US20110282444A1 - Porous materials, methods of making and uses - Google Patents

Porous materials, methods of making and uses Download PDF

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US20110282444A1
US20110282444A1 US13104888 US201113104888A US2011282444A1 US 20110282444 A1 US20110282444 A1 US 20110282444A1 US 13104888 US13104888 US 13104888 US 201113104888 A US201113104888 A US 201113104888A US 2011282444 A1 US2011282444 A1 US 2011282444A1
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mpa
μm
porous material
elastomer
higher
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Futian Liu
Nicholas J. Manesis
Alexei Goraltchouk
Dimitrios Stroumpoulis
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Allergan Inc
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Allergan Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/18Macromolecular materials obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/16Macromolecular materials obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/56Porous materials, e.g. foams or sponges
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2430/00Materials or treatment for tissue regeneration
    • A61L2430/04Materials or treatment for tissue regeneration for mammary reconstruction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T156/00Adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture
    • Y10T156/10Methods of surface bonding and/or assembly therefor

Abstract

The present specification discloses porous materials, methods of forming such porous materials, biocompatible implantable devices comprising such porous materials, and methods of making such biocompatible implantable devices.

Description

    PRIORITY
  • This patent application claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/333,613 filed May 11, 2010, and claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. §120 to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/021,615, filed Feb. 4, 2011, which claims priority benefit to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/301,864, filed on Feb. 5, 2010; each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Porous materials are widely used in biomedical, industrial, and household applications. In the biomedical field, porous materials have been used as scaffolds (templates) for tissue engineering/regeneration, wound dressings, drug release matrices, membranes for separations and filtration, sterile filters, artificial kidneys, absorbents, hemostatic devices, and the like. In various industrial and household applications, porous materials have been used as insulating materials, packaging materials, impact absorbers, liquid or gas absorbents, membranes, filters and so forth.
  • Implantable medical devices frequently induce a foreign body response that results in the formation of an avascular, fibrous capsule around the implant, which limits the performance of the device. For example, formation of these fibrous capsules can result in capsular contracture, the tightening and hardening of the capsule that surrounding implanted device. Capsular contractions not only distort the aesthetic appearance of the surrounding area where the implant is placed, but also cause pain to the individual. Problems with capsular formation and contracture occur in many types of implantable medical devices, such as, e.g., pacemakers, orthopedic joint prosthetics, dura matter substitutes, implantable cardiac defibrillators, tissue expanders, and tissue implants used for prosthetic, reconstructive, or aesthetic purposes, like breast implants, muscle implants, or implants that reduce or prevent scarring. Correction of capsular contracture may require surgical removal or release of the capsule, or removal and possible replacement of the device itself.
  • Scar tissue formation in the healing of a wound or surgical incision is also a process involving the formation of fibrous tissue. A visible scar results from this healing process because the fibrous tissue is aligned in one direction. However, it is often aesthetically desirable to prevent scar formation, especially in certain types of plastic surgery.
  • The biological response to implantable medical devices and wound healing appears dependent on the microarchitecture of the surface of the implants. Implants with smooth surfaces in particular are most susceptible to capsular formation and contracture. One means of reducing capsular formation and contracture has been to texture the surface of an implantable medical device. In these methods, a textured surface is imprinted onto the surface of a device forming “hills” and “valleys” architecture. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,960,425, Textured Surface Prosthesis Implants; U.S. Pat. No. 5,022,942, Method of Making Textured Surface Prosthesis Implants. However, capsular contracture can still occur in implantable medical devices textured in the manner.
  • As such, there is a continuing need for implantable medical devices manufactured in such a way that the formation of fibrous capsules is reduced or prevented. The present application discloses porous materials, methods of making these porous materials, implantable medical devices comprising such porous materials, and methods of making such implantable medical devices. The porous materials promote cellular ingrowth in and around an implantable medical device and reduce or prevent a foreign body response, such as, e.g., capsular contracture as well as to reduce or prevent scars resulting from wound healing.
  • SUMMARY
  • Thus, aspects of the present specification disclose a porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores.
  • Other aspects of the present specification disclose a method of forming a porous material, the method comprising the steps of: a) coating porogens with an elastomer base to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; b) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer; and c) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores.
  • Yet other aspects of the present specification disclose a porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores, wherein the porous material is made by the method comprising the steps of: a) coating porogens with an elastomer base to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; b) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer; and c) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores.
  • Still other aspects of the present specification disclose a biocompatible implantable device comprising a layer of porous material. The porous material can be made by the method disclosed in the present specification.
  • Further aspects of the present specification disclose a method of making a biocompatible implantable device, the method comprising the steps of: a) preparing the surface of a biocompatible implantable device to receive a porous material; b) attaching a porous material to the prepared surface of the biocompatible implantable device. The porous material can be made by the method disclosed in the present specification.
  • Further aspects of the present specification disclose a method for making biocompatible implantable device, the method comprising the step of: a) coating a mandrel with an elastomer base; b) curing the elastomer base to form a base layer; c) coating the cured base layer with an elastomer base; d) coating the elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; e) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer base; and f) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In this method steps (c) and (d) can be repeated multiple times until the desired thickness of the material layer is achieved.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows an analysis of a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. FIG. 1A is scanning electron micrograph image at 50× magnification. FIG. 1B is scanning electron micrograph image at 50× magnification.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a representative biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material of the present specification. FIG. 2A is a top view of an implantable device covered with a porous material. FIG. 2B is a side view of an implantable device covered with a porous material. FIGS. 2C and 2D illustrate the cross-sectional view of the biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a representative porous material shell of the present specification. FIG. 3A is a top view of a material shell. FIG. 2B is a side view of a material shell. FIG. 3C is a bottom view of a material shell. FIG. 3D illustrate the cross-sectional view of the material shell.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a representative biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material of the present specification. FIG. 4A is a top view of an implantable device covered with a porous material. FIG. 4B is a side view of an implantable device covered with a porous material. FIG. 4C is a bottom view of a biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material. FIG. 4D illustrates the cross-sectional view of the biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material.
