US20120186425A1 - Embedding particle armor for vehicles - Google Patents

Embedding particle armor for vehicles Download PDF

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Publication number
US20120186425A1
US20120186425A1 US12292686 US29268608A US20120186425A1 US 20120186425 A1 US20120186425 A1 US 20120186425A1 US 12292686 US12292686 US 12292686 US 29268608 A US29268608 A US 29268608A US 20120186425 A1 US20120186425 A1 US 20120186425A1
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Prior art keywords
armor
threat
embedding
particles
particle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12292686
Inventor
Robert William Kocher
David E. Simon
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Ideal Innovations Inc
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Ideal Innovations Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41HARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
    • F41H5/00Armour; Armour plates
    • F41H5/02Plate construction
    • F41H5/04Plate construction composed of more than one layer
    • F41H5/0492Layered armour containing hard elements, e.g. plates, spheres, rods, separated from each other, the elements being connected to a further flexible layer or being embedded in a plastics or an elastomer matrix

Abstract

An armor package in which RPGs, shaped charges, EFPs, other jets, and small arms threats are defeated using a layered solution incorporating particles designed to embed themselves in the incoming threat, thereby disrupting and diminishing the effectiveness of the threat. Additional components of the armor are designed to work in conjunction with this effect to completely defeat the incoming threat. This armor construction can provide alternatively a higher level of protection for either a given weight or space presently required by a conventional armor solution or an equivalent level of protection in reduced space or at reduced weight than is presently achievable with conventional armor solutions.

