US20120074786A1 - Uninterruptible power supply systems and methods using isolated interface for variably available power source - Google Patents

Uninterruptible power supply systems and methods using isolated interface for variably available power source Download PDF

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Publication number
US20120074786A1
US20120074786A1 US13/297,477 US201113297477A US2012074786A1 US 20120074786 A1 US20120074786 A1 US 20120074786A1 US 201113297477 A US201113297477 A US 201113297477A US 2012074786 A1 US2012074786 A1 US 2012074786A1
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Prior art keywords
power source
coupled
converter
dc bus
conversion modules
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Abandoned
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US13/297,477
Inventor
Robert William Johnson, Jr.
Yu Liu
Bobby L. Compton
Pasi S. Taimela
Robert C. Sebald
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Eaton Corp
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Eaton Corp
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Priority to US12/779,522 priority Critical patent/US20110278932A1/en
Application filed by Eaton Corp filed Critical Eaton Corp
Priority to US13/297,477 priority patent/US20120074786A1/en
Assigned to EATON CORPORATION reassignment EATON CORPORATION ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: JOHNSON, ROBERT WILLIAM, JR., LIU, YU, COMPTON, BOBBY L., SEBALD, ROBERT C., TAIMELA, PASI S.
Publication of US20120074786A1 publication Critical patent/US20120074786A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J9/00Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting
    • H02J9/04Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source
    • H02J9/06Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source with automatic change-over
    • H02J9/061Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source with automatic change-over characterised by the use of electronic means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/386Wind energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/007Regulation of charging current or voltage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J9/00Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting
    • H02J9/04Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source
    • H02J9/06Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source with automatic change-over
    • H02J9/062Circuit arrangements for emergency or stand-by power supply, e.g. for emergency lighting in which the distribution system is disconnected from the normal source and connected to a standby source with automatic change-over involving non rotating DC/AC converters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems
    • Y02B10/72Uninterruptible or back-up power supplies integrating renewable energies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/566Power conversion electric or electronic aspects concerning power management inside the plant, e.g. battery charging/discharging, economical operation, hybridisation with other energy sources
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/763Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/50Plural supply circuits or sources
    • Y10T307/615Substitute or emergency source
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T307/00Electrical transmission or interconnection systems
    • Y10T307/50Plural supply circuits or sources
    • Y10T307/615Substitute or emergency source
    • Y10T307/625Storage battery or accumulator

Abstract

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system includes a first port configured to be coupled to an AC power source and a second port configured to be coupled to a load. The system also includes a UPS circuit including a first converter circuit coupled to the first port, a second converter circuit coupled to the second port and a DC bus coupling the first converter circuit to the second converter circuit and configured to be coupled to an auxiliary power source and a third converter circuit coupled to the second port and configured to receive power from a variably available power source. A control circuit is configured to cooperatively control the UPS circuit and the third converter circuit.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION
  • The present application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/779,522 (Attorney Docket No. 9060-284) entitled UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING ISOLATED INTERFACE FOR VARIABLY AVAILABLE POWER SOURCE, filed May 13, 2010.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIVE SUBJECT MATTER
  • The inventive subject matter relates to power supply systems and methods and, more particularly, to uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems and methods.
  • Data centers, industrial facilities, medical facilities and the like often have AC power distribution systems that are protected by UPS systems. UPS systems may be used in such applications to provide backup power to maintain operation in event of failure of the primary utility supply. UPS systems commonly have an “on-line” configuration including a rectifier and inverter coupled by a DC link that is also coupled to an auxiliary source, such as a battery, flywheel converter or other energy storage device. In some UPS applications, a renewable source, such as a photovoltaic source, may be coupled to the DC link of an on-line UPS to provide supplemental power, as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 7,411,308 to Parmley and an article entitled “Photovoltaic UPS” by Jayasimha et al., IEEE TENCON 2003 Conference on Convergent Technologies for Asia-Pacific Region, vol. 4, pp. 1419-1423 (2003).