  • FIG. 5 are bar graphs showing data of thickness and disorganization of capsules from various biomaterials, normalized to Textured 1 biomaterial. FIG. 5A shows a bar graph of thickness data as normalized mean±normalized standard deviation. FIG. 5B shows a bar graph of disorganization normalized with a standard deviation with upper and lower bounds of confidence intervals.
  • FIG. 6 is bar graph showing data of collagen content of capsules formed over various biomaterials (n=6). Results are shown as mean±standard deviation. Asterisks (*) indicates a statistically significant from Texture 1 biomaterial.
  • FIG. 7 is a bar graph showing data from a tissue adhesion test of various biomaterials. Results are shown as mean±standard deviation.
  • FIG. 8 is bar graph showing data of stiffness of capsule/ingrowth formed over various tissue expanders at time 0 and at 6 weeks (n=8). Results are shown as mean±standard deviation.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material. The disclosed porous material has high porosity and interconnected pore structures that favor tissue growth into the porous material, such as, e.g., by facilitating cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. The interconnected pore structure encourages cell infiltration and growth therein, which disrupt the planar arrangement of capsule formation. Interconnection of the pores is achieved without sacrificing mechanical strength of the porous material, that is, the material's hardness, tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, abrasion and resistance, are preserved. As such, the porous material, its application in creating biocompatible implantable devices, and other aspects disclosed herein are useful in preventing capsular contraction, and in reducing or preventing scar formation.
  • Even further, it is often important to anchor a biocompatible implantable device to the surrounding tissue in order to prevent slippage or unwanted movement. For example, it is important to anchor securely facial and breast implants into position to prevent slippage or any other unwanted movement. As such, the porous material, its application in creating biocompatible implantable devices, and other aspects disclosed herein are useful in anchoring biocompatible implantable devices.
  • A porous material disclosed herein can be implanted into the soft tissue of an animal. Such a porous material may be completely implanted into the soft tissue of an animal body (i.e., the entire material is within the body), or the device may be partially implanted into an animal body (i.e., only part of the material is implanted within an animal body, the remainder of the material being located outside of the animal body). A porous material disclosed herein can also be affixed to one or more soft tissues of an animal, typically to the skin of an animal body. For example, a strip of porous material can be placed subcutaneously underneath a healing wound or incision to prevent the fibrous tissue from aligning and thereby reducing or preventing scar formation.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix. As used herein, the term “non-degradable” refers to a material that is not prone to degrading, decomposing, or breaking down to any substantial or significant degree while implanted in the host. Non-limiting examples of substantial non-degradation include less than 10% degradation of a porous material over a time period measured, less than 5% degradation of a porous material over a time period measured, less than 3% degradation of a porous material over a time period measured, less than 1% degradation of a porous material over a time period measured. As used herein, the term “biocompatible” refers to a material's ability to perform its intended function, with a desired degree of incorporation in the host, without eliciting any undesirable local or systemic effects in that host.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is substantially non-degradable. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is substantially non-degradable for, e.g., about five years, about ten years, about 15 years, about 20 years, about 25 years, about 30 years, about 35 years, about 40 years, about 45 years, or about 50 years. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is substantially non-degradable for, e.g., at least five years, at least ten years, at least 15 years, at least 20 years, at least 25 years, at least 30 years, at least 35 years, at least 40 years, at least 45 years, or at least 50 years. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits less than 5% degradation, less than 3% degradation, or less than 1% degradation over for, e.g., about five years, about ten years, about 15 years, about 20 years, about 25 years, about 30 years, about 35 years, about 40 years, about 45 years, or about 50 years. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits less than 5% degradation, less than 3% degradation, or less than 1% degradation over for, e.g., at least five years, at least ten years, at least 15 years, at least 20 years, at least 25 years, at least 30 years, at least 35 years, at least 40 years, at least 45 years, or at least 50 years.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is substantially biocompatible. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is substantially biocompatible for, e.g., at least five years, at least ten years, at least 15 years, at least 20 years, at least 25 years, at least 30 years, at least 35 years, at least 40 years, at least 45 years, or at least 50 years.
  • As used herein, the term “elastomer” or “elastic polymer” refers to an amorphous polymer that exists above its glass transition temperature (Tg) at ambient temperatures, thereby conferring the property of viscoelasticity so that considerable segmental motion is possible, and includes, without limitation, carbon-based elastomers, silicon-based elastomers, thermoset elastomers, and thermoplastic elastomers. As used herein, the term “ambient temperature” refers to a temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. Elastomers, either naturally-occurring or synthetically-made, comprise monomers commonly made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and/or silicon which are linked together to form long polymer chains. Elastomers are typically covalently cross-linked to one another, although non-covalently cross-linked elastomers are known. Elastomers may be homopolymers or copolymers, degradable, substantially non-degradable, or non-degradable. Copolymers may be random copolymers, blocked copolymers, graft copolymers, and/or mixtures thereof. Unlike other polymers classes, an elastomer can be stretched many times its original length without breaking by reconfiguring themselves to distribute an applied stress, and the cross-linkages ensure that the elastomers will return to their original configuration when the stress is removed. Elastomers can be a non-medical grade elastomer or a medical grade elastomer. Medical grade elastomers are typically divided into three categories: non implantable, short term implantable and long-term implantable. Exemplary substantially non-degradable and/or non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomers include, without limitation, bromo isobutylene isoprene (BIIR), polybutadiene (BR), chloro isobutylene isoprene (CIIR), polychloroprene (CR), chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM), ethylene propylene (EP), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), fluoronated hydrocarbon (FKM), fluoro silicone (FVQM), hydrogenated nitrile butadiene (HNBR), polyisoprene (IR), isobutylene isoprene butyl (IIR), methyl vinyl silicone (MVQ), acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), polyurethane (PU), styrene butadiene (SBR), styrene ethylene/butylene styrene (SEBS), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polysiloxane (SI), and acrylonitrile butadiene carboxy monomer (XNBR).
