug candidates or drug targets.
  • [0044]
    The present invention also provides a database and data processing system for storing and analyzing environmental information about individuals. The database and data processing system comprise a server for storing queries and the individuals' responses to the queries. The system also includes at least one remotely programmable apparatuses having a user interface for communicating queries to the individuals' and for receiving the responses. Each apparatus also includes a communication device, such as a modem, for communicating with the server through a communication network.
  • [0045]
    The system also includes genotyping means in communication with the server for determining the individuals' gene sequences and a data mining software program accessible to the server for analyzing the individuals' gene sequences and environmental profiles. In particular, the data mining program includes: means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals having a similar behavioral and environmental profile, a similar disease progression, and a similar genotype; means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals having a similar disease progression; means for analyzing the responses in order to group the individuals-having a similar genotype; and means for identifying a disease-influencing gene or substance. Alternatively, the database can be used with other genomics or bioinformatics databases and systems if the information is to be manipulated in different ways.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0046]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a networked system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating the interaction of the components of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a remotely programmable apparatus of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating the components of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 5 is a script entry screen according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 6A is a listing of a sample script program according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 6B is a continuation of the listing of FIG. 6A.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 7 is a script assignment screen according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 8 is a sample query appearing on a display of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 9 is a sample prompt appearing on the display of the apparatus of FIG. 3.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 10 is a sample report displayed on a workstation of the system of FIG. 1.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating the steps included in a monitoring application executed by the server of FIG. 1 according to the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0058]
    FIG. 12 is a flow chart illustrating the steps included in the script program of FIGS. 6A-6B.
  • [0059]
    FIG. 13 is a sample completed data table of the present invention.
  • [0060]
    FIG. 14 is a sample completed data table of the present invention.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 15 is a flow chart illustrating a first method for identifying a gene according to the present invention.
  • [0062]
    FIG. 16 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 15.
  • [0063]
    FIG. 17 is a flow chart illustrating a second method for identifying a gene according to the present invention.
  • [0064]
    FIG. 18 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 17.
  • [0065]
    FIG. 19 is a flow chart illustrating a third method according to the present invention.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 20 is a block diagram illustrating the method of FIG. 19.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0067]
    The invention presents a system and method for creating a database containing environmental information about an individual to be used in conjunction with the individual's gene sequences to find new drug targets and drug candidates. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, remote monitors are used to collect the environmental information. It is to be understood that environmental information includes all non-genetic information about an individual, such as disease progression, diet, lifestyle, and geographical location.
  • [0068]
    A preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1-16. Referring to FIG. 1, a networked system includes a server 50 and a workstation 52 connected to server 50 through a communication network 58. Server 50 is also connected to a patient profile database 54 which stores environmental information about the individuals. Server 50 is further connected to a genotyping system 56 which is capable of sequencing individuals' genomes. Patient profile database 54 and genotyping system 56 are connected to server 50 through communication network 58.
  • [0069]
    Server 50 and patient profile database 54 are preferably world wide web servers. Server 50 and database 64 may comprise single stand-alone computers or multiple computers distributed throughout a network. Workstation 52 is preferably a personal computer, remote terminal, or web TV unit. Workstation 52 functions as a remote interface for entering in server 50 messages and queries to be communicated to the individuals.
  • [0070]
    Genotyping system 55 can be a laboratory capable of sequencing individuals' genomes, a gene sequencing chip such as the GeneChip by Affymetrix, or any other suitable genotyping system. Genotyping system 56 should be capable of transmitting information about the individuals' genomes to server 50. Communication network 58 connects workstation 52, patient profile database 54, and genotyping system 56 to server 50. Communication network 58 can be any suitable communication network, such as a telephone cable, the Internet, or cellular or wireless communication. Such communication networks are well known in the art.
  • [0071]
    The system also includes remotely programmable apparatuses 60 for monitoring individuals. Preferably, each remote apparatus 60 is used to monitor a respective one of the individuals. Alternatively, a multi-user apparatus may be used to monitor a plurality of individuals. Each remote apparatus is designed to interact with an individual in accordance with script programs received from server 50.
  • [0072]
    Each remote apparatus is in communication with server 50 through communication network 58, which is preferably the Internet. Alternatively, each remote apparatus may be placed in communication with the server via telephone cable, cellular communication, wireless communication, etc. For clarity of illustration, only two remote apparatuses are shown in FIG. 1. It is to be understood that the system may include any number of remote apparatuses for monitoring any number of individuals.
  • [0073]
    In the preferred embodiment, each individual to be monitored is also provided with a monitoring device 64. Monitoring device 64 is designed to produce measurements of a physiological condition of the individual, record the measurements, and transmit the measurements to the individual's remote apparatus 60 through a standard connection cable 62. Examples of suitable monitoring devices include blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, blood pressure cuffs, electronic weight scales, and pulse rate monitors. Such monitoring devices are well known in the art.
  • [0074]
    The specific type of monitoring device provided to each individual is dependent upon the individual's disease. For example, diabetes patients are provided with blood glucose meters for measuring blood glucose concentrations, asthma patients are provided with respiratory flow meters for measuring peak flow rates, obesity patients are provided with weight scales, etc.
  • [0075]
    FIG. 2 shows server 50, workstation 52, and remote apparatus 60 in greater detail. Server 50 includes a database 66 for storing script programs 68. The script programs 68 are executed by each remote apparatus 60 to communicate queries and messages to an individual, receive responses 70 to the queries, collect monitoring device measurements 72, and transmit responses 70 and measurements 72 to server 50. Database 66 is designed to store the responses 70 and measurements 72. Database 66 further includes a look-up table 74. Table 74 contains a list of the individuals to be monitored, and for each individual, a unique individual identification code and a respective pointer to script program 68 assigned to the individual. Each remote apparatus 60 is designed to execute the assigned script program which it receives from server 50.
  • [0076]
    FIGS. 3-4 show the structure of remote apparatus 50 according to the preferred embodiment. Referring to FIG. 3, remote apparatus 60 includes a housing 90. Housing 90 is preferably sufficiently compact to enable the remote apparatus to be hand-held and carried by an individual. Remote apparatus 60 also includes a user interface for communicating queries to the individual and for receiving responses to the queries.
  • [0077]
    In the preferred embodiment, the user interface includes a display 92 and four user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D. Display 92 displays queries and prompts to the individual, and is preferably a liquid crystal display (LCD). The user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D are for entering responses to the queries and prompts. The user input buttons are preferably momentary contact push buttons. Although the user interface of the preferred embodiment includes a display and input buttons, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art of electronic devices that any suitable user interface may be used in remote apparatus 60. For example, the user input buttons may be replaced by switches, keys, a touch sensitive display screen, or any other data input device. Alternatively, the display and input buttons may be replaced by a speech synthesis/speech recognition interface.
  • [0078]
    Three monitoring device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C are located on a surface of housing 90. Device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C are for connecting remote apparatus 60 to a number of monitoring devices, such as blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, or blood pressure cuffs, through standard connection cables (not shown). Remote apparatus 60 also includes a modem jack 94 for connecting remote apparatus 60 to a telephone jack through a standard connection cord (not shown). Remote apparatus 60 further includes a visual indicator, such as a light emitting diode (LED) 100. LED 100 is for visually notifying the individual that he or she has unanswered queries stored in remote apparatus 60.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic block diagram illustrating the components of remote apparatus 60 in greater detail. Remote apparatus 60 includes a microprocessor 102 and a memory 108 connected to microprocessor 102. Memory 108 is preferably a non-volatile memory, such as a serial EEPROM. Memory 108 stores script programs received from the server, measurements received from monitoring device 64, responses to queries, and the individual's unique identification code. Microprocessor 102 also includes built-in read only memory (ROM) which stores firmware for controlling the operation of remote apparatus 60. The firmware includes a script interpreter used by microprocessor 102 to execute the script programs. The script interpreter interprets script commands which are executed by microprocessor 102. Specific techniques for interpreting and executing script programs in this manner are well known in the art.
  • [0080]
    Microprocessor 102 is preferably connected to memory 108 using a standard two-wire I2C interface. Microprocessor 102 is also connected to user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D, LED 100, a clock 112, and a display driver 110. Clock 112 indicates the current date and time to microprocessor 102. For clarity of illustration, clock 112 is shown as a separate component, but is preferably built into microprocessor 102. Display driver 110 operates under the control of microprocessor 102 to display information on display 92. Microprocessor 102 is preferably a PIC 16C65 processor which includes a universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (DART) 104. DART 104 is for communicating with a modem 114 and a device interface 118. A CMOS switch 116 under the control of microprocessor 102 alternately connects modem 114 and interface 118 to DART 116.
  • [0081]
    Modem 114 is connected to a telephone jack 119 through modem jack 94. Modem 114 is for exchanging data with the server through the communication network. The data includes script programs which are received from the server as well as responses to queries, device measurements, script identification codes, and the individual's unique identification code which modem 114 transmits to server 50. Modem 114 is preferably a complete 28.8 K modem commercially available from Cermetek, although any suitable modem may be used.
  • [0082]
    Device interface 118 is connected to device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C. Device interface 118 is for interfacing with a number of monitoring devices, such as blood glucose meters, respiratory flow meters, blood pressure cuffs, weight scales, or pulse rate monitors, through device jacks 96A, 96B, and 96C. Device interface 118 operates under the control of microprocessor 102 to collect measurements 72 from monitoring devices 64 and to output measurements 72 to microprocessor 102 for storage in memory 108. In the preferred embodiment, interface 118 is a standard RS232 interface. For simplicity of illustration, only one device interface 118 is shown in FIG. 4. However, in alternative embodiments, remote apparatus 60 may include multiple device interfaces to accommodate monitoring devices which have different connection standards.
  • [0083]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, server 50 includes a monitoring application 76. Monitoring application 76 is a controlling software application executed by server 50 to perform the various functions described below. Monitoring application 76 includes a script generator 78, a script assignor 80, and a report generator 82. Script generator 78 is designed to generate script programs 68 from script information entered through workstation 52. The script information is entered through a script entry screen 84. In the preferred embodiment, script entry screen 84 is implemented as a web page on the server 50. Workstation 52 includes a web browser for accessing the web page to enter the script information.
  • [0084]
    FIG. 5 illustrates script entry screen 84 as it appears on workstation 52. Script entry screen 84 includes a script name field 120 for specifying the name of script program to be generated. Screen 84 also includes entry fields 122 for entering a set of queries to be answered by an individual. Each entry field 122 has corresponding response choice fields 124 for entering response choices for the query. Screen 84 further includes check boxes 126 for selecting a desired monitoring device type from which to collect measurements, such as a blood glucose meter, respiratory flow meter, or blood pressure cuff.
  • [0085]
    Screen 84 additionally includes a connection time field 128 for specifying a prescribed connection time at which each remote apparatus executing the script program is to establish a subsequent communication link to the server. The connection time is preferably selected to be the time at which communication rates are the lowest, such as 3:00 AM. Screen 84 also includes a CREATE SCRIPT button 130 for instructing the script generator to generate a script program from the information entered in screen 84. Screen 84 further includes a CANCEL button 132 for canceling the information entered.