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIVE SUBJECT MATTER
  • Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter provide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems. A UPS system according to some embodiments includes a first port configured to be coupled to an AC power source and a second port configured to be coupled to a load. The system also includes a UPS circuit including a first converter circuit coupled to the first port, a second converter circuit coupled to the second port and a DC bus coupling the first converter circuit to the second converter circuit and configured to be coupled to an auxiliary power source and a third converter circuit coupled to the second port and configured to receive power from a variably available power source. The system further includes a control circuit operatively associated with the UPS circuit and the third converter circuit and configured to cooperatively control the UPS circuit and the third converter circuit to selectively transfer power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
  • In further embodiments, the UPS circuit and the third converter may be implemented in respective first and second power conversion modules, each of the first and second power conversion modules including a pair of converter units coupled by a DC bus. The DC bus of the second power conversion module may be configured to be coupled to the variably available power source. The control circuit may be configured to selectively transfer power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the UPS circuit.
  • In some embodiments, the DC bus includes a first DC bus and the UPS system may further include a second DC bus configured to be coupled to the variably available power source and a fourth converter circuit coupled to the first port and to the third converter circuit by the second DC bus. The control circuit may be operatively associated with the fourth converter circuit and configured to selectively transfer power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the fourth converter circuit.
  • In further embodiments, a UPS system includes a first port configured to be coupled to an AC power source and a second port configured to be coupled to a load. The system also includes a plurality of power conversion modules, each including a first converter unit, a second converter unit and a DC bus coupling the first converter unit to the second converter unit. The second converter units of the power conversion modules are coupled in common to the second port. A first converter unit of a first one of the power conversion modules is coupled to the first port. The DC bus of the first one of the power conversion modules is coupled to an auxiliary power source, and the DC bus of a second one of the power conversion modules is coupled to a variably available power source. The system further includes a control circuit operatively associated with the plurality of power conversion modules and configured to cause the power conversion modules to selectively transfer power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
  • In some embodiments, each of the power conversion modules may include a DC bus interface unit. The DC bus interface unit of the second one of the power conversion modules may be configured to couple the DC bus of the second one of the power conversion modules to the variably available power source. The second converter units of the power conversion modules may be configured to operate as inverters and the first converter unit of the first power conversion module may be configured to operate as a rectifier. The control circuit may be configured to cause transfer of power from the variably available power source to the auxiliary power source and/or the AC power source via the second converter unit of the first one of the power conversion modules. In some embodiments, the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules may be coupled to the first port and the control circuit may be configured to cause transfer of power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules.
  • In some method embodiments, a UPS system is populated with a plurality of power conversion modules, each including a first converter unit, a second converter unit and a DC bus coupling the first converter unit to the second converter unit. The second converter units of the power conversion modules are coupled in common to the second port. A first converter unit of a first one of the power conversion modules is coupled to an AC power source. The DC bus of a second one of the power conversion modules is coupled to a variably available power source. Power is selectively transferred to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a UPS system according to some embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • FIGS. 2 and 3 are schematic diagram illustrating operations of the UPS system of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram illustrating a modular UPS system according to some embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram illustrating configurations of various power conversion modules for a modular UPS system according to some embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating a modular UPS system according to further embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating operations of a UPS system according to some embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram illustrating a UPS system according to further embodiments of the inventive subject matter.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS
  • Specific exemplary embodiments of the inventive subject matter now will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. This inventive subject matter may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the inventive subject matter to those skilled in the art. In the drawings, like numbers refer to like elements. It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being “connected” or “coupled” to another element, it can be directly connected or coupled to the other element or intervening elements may be present. As used herein the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.
  • The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the inventive subject matter. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless expressly stated otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “includes,” “comprises,” “including” and/or “comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.
  • Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this inventive subject matter belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the specification and the relevant art and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein.