  • The present specification discloses, in part, an elastomer that is a silicon-based elastomer. As used herein, the term “silicon-based elastomer” refers to any silicon containing elastomer, such as, e.g., methyl vinyl silicone, polydimethylsiloxane, or polysiloxane. A silicone-based elastomer can be a high temperature vulcanization (HTV) silicone or a room temperature vulcanization (RTV). A silicon-based elastomer can be a non-medical grade silicon-based elastomer or a medical grade silicon-based elastomer. As used herein, the term “medical grade silicon-based elastomer” refers to a silicon-based elastomer approved by the U.S. Pharmacopedia (USP) as at least Class V. Medical grade silicon-based elastomers are typically divided into three categories: non implantable, short term implantable and long-term implantable.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, an elastomer is a medical grade elastomer. In aspects of this embodiment, a medical grade elastomer is, e.g., a medical grade carbon-based elastomer, a medical grade silicon-based elastomer, a medical grade thermoset elastomer, or a medical grade thermoplastic elastomer. In other aspects of this embodiment, an elastomer is, e.g., a medical grade, long-term implantable, carbon-based elastomer, a medical grade, long-term implantable, silicon-based elastomer, a medical grade, long-term implantable, thermoset elastomer, or a medical grade, long-term implantable, thermoplastic elastomer. In still other aspects, a medical grade elastomer is, e.g., a medical grade bromo isobutylene isoprene, a medical grade polybutadiene, a medical grade chloro isobutylene isoprene, a medical grade polychloroprene, a medical grade chlorosulphonated polyethylene, a medical grade ethylene propylene, a medical grade ethylene propylene diene monomer, a medical grade fluoronated hydrocarbon, a medical grade fluoro silicone, a medical grade hydrogenated nitrile butadiene, a medical grade polyisoprene, a medical grade isobutylene isoprene butyl, a medical grade methyl vinyl silicone, a medical grade acrylonitrile butadiene, a medical grade polyurethane, a medical grade styrene butadiene, a medical grade styrene ethylene/butylene styrene, a medical grade polydimethylsiloxane, a medical grade polysiloxane, or a medical grade acrylonitrile butadiene carboxy monomer.
  • In another embodiment, an elastomer is a silicon-based elastomer. In an aspect of this embodiment, a silicon-based elastomer is a medical grade silicon-based elastomer. In aspects of this embodiment, a medical grade silicon-based elastomer is, e.g., at least a USP Class V silicon-based elastomer, at least a USP Class VI silicon-based elastomer, or USP Class VII silicon-based elastomer. In yet other aspects, a medical grade silicon-based elastomer is a long-term implantable silicon-based elastomer. In yet other aspects, a medical grade silicon-based elastomer is, e.g., a medical grade, long-term implantable, methyl vinyl silicone, a medical grade, long-term implantable, polydimethylsiloxane, or a medical grade, long-term implantable, polysiloxane.
  • Elastomers have the property of viscoelasticity. Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is applied. Elastic materials strain instantaneously when stretched and just as quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit time dependent strain. A viscoelastic material has the following properties: 1) hysteresis, or memory, is seen in the stress-strain curve; 2) stress relaxation occurs: step constant strain causes decreasing stress; and 3) creep occurs: step constant stress causes increasing strain. The viscoelasticity of elastomers confer a unique set of properties involving elongation, tensile strength, shear strength compressive modulus, and hardness that distinguish elastomers from other classes of polymers.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. As used herein, the term “matrix” or “elastomer matrix” is synonymous with “cured elastomer” and refers to a three-dimensional structural framework composed of a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible elastomer in its cured state. As used herein, the term “silicon-based elastomer matrix” is synonymous with “cured silicon-based elastomer” and refers to a three-dimensional structural framework composed of a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible silicon-based elastomer in its cured state.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high resistance to deformation. Resistance to deformation is the ability of an elastomeric material to maintain its original form after being exposed to stress, and can be calculated as the original form of the elastomeric material (L0), divided by the form of an elastomeric material after it is released from a stress (LR), and then multiplied by 100.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high resistance to deformation. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits resistance to deformation of, e.g., about 100%, about 99%, about 98%, about 97%, about 96%, about 95%, about 94%, about 93%, about 92%, about 91%, about 90%, about 89%, about 88%, about 87%, about 86%, or about 85%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits resistance to deformation of, e.g., at least 99%, at least 98%, at least 97%, at least 96%, at least 95%, at least 94%, at least 93%, at least 92%, at least 91%, at least 90%, at least 89%, at least 88%, at least 87%, at least 86%, or at least 85%. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits resistance to deformation of, e.g., at most 99%, at most 98%, at most 97%, at most 96%, at most 95%, at most 94%, at most 93%, at most 92%, at most 91%, at most 90%, at most 89%, at most 88%, at most 87%, at most 86%, or at most 85%. In still aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits resistance to deformation of, e.g., about 85% to about 100%, about 87% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 93% to about 100%, about 95% to about 100%, or about 97% to about 100%.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high elastic elongation. Elongation is a type of deformation caused when an elastomer stretches under a tensile stress. Deformation is simply a change in shape that anything undergoes under stress. The elongation property of an elastomeric material can be expressed as percent elongation, which is calculated as the length of an elastomer after it is stretched (L), divided by the original length of the elastomer (L0), and then multiplied by 100. In addition, this elastic elongation is reversible. Reversible elongation is the ability of an elastomeric material to return to its original length after being release for a tensile stress, and can be calculated as the original length of the elastomeric material (L0), divided by the length of an elastomeric material after it is released from a tensile stress (LR), and then multiplied by 100.