  • [0086]
    In the preferred embodiment, each script program created by the script generator 82 conforms to the standard file format used on UNIX systems. In the standard file format, each command is listed in the upper case and followed by a colon. Every line in the script program is terminated by a linefeed character {LF}, and only one command is placed on each line. The last character in the script program is a UNIX end of file character (EOF). TABLE 1 shows an exemplary listing of script commands used in the preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0000]
    TABLE 1
    SCRIPT COMMANDS
    Command Description
    CLS: {LF} Clear the display.
    ZAP: {LF} Erase from memory the last set of query responses recorded.
    LED: b{LF} Turn the LED on or off, where b is a binary digit of 0 or 1. An
    argument of 1 turns on the LED, and an argument of 0 turns off the
    LED.
    DISPLAY: {chars}{LF} Display the text following the DISPLAY command.
    INPUT: mmmm{LF} Record a button press. The m's represent a button mask pattern for
    each of the four input buttons. Each m contains an “X” for
    disallowed buttons or an “O” for allowed buttons. For example,
    INPUT: OXOX{LF} allows the user to press either button #1 or #3.
    WAIT: {LF} Wait for any one button to be pressed, then continue executing the
    script program.
    COLLECT: device{LF} Collect measurements from the monitoring device specified in the
    COLLECT command. The user is preferably prompted to connect
    the specified monitoring device to the apparatus and press a button to
    continue.
    NUMBER: aaaa{LF} Assign a script identification code to the script program. The script
    identification code from the most recently executed NUMBER
    statement is subsequently transmitted to the server along with the
    query responses and device measurements. The script identification
    code identifies to the server which script program was most recently
    executed by the remote apparatus.
    DELAY: t {LF} Wait until time t specified in the DELAY command, usually the
    prescribed connection time.
    CONNECT: {LF} Perform a connection routine to establish a communication link to the
    server, transmit the patient identification code, query responses,
    device measurements, and script identification code to the server, and
    receive and store a new script program. When the server instructs the
    apparatus to disconnect, the script interpreter is restarted, allowing
    the new script program to execute.
  • [0087]
    The script commands illustrated in TABLE 1 are representative of the preferred embodiment and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. After consideration of the ensuing description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art many other suitable scripting languages and sets of script commands may be used to implement the system and method of the invention.
  • [0088]
    Script generator 78 preferably stores a script program template which it uses to create each script program. To generate a script program, script generator 78 inserts into the template the script information entered in script entry screen 84. For example, FIGS. 6A-6B illustrate a sample script program created by the script generator from the script information shown in FIG. 5.
  • [0089]
    The script program includes display commands to display the queries and response choices entered in fields 122 and 124, respectively. The script program also includes input commands to receive responses to the queries. The script program further includes a collect command to collect device measurements from the monitoring device specified in check boxes 126. The script program also includes commands to establish a subsequent communication link to the server at the connection time specified in field 128. The steps included in the sample Script program are also shown in the flow chart of FIGS. 12A-12B and will be discussed in the operation section below.
  • [0090]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, script assignor 80 is for assigning the script programs 68 to the individuals. The script programs are assigned in accordance with script assignment information entered through workstation 52. The script assignment information is entered through a script assignment screen 86, which is preferably implemented as a web page on server 50.
  • [0091]
    FIG. 7 shows a sample script assignment screen 86 as it appears on the workstation. Screen 86 includes check boxes 134 for selecting the script program to be assigned and check boxes 136 for selecting the individuals to whom the script program is to be assigned. Screen 86 also includes an ASSIGN SCRIPT button 140 for entering the assignments. When button 140 is pressed, s the script assignor creates and stores for each individual selected in check boxes 136 a respective pointer to the script program selected in check boxes 134. Each pointer is stored in the look-up table 74 of database 66. Screen 86 further includes an ADD SCRIPT button 138 for accessing the script entry screen and a DELETE SCRIPT button 142 for a deleting script program.
  • [0092]
    Referring again to FIG. 2, report generator 82 is designed to generate a report 88 from the responses 70 and device measurements 72 received in server 50. Report 88 is displayed on workstation 52. FIG. 10 shows a sample patient report 88 produced by report generator 82 for a selected individual. Report 88 includes a graph 146 of the device measurements received from the individual, as well as a listing of the query responses received from the individual. Specific techniques for writing a report generator program to display data in this manner are well known in the software art.
  • [0093]
    The operation of the preferred embodiment is illustrated in FIGS. 1-12. FIG. 11 is a flow chart illustrating steps included in the monitoring application executed by server 50. In step 202, the server determines if new script information has been entered through script entry screen 84. If new script information has not been entere, the server proceeds to step 206. If new script information has been entered, the server proceeds to step 204.
  • [0094]
    As shown in FIG. 5, the script information includes a set of queries, and for each of the queries, corresponding responses choices. The script information also includes a selected monitoring device type from which to collect measurements. The script information further includes a prescribed connection time for each remote apparatus to establish a subsequent communication link to the server. The script information is generally entered in the server by a healthcare provider, such as the individuals' physician or case manager. Of course, any person desiring to communicate with the individual may also be granted access to the server to create and assign script programs. Further, it is to be understood that the system may include any number of workstations for entering script generation and script assignment information into the server.
  • [0095]
    In step 204, script generator 78 generates a script program from the information entered in screen 84. The script program is stored in database 66. Steps 202 and 204 are preferably repeated to generate multiple script programs, e.g. a script program for diabetes patients, a script program for asthma patients, etc. Each script program corresponds to a respective one of the sets of queries entered through script entry screen 84. Following step 204, the server proceeds to step 206.
  • [0096]
    In step 206, the server determines if new script assignment information has been entered through script assignment screen 86. If new script assignment information has not been entered, the server proceeds to step 210. If new script assignment information has been entered, the server proceeds to step 208. As shown in FIG. 7, script programs are assigned to each individual by selecting a script program through check boxes 134, selecting the individuals to whom selected the script program is to be assigned through check boxes 136, and pressing the ASSIGN SCRIPT button 140. When button 140 is pressed, script assignor 86 creates for each individual selected in check boxes 136 a respective pointer to the script program selected in check boxes 134. In step 208, each pointer is stored in look-up table 74 of database 66. Following step 208, the server proceeds to step 210.
  • [0097]
    In step 210, the server determines if any of the remote apparatuses are remotely connected to the server. Each individual to be monitored is preferably provided with his or her own remote apparatus which has the individual's unique identification code stored therein. Each individual is thus uniquely associated with a respective one of the remote apparatuses. If none of remote apparatuses are connected, the server proceeds to step 220.
  • [0098]
    If a remote apparatus is connected, the server receives from the apparatus the individual's unique identification code in step 212. In step 214, the server receives from the apparatus the query responses, device measurements, and script identification code recorded during execution of a previously assigned script program. The script identification code identifies to the server which script program was executed by the remote apparatus to record the query responses and device measurements. The responses, device measurements, and script identification code are stored in database 66.
  • [0099]
    In step 216, the server uses the individual's unique identification code to retrieve from look-up table 74 the pointer to the script program assigned to the individual. The server then retrieves the assigned script program froth the database 66. In step 218, the server transmits the assigned script program to the individual's remote apparatus through the communication network 58. Following step 218, the server proceeds to step 220.
  • [0100]
    In step 220, the server determines if a report request has been received from workstation 52. If no report request has been received, the server returns to step 202. If a report request has been received for a selected individual, the server retrieves from database 66 the query responses and measurements last received from the individual, step 222. In step 224, the server generates and displays the report 88 on workstation 52.
  • [0101]
    As shown in FIG. 10, the report includes the query responses and device measurements last received from the individual. Following step 224, the server returns to step 202.
  • [0102]
    FIG. 12 illustrates the steps included in a sample script program executed by the remote apparatus. Before the script program is received, the remote apparatus is initially programmed with the individual's unique identification code and the script interpreter used by microprocessor 102 to execute script programs. The initial programming may be achieved during manufacture or during an initial connection to the server. Following initial programming, the remote apparatus receives from the server the script program assigned to the individual associated with the apparatus. The script program is received by modem 114 through a first communication link to the server and stored in memory 108.
  • [0103]
    In step 302, microprocessor 102 assigns a script identification code to the script program and stores the script identification code in memory 108. The script identification code is subsequently transmitted to the server along with query responses and device measurements to identify to the server which script program was most recently executed by the remote apparatus. In step 304, microprocessor 102 lights LED 100 to notify the individual that he or she has unanswered queries stored in the remote apparatus. LED 100 preferably remains lit until the queries are answered by the individual. In step 306, microprocessor 102 erases from memory 108 the last set of query responses recorded,
  • [0104]
    In step 308, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual by displaying on display 92 “ANSWER QUERIES NOW? PRESS ANY BUTTON TO START”. In step 310, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 proceeds to step 312. In step 312, microprocessor 102 executes successive display and input commands to display the queries and response choices on display 92 and to receive responses to the queries.
  • [0105]
    FIG. 8 illustrate a sample query and its corresponding response choices as they appear on display 92. The response choices are preferably positioned on display 92 such that each response choice is located proximate a respective one of the user input buttons 98A, 98B, 98C, and 98D. In the preferred embodiment, each response choice is displayed immediately above a respective user input button. The individual presses the button corresponding to his or her response, and microprocessor 102 stores the response in memory 108.
  • [0106]
    In steps 314 to 318, microprocessor 102 executes commands to collect device measurements from a selected monitoring device specified in the script program. In step 314, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual to connect the selected device to one of the device jacks 96A, 96B, or 96C. A sample prompt is shown in FIG. 9. In step 316, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 proceeds to step 318. Microprocessor 102 also connects UART 104 to device interface 118 through CMOS switch 116. In step 318, microprocessor 102 collects device measurements from the selected device through device interface 118. The device measurements are stored in memory 108.
  • [0107]
    In step 320, microprocessor 102 prompts the individual to connect remote apparatus 60 to telephone jack 119 so that the apparatus may connect to the server at the prescribed connection time. In step 322, microprocessor 102 waits until a reply to the prompt is received from the individual. When a reply is received, microprocessor 102 turns off LED 100 in step 324. In step 326, microprocessor 102 waits until it is time to connect to the server. Microprocessor 102 compares the connection time specified in the script program to the current time output by clock 112. When it is time to connect, microprocessor 102 connects DART 104 to modem 114 through CMOS switch 116.
  • [0108]
    In step 328, microprocessor 102 establishes a subsequent communication link between remote apparatus 60 and server 50 through modem 114 and communication network 58. If the connection fails for any reason, microprocessor 102 repeats step 328 to get a successful connection. In step 330, microprocessor 102 transmits the query responses, device measurements, script identification code, and the individual's unique identification code stored in memory 108 to the server. In step 332, microprocessor 102 receives through modem 114 a newly assigned script program from the server. The new script program is stored in memory 108 for subsequent execution by microprocessor 102. Following step 332, the script program ends.
  • [0109]
    After the individual's information has been collected via remote apparatus 60 and the script programs, the data is mined to distinguish patterns. Data mining programs are well known in the art and can be easily adapted to this system. In the preferred embodiment, the data mining program includes a data table 150, as shown in FIG. 13. Data table 150 is stored on the server and has an individual identification number field 151, name fields 152, value fields 154 corresponding to the name fields, and explanation fields 156 corresponding to the name fields and value fields. The data type is entered into name fields 152, the possible numerical values corresponding to the data type are entered into value fields 154, and brief explanations of the data types and corresponding values are entered into explanation fields 156.