  • As will be appreciated by one of skill in the art, the inventive subject matter may be embodied as systems, methods and computer program products. Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter may include hardware and/or combinations of hardware and software. Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter include circuitry configured to provide functions described herein. It will be appreciated that such circuitry may include analog circuits, digital circuits, and combinations of analog and digital circuits.
  • Embodiments of the inventive subject matter are described below with reference to block diagrams and/or operational illustrations of systems and methods according to various embodiments of the inventive subject matter. It will be understood that each block of the block diagrams and/or operational illustrations, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or operational illustrations, can be implemented by analog and/or digital hardware, and/or computer program instructions. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, ASIC, and/or other programmable data processing apparatus, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer and/or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the block diagrams and/or operational illustrations. In some implementations, the functions/acts noted in the figures may occur out of the order noted in the block diagrams and/or operational illustrations. For example, two operations shown as occurring in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently or the operations may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality/acts involved.
  • Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter relate to interfacing of variably available power sources with UPSs. As referred to herein, “variably available power sources” include power sources, such as solar, wind, tidal and similar renewable energy sources, having an availability (e.g., presence and capacity) that fluctuates with environmental conditions (e.g., availability of wind, sun or tidal change) and that are not, as a general rule, available on demand. Such power sources may also be referred to as “variable”, “intermittent” or “non-dispatchable” and, for purposes of the present application, such sources shall be referred to as “variably available power sources.”
  • Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter arise from a realization that the DC link bus can be a critical point in the UPS architecture. Failure of a variably available power source, such as a photovoltaic array, coupled to the DC link can potentially impact the output of the UPS and/or reduce system robustness and reliability. Some embodiments of the inventive subject matter may address such issues by using a variably available power source interface circuit comprising a converter having an output coupled to the AC output and an input configured to receive power from a variably available power source. In some UPS system embodiments, for example, generic power conversion modules may be configured to include one or more modules configured to provide online-UPS functions, output-paralleled with one or more modules configured to provide a variably available power source interface for the UPS system. In this manner, isolation between the variably available power source and DC bus of the UPS module(s) may be provided. In addition, modules may be selectively configured for use as UPS modules or variably available power source interfaces depending on the relative capacities and requirements of the system. In further embodiments, power may be transferred from the variably available power source to an auxiliary power source coupled to a UPS and/or to an AC power source (e.g., a utility source) that provides power to a UPS.
  • FIG. 1 illustrates a UPS system 100 according to some embodiments of the inventive subject matter. The UPS system 100 includes a UPS circuit 110 including a first converter circuit, e.g., a rectifier 112, and a second converter circuit, e.g., an inverter 114, coupled by a DC link 115. An auxiliary power source 40, e.g., one or more batteries, may be coupled to the DC link 115. The input of the rectifier 112 is coupled to an AC input 101 of the UPS system, and the output of the inverter 114 is coupled to an AC output 102 of the UPS system 100. The UPS circuit 110 is configured to provide uninterruptible power to a load 20 coupled to the AC output 102 from an AC power source 10 (e.g., a utility source and/or local generator) coupled to the AC input 101 and from the auxiliary power source 40, which may provide power in the event of a failure of the AC source 10. The UPS system 100 may also include a bypass circuit 140 (e.g., a static switch), which may be used to bypass the UPS circuit 110 to provide power directly from the AC power source 10 to the load 20, which may support maintenance and high-efficiency modes of operation. It will be appreciated that the UPS system 100 may be a single-phase or multiphase (e.g., three-phase) system.
  • The UPS system 100 further comprises a third converter circuit 120, coupled between the AC output 102 and a variably available power source 30, such as a solar or wind power source. A control circuit 130 is operatively associated with the UPS circuit 110 and the converter circuit 120 (and, optionally, the bypass circuit 140) and is configured to cooperatively control the UPS circuit 110 and the converter circuit 120 to selectively transfer power to the load 20 from the AC power source 10 and the variably available power source 30.