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high elastic elongation. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an elastic elongation of, e.g., about 50%, about 80%, about 100%, about 200%, about 300%, about 400%, about 500%, about 600%, about 700%, about 800%, about 900%, about 1000%, about 1100%, about 1200%, about 1300%, about 1400%, about 1500%, about 1600%, about 1700%, about 1800%, about 1900%, or about 2000%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an elastic elongation of, e.g., at least 50%, at least 80%, at least 100%, at least 200%, at least 300%, at least 400%, at least 500%, at least 600%, at least 700%, at least 800%, at least 900%, at least 1000%, at least 1100%, at least 1200%, at least 1300%, at least 1400%, at least 1500%, at least 1600%, at least 1700%, at least 1800%, at least 1900%, or at least 2000%. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an elastic elongation of, e.g., at most 50%, at most 80%, at most 100%, at most 200%, at most 300%, at most 400%, at most 500%, at most 600%, at most 700%, at most 800%, at most 900%, at most 1000%, at most 1100%, at most 1200%, at most 1300%, at most 1400%, at most 1500%, at most 1600%, at most 1700%, at most 1800%, at most 1900%, or at most 2000%. In still aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an elastic elongation of, e.g., about 50% to about 600%, about 50% to about 700%, about 50% to about 800%, about 50% to about 900%, about 50% to about 1000%, about 80% to about 600%, about 80% to about 700%, about 80% to about 800%, about 80% to about 900%, about 80% to about 1000%, about 100% to about 600%, about 100% to about 700%, about 100% to about 800%, about 100% to about 900%, about 100% to about 1000%, about 200% to about 600%, about 200% to about 700%, about 200% to about 800%, about 200% to about 900%, or about 200% to about 1000%.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits reversible elongation. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a reversible elastic elongation of, e.g., about 100%, about 99%, about 98%, about 97%, about 96%, about 95%, about 94%, about 93%, about 92%, about 91%, about 90%, about 89%, about 88%, about 87%, about 86%, or about 85%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a reversible elastic elongation of, e.g., at least 99%, at least 98%, at least 97%, at least 96%, at least 95%, at least 94%, at least 93%, at least 92%, at least 91%, at least 90%, at least 89%, at least 88%, at least 87%, at least 86%, or at least 85%. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a reversible elastic elongation of, e.g., at most 99%, at most 98%, at most 97%, at most 96%, at most 95%, at most 94%, at most 93%, at most 92%, at most 91%, at most 90%, at most 89%, at most 88%, at most 87%, at most 86%, or at most 85%. In still aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a reversible elastic elongation of, e.g., about 85% to about 100%, about 87% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 93% to about 100%, about 95% to about 100%, or about 97% to about 100%.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low elastic modulus. Elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, refers to the ability of an elastomeric material to resists deformation, or, conversely, an object's tendency to be non-permanently deformed when a force is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation region: λ=stress/strain, where λ is the elastic modulus in Pascal's; stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied; and strain is the ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object. Specifying how stresses are to be measured, including directions, allows for many types of elastic moduli to be defined. The three primary elastic moduli are tensile modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.
  • Tensile modulus (E) or Young's modulus is an objects response to linear strain, or the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis. It is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. It is often referred to simply as the elastic modulus. The shear modulus or modulus of rigidity refers to an object's tendency to shear (the deformation of shape at constant volume) when acted upon by opposing forces. It is defined as shear stress over shear strain. The shear modulus is part of the derivation of viscosity. The shear modulus is concerned with the deformation of a solid when it experiences a force parallel to one of its surfaces while its opposite face experiences an opposing force (such as friction). The bulk modulus (K) describes volumetric elasticity or an object's resistance to uniform compression, and is the tendency of an object to deform in all directions when uniformly loaded in all directions. It is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three dimensions.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low tensile modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., about 0.01 MPa, about 0.02 MPa, about 0.03 MPa, about 0.04 MPa, about 0.05 MPa, about 0.06 MPa, about 0.07 MPa, about 0.08 MPa, about 0.09 MPa, about 0.1 MPa, about 0.15 MPa, about 0.2 MPa, about 0.25 MPa, about 0.3 MPa, about 0.35 MPa, about 0.4 MPa, about 0.45 MPa, about 0.5 MPa, about 0.55 MPa, about 0.6 MPa, about 0.65 MPa, or about 0.7 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., at most 0.01 MPa, at most 0.02 MPa, at most 0.03 MPa, at most 0.04 MPa, at most 0.05 MPa, at most 0.06 MPa, at most 0.07 MPa, at most 0.08 MPa, at most 0.09 MPa, at most 0.1 MPa, at most 0.15 MPa, at most 0.2 MPa, at most 0.25 MPa, at most 0.3 MPa, at most 0.35 MPa, at most 0.4 MPa, at most 0.45 MPa, at most 0.5 MPa, at most 0.55 MPa, at most 0.6 MPa, at most 0.65 MPa, or at most 0.7 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., about 0.01 MPa to about 0.1 MPa, about 0.01 MPa to about 0.2 MPa, about 0.01 MPa to about 0.3 MPa, about 0.01 MPa to about 0.4 MPa, about 0.01 MPa to about 0.5 MPa, about 0.01 MPa to about 0.6 MPa, or about 0.01 MPa to about 0.7 MPa.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low shear modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., about 0.1 MPa, about 0.2 MPa, about 0.3 MPa, about 0.4 MPa, about 0.5 MPa, about 0.6 MPa, about 0.7 MPa, about 0.8 MPa, about 0.9 MPa, about 1 MPa, about 1.5 MPa, about 2 MPa, about 2.5 MPa, or about 3 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., at most 0.1 MPa, at most 0.2 MPa, at most 0.3 MPa, at most 0.4 MPa, at most 0.5 MPa, at most 0.6 MPa, at most 0.7 MPa, at most 0.8 MPa, at most 0.9 MPa, at most 1 MPa, at most 1.5 MPa, at most 2 MPa, at most 2.5 MPa, or at most 3 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., about 0.1 MPa to about 1 MPa, about 0.1 MPa to about 1.5 MPa, about 0.1 MPa to about 2 MPa, about 0.1 MPa to about 2.5 MPa, or about 0.1 MPa to about 3 MPa.