  • [0110]
    The individuals' device measurements and responses to the queries are entered into data table 150 in the form of numerical values in value fields 154. The individual's identification number is entered into individual identification number field 151. An example of data table 150 in which the individuals' information has been entered is shown in FIG. 14. Once data table 150 contains all the necessary information, the data mining program then compares the information.
  • [0111]
    FIG. 15 is a flowchart illustrating a first method of the present invention carried out by the server using the data mining techniques described above. In step 400, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 402, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server. Collection of the responses and device measurements can occur over any period of time, thus allowing for more accurate data.
  • [0112]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 404. In step 406, data mining techniques are used to group individuals having similar behavioral and environmental profiles. In step 408, the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 406 and 408 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0113]
    In step 410, each group of individuals is categorized using data mining techniques. The individuals are categorized according to their disease progressions. For example, a group of individuals can be categorized into those that have a severe disease phenotype, those that have a moderate disease phenotype, and those that have a mild disease phenotype: In step 412, the server determines if it is necessary to further categorize the individuals. Steps 410 and 412 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0114]
    In step 414, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced by genotyping system 56. The genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to server 50. In step 416, data mining techniques are used to compare the genotypes of the individuals between the categories. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype and are overweight have a certain gene sequence, while those individuals who have a mild disease phenotype and are overweight do not, it Is likely the gene sequence is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If a gene sequence is found, it is further identified in step 418. Methods of isolating and identifying gene sequences are well known in the field.
  • [0115]
    FIG. 16 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the first method of the present invention as described in FIG. 15. First individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), are selected, as indicated at block 422. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the script programs and remote apparatuses. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then grouped into overweight individuals 424 and non-overweight individuals 426. Using- data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 428, overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 430, non-overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 432, and non-overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 434.
  • [0116]
    The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 436, to determine the individuals' gene sequences. For example, overweight individuals with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A, overweight individuals with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, non-overweight individuals with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, and non-overweight individuals with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • [0117]
    FIG. 17 shows a flowchart illustrating a second method of the present invention carried out by the server using the data mining techniques described above. In step 500, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 502, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server.
  • [0118]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements from the remote apparatuses, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 504. In step 506, data mining techniques are used to group together individuals having similar disease progressions. For example, a group of individuals can be grouped into those that have a severe disease phenotype, those that have a moderate disease phenotype, and those that have a mild disease phenotype. In step 508, the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 506 and 508 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0119]
    In step 510, each group of individuals created in steps 506 and 508 is categorized using data mining techniques according to the behavioral and environmental profiles of the individuals. In step 512, the server determines if it is necessary to further group the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 510 and 512 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0120]
    In step 514, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced by genotyping system 56. The genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to the server. In step 516, data mining techniques are used to compare the genotypes of the individuals between the categories. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype and are overweight have a certain gene sequence, while those individuals who have a mild disease and are also overweight phenotype do riot, it is likely the gene sequence, not weight; is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If a gene sequence is found, it is further identified in step 518. Specific techniques of isolating and identifying gene sequences are well known in the field.
  • [0121]
    FIG. 18 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the second method of the present invention as described in FIG. 17. First individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as NIDDM, are chosen, as indicated at block 522. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the remote apparatuses and script programs. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then grouped into those exhibiting severe NIDDM 524 and those exhibiting mild NIDDM 525. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 528, non--overweight individuals having severe NIDDM 530, non-overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 532, and overweight individuals having mild NIDDM 534.
  • [0122]
    The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 535, to determine the individuals gene sequences. For example, individuals with severe NIDDM who are overweight have gene sequence A, individuals with severe NIDDM who are non-overweight have gene sequence A, individuals with mild NIDDM who are non-overweight have gene sequence B, and individuals with severe NIDDM who are overweight have gene sequence B. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • [0123]
    FIG. 19 shows a flowchart illustrating a preferred method carried out by server 50 to identify a disease-identifying substance. In step 600, individuals having a risk factor for a disease are selected. In step 602, these individuals are queried about their behavior and environment using the script programs and remote apparatuses previously described. The responses to the queries and any device measurements are received and stored by the server.
  • [0124]
    After the server receives the responses and measurements from the remote apparatuses, a database comprising the individuals' behavioral and environmental profiles is created in step 604. In step 606, the genomes of all the individuals are sequenced, and the genotypes of all the individuals are transmitted to the server. In step 608, individuals having the sake or close genotypes are grouped together. In step 610, data mining techniques are used to categorize together individuals having similar disease progressions. In step 612, the server determines if it is necessary to further categorize the individuals in order to produce smaller groups. Steps 610 and 612 can be repeated as often as necessary.
  • [0125]
    In step 614, data mining techniques are used to find a disease-influencing substance between the categories of individuals by using the individuals behavioral and environmental profiles. For example, if those individuals who have a severe disease phenotype are overweight, while those individuals who have a mild disease phenotype are not, it is likely weight is responsible for the severe disease phenotype. If such a disease-influencing substance is found, it is identified in step 618. If no disease-influencing substance is found, the process is preferably repeated.
  • [0126]
    FIG. 20 is a block diagram illustrating an example of the method described in FIG. 19. First, individuals having a risk factor for a certain disease, such as NIDDM, are chosen, as indicated at block 620. Behavioral and environmental information from each individual is collected using the remote apparatuses and script programs. The individuals' genotype information is then taken, as indicated at block 622, to determine the individuals' gene sequences. The individuals are then grouped according to their gene sequences. For example, one group may have gene sequence A, as indicated at block 624, while another group may have gene sequence B, as indicated at block 626. Using data mining techniques, the individuals are then categorized into individuals with gene sequence A having severe NIDDM 628, individuals with gene sequence A having mild NIDDM 630, individuals with gene sequence B having mild NIDDM 632, and individuals with gene sequence B having severe NIDDM 634.
  • [0127]
    Data mining techniques are further used to analyze the categories of individuals and their behavioral and environmental profiles. For example, overweight individuals 638 with severe NIDDM have gene sequence A, non-overweight individuals 640 with mild NIDDM have gene sequence A, overweight individuals 642 with mild NIDDM have gene sequence B, and non-overweight individuals 644 with severe NIDDM have gene sequence B. Data mining techniques are then used to analyze the information and come to a conclusion. In this example, data mining would conclude that the severe NIDDM phenotype is likely related to gene sequence A, not the individual's weight.
  • SUMMARY, RAMIFICATIONS, AND SCOPE
  • [0128]
    Although the above description contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of the invention but merely as illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments. Many other embodiments of the invention are possible. For example, the scripting language and script commands shown are representative of the preferred embodiment. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that many other scripting languages and specific script commands may be used to implement the invention.
  • [0129]
    Moreover, the invention is not limited to the specific applications described. The system and method of the invention have many other applications. For example, pharmaceutical manufacturers may apply the system in clinical trials to analyze new drug data.
  • [0130]
    Therefore, the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents.

Claims (17)

1. A method for generating groups of individuals useful in researching influence of a disease on said individuals, comprising:
selecting individuals having a risk factor for a disease;
providing to each individual a communications apparatus;
transmitting a computer program containing queries and predefined response choices to said communications apparatus, wherein said computer program when executed causes said communications apparatus to present said queries and predefined response choices to each individual via a touch sensitive display of said communications apparatus and collect responses to said queries, including at least one of the predefined response choices presented on the display of the communications apparatus, from each individual via said touch sensitive display of the communications apparatus;
receiving said responses to the queries from the individuals through the apparatus, said responses communicating information about the individuals;
storing the responses of each individual in a database;
defining a plurality of groups by categorizing the individuals having similar profiles based on the responses, wherein categorizing the individuals into groups includes one or more phenotypic classifications;
after defining said groups, receiving genotype information representative of individuals in each of said groups;
comparing said genotype information between said groups; and
generating a report for presentation on a display that represents a subset of said genotype information associated with each of said groups, wherein differences in said genotype information between said groups is expressed in terms of phenotypic classifications.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the queries are inserted into said computer program with a script generator and assigned to an individual using a script assignor.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the one or more phenotypic classifications comprise one or more of behavioral, environmental, and disease progression.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the communication apparatus is connectable with a monitoring device configured to acquire physiologic data.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein the monitoring device includes one of the set consisting of a blood glucose meter, a respiratory flow meter, a blood pressure cuff, a weight scale, and a pulse rate monitor.
6. The method according claim 1, wherein the responses to the queries from the individuals communicate environmental information about the individuals.
7. The method according claim 6, wherein the environmental information comprises one or more of non-genetic information about an individual, information about disease progression, information about diet, information about lifestyle, and information about geographical location.
8. The method according claim 1, wherein the queries contained in said computer program are related to one or both of behavior and environment of each individual.
9. A system for generating groups of individuals useful in researching influence of a disease on said individuals, comprising:
a communications apparatus operable by an individual; and
a communication network in signal communication with the communications apparatus and a server, a workstation configured to send scripted queries and predefined response choices, a genotyping system configured to provide genotype information representative of the individual, and a patient profile system configured to receive responses from the individual and genotype information analyses via the communications network and the server, wherein the server transmits a computer program containing the scripted queries and predefined response choices to the communications apparatus, the computer program when executed causes the communications apparatus to present the scripted queries and predefined response choices to the individual via a touch sensitive display of said communications apparatus and collect responses to the queries containing information about the individual and at least one of the predefined response choices presented on the touch sensitive display of said communications apparatus,
wherein the genotype information is compared based upon groups formed by categorizing individuals having a risk factor for a disease using the responses to the scripted queries in the patient profile system to identify one or more individuals having similar profiles, wherein categorizing the individuals into groups includes one or more phenotypic classifications, and differences in said genotype information between said groups is expressed in terms of phenotypic classifications.
10. The system according claim 9, wherein the responses from the individual are used to categorize the individual into one or more groups and the one or more groups are compared with the genotype information of the individual to categorize said genotype information according to disease progression.
11. The system according claim 10, wherein the disease progression includes non-insulin dependent diabetes.
12. The system according claim 9, wherein the one or more phenotypic classifications comprise one or more of behavioral, environmental, and disease progression.
13. A system for identifying groups of individuals useful in researching influence of disease on said individuals, comprising:
at least one communications apparatus in signal communication with a monitoring device configured to measure physiologic and environmental conditions, the communications apparatus and monitoring device being operable by at least one individual; and
a communication network in signal communications with each communications apparatus and a server, a workstation configured to send scripted queries and predefined response choices, a genotyping system configured to provide genotype information representative of the at least one individual, and a patient profile system configured to receive responses and measurements from the at least one individual and genotype information analyses via the communications network and the server, wherein the server transmits a computer program containing the scripted queries and predefined response choices to the communication apparatus, the computer program when executed causes the communication apparatus to present the scripted queries and predefined response choices to the individual via a touch sensitive display of the communications apparatus and collect responses to the queries containing information about the individual and at least one of the predefined response choices presented on the touch sensitive display of said communications apparatus,
wherein the genotype information representative of the at least one individual is compared based upon groups formed by categorizing individuals having a risk factor for a disease using the responses and measurements to the scripted queries in the patient profile system to identify one or more individuals having similar profiles, wherein categorizing the individuals into groups includes one or more phenotypic classifications, and differences in said genotype information between said groups is expressed in terms of phenotypic classifications.
14. The system according claim 13, wherein the monitoring device includes one of the set consisting of a blood glucose meter, a respiratory flow meter, a blood pressure cuff, a weight scale, and a pulse rate monitor.