  • For example, as illustrated in FIG. 2, when the AC power source 10 is producing power in manner meeting predetermined criteria, power may be provided to the load 20 from the AC power source 10 through the rectifier 112 and inverter 114 (and/or via the bypass circuit 140), while power is concurrently transferred to the load 20 from the variably available power source 30 via the converter 120. As shown in FIG. 3, upon failure of the AC power source 10, the control circuit 130 may operate the inverter 114 of the UPS circuit 110 and the converter 120 such that power is concurrently delivered to the load 20 from the variably available power source 30 and the auxiliary power source 40.
  • It will be appreciated that the above-described components of the UPS system 100 may be integrated in one assembly or may implemented using multiple interoperating assemblies with connecting power and control links.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a modular UPS system 400 with a variably available power source interface capability according to further embodiments of the inventive subject matter. The UPS system 400 includes an AC input 401 configured to be coupled to an AC power source 10 and an AC output 402 configured to be coupled to a load 20. The UPS system 400 further includes first and second power conversion modules 403, 404 having a common architecture, including a first converter unit 410 and a second converter unit 420 coupled by a DC bus 415, a DC bus interface unit 430 and a module control circuit 440 configured to control the first converter unit 410, the second converter unit 420 and/or the DC bus interface unit 430. A system control circuit 406 controls interoperation of the first and second power conversion modules 403, 404 and a bypass circuit 405.
  • The first power conversion module 403 is configured to provide a UPS function. In particular, the first module 403 is configured to operate the first converter unit 410 as a rectifier to produce a DC voltage on the DC bus 415 from the AC power source 10. In some embodiments, the first converter units 410 may comprise passive rectifiers while, in other embodiments, the first converter units 410 may be active circuits that may be used to implement a rectifier function, but that are selectively reconfigurable to provide other conversion operations, such as DC/DC conversion, by, for example, changing the manner in which the active circuits are controlled. The first module 403 is further configured to operate the second converter unit 420 as an inverter to produce an AC voltage at the AC output 402. The DC bus interface unit 430 of the first module 403 provides an interface to one or more batteries 40, which may be used to provide auxiliary power in the event of a failure of the AC power source 10.
  • The second power conversion module 404 is configured differently to provide an interface to a variably available power source 30 (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, etc.). The second converter unit 420 of the second module 404 is operated as an inverter. The first converter unit 410, however, is inactive. The variably available power source 30 is coupled to the DC bus 415 using the DC bus interface unit 430. Depending on the nature of the variably available power source 30, the DC bus interface unit 430 may simply connect the variably available power source 30 to the DC bus 415 without a voltage conversion, or the DC bus interface unit 430 may provide, for example, a DC/DC or AC/DC conversion function.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a combination of power conversion modules 510 a, 510 b, 510 c configured to provide a system such as the system 400 of FIG. 4. The modules 501 a, 510 b, 510 c each comprise a first converter unit 512 and a second converter unit 514 coupled by DC buses 515, as well as a DC bus interface unit 516 that may be used for coupling to a battery or other power source (e.g., ultracapacitor, fuel cell, compressed air storage unit, flywheel, etc.). The first converter units 512, the second converter units 514 and the DC bus interface units 516 each include circuitry wherein active switching units 511 may be installed to realize half-bridge circuits. The modules 510 a, 510 b, 510 c may also include inductors, capacitors, current sensors, contactors and fuses.
  • The first and second modules 510 a, 510 b are configured to operate as paralleled UPSs, with the first converter units 512 configured to operate as rectifiers coupled to an AC input bus 501 and the second converter units 514 configured to operate as inverters coupled to an AC output bus 502. The DC bus interface units 516 of the first and second modules 510 a, 510 b are configured to provide DC/DC converters coupled to battery buses 503.