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low bulk modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., about 0.5 GPa, about 0.6 GPa, about 0.7 GPa, about 0.8 GPa, about 0.9 GPa, about 1 GPa, about 1.5 GPa, about 2 GPa, about 2.5 GPa, about 3 GPa, about 3.5 GPa, about 4 GPa, about 4.5 GPa, or about 5 GPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., at most 0.5 GPa, at most 0.6 GPa, at most 0.7 GPa, at most 0.8 GPa, at most 0.9 GPa, at most 1 GPa, at most 1.5 GPa, at most 2 GPa, at most 2.5 GPa, at most 3 GPa, at most 3.5 GPa, at most 4 GPa, at most 4.5 GPa, or at most 5 GPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., about 0.5 GPa to about 5 GPa, about 0.5 GPa to about 1 GPa, or about 1 GPa to about 5 GPa.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high tensile strength relative to other polymer classes. Other polymer classes include any other polymer not classified as an elastomer. Tensile strength has three different definitional points of stress maxima. Yield strength refers to the stress at which material strain changes from elastic deformation to plastic deformation, causing it to deform permanently. Ultimate strength refers to the maximum stress a material can withstand when subjected to tension, compression or shearing. It is the maximum stress on the stress-strain curve. Breaking strength refers to the stress coordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture, or when the material pulls apart.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high yield strength relative to other polymer classes. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 600 MPa, about 700 MPa, about 800 MPa, about 900 MPa, about 1000 MPa, about 1500 MPa, or about 2000 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 600 MPa, at least 700 MPa, at least 800 MPa, at least 900 MPa, at least 1000 MPa, at least 1500 MPa, or at least 2000 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1500 MPa, about 1000 MPa to about 1500 MPa, or about 1200 MPa to about 1500 MPa.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high ultimate strength relative to other polymer classes. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 600 MPa, about 700 MPa, about 800 MPa, about 900 MPa, about 1000 MPa, about 1500 MPa, or about 2000 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 600 MPa, at least 700 MPa, at least 800 MPa, at least 900 MPa, at least 1000 MPa, at least 1500 MPa, or at least 2000 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1500 MPa, about 1000 MPa to about 1500 MPa, or about 1200 MPa to about 1500 MPa.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high breaking strength relative to other polymer classes. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 600 MPa, about 700 MPa, about 800 MPa, about 900 MPa, about 1000 MPa, about 1500 MPa, or about 2000 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 600 MPa, at least 700 MPa, at least 800 MPa, at least 900 MPa, at least 1000 MPa, at least 1500 MPa, or at least 2000 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1500 MPa, about 1000 MPa to about 1500 MPa, or about 1200 MPa to about 1500 MPa.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low flexural strength relative to other polymer classes. Flexural strength, also known as bend strength or modulus of rupture, refers to an object's ability to resist deformation under load and represents the highest stress experienced within the object at its moment of rupture. It is measured in terms of stress.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low flexural strength relative to other polymer classes. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a flexural strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 600 MPa, about 700 MPa, about 800 MPa, about 900 MPa, about 1000 MPa, about 1500 MPa, or about 2000 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a flexural strength of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 600 MPa, at least 700 MPa, at least 800 MPa, at least 900 MPa, at least 1000 MPa, at least 1500 MPa, or at least 2000 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a flexural strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a flexural strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPA, about 300 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1000 MPa, about 700 MPa to about 1500 MPa, about 1000 MPa to about 1500 MPa, or about 1200 MPa to about 1500 MPa.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high compressibility. Compressibility refers to the relative volume change in response to a pressure (or mean stress) change, and is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits high compressibility. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a compressibility of, e.g., about 0.1 kPa, about 0.5 kPa, about 1 kPa, about 5 kPa, about 10 kPa, about 15 kPa, about 20 kPa, about 30 kPa, about 40 kPa, about 50 kPa, about 60 kPa, about 70 kPa, about 80 kPa, about 90 kPa, or about 100 kPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a compressibility of, e.g., at least 0.1 kPa, at least 0.5 kPa, at least 1 kPa, at least 5 kPa, at least 10 kPa, at least 15 kPa, at least 20 kPa, at least 30 kPa, at least 40 kPa, at least 50 kPa, at least 60 kPa, at least 70 kPa, at least 80 kPa, at least 90 kPa, or at least 100 kPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a compressibility of, e.g., at most 0.1 kPa, at most 0.5 kPa, at most 1 kPa, at most 5 kPa, at most 10 kPa, at most 15 kPa, at most 20 kPa, at most 30 kPa, at most 40 kPa, at most 50 kPa, at most 60 kPa, at most 70 kPa, at most 80 kPa, at most 90 kPa, or at most 100 kPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a compressibility of, e.g., about 0.1 kPa to about 100 kPa, about 0.5 kPa to about 100 kPa, about 1 kPa to about 100 kPa, about 5 kPa to about 100 kPa, about 10 kPa to about 100 kPa, about 1 kPa to about 30 kPa, about 1 kPa to about 40 kPa, about 1 kPa to about 50 kPa, or about 1 kPa to about 60 kPa.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low hardness. Hardness refers to various properties of an object in the solid phase that gives it high resistance to various kinds of shape change when force is applied. Hardness is measured using a durometer and is a unitless value that ranges from zero to 100.