15. The system according claim 13, wherein the responses and measurements from each individual are used to categorized each individual with one or more groups and the groups are compared with the genotype information representative of each individual to categorize the genotype information according to disease progression of each individual in the one or more groups based on the responses and measurements sent by each individual.
16. The system according claim 15, wherein the disease progression includes non-insulin dependent diabetes.
17. The system according claim 13, wherein the one or more phenotypic classifications comprise one or more of behavioral, environmental, and disease progression.
US13408334 1997-03-28 2012-02-29 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes Abandoned US20120203466A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US4175197 true 1997-03-28 1997-03-28
US4174697 true 1997-03-28 1997-03-28
US09496893 US8078407B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2000-02-02 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US13303622 US20120130647A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2011-11-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US13408334 US20120203466A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2012-02-29 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13408334 US20120203466A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2012-02-29 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13303622 Continuation US20120130647A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2011-11-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20120203466A1 true true US20120203466A1 (en) 2012-08-09

Family

ID=46087692

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08847009 Expired - Lifetime US5897493A (en) 1997-03-28 1997-04-30 Monitoring system for remotely querying individuals
US13303622 Abandoned US20120130647A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2011-11-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US13408334 Abandoned US20120203466A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2012-02-29 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08847009 Expired - Lifetime US5897493A (en) 1997-03-28 1997-04-30 Monitoring system for remotely querying individuals
US13303622 Abandoned US20120130647A1 (en) 1997-03-28 2011-11-23 System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (3) US5897493A (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8996392B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-03-31 Healthspot, Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use
US9043217B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-05-26 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use

Families Citing this family (440)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6241704B1 (en) 1901-11-22 2001-06-05 Sims Deltec, Inc. Drug pump systems and methods
US9215979B2 (en) 1992-11-17 2015-12-22 Robert Bosch Healthcare Systems, Inc. Multi-user remote health monitoring system
US7555470B2 (en) * 1999-03-22 2009-06-30 Health Hero Network, Inc. Research data collection and analysis
US8078431B2 (en) 1992-11-17 2011-12-13 Health Hero Network, Inc. Home power management system
US5307263A (en) 1992-11-17 1994-04-26 Raya Systems, Inc. Modular microprocessor-based health monitoring system
US7624028B1 (en) * 1992-11-17 2009-11-24 Health Hero Network, Inc. Remote health monitoring and maintenance system
US7970620B2 (en) * 1992-11-17 2011-06-28 Health Hero Network, Inc. Multi-user remote health monitoring system with biometrics support
US8095340B2 (en) 1992-11-17 2012-01-10 Health Hero Network, Inc. Home power management system
US20080201168A1 (en) * 1999-05-03 2008-08-21 Brown Stephen J Treatment regimen compliance and efficacy with feedback
US8015033B2 (en) 1994-04-26 2011-09-06 Health Hero Network, Inc. Treatment regimen compliance and efficacy with feedback
WO2001037174A1 (en) 1992-11-17 2001-05-25 Health Hero Network, Inc. Method and system for improving adherence with a diet program or other medical regimen
US8626521B2 (en) * 1997-11-21 2014-01-07 Robert Bosch Healthcare Systems, Inc. Public health surveillance system
US8027809B2 (en) 1992-11-17 2011-09-27 Health Hero Network, Inc. Home power management system
US20010011224A1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-08-02 Stephen James Brown Modular microprocessor-based health monitoring system
USRE43433E1 (en) 1993-12-29 2012-05-29 Clinical Decision Support, Llc Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US6206829B1 (en) 1996-07-12 2001-03-27 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system including network access
US5660176A (en) * 1993-12-29 1997-08-26 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US6330426B2 (en) 1994-05-23 2001-12-11 Stephen J. Brown System and method for remote education using a memory card
US8882666B1 (en) 1998-05-08 2014-11-11 Ideal Life Inc. Personal health monitoring and/or communication system
US5836312A (en) * 1996-01-02 1998-11-17 Moore; Steven Jerome Computer-assisted system and method for adjudging the effect of consumable intakes on physiological parameters
US8521546B2 (en) 1998-09-25 2013-08-27 Health Hero Network Dynamic modeling and scoring risk assessment
US7305348B1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2007-12-04 Health Hero Network, Inc. Aggregating and pooling health related information in a communication system with feedback
US6050940A (en) 1996-06-17 2000-04-18 Cybernet Systems Corporation General-purpose medical instrumentation
US8079953B2 (en) * 1996-06-17 2011-12-20 Cybernet Systems Corporation General-purpose medical instrumentation
US5935060A (en) * 1996-07-12 1999-08-10 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system including list based processing
US6385497B1 (en) * 1996-07-31 2002-05-07 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Remote maintenance system
US5832448A (en) 1996-10-16 1998-11-03 Health Hero Network Multiple patient monitoring system for proactive health management
USRE43316E1 (en) 1997-01-10 2012-04-17 Health Hero Network, Inc. Diabetes management system and method for controlling blood glucose
US6032119A (en) 1997-01-16 2000-02-29 Health Hero Network, Inc. Personalized display of health information
US5951300A (en) 1997-03-10 1999-09-14 Health Hero Network Online system and method for providing composite entertainment and health information
WO1998040835A1 (en) * 1997-03-13 1998-09-17 First Opinion Corporation Disease management system
US8078407B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2011-12-13 Health Hero Network, Inc. System and method for identifying disease-influencing genes
US6968375B1 (en) 1997-03-28 2005-11-22 Health Hero Network, Inc. Networked system for interactive communication and remote monitoring of individuals
US8712790B1 (en) * 1997-03-28 2014-04-29 Robert Bosch Gmbh Multi-user remote health monitoring system with biometrics support
US6139494A (en) * 1997-10-15 2000-10-31 Health Informatics Tools Method and apparatus for an integrated clinical tele-informatics system
US6036924A (en) 1997-12-04 2000-03-14 Hewlett-Packard Company Cassette of lancet cartridges for sampling blood
US6102970A (en) * 1998-03-27 2000-08-15 Davox Corporation System and method for optimizing a program containing a number of the flows through flow branches
US6391005B1 (en) 1998-03-30 2002-05-21 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for penetration with shaft having a sensor for sensing penetration depth
US8974386B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2015-03-10 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US6175752B1 (en) 1998-04-30 2001-01-16 Therasense, Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US9066695B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2015-06-30 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8465425B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-06-18 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8346337B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-01-01 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8688188B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2014-04-01 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US8480580B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2013-07-09 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
JP2002517849A (en) * 1998-06-08 2002-06-18 グラクソ グループ リミテッド Disease management / education system and method
US6554798B1 (en) * 1998-08-18 2003-04-29 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. External infusion device with remote programming, bolus estimator and/or vibration alarm capabilities
US6311163B1 (en) * 1998-10-26 2001-10-30 David M. Sheehan Prescription-controlled data collection system and method
US6149585A (en) * 1998-10-28 2000-11-21 Sage Health Management Solutions, Inc. Diagnostic enhancement method and apparatus
US6528856B1 (en) * 1998-12-15 2003-03-04 Intel Corporation High dielectric constant metal oxide gate dielectrics
US20050086082A1 (en) * 1999-01-21 2005-04-21 Patient Care Technologies Portable health assistant
US20040220829A1 (en) * 1999-03-22 2004-11-04 Ofir Baharav Distributed system and method for managing communication among healthcare providers, patients and third parties
US6196970B1 (en) 1999-03-22 2001-03-06 Stephen J. Brown Research data collection and analysis
US7577475B2 (en) * 1999-04-16 2009-08-18 Cardiocom System, method, and apparatus for combining information from an implanted device with information from a patient monitoring apparatus
US6290646B1 (en) * 1999-04-16 2001-09-18 Cardiocom Apparatus and method for monitoring and communicating wellness parameters of ambulatory patients
US20070021979A1 (en) * 1999-04-16 2007-01-25 Cosentino Daniel L Multiuser wellness parameter monitoring system
US20060030890A1 (en) * 1999-04-16 2006-02-09 Cosentino Daniel L System, method, and apparatus for automated interactive verification of an alert generated by a patient monitoring device
US7945451B2 (en) * 1999-04-16 2011-05-17 Cardiocom, Llc Remote monitoring system for ambulatory patients
US8438038B2 (en) * 1999-04-16 2013-05-07 Cardiocom, Llc Weight loss or weight management system
US8419650B2 (en) 1999-04-16 2013-04-16 Cariocom, LLC Downloadable datasets for a patient monitoring system
US6755783B2 (en) 1999-04-16 2004-06-29 Cardiocom Apparatus and method for two-way communication in a device for monitoring and communicating wellness parameters of ambulatory patients
US6312378B1 (en) 1999-06-03 2001-11-06 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation System and method for automated collection and analysis of patient information retrieved from an implantable medical device for remote patient care
CA2314513A1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2001-01-26 Gust H. Bardy System and method for providing normalized voice feedback from an individual patient in an automated collection and analysis patient care system
US7134996B2 (en) * 1999-06-03 2006-11-14 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation System and method for collection and analysis of patient information for automated remote patient care
US6607485B2 (en) 1999-06-03 2003-08-19 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation Computer readable storage medium containing code for automated collection and analysis of patient information retrieved from an implantable medical device for remote patient care
US6270457B1 (en) * 1999-06-03 2001-08-07 Cardiac Intelligence Corp. System and method for automated collection and analysis of regularly retrieved patient information for remote patient care
US7429243B2 (en) * 1999-06-03 2008-09-30 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation System and method for transacting an automated patient communications session
CA2314517A1 (en) * 1999-07-26 2001-01-26 Gust H. Bardy System and method for determining a reference baseline of individual patient status for use in an automated collection and analysis patient care system
US6221011B1 (en) 1999-07-26 2001-04-24 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation System and method for determining a reference baseline of individual patient status for use in an automated collection and analysis patient care system
JP4695318B2 (en) 1999-08-05 2011-06-08 エムアーペー メディツィンテクノロジー ゲゼルシャフト・ミット・ベシュレンクテル・ハフツング Apparatus for supplying exhaled gas, humidifier, breathing tube connection device, breathing tubes and connecting structure
EP1415259A2 (en) * 1999-09-13 2004-05-06 Healinx A message and program system supporting communication
US6454705B1 (en) 1999-09-21 2002-09-24 Cardiocom Medical wellness parameters management system, apparatus and method
US6790178B1 (en) 1999-09-24 2004-09-14 Healthetech, Inc. Physiological monitor and associated computation, display and communication unit
US6535523B1 (en) * 1999-09-30 2003-03-18 Qualcomm Incorporated System and method for persistence vector based rate assignment
US6527711B1 (en) * 1999-10-18 2003-03-04 Bodymedia, Inc. Wearable human physiological data sensors and reporting system therefor
US6648820B1 (en) 1999-10-27 2003-11-18 Home-Medicine (Usa), Inc. Medical condition sensing system
US8369937B2 (en) 1999-11-16 2013-02-05 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. System and method for prioritizing medical conditions
US6398728B1 (en) * 1999-11-16 2002-06-04 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation Automated collection and analysis patient care system and method for diagnosing and monitoring respiratory insufficiency and outcomes thereof
US6411840B1 (en) * 1999-11-16 2002-06-25 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation Automated collection and analysis patient care system and method for diagnosing and monitoring the outcomes of atrial fibrillation
US6440066B1 (en) * 1999-11-16 2002-08-27 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation Automated collection and analysis patient care system and method for ordering and prioritizing multiple health disorders to identify an index disorder