  • A third module 510 c is configured to provide an interface for connection of a photovoltaic (PV) power source via a PV bus 505. The second converter unit 514 of the third module 510 c is configured to operate as an inverter, output-paralleled with the first and second modules 510 a, 510 b at the AC output bus 502. The first converter unit 512 of the third module is inactive, e.g., it may be operationally deactivated or active devices and passive components thereof may be depopulated. As shown, active components may be depopulated from the DC bus interface unit 516 of the third module 510 c to allow a direct connection of the DC buses 515 thereof to the PV bus 505.
  • A bypass circuit including a static switch 520 is also provided. The static switch 520 is coupled to a bypass bus 504, which may be connected to the same AC source as the AC input bus 501. The modular configuration illustrated in FIG. 5 provides for use of common power conversion modules while supporting a degree of independence (e.g., isolation) of the PV source from the DC buses 515 of the first and second modules 510 a, 510 b, which are operated as UPSs.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a modular UPS system 600 according to further embodiments of the inventive subject matter. The system 600 uses first and second modules 403, 404 as shown in FIG. 4, except that the module 404 is configured to provide power from a variably available power source 30 via a first converter unit 410 of the second module 404, rather than via the DC bus interface unit 430. Depending on the nature of the variably available power source 30, the first converter unit 410 of the second module 404 may be operated as a rectifier or as a DC/DC converter. The bus interface unit 430 may be used for connection of one or more additional batteries 40.
  • According to further embodiments of the inventive concept, apparatus along the lines discussed above may also be used to deliver power from a variably available power source, such as a solar or wind power generator, to power storage device (e.g., a battery) of a UPS system and/or to a utility or similar AC source. For example, FIG. 7 illustrates a UPS system 700 that includes a UPS circuit 710 including a first converter circuit 712 and a second converter circuit 714, coupled by a DC link 715. An auxiliary power source 40, e.g., one or more batteries, may be coupled to the DC link 715. A first port of the first converter circuit 712 is coupled to a first port 701 of the UPS system 700, and a second port of the second converter circuit 714 is coupled to a second port 702 of the UPS system 700. The UPS circuit 710 is configured to provide uninterruptible power to a load 20 coupled to the second port 702 from an AC power source 10 (e.g., a utility source and/or local generator) coupled to the first port 701 and from the auxiliary power source 40, which may provide power in the event of a failure of the AC source 10. The UPS system 700 may also include a bypass circuit 740 (e.g., a static switch), which may be used to bypass the UPS circuit 710 to provide power directly from the AC power source 10 to the load 20, which may support maintenance and high-efficiency modes of operation. It will be appreciated that the UPS system 700 may be a single-phase or multiphase (e.g., three-phase) system.
  • The UPS system 700 further comprises a third converter circuit 720, coupled between the second port 702 and a variably available power source 30, such as a solar or wind power source. A control circuit 730 is operatively associated with the UPS circuit 710 and the converter circuit 720 (and, optionally, the bypass circuit 740) and is configured to cooperatively control the UPS circuit 710 and the converter circuit 720 to selectively transfer power to the load 20 from the AC power source 10 and the variably available power source 30. As further illustrated, the control circuit 730 may also be configured to control the UPS circuit 710 and the third converter circuit 720 to support power transfer from the variably available power source 30 to the auxiliary power source 40 and/or to the AC power source 10. For example, when the output of the variably available power source 30 exceeds the needs of the load 20, excess power may be provided to charge the auxiliary power source 40 and/or to provide power back to the AC power source 10. Such power transfer may be controlled (e.g., prioritized) based on any of a number of factors. For example, such power transfer may depend on the state (e.g., capacity) of the auxiliary power source 40, utility rates, and the like. For example, excess power generated by the variably available power source 30 may be more advantageously provided to the AC source 10 during peak load times at favorable utility buy-back rates, rather than using such power to charge a battery or other auxiliary source at peak demand times. The auxiliary power source 30 may instead be recharged from the AC power source 10 and/or the variably-available power source 30 at lower rates during non-peak times. Such power transfer operations may be dependent (e.g., optimized) on other factors, such as UPS system availability, current battery capacity, load level and/or load criticality.