  • In an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits low hardness. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30, about 35, about 40, about 45, about 50, about 55, or about 60. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at least 5, at least 10, at least 15, at least 20, at least 25, at least 30, at least 35, at least 40, at least 45, at least 50, at least 55, or at least 60. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at most 5, at most 10, at most 15, at most 20, at most 25, at most 30, at most 35, at most 40, at most 45, at most 50, at most 55, or at most 60. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 5 to about 60, about 10 to about 50, about 15 to about 45, about 20 to about 40, or about 25 to about 35.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a shape sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. As such, the pore shape should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. Any pore shape is useful with the proviso that the pore shape is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. Useful pore shapes include, without limitation, roughly spherical, perfectly spherical, dodecahedrons (such as pentagonal dodecahedrons), and ellipsoids.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. As such, the pore roundness should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. As used herein, “roundness” is defined as (6×V)/(π×D3), where V is the volume and D is the diameter. Any pore roundness is useful with the proviso that the pore roundness is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix is formed in such a manner that substantially all the pores in the elastomer matrix have a similar diameter. As used herein, the term “substantially”, when used to describe pores, refers to at least 90% of the pores within the elastomer matrix such as, e.g., at least 95% or at least 97% of the pores. As used herein, the term “similar diameter”, when used to describe pores, refers to a difference in the diameters of the two pores that is less than about 20% of the larger diameter. As used herein, the term “diameter”, when used to describe pores, refers to the longest line segment that can be drawn that connects two points within the pore, regardless of whether the line passes outside the boundary of the pore. Any pore diameter is useful with the proviso that the pore diameter is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the porous material. As such, the pore diameter size should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix is formed in such a manner that the diameter of the connections between pores is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. As such, the diameter of the connections between pores should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. As used herein, the term “diameter”, when describing the connection between pores, refers to the diameter of the cross-section of the connection between two pores in the plane normal to the line connecting the centroids of the two pores, where the plane is chosen so that the area of the cross-section of the connection is at its minimum value. As used herein, the term “diameter of a cross-section of a connection” refers to the average length of a straight line segment that passes through the center, or centroid (in the case of a connection having a cross-section that lacks a center), of the cross-section of a connection and terminates at the periphery of the cross-section. As used herein, the term “substantially”, when used to describe the connections between pores refers to at least 90% of the connections made between each pore comprising the elastomer matrix, such as, e.g., at least 95% or at least 97% of the connections.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness of, e.g., about 0.1, about 0.2, about 0.3, about 0.4, about 0.5, about 0.6, about 0.7, about 0.8, about 0.9, or about 1.0. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness of, e.g., at least 0.1, at least 0.2, at least 0.3, at least 0.4, at least 0.5, at least 0.6, at least 0.7, at least 0.8, at least 0.9, or at least 1.0. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness of, e.g., at most 0.1, at most 0.2, at most 0.3, at most 0.4, at most 0.5, at most 0.6, at most 0.7, at most 0.8, at most 0.9, or at most 1.0. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a roundness of, e.g., about 0.1 to about 1.0, about 0.2 to about 1.0, about 0.3 to about 1.0, about 0.4 to about 1.0, about 0.5 to about 1.0, about 0.6 to about 1.0, about 0.7 to about 1.0, about 0.8 to about 1.0, about 0.9 to about 1.0, about 0.1 to about 0.9, about 0.2 to about 0.9, about 0.3 to about 0.9, about 0.4 to about 0.9, about 0.5 to about 0.9, about 0.6 to about 0.9, about 0.7 to about 0.9, about 0.8 to about 0.9, about 0.1 to about 0.8, about 0.2 to about 0.8, about 0.3 to about 0.8, about 0.4 to about 0.8, about 0.5 to about 0.8, about 0.6 to about 0.8, about 0.7 to about 0.8, about 0.1 to about 0.7, about 0.2 to about 0.7, about 0.3 to about 0.7, about 0.4 to about 0.7, about 0.5 to about 0.7, about 0.6 to about 0.7, about 0.1 to about 0.6, about 0.2 to about 0.6, about 0.3 to about 0.6, about 0.4 to about 0.6, about 0.5 to about 0.6, about 0.1 to about 0.5, about 0.2 to about 0.5, about 0.3 to about 0.5, or about 0.4 to about 0.5.
  • In another embodiment, substantially all pores within a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix have a similar diameter. In aspects of this embodiment, at least 90% of all pores within a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix have a similar diameter, at least 95% of all pores within a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix have a similar diameter, or at least 97% of all pores within a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix have a similar diameter. In another aspect of this embodiment, difference in the diameters of two pores is, e.g., less than about 20% of the larger diameter, less than about 15% of the larger diameter, less than about 10% of the larger diameter, or less than about 5% of the larger diameter.