US6336903B1 (en) 1999-11-16 2002-01-08 Cardiac Intelligence Corp. Automated collection and analysis patient care system and method for diagnosing and monitoring congestive heart failure and outcomes thereof
US6368284B1 (en) 1999-11-16 2002-04-09 Cardiac Intelligence Corporation Automated collection and analysis patient care system and method for diagnosing and monitoring myocardial ischemia and outcomes thereof
US6829478B1 (en) 1999-11-19 2004-12-07 Pamela G. Layton Information management network for automated delivery of alarm notifications and other information
US6442432B2 (en) 1999-12-21 2002-08-27 Medtronic, Inc. Instrumentation and software for remote monitoring and programming of implantable medical devices (IMDs)
US6980958B1 (en) * 2000-01-11 2005-12-27 Zycare, Inc. Apparatus and methods for monitoring and modifying anticoagulation therapy of remotely located patients
US6558320B1 (en) * 2000-01-20 2003-05-06 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Handheld personal data assistant (PDA) with a medical device and method of using the same
CA2398823A1 (en) 2000-02-14 2001-08-23 First Opinion Corporation Automated diagnostic system and method
US20030060765A1 (en) * 2000-02-16 2003-03-27 Arthur Campbell Infusion device menu structure and method of using the same
US7379885B1 (en) 2000-03-10 2008-05-27 David S. Zakim System and method for obtaining, processing and evaluating patient information for diagnosing disease and selecting treatment
WO2001069505A1 (en) * 2000-03-15 2001-09-20 Health Hero Network, Inc. An interactive patient communication development system for reporting on patient healthcare management
WO2002041227A1 (en) * 2000-03-21 2002-05-23 Health Hero Network, Inc. Networked system for interactive communication and remote monitoring of individuals
CA2400483A1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2001-10-18 The Johns Hopkins University Automated risk management infrastructure for healthcare
US20040030577A1 (en) * 2001-04-05 2004-02-12 Bitman William R. Automated risk management infrastructure for healthcare
WO2001088810A1 (en) * 2000-05-12 2001-11-22 Opsion Medical, Inc. Networked medical information system for clinical practices
US6482158B2 (en) 2000-05-19 2002-11-19 Healthetech, Inc. System and method of ultrasonic mammography
WO2001095214A1 (en) * 2000-06-02 2001-12-13 Quality Metric Method and system for health assessment and monitoring
US7818185B2 (en) * 2000-06-02 2010-10-19 Qualitymetric Incorporated Method, system and medium for assessing the impact of various ailments on health related quality of life
EP2363061A1 (en) 2000-06-16 2011-09-07 BodyMedia, Inc. System for monitoring and managing body weight and other physiological conditions including iterative and personalized planning, intervention and reporting capability
WO2002000111A1 (en) * 2000-06-23 2002-01-03 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US7689437B1 (en) 2000-06-16 2010-03-30 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US20060122474A1 (en) * 2000-06-16 2006-06-08 Bodymedia, Inc. Apparatus for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US6605038B1 (en) 2000-06-16 2003-08-12 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness
US20020016719A1 (en) * 2000-06-19 2002-02-07 Nemeth Louis G. Methods and systems for providing medical data to a third party in accordance with configurable distribution parameters
EP1331874B1 (en) * 2000-06-30 2009-08-05 Becton, Dickinson and Company A health outcomes and disease management network for providing improved patient care
US8043224B2 (en) * 2000-07-12 2011-10-25 Dimicine Research It, Llc Telemedicine system
US20030028399A1 (en) * 2000-09-25 2003-02-06 Duane Davis Method and system for providing interactive health care services
US7379964B1 (en) 2000-10-26 2008-05-27 Union Hospital, Inc. Method of facilitating medical consultations
US6607387B2 (en) 2000-10-30 2003-08-19 Healthetech, Inc. Sensor system for diagnosing dental conditions
US20020055857A1 (en) * 2000-10-31 2002-05-09 Mault James R. Method of assisting individuals in lifestyle control programs conducive to good health
US8641644B2 (en) 2000-11-21 2014-02-04 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Blood testing apparatus having a rotatable cartridge with multiple lancing elements and testing means
DE10057832C1 (en) 2000-11-21 2002-02-21 Hartmann Paul Ag Blood analysis device has syringe mounted in casing, annular mounting carrying needles mounted behind test strip and being swiveled so that needle can be pushed through strip and aperture in casing to take blood sample
US6560471B1 (en) 2001-01-02 2003-05-06 Therasense, Inc. Analyte monitoring device and methods of use
US7054758B2 (en) * 2001-01-30 2006-05-30 Sciona Limited Computer-assisted means for assessing lifestyle risk factors
EP1359962B1 (en) 2001-02-16 2016-08-17 ResMed Limited Humidifier with structure to prevent backflow of liquid through the humidifier inlet
US7835925B2 (en) 2001-02-20 2010-11-16 The Procter & Gamble Company System for improving the management of the health of an individual and related methods
US7232220B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2007-06-19 Richard Franz System for vision examination utilizing telemedicine
US7941326B2 (en) * 2001-03-14 2011-05-10 Health Hero Network, Inc. Interactive patient communication development system for reporting on patient healthcare management
US7892183B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2011-02-22 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for body fluid sampling and analyte sensing
US6595929B2 (en) 2001-03-30 2003-07-22 Bodymedia, Inc. System for monitoring health, wellness and fitness having a method and apparatus for improved measurement of heat flow
WO2002078512A8 (en) 2001-04-02 2004-12-02 Therasense Inc Blood glucose tracking apparatus and methods
US6635015B2 (en) 2001-04-20 2003-10-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Body weight management system
US20030036923A1 (en) * 2001-05-18 2003-02-20 Waldon R. Forrest Patient compliance and monitoring system
EP1390089B1 (en) 2001-05-18 2007-01-24 Deka Products Limited Partnership Infusion set for a fluid pump
US8034026B2 (en) 2001-05-18 2011-10-11 Deka Products Limited Partnership Infusion pump assembly
US7103578B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2006-09-05 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Remote medical device access
US9226699B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2016-01-05 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Body fluid sampling module with a continuous compression tissue interface surface
US7674232B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2010-03-09 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US9248267B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2016-02-02 Sanofi-Aventis Deustchland Gmbh Tissue penetration device
US7291117B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2007-11-06 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7901362B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2011-03-08 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US8337419B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2012-12-25 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Tissue penetration device
US7481776B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2009-01-27 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7229458B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2007-06-12 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US8784335B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2014-07-22 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Body fluid sampling device with a capacitive sensor
US7331931B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2008-02-19 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7041068B2 (en) 2001-06-12 2006-05-09 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Sampling module device and method
WO2002100460A3 (en) 2001-06-12 2003-05-08 Don Alden Electric lancet actuator
US9795334B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2017-10-24 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7976476B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2011-07-12 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Device and method for variable speed lancet
US7547287B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2009-06-16 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7717863B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2010-05-18 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7344507B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2008-03-18 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for lancet actuation
US8579831B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2013-11-12 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7981056B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2011-07-19 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Methods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US8267870B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2012-09-18 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus for body fluid sampling with hybrid actuation
US7648468B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2010-01-19 Pelikon Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US9427532B2 (en) 2001-06-12 2016-08-30 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Tissue penetration device
US7232451B2 (en) * 2002-04-19 2007-06-19 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7909778B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2011-03-22 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7316700B2 (en) 2001-06-12 2008-01-08 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Self optimizing lancing device with adaptation means to temporal variations in cutaneous properties
US7699791B2 (en) 2001-06-12 2010-04-20 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for improving success rate of blood yield from a fingerstick
EP1404235A4 (en) 2001-06-12 2008-08-20 Pelikan Technologies Inc Method and apparatus for lancet launching device integrated onto a blood-sampling cartridge
US7226461B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2007-06-05 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release
US9314194B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2016-04-19 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Tissue penetration device
US7297122B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2007-11-20 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US8221334B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2012-07-17 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7682318B2 (en) 2001-06-12 2010-03-23 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Blood sampling apparatus and method
US7371247B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2008-05-13 Pelikan Technologies, Inc Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US7491178B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2009-02-17 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
EP2302542A3 (en) 2001-08-03 2011-09-21 Hill-Rom Services, Inc. Patient point-of-care computer system
US6781522B2 (en) 2001-08-22 2004-08-24 Kivalo, Inc. Portable storage case for housing a medical monitoring device and an associated method for communicating therewith
US6840904B2 (en) 2001-10-11 2005-01-11 Jason Goldberg Medical monitoring device and system
US20030129578A1 (en) * 2001-10-26 2003-07-10 Mault James R. Method and system for early detection of infectious diseases or symptoms of bioterrorism attacks
US7369919B2 (en) * 2001-11-30 2008-05-06 Vonk Glenn P Medication adherence system
US6985870B2 (en) 2002-01-11 2006-01-10 Baxter International Inc. Medication delivery system
US7034691B1 (en) * 2002-01-25 2006-04-25 Solvetech Corporation Adaptive communication methods and systems for facilitating the gathering, distribution and delivery of information related to medical care
US20030141981A1 (en) * 2002-01-29 2003-07-31 Tuan Bui System and method for operating medical devices
US8234128B2 (en) 2002-04-30 2012-07-31 Baxter International, Inc. System and method for verifying medical device operational parameters
US8775196B2 (en) 2002-01-29 2014-07-08 Baxter International Inc. System and method for notification and escalation of medical data
US8250483B2 (en) 2002-02-28 2012-08-21 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Programmable medical infusion pump displaying a banner
US8504179B2 (en) 2002-02-28 2013-08-06 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Programmable medical infusion pump
US20030192688A1 (en) * 2002-04-10 2003-10-16 Thomson Michael A. Tubing saver rotator and method for using same
US8702624B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2014-04-22 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Analyte measurement device with a single shot actuator
US20030212579A1 (en) * 2002-05-08 2003-11-13 Brown Stephen J. Remote health management system
US20030221687A1 (en) * 2002-05-09 2003-12-04 William Kaigler Medication and compliance management system and method
US20030236450A1 (en) * 2002-06-24 2003-12-25 Kocinski Richard J. System for remotely monitoring and controlling CPAP apparatus
US20040068230A1 (en) 2002-07-24 2004-04-08 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. System for providing blood glucose measurements to an infusion device
US7278983B2 (en) 2002-07-24 2007-10-09 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Physiological monitoring device for controlling a medication infusion device
US7020508B2 (en) 2002-08-22 2006-03-28 Bodymedia, Inc. Apparatus for detecting human physiological and contextual information
DK1734858T3 (en) 2004-03-22 2014-10-20 Bodymedia Inc Non-invasive temperature monitoring device
US6949073B2 (en) * 2002-10-03 2005-09-27 Home-Medicine.Com, Inc. Dyspnea monitor, and telemedicine system and method