Description

    BACKGROUND
  • [0001]
    1. Field
  • [0002]
    This application relates to vehicle armor, specifically, to an armoring approach that employs a novel construction designed to exploit a novel defeat mechanism and provide a high level of protection from Rocket Propelled Grenades (RPGs), shaped charges, Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFPs), platter charges, and other jets.
  • [0003]
    2. Prior Art
  • [0004]
    With the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and similar types of warfare anticipated in the future, the role of armor in the protection of vehicle-borne soldiers is more critical than ever. In practice, vehicle armor is a compromise between the level of protection afforded to the vehicle occupants, and the weight burden the vehicle must carry. Additional weight negatively impacts the mobility of armored vehicles, particularly in areas where road-bed integrity is suspect, and roads may be narrow, such as in Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • [0005]
    Past efforts have related to the material construction of vehicle armor solutions which have sought to increase the ability of the armor system to defeat particular threats using established mechanisms including blunting and eroding. The approach used in the Embedding Particle Armor enables a fundamentally different armor design which provides superior protection with reduced aerial density and spatial requirements.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0006]
    The object of Embedding Particle Armor for Vehicles is to provide an armor solution that exploits a novel defeat mechanism and provides a high level of protection from Rocket Propelled Grenades (RPGs), shaped charges, Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFPs), platter charges, and other jets. This is accomplished by using a layered armoring approach in which discrete chambers containing specifically designed particles are used to blunt, flatten, and otherwise appropriately condition incoming threats to allow capture in residual armor sections. The particles used in this Embedding Particle Armor are specifically designed to embed into the incoming threat causing the threat to gain mass, deform, and change shape; a fundamentally different approach from previous approaches which have sought to alternatively blunt and erode incoming threats. This armor approach will enable a high level of protection to be provided at a lower areal density, reduced thickness, be producible at lower cost, and with greater manufacturing ease than presently existing approaches.
  • [0007]
    Accordingly, several objects and advantages of the invention are:
  • [0008]
    (a) to provide an armor construction that can utilize multiple projectile defeat mechanisms including embedding particles and others;
  • [0009]
    (b) to provide an armor construction that can be optimized to the types of threats anticipated;
  • [0010]
    In accordance with the present invention, the Embedding Particle Armor is an armor system primarily intended for vehicular applications, and designed to offer improved protection from RPGs, shaped charges, EFPs, platter charges, and other jets, without the generally corresponding increase in the armor system's areal density or thickness. Expressed in another manner, armor designed to use embedding particles alone or in conjunction with other threat defeat mechanisms, can offer higher Mass Efficiency, and Spatial Efficiency, compared to other armor solutions defeating RPGs, shaped charges, EFPs, other jets, and small arms fire.
  • DRAWINGS—FIGURES
  • [0011]
    FIG. 1 shows a section view of an armor formulation containing embedding particles.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 2 shows a section view or an alternate armor formulation containing embedding particles.
  • [0013]
    FIGS. 3A to 3D show illustrations of an incoming threat in contact with embedding particles.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 4 shows a detail view of the interaction between an incoming threat and the embedding particles.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 5 shows a preferred embodiment of an armor formulation using embedding particles.
  • [0000]
    DRAWINGS—Reference Numerals
    10 thin-walled cavity 12 particles
    14 matrix 16 incoming threat
    18 leading surface of the threat 20 particles embedded
    into the threat
    22 threat containing embedded particles 24 embedded particles
    26 threat with embedded particles 28 strike face
    30 front layers of material 32 embedding particle layer
    34 intermediate layers of armor 36 rear armor layers
    38 base armor
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION—FIG. 1—FIRST EMBODIMENT
  • [0016]
    One embodiment of the Embedding Particle Armor is illustrated in FIG. 1. The Embedding Particle Armor has a thin-walled cavity 10 containing a narrow section of specially designed particles intended to embed into, but not penetrate through, an incoming threat. These layers are thin compared to the media chambers used in abrasive media-based armor solutions, and contain particles 12 specifically designed to blunt, flatten, and otherwise appropriately condition incoming threats to allow capture in subsequent layers of armor. The walls of these cavities 10 are to be comprised of metal (e.g., Ti, RHA Steel, HH Steel, or other), composite material (e.g., Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra, Twaron, or other), ceramic, or any combination of these materials, and are intended to secure the embedding particles in position prior to impact by the incoming threat. Design features of the particles 12 themselves may include size, shape, density, and composition. Particle size will be smaller than the expected incoming threat, allowing the particle to embed within the incoming threat upon impact. They would, however, be sufficiently large as to allow discrete particles to embed into the incoming threat, rather acting homogenously on the incoming threat. The shape of the Embedding Particle Armor particles may be spherical, square, cylindrical, or otherwise formed, with the common feature that a characteristic length defined to be the longest linear or diametric dimension will be less than that of the expected incoming threat allowing the particle to become embedded within the threat upon impact. The density of the Embedding Particle Armor particle will be higher, potentially significantly higher, than that of the incoming threat. There will be an optimum combination of density and shape that enables the particles to become deeply embedded within the incoming threat, but not pass completely through, thereby maximizing disruption. The Embedding Particle Armor particles may be comprised of metal (e.g., W, Pb, Steel, or other), ceramic, mineral (quartz, garnet, or other), composite, or a combination of any of these materials.
  • FIGS. 2-5—Alternative Embodiments