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean diameter sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., about 50 μm, about 75 μm, about 100 μm, about 150 μm, about 200 μm, about 250 μm, about 300 μm, about 350 μm, about 400 μm, about 450 μm, or about 500 μm. In other aspects, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., about 500 μm, about 600 μm, about 700 μm, about 800 μm, about 900 μm, about 1000 μm, about 1500 μm, about 2000 μm, about 2500 μm, or about 3000 μm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., at least 50 μm, at least 75 μm, at least 100 μm, at least 150 μm, at least 200 μm, at least 250 μm, at least 300 μm, at least 350 μm, at least 400 μm, at least 450 μm, or at least 500 μm. In still other aspects, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., at least 500 μm, at least 600 μm, at least 700 μm, at least 800 μm, at least 900 μm, at least 1000 μm, at least 1500 μm, at least 2000 μm, at least 2500 μm, or at least 3000 μm. In further aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., at most 50 μm, at most 75 μm, at most 100 μm, at most 150 μm, at most 200 μm, at most 250 μm, at most 300 μm, at most 350 μm, at most 400 μm, at most 450 μm, or at most 500 μm. In yet further aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter of, e.g., at most 500 μm, at most 600 μm, at most 700 μm, at most 800 μm, at most 900 μm, at most 1000 μm, at most 1500 μm, at most 2000 μm, at most 2500 μm, or at most 3000 μm. In still further aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having mean pore diameter in a range from, e.g., about 300 μm to about 600 μm, about 200 μm to about 700 μm, about 100 μm to about 800 μm, about 500 μm to about 800 μm, about 50 μm to about 500 μm, about 75 μm to about 500 μm, about 100 μm to about 500 μm, about 200 μm to about 500 μm, about 300 μm to about 500 μm, about 50 μm to about 1000 μm, about 75 μm to about 1000 μm, about 100 μm to about 1000 μm, about 200 μm to about 1000 μm, about 300 μm to about 1000 μm, about 50 μm to about 1000 μm, about 75 μm to about 3000 μm, about 100 μm to about 3000 μm, about 200 μm to about 3000 μm, or about 300 μm to about 3000 μm.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean elastomer strut thickness sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean elastomer strut thickness of, e.g., about 10 μm, about 20 μm, about 30 μm, about 40 μm, about 50 μm, about 60 μm, about 70 μm, about 80 μm, about 90 μm, about 100 μm, about 110 μm, about 120 μm, about 130 μm, about 140 μm, about 150 μm, about 160 μm, about 170 μm, about 180 μm, about 190 μm, or about 200 μm. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean elastomer strut thickness of, e.g., at least 10 μm, at least 20 μm, at least 30 μm, at least 40 μm, at least 50 μm, at least 60 μm, at least 70 μm, at least 80 μm, at least 90 μm, at least 100 μm, at least 110 μm, at least 120 μm, at least 130 μm, at least 140 μm, at least 150 μm, at least 160 μm, at least 170 μm, at least 180 μm, at least 190 μm, or at least 200 μm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean elastomer strut thickness of, e.g., at most 10 μm, at most 20 μm, at most 30 μm, at most 40 μm, at most 50 μm, at most 60 μm, at most 70 μm, at most 80 μm, at most 90 μm, at most 100 μm, at most 110 μm, at most 120 μm, at most 130 μm, at most 140 μm, at most 150 μm, at most 160 μm, at most 170 μm, at most 180 μm, at most 190 μm, or at most 200 μm. In still aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores having a mean elastomer strut thickness of, e.g., about 50 μm to about 110 μm, about 50 μm to about 120 μm, about 50 μm to about 130 μm, about 50 μm to about 140 μm, about 50 μm to about 150 μm, about 60 μm to about 110 μm, about 60 μm to about 120 μm, about 60 μm to about 130 μm, about 60 μm to about 140 μm, about 70 μm to about 110 μm, about 70 μm to about 120 μm, about 70 μm to about 130 μm, or about 70 μm to about 140 μm.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores connected to a plurality of other pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a mean pore connectivity, e.g., about two other pores, about three other pores, about four other pores, about five other pores, about six other pores, about seven other pores, about eight other pores, about nine other pores, about ten other pores, about 11 other pores, or about 12 other pores. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a mean pore connectivity, e.g., at least two other pores, at least three other pores, at least four other pores, at least five other pores, at least six other pores, at least seven other pores, at least eight other pores, at least nine other pores, at least ten other pores, at least 11 other pores, or at least 12 other pores. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a mean pore connectivity, e.g., at most two other pores, at least most other pores, at least most other pores, at least most other pores, at most six other pores, at most seven other pores, at most eight other pores, at most nine other pores, at most ten other pores, at most 11 other pores, or at most 12 other pores.
  • In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores connected to, e.g., about two other pores to about 12 other pores, about two other pores to about 11 other pores, about two other pores to about ten other pores, about two other pores to about nine other pores, about two other pores to about eight other pores, about two other pores to about seven other pores, about two other pores to about six other pores, about two other pores to about five other pores, about three other pores to about 12 other pores, about three other pores to about 11 other pores, about three other pores to about ten other pores, about three other pores to about nine other pores, about three other pores to about eight other pores, about three other pores to about seven other pores, about three other pores to about six other pores, about three other pores to about five other pores, about four other pores to about 12 other pores, about four other pores to about 11 other pores, about four other pores to about ten other pores, about four other pores to about nine other pores, about four other pores to about eight other pores, about four other pores to about seven other pores, about four other pores to about six other pores, about four other pores to about five other pores, about five other pores to about 12 other pores, about five other pores to about 11 other pores, about five other pores to about ten other pores, about five other pores to about nine other pores, about five other pores to about eight other pores, about five other pores to about seven other pores, or about five other pores to about six other pores.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores where the diameter of the connections between pores is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores where the diameter of the connections between pores is, e.g., about 10% the mean pore diameter, about 20% the mean pore diameter, about 30% the mean pore diameter, about 40% the mean pore diameter, about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 80% the mean pore diameter, or about 90% the mean pore diameter. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores where the diameter of the connections between pores is, e.g., at least 10% the mean pore diameter, at least 20% the mean pore diameter, at least 30% the mean pore diameter, at least 40% the mean pore diameter, at least 50% the mean pore diameter, at least 60% the mean pore diameter, at least 70% the mean pore diameter, at least 80% the mean pore diameter, or at least 90% the mean pore diameter. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores where the diameter of the connections between pores is, e.g., at most 10% the mean pore diameter, at most 20% the mean pore diameter, at most 30% the mean pore diameter, at most 40% the mean pore diameter, at most 50% the mean pore diameter, at most 60% the mean pore diameter, at most 70% the mean pore diameter, at most 80% the mean pore diameter, or at most 90% the mean pore diameter.