JP4813058B2 (en) 2002-10-09 2011-11-09 ボディーメディア インコーポレイテッド Detecting human physiological and contextual information, receiving, deriving and apparatus for displaying
US20090177068A1 (en) * 2002-10-09 2009-07-09 Stivoric John M Method and apparatus for providing derived glucose information utilizing physiological and/or contextual parameters
US20030126593A1 (en) * 2002-11-04 2003-07-03 Mault James R. Interactive physiological monitoring system
US20040111293A1 (en) * 2002-12-09 2004-06-10 Catherine Firanek System and a method for tracking patients undergoing treatment and/or therapy for renal disease
US7890341B2 (en) * 2002-12-09 2011-02-15 Baxter International Inc. System and a method for providing integrated access management for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis
US7009511B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2006-03-07 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Repeater device for communications with an implantable medical device
US20040122353A1 (en) * 2002-12-19 2004-06-24 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Relay device for transferring information between a sensor system and a fluid delivery system
US7229288B2 (en) * 2002-12-20 2007-06-12 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Method, system, and program for using a virtual environment to provide information on using a product
US8574895B2 (en) 2002-12-30 2013-11-05 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus using optical techniques to measure analyte levels
US7811231B2 (en) 2002-12-31 2010-10-12 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Continuous glucose monitoring system and methods of use
US7154398B2 (en) 2003-01-06 2006-12-26 Chen Thomas C H Wireless communication and global location enabled intelligent health monitoring system
US20050148882A1 (en) * 2004-01-06 2005-07-07 Triage Wireless, Incc. Vital signs monitor used for conditioning a patient's response
US20060142648A1 (en) * 2003-01-07 2006-06-29 Triage Data Networks Wireless, internet-based, medical diagnostic system
US7396330B2 (en) * 2003-01-07 2008-07-08 Triage Data Networks Wireless, internet-based medical-diagnostic system
US20040172284A1 (en) * 2003-02-13 2004-09-02 Roche Diagnostics Corporation Information management system
US7587287B2 (en) 2003-04-04 2009-09-08 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for transferring analyte test data
US6949816B2 (en) 2003-04-21 2005-09-27 Motorola, Inc. Semiconductor component having first surface area for electrically coupling to a semiconductor chip and second surface area for electrically coupling to a substrate, and method of manufacturing same
US7182738B2 (en) 2003-04-23 2007-02-27 Marctec, Llc Patient monitoring apparatus and method for orthosis and other devices
CN1787862A (en) * 2003-04-24 2006-06-14 大红蛙有限公司 game
US7399276B1 (en) * 2003-05-08 2008-07-15 Health Hero Network, Inc. Remote health monitoring system
US7780595B2 (en) * 2003-05-15 2010-08-24 Clinical Decision Support, Llc Panel diagnostic method and system
ES2616749T3 (en) * 2003-05-16 2017-06-14 Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. Mutants proteoglycan degrading treatment of CNS
WO2004111965A3 (en) * 2003-05-30 2005-05-19 Michael Mathur System, device, and method for remote monitoring and servicing
US7850621B2 (en) 2003-06-06 2010-12-14 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for body fluid sampling and analyte sensing
US20050010444A1 (en) * 2003-06-06 2005-01-13 Iliff Edwin C. System and method for assisting medical diagnosis using an anatomic system and cause matrix
US8460243B2 (en) 2003-06-10 2013-06-11 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Glucose measuring module and insulin pump combination
US8066639B2 (en) 2003-06-10 2011-11-29 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Glucose measuring device for use in personal area network
EP2392375B1 (en) 2003-06-20 2016-01-06 ResMed Ltd. Breathable gas apparatus with humidifier
EP1648544B1 (en) * 2003-06-20 2011-07-27 ResMed Limited Breathable gas apparatus with humidifier
US20050009191A1 (en) * 2003-07-08 2005-01-13 Swenson Kirk D. Point of care information management system
US8034294B1 (en) 2003-07-15 2011-10-11 Ideal Life, Inc. Medical monitoring/consumables tracking device
US7722536B2 (en) 2003-07-15 2010-05-25 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Glucose measuring device integrated into a holster for a personal area network device
US8571880B2 (en) * 2003-08-07 2013-10-29 Ideal Life, Inc. Personal health management device, method and system
US20050114182A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2005-05-26 Randolph Robin L. Method and apparatus for generating patient reminders
EP1667579A4 (en) 2003-09-12 2008-06-11 Bodymedia Inc Method and apparatus for measuring heart related parameters
US20050066335A1 (en) * 2003-09-23 2005-03-24 Robert Aarts System and method for exposing local clipboard functionality towards external applications
US7756726B2 (en) * 2003-09-25 2010-07-13 International Business Machines Corporation Secured medical sign-in
WO2005033659A3 (en) 2003-09-29 2007-01-18 Pelikan Technologies Inc Method and apparatus for an improved sample capture device
US7490021B2 (en) * 2003-10-07 2009-02-10 Hospira, Inc. Method for adjusting pump screen brightness
US20060089855A1 (en) * 2003-10-07 2006-04-27 Holland Geoffrey N Medication management system
US20060100907A1 (en) * 2003-10-07 2006-05-11 Holland Geoffrey N Medication management system
US20050278194A1 (en) * 2003-10-07 2005-12-15 Holland Geoffrey N Medication management system
US7895053B2 (en) * 2003-10-07 2011-02-22 Hospira, Inc. Medication management system
US20060089854A1 (en) * 2003-10-07 2006-04-27 Holland Geoffrey N Medication management system
US9123077B2 (en) * 2003-10-07 2015-09-01 Hospira, Inc. Medication management system
WO2005037095A1 (en) 2003-10-14 2005-04-28 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for a variable user interface
US8029454B2 (en) * 2003-11-05 2011-10-04 Baxter International Inc. High convection home hemodialysis/hemofiltration and sorbent system
KR20060132434A (en) * 2003-11-06 2006-12-21 라이프스캔, 인코포레이티드 Drug delivery pen with event notification means
US8065161B2 (en) 2003-11-13 2011-11-22 Hospira, Inc. System for maintaining drug information and communicating with medication delivery devices
WO2005065414A3 (en) 2003-12-31 2005-12-29 Pelikan Technologies Inc Method and apparatus for improving fluidic flow and sample capture
US8771183B2 (en) 2004-02-17 2014-07-08 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing data communication in continuous glucose monitoring and management system
US7488290B1 (en) * 2004-02-19 2009-02-10 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. System and method for assessing cardiac performance through transcardiac impedance monitoring
US8025624B2 (en) * 2004-02-19 2011-09-27 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. System and method for assessing cardiac performance through cardiac vibration monitoring
US8954336B2 (en) 2004-02-23 2015-02-10 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Server for medical device
US20050192487A1 (en) * 2004-02-27 2005-09-01 Cosentino Louis C. System for collection, manipulation, and analysis of data from remote health care devices
US20050192514A1 (en) * 2004-03-01 2005-09-01 Kearby Gerald W. Audiological treatment system and methods of using the same
CN1950825A (en) * 2004-04-30 2007-04-18 皇家飞利浦电子股份有限公司 Method for delivering subjective surveys linked to subjective and objective data
EP1751546A2 (en) 2004-05-20 2007-02-14 Albatros Technologies GmbH & Co. KG Printable hydrogel for biosensors
EP1765194A4 (en) 2004-06-03 2010-09-29 Pelikan Technologies Inc Method and apparatus for a fluid sampling device
US20060093997A1 (en) * 2004-06-12 2006-05-04 Neurotone, Inc. Aural rehabilitation system and a method of using the same
WO2005124722A3 (en) * 2004-06-12 2007-07-05 Douglas J Dayson Aural rehabilitation system and method
WO2006001797A1 (en) 2004-06-14 2006-01-05 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Low pain penetrating
US8224669B2 (en) * 2004-07-01 2012-07-17 Anchor Holdings, Inc. Chronic disease management system
US7329226B1 (en) 2004-07-06 2008-02-12 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. System and method for assessing pulmonary performance through transthoracic impedance monitoring
US7311666B2 (en) 2004-07-10 2007-12-25 Trigeminal Solutions, Inc. Apparatus for collecting information
US20060025931A1 (en) * 2004-07-30 2006-02-02 Richard Rosen Method and apparatus for real time predictive modeling for chronically ill patients
US9081879B2 (en) * 2004-10-22 2015-07-14 Clinical Decision Support, Llc Matrix interface for medical diagnostic and treatment advice system and method
US8652831B2 (en) 2004-12-30 2014-02-18 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Method and apparatus for analyte measurement test time
US7822454B1 (en) 2005-01-03 2010-10-26 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Fluid sampling device with improved analyte detecting member configuration
US8165893B1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2012-04-24 Ideal Life Inc. Medical monitoring and coordinated care system
US7616110B2 (en) * 2005-03-11 2009-11-10 Aframe Digital, Inc. Mobile wireless customizable health and condition monitor
US8378811B2 (en) * 2005-03-11 2013-02-19 Aframe Digital, Inc. Mobile wireless customizable health and condition monitor
US8618930B2 (en) * 2005-03-11 2013-12-31 Aframe Digital, Inc. Mobile wireless customizable health and condition monitor
US20080027292A1 (en) * 2006-04-10 2008-01-31 Rosman Paul M Computer-Implemented Method and Apparatus for Diabetes Management
US7495552B2 (en) * 2005-04-15 2009-02-24 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Prescription-customized medical hardware
US20060247504A1 (en) * 2005-04-29 2006-11-02 Honeywell International, Inc. Residential monitoring system for selected parameters
US8112240B2 (en) 2005-04-29 2012-02-07 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and apparatus for providing leak detection in data monitoring and management systems
US20100063840A1 (en) * 2005-05-03 2010-03-11 Hoyme Kenneth P System and method for managing coordination of collected patient data in an automated patient management system
US8781847B2 (en) * 2005-05-03 2014-07-15 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. System and method for managing alert notifications in an automated patient management system
US20060253300A1 (en) * 2005-05-03 2006-11-09 Somberg Benjamin L System and method for managing patient triage in an automated patient management system
JP4903783B2 (en) * 2005-05-17 2012-03-28 エフ.ホフマン−ラ ロシュ アーゲーF. Hoffmann−La Roche Aktiengesellschaft Host device and method for providing calibration information and reagent information to a measurement apparatus using the consumable reagent in the measurement process
GB0722285D0 (en) * 2005-05-26 2007-12-27 G W Pharma Ltd A system for influencing and monitoring the movement of products
US7881939B2 (en) * 2005-05-31 2011-02-01 Honeywell International Inc. Monitoring system with speech recognition
US8251904B2 (en) * 2005-06-09 2012-08-28 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Device and method for insulin dosing
US7405653B2 (en) * 2005-06-13 2008-07-29 Honeywell International Inc. System for monitoring activities and location
US9060681B2 (en) * 2005-06-30 2015-06-23 Honeywell International Inc. Trend monitoring system with multiple access levels
US20100270257A1 (en) * 2005-07-13 2010-10-28 Vitality, Inc. Medicine Bottle Cap With Electronic Embedded Curved Display
US20070016443A1 (en) * 2005-07-13 2007-01-18 Vitality, Inc. Medication compliance systems, methods and devices with configurable and adaptable escalation engine
US20090134181A1 (en) * 2005-07-13 2009-05-28 Vitality, Inc. Medication dispenser with automatic refill
US20070024439A1 (en) * 2005-07-26 2007-02-01 Tice Lee D Monitoring system for a residence
US20070073590A1 (en) * 2005-08-22 2007-03-29 Cosentino Louis C Remote monitor for physiological parameters and durable medical supplies
US7511623B2 (en) * 2005-09-14 2009-03-31 Honeywell International Inc. In-residence monitoring system incorporating voice output
WO2007049163A3 (en) * 2005-10-24 2007-08-02 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Reflective education: a method for automated delivery of educational material linked to objective or subjective data
US7766829B2 (en) 2005-11-04 2010-08-03 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing basal profile modification in analyte monitoring and management systems
US20080015422A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2008-01-17 Guidance Interactive Healthcare, Inc. Combined peripheral and health monitoring devices
US20070179356A1 (en) * 2005-12-29 2007-08-02 Guidance Interactive Healthcare, Inc. Programmable devices, systems and methods for encouraging the monitoring of medical parameters
WO2007095093A3 (en) 2006-02-09 2008-01-17 Deka Products Lp Pumping fluid delivery systems and methods using force application assembly
US8226891B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2012-07-24 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring devices and methods therefor
US7620438B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2009-11-17 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for powering an electronic device
US20070255126A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Moberg Sheldon B Data communication in networked fluid infusion systems
US20070255125A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Moberg Sheldon B Monitor devices for networked fluid infusion systems
US8073008B2 (en) * 2006-04-28 2011-12-06 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Subnetwork synchronization and variable transmit synchronization techniques for a wireless medical device network