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2 shows illustrates an alternate construction of the embedding particle layer in which the particles 12 are suspended within a matrix 14 comprising epoxy, resin, or other material capable of locating the particles. This suspension medium may be passive or energetic.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 3 shows an illustration of the interaction of the incoming threat and Embedding Particle Armor during impact. The Embedding Particle Armor is impacted by the incoming threat 16. At impact, the leading surface of the threat 18 is disrupted. Embedding Particles are embedded into the incoming threat 20, adding mass and bulk to the threat, as well as deforming the leading surface of the threat, enabling remaining segments of the overall armor system the ability to more effectively disrupt and defeat the incoming threat. After impact, the original threat contains embedded particles 22 and has been deformed, disrupted, and slowed.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 4 shows a detail view of the type interaction expected between an incoming threat and the embedding particles. This view illustrates embedded particles 24 that have penetrated into the threat 26, causing the threat to deform and increase in mass effecting both the shape of the incoming threat and causing a reduction in velocity. The initial kinetic energy of the penetrator is given by KEthreat, initial=½*mthreat*(vthreat, initial)2; during the inelastic collision with the embedding particles, momentum is conserved, therefore mthreat, initial*vthreat, initial=(mthreat+membedding particles)*v threat, final. The resulting kinetic energy of the penetrator with embedding particles can then be expressed as KEthreat, final=½(mthreat+membedding particles)*(Vthreat, final)2. Alternatively, the change in kinetic energy remaining segment of the armor will have to defeat can be expressed as ΔKE=½*mthreat*(vthreat, initial)2*[1−(mthreat/(mthreat+membedding particles))]. Additionally, as the velocity of the lead penetrators is reduced, following penetrators may overrun the lead elements, further disrupting the ability of the threat to penetrate the armor system.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 5 shows an alternative embodiment of armor package employing the Embedding Particle Armor (section view). As shown in FIG. 5, the strike face 28 and front layers of material 30 condition the incoming jet prior to impact with the embedding particle layer 32. The strike face and front layers comprise one or more discrete layers. Layers have individual thicknesses ranging up to 2.5 inches, and are comprised of metal (e.g., Ti, RHA Steel, HH Steel, or other), composite material (e.g., Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra, Twaron, or other), ceramic, or other combination of these materials. Ceramic content in each of these individual layers may range up to 0.75 inches. These initial layer(s) may have uniform or non-uniform composition, and spacing. While these dimensions and compositions represent a preferred embodiment, one versed in the art will recognize that other dimensions and compositions may be useful. The strike face and front layers are designed to maximize the efficacy of the embedding particle layer, as well as the overall effectiveness of the armor package. Alternatively, these layers may not be present, allowing incoming threats to directly impact the layer of Embedding Particle Armor.
  • [0021]
    The embedding particle layer 32 contains particles designed to embed into and disrupt incoming threats. Individual layers of embedding particles may have overall thicknesses ranging up to 1.5 inches. Individual embedding particles may have characteristic lengths ranging up to 0.75 inches, and densities ranging up to 1,500 lb per cubic foot. Particles may be comprised of metal, ceramic, or other material. While these dimensions and compositions represent a preferred embodiment, one versed in the art will recognize that other dimensions and compositions may be useful. When an incoming threat impacts this layer, it has already passed through the strike face and front layers. After passing through the layer of Embedding Particle Armor, the incoming threat will impact an intermediate layer and additional embedding particle layers present.
  • [0022]
    The intermediate layers of armor 34 condition the incoming threat after it has impacted a layer of Embedding Particle Armor, but prior to impact with a subsequent layer of Embedding Particle Armor. These layers may comprise one or more discrete layers of metal (e.g., Ti, RHA Steel, HH Steel, or other), composite material (e.g., Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra, Twaron, or other), ceramic, or any combination of these materials. Intermediate layers of armor may have an overall thickness per section, including air gaps, of size ranging up to 8.0 inches, include individual metal thicknesses ranging up to 3.0 inches, individual ceramic thicknesses ranging up to 1.0 inches, and individual composite thicknesses ranging up to 6.0 inches. While these dimensions and compositions represent an alternative embodiment, one versed in the art will recognize that other dimensions and compositions may be useful. The individual layers may have uniform or non-uniform composition, and spacing. Alternatively, these layers may not be present, allowing the incoming threat to impact subsequent layers of Embedding Particle Armor without further conditioning.
  • [0023]
    The rear armor layers 36 are comprised of one or more discrete layers of metal (e.g., Ti, RHA Steel, HH Steel, or other), composite material (e.g., Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra, Twaron, or other), ceramic, or any combination of these materials. These layers may have overall thicknesses ranging up to 8.0 inches, individual metal thicknesses ranging up to 3.0 inches, individual ceramic thicknesses ranging up to 1.0 inches, and individual composite thicknesses ranging up to 12.0 inches. While these dimensions and compositions represent an alternative embodiment, one versed in the art will recognize that other dimensions and compositions may be useful. These layers disrupt and catch any remaining components of the incoming threat prior to the threat impacting the base armor 38.
  • [0024]
    The base armor 38 is the final section of armor in this alternative embodiment. In vehicular applications, this layer may also function as the wall of the crew capsule. This layer may comprise one or more discrete layers of metal (e.g., Ti, RHA Steel, HH Steel, or other), composite material (e.g., Kevlar, Dyneema, Spectra, Twaron, or other), ceramic, other materials, or a combination of these materials. Any components of the incoming threat that penetrate to this level are stopped by the base armor.
  • [0025]
    An example of the benefit of this type of armor construction will be seen in vehicle applications where space and weight are important considerations. In areas like Afghanistan, the maneuverability of our ground vehicles plays a significant role in the ability of our soldiers to maneuver through areas in which roads, when present, are not sized to accommodate some of the larger armor vehicles previously fielded. This armor construction used in the Embedding Particle Armor will enable a high level of protection from RPGs, shaped charges, EFPs, other jets, and small arms with less armor thickness than some armor approaches currently available. It will also enable a high degree of protection to be provided at a lower weight than other armor approaches currently available, which is a critical requirement on smaller vehicles that may not have the ability to withstand the large loads associated with some armor solutions.