  • According to further embodiments, modular UPS arrangements may be used to similarly support varied power transfers. FIG. 8 illustrates a modular UPS system 800 that includes a first port 801 configured to be coupled to an AC power source 10 and a second port 802 configured to be coupled to a load 20. The UPS system 800 further includes first and second power conversion modules 803, 804 having a common architecture, including a first converter unit 810 and a second converter unit 820 coupled by a DC bus 815, a DC bus interface unit 830 and a module control circuit 840 configured to control the first converter unit 810, the second converter unit 820 and/or the DC bus interface unit 830. A system control circuit 806 controls interoperation of the first and second power conversion modules 803, 804 and a bypass circuit 805.
  • The first power conversion module 803 is configured to provide a UPS function. In particular, the first module 803 is configured to operate the first converter unit 810 as a rectifier to produce a DC voltage on the DC bus 815 from the AC power source 10. The first module 803 is further configured to operate the second converter unit 820 as an inverter to produce an AC voltage at the second port 802. The DC bus interface unit 830 of the first module 803 provides an interface to one or more batteries 40, which may be used to provide auxiliary power in the event of a failure of the AC power source 10. The second power conversion module 804 is configured to provide an interface to a variably available power source 30 (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, etc.), with the variably available power source 30 coupled to the DC bus 815 using the DC bus interface unit 830. The second converter unit 820 of the second power conversion module 804 may be operated as an inverter to provide power from the variably available power source 30 to the load 20.
  • The second converter unit 820 of the first power conversion module 803 may also be used as a rectifier to transfer power from the variably available power source 30 (via the second converter unit 820 of the second power conversion module) in the event, for example, that power produced by the variably available power source 30 exceeds the requirements of the load 20. The first power conversion module 803 may further be used to transfer power to the AC power source 10 from the variably available power source 30 in a manner similar to that discussed above with reference to FIG. 7. As further illustrated, the first converter unit 810 of the second power conversion module 804 may also be operated as an inverter to more directly transfer power from the variably available power source to the AC power source 10. Further embodiments may include another auxiliary power source (e.g., battery) coupled to the DC bus 815 of the second power conversion module 804, such that the second power conversion module 804 may be used to provide additional UPS capacity in parallel with the first power conversion module 803 and/or to provide standby redundant UPS capacity to back up the first power conversion module 803.
  • In the drawings and specification, there have been disclosed exemplary embodiments of the inventive subject matter. Although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the inventive subject matter being defined by the following claims.

Claims (20)

1. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system, comprising:
a first port configured to be coupled to an AC power source;
a second port configured to be coupled to a load;
a UPS circuit comprising a first converter circuit coupled to the first port, a second converter circuit coupled to the second port and a DC bus coupling the first converter circuit to the second converter circuit and configured to be coupled to an auxiliary power source;
a third converter circuit coupled to the second port and configured to receive power from a variably available power source; and
a control circuit operatively associated with the UPS circuit and the third converter circuit and configured to cooperatively control the UPS circuit and the third converter circuit to selectively transfer power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
2. The UPS system of claim 1, wherein the DC bus of the UPS circuit comprises a first DC bus coupled to an auxiliary power source, wherein the system comprises a second DC bus coupled to the third converter circuit and wherein the first DC bus and the second DC buses are not connected in common to the auxiliary power source.
3. The UPS system of claim 1, wherein the UPS circuit and the third converter are implemented in respective first and second power conversion modules, each of the first and second power conversion modules including a pair of converter units coupled by a DC bus.
4. The UPS system of claim 3, wherein the DC bus of the second power conversion module is configured to be coupled to the variably available power source.
5. The UPS system of claim 1, wherein the control circuit is configured to selectively transfer power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the UPS circuit.