US20070254593A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Wireless data communication for a medical device network that supports a plurality of data communication modes
US20070253380A1 (en) * 2006-04-28 2007-11-01 James Jollota Data translation device with nonvolatile memory for a networked medical device system
US20070288266A1 (en) * 2006-06-02 2007-12-13 Suzanne Sysko System and methods for chronic disease management and health assessment
US20080071157A1 (en) 2006-06-07 2008-03-20 Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc. Analyte monitoring system and method
US8435206B2 (en) 2006-08-03 2013-05-07 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Interface for medical infusion pump
US8965707B2 (en) 2006-08-03 2015-02-24 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Interface for medical infusion pump
US8149131B2 (en) 2006-08-03 2012-04-03 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Interface for medical infusion pump
US8858526B2 (en) 2006-08-03 2014-10-14 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Interface for medical infusion pump
US8758238B2 (en) * 2006-08-31 2014-06-24 Health Hero Network, Inc. Health related location awareness
EP1918869A1 (en) * 2006-11-02 2008-05-07 Abb Research Ltd. Dynamic safety balance monitoring
JP2010509658A (en) * 2006-11-03 2010-03-25 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エレクトロニクス エヌ ヴィ Integrated evaluation, workflow, and reporting
WO2008060854A3 (en) * 2006-11-09 2008-10-23 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Care plan change propagation
CN101536004A (en) * 2006-11-09 2009-09-16 皇家飞利浦电子股份有限公司 Patient health care network guided encounter
US8672843B2 (en) * 2006-11-27 2014-03-18 Qtc Management, Inc. Automated protocol for determining psychiatric disability
US8540515B2 (en) * 2006-11-27 2013-09-24 Pharos Innovations, Llc Optimizing behavioral change based on a population statistical profile
US8540517B2 (en) * 2006-11-27 2013-09-24 Pharos Innovations, Llc Calculating a behavioral path based on a statistical profile
US8540516B2 (en) * 2006-11-27 2013-09-24 Pharos Innovations, Llc Optimizing behavioral change based on a patient statistical profile
WO2008087570A3 (en) * 2007-01-19 2008-10-30 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Network configuration via a wireless device
EP2127358A2 (en) * 2007-01-19 2009-12-02 Philips Electronics N.V. Smart install
US20080183500A1 (en) * 2007-01-26 2008-07-31 Banigan Michael H Systems and processes for health management
WO2008093270A3 (en) * 2007-02-02 2008-09-25 Koninkl Philips Electronics Nv Interactive patient forums
US20080319855A1 (en) * 2007-02-16 2008-12-25 Stivoric John M Advertising and marketing based on lifeotypes
US8732188B2 (en) 2007-02-18 2014-05-20 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and system for providing contextual based medication dosage determination
US8930203B2 (en) 2007-02-18 2015-01-06 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Multi-function analyte test device and methods therefor
WO2008103827A1 (en) * 2007-02-22 2008-08-28 Welldoc Communications, Inc. System and method for providing treatment recommendations based on models
US8123686B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2012-02-28 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and apparatus for providing rolling data in communication systems
JP2010534359A (en) * 2007-03-08 2010-11-04 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エレクトロニクス エヌ ヴィ Low-cost systems for audio / video content delivery to remote patient
KR20100015420A (en) * 2007-03-08 2010-02-12 코닌클리케 필립스 일렉트로닉스 엔.브이. System and method for providing verbal and graphical instruction from a remote healthcare monitoring service helpdesk
US20080228040A1 (en) * 2007-03-16 2008-09-18 Arthur Solomon Thompson International medical expert diagnosis
JP2010525444A (en) * 2007-04-18 2010-07-22 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エレクトロニクス エヌ ヴィ Apparatus and method for providing personal story against medical patients
US8086552B2 (en) * 2007-05-02 2011-12-27 General Electric Company Dynamic user prompting for pertinent clinical information
US7928850B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2011-04-19 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US8461985B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2013-06-11 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US8665091B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2014-03-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and device for determining elapsed sensor life
US8456301B2 (en) 2007-05-08 2013-06-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Analyte monitoring system and methods
US20080281165A1 (en) * 2007-05-09 2008-11-13 Raghu Rai system and method for acquiring and transferring data to a remote server
US20080300572A1 (en) * 2007-06-01 2008-12-04 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Wireless monitor for a personal medical device system
US8365726B2 (en) 2007-06-07 2013-02-05 Resmed Limited Tub for humidifier
US20080319327A1 (en) * 2007-06-25 2008-12-25 Triage Wireless, Inc. Body-worn sensor featuring a low-power processor and multi-sensor array for measuring blood pressure
CA2696082A1 (en) * 2007-08-10 2009-02-19 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. System for controlling medical devices
US8326646B2 (en) * 2007-09-18 2012-12-04 Humana Innovations Enterprises, Inc. Method and system for suggesting meals based on tastes and preferences of individual users
US20090075242A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Sensei, Inc. System and method for automatically defining, creating, and managing meals
US8655717B2 (en) * 2007-09-18 2014-02-18 Humana Innovations Enterprises, Inc. System and method for rewarding users for changes in health behaviors
US8560336B2 (en) 2007-09-18 2013-10-15 Humana Innovations Enterprises, Inc. System and method for increasing compliance with a health plan
US20090075781A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Sensei, Inc. System for incorporating data from biometric devices into a feedback message to a mobile device
US8463618B2 (en) 2007-09-18 2013-06-11 Humana Innovations Enterprises, Inc. Method for tailoring strategy messages from an expert system to enhance success with modifications to health behaviors
US20090112626A1 (en) * 2007-10-30 2009-04-30 Cary Talbot Remote wireless monitoring, processing, and communication of patient data
US20090150877A1 (en) * 2007-12-07 2009-06-11 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Data driven communication protocol grammar
US8313467B2 (en) 2007-12-27 2012-11-20 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Reservoir pressure equalization systems and methods
US9526830B2 (en) 2007-12-31 2016-12-27 Deka Products Limited Partnership Wearable pump assembly
US20090240115A1 (en) * 2008-03-21 2009-09-24 Computerized Screening, Inc. Community based managed health kiosk system for soliciting medical testing and health study participants
WO2009126900A1 (en) 2008-04-11 2009-10-15 Pelikan Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for analyte detecting device
US8133197B2 (en) 2008-05-02 2012-03-13 Smiths Medical Asd, Inc. Display for pump
WO2010005908A3 (en) * 2008-07-07 2010-04-01 Agamatrix, Inc. Integrated blood glucose measurement device
US8423378B1 (en) 2008-07-24 2013-04-16 Ideal Life, Inc. Facilitating health care management of subjects
US20100077458A1 (en) * 2008-09-25 2010-03-25 Card Access, Inc. Apparatus, System, and Method for Responsibility-Based Data Management
US8267892B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2012-09-18 Deka Products Limited Partnership Multi-language / multi-processor infusion pump assembly
US8223028B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2012-07-17 Deka Products Limited Partnership Occlusion detection system and method
US8708376B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2014-04-29 Deka Products Limited Partnership Medium connector
US8016789B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2011-09-13 Deka Products Limited Partnership Pump assembly with a removable cover assembly
US8262616B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2012-09-11 Deka Products Limited Partnership Infusion pump assembly
US9180245B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2015-11-10 Deka Products Limited Partnership System and method for administering an infusible fluid
US8066672B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2011-11-29 Deka Products Limited Partnership Infusion pump assembly with a backup power supply
US7908154B2 (en) * 2008-10-27 2011-03-15 MedSleuth, Inc. System and method for generating a medical history
US8208973B2 (en) * 2008-11-05 2012-06-26 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. System and method for variable beacon timing with wireless devices
US20110015511A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2011-01-20 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for optimizing insulin dosage
KR101529407B1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2015-06-16 에프. 호프만-라 로슈 아게 Management method and system for implementation, execution, data collection, and data analysis of a structured collection procedure which runs on a collection device
US8849458B2 (en) * 2008-12-23 2014-09-30 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Collection device with selective display of test results, method and computer program product thereof
US20110178820A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2011-07-21 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Status Reporting Of A Structured Collection Procedure
US20110145747A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2011-06-16 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Structured Tailoring
US9117015B2 (en) 2008-12-23 2015-08-25 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Management method and system for implementation, execution, data collection, and data analysis of a structured collection procedure which runs on a collection device
US20100161346A1 (en) * 2008-12-24 2010-06-24 Kristen Getschmann Systems and Methods for Providing Bolus Dosage Recommendations
US8103456B2 (en) 2009-01-29 2012-01-24 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Method and device for early signal attenuation detection using blood glucose measurements
US9375169B2 (en) 2009-01-30 2016-06-28 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Cam drive for managing disposable penetrating member actions with a single motor and motor and control system
US20100249965A1 (en) * 2009-03-31 2010-09-30 Agamatrix, Inc. Integrated Blood Glucose Measurement Device
WO2010127050A1 (en) 2009-04-28 2010-11-04 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc. Error detection in critical repeating data in a wireless sensor system
US8931481B2 (en) 2009-06-04 2015-01-13 Redmed Limited Flow generator chassis assembly with suspension seal
US8344847B2 (en) 2009-07-09 2013-01-01 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Coordination of control commands in a medical device system having at least one therapy delivery device and at least one wireless controller device
US20110009725A1 (en) * 2009-07-09 2011-01-13 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Providing contextually relevant advertisements and e-commerce features in a personal medical device system
US20110006880A1 (en) * 2009-07-09 2011-01-13 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fingerprint-linked control of a portable medical device
EP2473098A4 (en) 2009-08-31 2014-04-09 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc Analyte signal processing device and methods
EP2473099A4 (en) 2009-08-31 2015-01-14 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc Analyte monitoring system and methods for managing power and noise
US8487758B2 (en) * 2009-09-02 2013-07-16 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Medical device having an intelligent alerting scheme, and related operating methods
EP2482720A4 (en) 2009-09-29 2014-04-23 Abbott Diabetes Care Inc Method and apparatus for providing notification function in analyte monitoring systems
US8386042B2 (en) * 2009-11-03 2013-02-26 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Omnidirectional accelerometer device and medical device incorporating same
US20110141116A1 (en) * 2009-12-16 2011-06-16 Baxter International Inc. Methods and apparatus for displaying flow rate graphs and alarms on a dialysis system
US8574201B2 (en) 2009-12-22 2013-11-05 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Syringe piston with check valve seal
US8755269B2 (en) * 2009-12-23 2014-06-17 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Ranking and switching of wireless channels in a body area network of medical devices
US20110152970A1 (en) * 2009-12-23 2011-06-23 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Location-based ranking and switching of wireless channels in a body area network of medical devices
US8965476B2 (en) 2010-04-16 2015-02-24 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Tissue penetration device
US9795747B2 (en) 2010-06-02 2017-10-24 Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland Gmbh Methods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US8532933B2 (en) 2010-06-18 2013-09-10 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Insulin optimization systems and testing methods with adjusted exit criterion accounting for system noise associated with biomarkers
US8562565B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2013-10-22 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Battery shock absorber for a portable medical device
US8603033B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2013-12-10 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Medical device and related assembly having an offset element for a piezoelectric speaker