Claims (21)

  1. 1-18. (canceled)
  2. 19. Embedding particle armor, comprising
    a thin-walled cavity; and
    a plurality of particles contained inside the thin-walled cavity.
  3. 20. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a longest linear dimension that is less than any longest linear dimension of an expected threat.
  4. 21. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a density greater than that of an expected threat.
  5. 22. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles is configured such that discrete particles embed on an expected threat rather than act homogenously.
  6. 23. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a longest linear dimension that is less than or equal to three fourths of an inch.
  7. 24. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a density that is less than or equal to 1,500 pounds per cubic foot.
  8. 25. The embedding particle armor of claim 19, wherein the thin-walled cavity has a thickness that is less than or equal to one and a half inches.
  9. 26. Embedding particle armor, comprising
    a thin-walled cavity;
    a plurality of particles contained inside the thin-walled cavity; and
    a matrix that suspends the plurality of particles within the thin-walled cavity.
  10. 27. The embedding particle armor of claim 26, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a longest linear dimension that is less than any longest linear dimension of an expected threat.
  11. 28. The embedding particle armor of claim 26, wherein each particle of the plurality of particles has a density greater than that of an expected threat.
  12. 29. The embedding particle armor of claim 26, wherein the plurality of particles is configured such that discrete particles embed on an expected threat rather than act homogenously.
  13. 30. The embedding particle armor of claim 26, wherein the matrix is passive.
  14. 31. The embedding particle armor of claim 26, wherein the matrix is energetic.
  15. 32. An armor system, comprising
    one or more thin-walled cavities;
    a plurality of particles contained inside the one or more thin-walled cavities; and
    two or more solid armor layers.
  16. 33. The armor system of claim 32, further comprising a matrix that suspends the plurality of particles within the thin-walled cavity.
  17. 34. The armor system of claim 32, wherein the solid armor layers further comprise a strike face that is closest to an expected threat;
    a base armor that is furthest from the expected threat;
    one or more front layers arranged between the strike face and a first thin-walled cavity;
    one or more intermediate layers arranged between the first thin-walled cavity and a second thin-walled cavity; and
    one or more rear layers arranged between the second thin-walled cavity and the base armor.
  18. 35. The armor system of claim 32, wherein the solid armor layers comprise a strike face that is closest to an expected threat and a base armor that is furthest from the expected threat;
    wherein at least one of the one or more thin-walled cavities is located between the strike face and the base armor; and
    wherein at least one of the solid armor layers further comprises a front layer arranged between the strike face and the thin-walled cavity and having a thickness that is less than or equal to two and a half inches.
  19. 36. The armor system of claim 32, wherein the solid armor layers comprise a strike face that is closest to an expected threat and a base armor that is furthest from the expected threat;
    wherein at least one of the one or more thin-walled cavities is located between the strike face and the base armor; and
    wherein at least one of the solid armor layers further comprises a front layer arranged between the strike face and the thin-walled cavity having a sub-layer of ceramic material with a smallest dimension that is less than or equal to three fourths of an inch.
  20. 37. The armor system of claim 32, wherein the solid armor layers comprise a strike face that is closest to the source of an expected threat and a base armor that is furthest from the source of the expected threat;
    wherein at least one of the one or more thin-walled cavities is located between the strike face and the base armor; and
    wherein at least one of the solid armor layers further comprises a front layer arranged between the strike face and the thin-walled cavity with one face contiguous with the strike face and the opposite face contiguous with the thin-walled cavity.
  21. 38. The armor system of claim 32, wherein the solid armor layers further comprise a strike face that is closest to an expected threat;
    a base armor that is furthest from the expected threat;
    one or more front layers arranged between the strike face and a first thin-walled cavity; and
    one or more intermediate layers arranged between a first thin-walled cavity and a second thin-walled cavity, wherein the width between a face of the first thin-walled cavity that is furthest from the expected threat and a face of the second thin-walled cavity that is closest to the expected threat is less than or equal to eight inches.
US12292686 2008-11-24 2008-11-24 Embedding particle armor for vehicles Abandoned US20120186425A1 (en)

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Cited By (2)

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US20110023697A1 (en) * 2006-05-01 2011-02-03 Warwick Mills, Inc. Mosaic extremity protection system with transportable solid elements
WO2017068568A1 (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-04-27 David Cohen Reactive armor

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110023697A1 (en) * 2006-05-01 2011-02-03 Warwick Mills, Inc. Mosaic extremity protection system with transportable solid elements
US20140366713A1 (en) * 2006-05-01 2014-12-18 Warwick Mills Inc. Mosaic extremity protection system with transportable solid elements
US9170071B2 (en) * 2006-05-01 2015-10-27 Warwick Mills Inc. Mosaic extremity protection system with transportable solid elements
US9453710B2 (en) * 2006-05-01 2016-09-27 Warwick Mills Inc. Mosaic extremity protection system with transportable solid elements
WO2017068568A1 (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-04-27 David Cohen Reactive armor

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