6. The UPS system of claim 1, wherein the DC bus comprises a first DC bus, wherein the UPS system further comprises a second DC bus configured to be coupled to the variably available power source and a fourth converter circuit coupled to the first port and to the third converter circuit by the second DC bus and wherein the control circuit is operatively associated with the fourth converter circuit and configured to selectively transfer power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the fourth converter circuit.
7. The UPS system of claim 1, wherein the auxiliary power source comprises a battery.
8. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system, comprising:
a first port configured to be coupled to an AC power source;
a second port configured to be coupled to a load;
a plurality of power conversion modules, each comprising a first converter unit, a second converter unit and a DC bus coupling the first converter unit to the second converter unit, wherein the second converter units of the power conversion modules are coupled in common to the second port, wherein a first converter unit of a first one of the power conversion modules is coupled to the first port, wherein the DC bus of the first one of the power conversion modules is coupled to an auxiliary power source and wherein the DC bus of a second one of the power conversion modules is coupled to a variably available power source; and
a control circuit operatively associated with the plurality of power conversion modules and configured to cause the power conversion modules to selectively transfer power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
9. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein each of the power conversion modules comprises a DC bus interface unit, and wherein the DC bus interface unit of the second one of the power conversion modules is configured to couple the DC bus of the second one of the power conversion modules to the variably available power source.
10. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein the second converter units of the power conversion modules are configured to operate as inverters and wherein the first converter unit of the first power conversion module is configured to operate as a rectifier.
11. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein the control circuit is configured to cause transfer of power from the variably available power source to the auxiliary power source and/or the AC power source via the second converter unit of the first one of the power conversion modules.
12. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules is coupled to the first port and wherein the control circuit is configured to cause transfer of power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules.
13. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein each of the first and second converter units of the power conversion modules is configurable to provide an active half-bridge circuit.
14. The UPS system of claim 8, wherein the auxiliary power source comprises a battery.
15. A method comprising:
populating a UPS system with a plurality of power conversion modules, each comprising a first converter unit, a second converter unit and a DC bus coupling the first converter unit to the second converter unit;
coupling the second converter units of the power conversion modules in common to the second port;
coupling a first converter unit of a first one of the power conversion modules to an AC power source;
coupling the DC bus of a second one of the power conversion modules to a variably available power source; and
selectively transferring power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source.
16. The method of claim 15, wherein each of the power conversion modules comprises a DC bus interface unit, and wherein coupling the DC bus of a second one of the power conversion modules to a variably available power source comprises coupling the DC bus of the second power conversion module to the variably available power source via the DC bus interface unit of the second power conversion module.
17. The method of claim 15, comprising operating the second converter units of the power conversion modules as inverters and operating the first converter unit of the first power conversion module as a rectifier.
18. The method of claim 15, wherein selectively transferring power to the load from the AC power source and the variably available power source and from the variably available power source to the AC power source comprises transferring power from the variably available power source to the auxiliary power source and/or the AC power source via the second converter unit of the first one of the power conversion modules.
19. The method of claim 15, further comprising:
coupling the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules to the first port; and
transferring power from the variably available power source to the AC power source via the first converter unit of the second one of the power conversion modules.
20. The method of claim 15, wherein the auxiliary power source comprises a battery.
US13/297,477 2010-05-13 2011-11-16 Uninterruptible power supply systems and methods using isolated interface for variably available power source Abandoned US20120074786A1 (en)

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EP12798966.3A EP2781004A1 (en) 2011-11-16 2012-11-15 Uninterruptible power supply systems and methods using isolated interface for variably available power source
CN201280056087.3A CN104011965B (en) 2011-11-16 2012-11-15 Isolating interface is used for the uninterruptible power system and method for indefinite power available
PCT/US2012/065267 WO2013074783A1 (en) 2011-11-16 2012-11-15 Uninterruptible power supply systems and methods using isolated interface for variably available power source
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EP2781004A1 (en) 2014-09-24
US20170077748A1 (en) 2017-03-16
CN104011965B (en) 2017-11-10

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