US8603032B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2013-12-10 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Medical device with membrane keypad sealing element, and related manufacturing method
US8474332B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2013-07-02 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Sensor assembly and medical device incorporating same
US8479595B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2013-07-09 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Sensor assembly and medical device incorporating same
US8495918B2 (en) 2010-10-20 2013-07-30 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Sensor assembly and medical device incorporating same
US8537990B2 (en) 2010-11-19 2013-09-17 Frederic Rudman Communications device and method and method of use
US8690855B2 (en) * 2010-12-22 2014-04-08 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fluid reservoir seating procedure for a fluid infusion device
US8628510B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2014-01-14 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Monitoring the operating health of a force sensor in a fluid infusion device
US8197444B1 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-12 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Monitoring the seating status of a fluid reservoir in a fluid infusion device
US8352034B2 (en) 2011-02-18 2013-01-08 Medtronic, Inc. Medical device programmer with adjustable kickstand
CN102762254B (en) 2011-02-18 2015-09-23 麦德托尼克公司 Modular medical device programmer
US9463309B2 (en) 2011-02-22 2016-10-11 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Sealing assembly and structure for a fluid infusion device having a needled fluid reservoir
US9283318B2 (en) 2011-02-22 2016-03-15 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Flanged sealing element and needle guide pin assembly for a fluid infusion device having a needled fluid reservoir
US8870829B2 (en) 2011-02-22 2014-10-28 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fluid infusion device and related sealing assembly for a needleless fluid reservoir
US9393399B2 (en) 2011-02-22 2016-07-19 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Sealing assembly for a fluid reservoir of a fluid infusion device
US8614596B2 (en) 2011-02-28 2013-12-24 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems and methods for initializing a voltage bus and medical devices incorporating same
US9101305B2 (en) 2011-03-09 2015-08-11 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Glucose sensor product and related manufacturing and packaging methods
US9018893B2 (en) 2011-03-18 2015-04-28 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Power control techniques for an electronic device
US8564447B2 (en) 2011-03-18 2013-10-22 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Battery life indication techniques for an electronic device
US8755938B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2014-06-17 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for handling unacceptable values in structured collection protocols
US8766803B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2014-07-01 Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Dynamic data collection
USD694909S1 (en) 2011-10-12 2013-12-03 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk
US9610401B2 (en) 2012-01-13 2017-04-04 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Infusion set component with modular fluid channel element
US8603027B2 (en) 2012-03-20 2013-12-10 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Occlusion detection using pulse-width modulation and medical device incorporating same
US8603026B2 (en) 2012-03-20 2013-12-10 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Dynamic pulse-width modulation motor control and medical device incorporating same
US8523803B1 (en) 2012-03-20 2013-09-03 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Motor health monitoring and medical device incorporating same
JP5726996B2 (en) * 2012-06-21 2015-06-03 シャープ株式会社 Communication terminal, and the watching information display method
US9333292B2 (en) 2012-06-26 2016-05-10 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Mechanically actuated fluid infusion device
US8808269B2 (en) 2012-08-21 2014-08-19 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Reservoir plunger position monitoring and medical device incorporating same
US9849239B2 (en) 2012-08-30 2017-12-26 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Generation and application of an insulin limit for a closed-loop operating mode of an insulin infusion system
US9662445B2 (en) 2012-08-30 2017-05-30 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Regulating entry into a closed-loop operating mode of an insulin infusion system
US9623179B2 (en) 2012-08-30 2017-04-18 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Safeguarding techniques for a closed-loop insulin infusion system
US9364609B2 (en) 2012-08-30 2016-06-14 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Insulin on board compensation for a closed-loop insulin infusion system
WO2014043190A3 (en) 2012-09-11 2014-07-24 Black & Decker Inc. System for identifying a power tool
US8870818B2 (en) 2012-11-15 2014-10-28 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems and methods for alignment and detection of a consumable component
US9251713B1 (en) * 2012-11-20 2016-02-02 Anthony J. Giovanniello System and process for assessing a user and for assisting a user in rehabilitation
US9395234B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2016-07-19 Cardiocom, Llc Stabilizing base for scale
US9730620B2 (en) 2012-12-31 2017-08-15 Dexcom, Inc. Remote monitoring of analyte measurements
US9585563B2 (en) 2012-12-31 2017-03-07 Dexcom, Inc. Remote monitoring of analyte measurements
US9522223B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2016-12-20 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems for fluid reservoir retention
US9033924B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2015-05-19 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems for fluid reservoir retention
US9107994B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2015-08-18 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems for fluid reservoir retention
US9308321B2 (en) 2013-02-18 2016-04-12 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Infusion device having gear assembly initialization
US8920381B2 (en) 2013-04-12 2014-12-30 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Infusion set with improved bore configuration
US20140357961A1 (en) * 2013-06-04 2014-12-04 Purdue Pharma L.P. System and method for supporting health management services
US9433731B2 (en) 2013-07-19 2016-09-06 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Detecting unintentional motor motion and infusion device incorporating same
US9402949B2 (en) 2013-08-13 2016-08-02 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Detecting conditions associated with medical device operations using matched filters
US9259528B2 (en) 2013-08-22 2016-02-16 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fluid infusion device with safety coupling
US9750878B2 (en) 2013-12-11 2017-09-05 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Closed-loop control of glucose according to a predicted blood glucose trajectory
US9750877B2 (en) 2013-12-11 2017-09-05 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Predicted time to assess and/or control a glycemic state
US9849240B2 (en) 2013-12-12 2017-12-26 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Data modification for predictive operations and devices incorporating same
US9694132B2 (en) 2013-12-19 2017-07-04 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Insertion device for insertion set
US9861748B2 (en) 2014-02-06 2018-01-09 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. User-configurable closed-loop notifications and infusion systems incorporating same
US9399096B2 (en) 2014-02-06 2016-07-26 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Automatic closed-loop control adjustments and infusion systems incorporating same
US20150265768A1 (en) 2014-03-24 2015-09-24 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fluid infusion patch pump device with automatic fluid system priming feature
US9681828B2 (en) 2014-05-01 2017-06-20 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Physiological characteristic sensors and methods for forming such sensors
US9687419B2 (en) 2014-09-12 2017-06-27 Becton, Dickinson And Company Assisted medication filling and management
US9839753B2 (en) 2014-09-26 2017-12-12 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems for managing reservoir chamber pressure
US9833563B2 (en) 2014-09-26 2017-12-05 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Systems for managing reservoir chamber pressure
US9833564B2 (en) 2014-11-25 2017-12-05 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Fluid conduit assembly with air venting features
US9636453B2 (en) 2014-12-04 2017-05-02 Medtronic Minimed, Inc. Advance diagnosis of infusion device operating mode viability
US9787941B1 (en) 2017-01-06 2017-10-10 Sorenson Ip Holdings, Llc Device to device communication
US9773501B1 (en) 2017-01-06 2017-09-26 Sorenson Ip Holdings, Llc Transcription of communication sessions
US9787842B1 (en) 2017-01-06 2017-10-10 Sorenson Ip Holdings, Llc Establishment of communication between devices

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5558638A (en) * 1993-04-30 1996-09-24 Healthdyne, Inc. Patient monitor and support system
US5660176A (en) * 1993-12-29 1997-08-26 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US5827179A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-10-27 Qrs Diagnostic, Llc Personal computer card for collection for real-time biological data

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4933876A (en) * 1988-12-28 1990-06-12 Vital Lasertype, Inc. System of operating an automatic plotter
US5642731A (en) * 1990-01-17 1997-07-01 Informedix, Inc. Method of and apparatus for monitoring the management of disease
US5262943A (en) * 1991-10-15 1993-11-16 National Computer Systems, Inc. System and process for information management and reporting
US5441047A (en) * 1992-03-25 1995-08-15 David; Daniel Ambulatory patient health monitoring techniques utilizing interactive visual communication

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5558638A (en) * 1993-04-30 1996-09-24 Healthdyne, Inc. Patient monitor and support system
US5660176A (en) * 1993-12-29 1997-08-26 First Opinion Corporation Computerized medical diagnostic and treatment advice system
US5827179A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-10-27 Qrs Diagnostic, Llc Personal computer card for collection for real-time biological data

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Altman, R. B. Informatics in the care of patients: ten notable challenges. The Western Journal of Medicine 166, 118-122 (1997). *
Yang, Q. & Khoury, M. J. Evolving Methods in Genetic Epidemiology. III. Gene-Environment Interaction in Epidemiologic Research. Epidemiologic Reviews 19, 33-43 (1997). *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8996392B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-03-31 Healthspot, Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use
US9043217B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-05-26 HealthSpot Inc. Medical kiosk and method of use

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20120130647A1 (en) 2012-05-24 application
US5897493A (en) 1999-04-27 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Petitti Meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis: methods for quantitative synthesis in medicine
Guttmacher et al. Genomic medicine—a primer
Buetow et al. Reliable identification of large numbers of candidate SNPs from public EST data
Masys et al. Use of keyword hierarchies to interpret gene expression patterns
Huang et al. Systematic and integrative analysis of large gene lists using DAVID bioinformatics resources
US5970500A (en) Database and system for determining, storing and displaying gene locus information
US6122351A (en) Method and system aiding medical diagnosis and treatment
Freimer et al. The human phenome project
Zeeberg et al. High-Throughput GoMiner, an'industrial-strength'integrative gene ontology tool for interpretation of multiple-microarray experiments, with application to studies of Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID)
US6730023B1 (en) Animal genetic and health profile database management
US5966712A (en) Database and system for storing, comparing and displaying genomic information
Perez-Iratxeta et al. Association of genes to genetically inherited diseases using data mining
Tranchevent et al. A guide to web tools to prioritize candidate genes
Nelson et al. A combinatorial partitioning method to identify multilocus genotypic partitions that predict quantitative trait variation
Wheeler et al. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: 2002 update
US5724379A (en) Method of modifying comparable health care services
US20050021240A1 (en) Systems, methods and computer program products for guiding selection of a therapeutic treatment regimen based on the methylation status of the DNA
Chan et al. Database-driven multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens
US7379885B1 (en) System and method for obtaining, processing and evaluating patient information for diagnosing disease and selecting treatment
Sabeti et al. Detecting recent positive selection in the human genome from haplotype structure
Fickett The gene identification problem: an overview for developers
Sebastiani et al. Genetic dissection and prognostic modeling of overt stroke in sickle cell anemia
US20050044110A1 (en) System and method for internet-accessible tools and knowledge base for protocol design, metadata capture and laboratory experiment management
Wingender et al. The TRANSFAC system on gene expression regulation
US20030163351A1 (en) Public health surveillance system