  • In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix includes pores where the diameter of the connections between pores is, e.g., about 10% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 30% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 35% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 40% to about 90% the mean pore diameter, about 10% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 30% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 35% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 40% to about 80% the mean pore diameter, about 10% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 30% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 35% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 40% to about 70% the mean pore diameter, about 10% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 30% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 35% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 40% to about 60% the mean pore diameter, about 10% to about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 30% to about 50% the mean pore diameter, about 10% to about 40% the mean pore diameter, about 15% to about 40% the mean pore diameter, about 20% to about 40% the mean pore diameter, about 25% to about 40% the mean pore diameter, or about 30% to about 40% the mean pore diameter.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores having a porosity that is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores as disclosed in the present specification. As such, the porosity should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. As used herein, the term “porosity” refers to the amount of void space in a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix. As such, the total volume of a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix disclosed herein is based upon the elastomer space and the void space.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores has a porosity sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a porosity of, e.g., about 40% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a porosity of, e.g., at least 40% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or at least 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a porosity of, e.g., at most 40% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or at most 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a porosity of, e.g., about 40% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 40% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 40% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or about 80% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores having a mean open pore value and/or a mean closed pore value that is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores as disclosed in the present specification. As used herein, the term “mean open pore value” or “mean open pore” refers to the average number of pores that are connected to at least one other pore present in the elastomer matrix. As used herein, the term “mean closed pore value” or “mean closed pore” refers to the average number of pores that are not connected to any other pores present in the elastomer matrix.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores has a mean open pore value sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean open pore value of, e.g., about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, or about 97%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a mean open pore value of, e.g., at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 97%. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean open pore value of, e.g., at most 70%, at most 75%, at most 80%, at most 85%, at most 90%, at most 95%, or at most 97%. In still aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean open pore value of, e.g., about 70% to about 90%, about 75% to about 90%, about 80% to about 90%, about 85% to about 90%, about 70% to about 95%, about 75% to about 95%, about 80% to about 95%, about 85% to about 95%, about 90% to about 95%, about 70% to about 97%, about 75% to about 97%, about 80% to about 97%, about 85% to about 97%, or about 90% to about 97%.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores has a mean closed pore value sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean closed pore value of, e.g., about 5%, about 10%, about 15%, or about 20%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean closed pore value of, e.g., about 5% or less, about 10% or less, about 15% or less, or about 20% or less. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix has a mean closed pore value of, e.g., about 5% to about 10%, about 5% to about 15%, or about 5% to about 20%.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores having a void space that is sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. As such, the void space should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. As used herein, the term “void space” refers to actual or physical space in a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix. As such, the total volume of a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix disclosed herein is based upon the elastomer space and the void space.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores has a void volume sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a void space of, e.g., about 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a void space of, e.g., at least 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at least 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or at least 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a void space of, e.g., at most 50% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 60% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 70% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 80% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, at most 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or at most 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix comprises a void space of, e.g., about 50% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% to about 97% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 80% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 90% to about 95% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 50% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 60% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, about 70% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix, or about 80% to about 90% of the total volume of an elastomer matrix.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allowing substantial tissue growth into the interconnected pores in a time sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allows tissue growth into the interconnected pores in a time sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allows tissue growth into the interconnected pores sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules in, e.g., about 2 days after implantation, about 3 days after implantation, about 4 days after implantation, about 5 days after implantation, about 6 days after implantation, about 7 days, about 2 weeks after implantation, about 3 weeks after implantation, or about 4 weeks after implantation. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allows tissue growth into the interconnected pores sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules in, e.g., at least 2 days after implantation, at least 3 days after implantation, at least 4 days after implantation, at least 5 days after implantation, at least 6 days after implantation, at least 7 days, at least 2 weeks after implantation, at least 3 weeks after implantation, or at least 4 weeks after implantation. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allows tissue growth into the interconnected pores sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules in, e.g., at most 2 days after implantation, at most 3 days after implantation, at most 4 days after implantation, at most 5 days after implantation, at most 6 days after implantation, at most 7 days, at most 2 weeks after implantation, at most 3 weeks after implantation, or at most 4 weeks after implantation. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores allows tissue growth into the interconnected pores sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules in, e.g., about 2 days to about 4 days after implantation, about 2 days to about 5 days after implantation, about 2 days to about 6 days after implantation, about 2 days to about 7 days after implantation, about 1 week to about 2 weeks after implantation, about 1 week to about 3 weeks after implantation, or about 1 week to about 4 weeks after implantation.
  • A porous material comprising an elastomer matrix generally has a low level of microporosity. As used herein, the term “microporosity” refers to a measure of the presence of small micropores within a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix itself (as opposed to the pores defined by an elastomer matrix). In some embodiments, all or substantially all of the micropores in a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix are between about 0.1 μm and about 5 μm, such as between about 0.1 μm and about 3 μm or between about 0.1 μm and about 2 μm. The term “low level of microporosity” means that micropores represent less than 2% of the volume of a porous material comprising an elastomer matrix, as measured by measuring the percentage void space in a cross-section through an elastomer matrix.
  • The shape, roundness, and diameter of pores, the connections between pores, the total volume of the porous material, the void volume, and the elastomer matrix volume can all be assessed using scanning electron microscopy. See, e.g., FIGS. 1A and 1B.
  • The present specification discloses in part, methods of making a porous material disclosed in the present specification.
  • In one aspect, a method of making a porous material comprises the steps of: a) coating porogens with an elastomer base to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; b) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the non-degradable biocompatible elastomer; c) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores.
  • In another aspect, a method of making a porous material comprises the steps of a) coating porogens with an elastomer base to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; b) packing porogens into a mold; c) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the non-degradable biocompatible elastomer; d) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores.
  • As used herein, the term “elastomer base” is synonymous with “uncured elastomer” and refers to an elastomer disclosed herein that is in its uncured state. As used herein, the term “silicon-based elastomer base” is synonymous with “uncured silicon-based elastomer” and refers to a silicon-based elastomer disclosed herein that is in its uncured state.
  • As used herein, the term “porogen” refers to any structure that can be used to create a porogen scaffold that is removable after an elastomer matrix is formed under conditions that do not destroy the elastomer matrix. Porogens can be made of any material having a glass transition temperature (Tg) or melting temperature (Tm) from about 30° C. to about 100° C. In addition, porogens useful to practice aspects of the present specification should be soluble in hydrophilic solvents such as, e.g., water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methylene chloride, chloroform, and acetone. However, porogens useful to practice aspects of the present specification should not be soluble in aromatic solvents like xylene, chlorinated solvents like dichloromethane, or any other solvent used to disperse uncured elastomer base. Exemplary porogens suitable for use in the methods disclosed in the present specification, include, without limitation, salts, such as, e.g., sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, sodium iodide, sodium nitrate, sodium sulfate, sodium iodate, and/or mixtures thereof); sugars and/or its derivatives, such as, e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, saccharin, and/or mixtures thereof; polysaccharides and their derivatives, such as, e.g., cellulose and hydroxyethylcellulose; waxes, such as, e.g., paraffin, beeswax, and/or mixtures thereof; other water soluble chemicals, such as, e.g., sodium hydroxide; naphthalene; polymers, such as, e.g., poly(alkylene oxide), poly(acrylamide), poly(acrylic acid), poly(acrylamide-co-arylic acid), poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride), polyacrylonitrile, poly(allylamine), poly(amide), poly(anhydride), poly(butylene), poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(carbonate), poly(ester), poly(etheretherketone), poly(ethersulphone), poly(ethylene), poly(ethylene alcohol), poly(ethylenimine), poly(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(glycolide) ((like poly(glycolic acid)), poly(hydroxy butyrate), poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate), poly(hydroxypropylmethacrylate), poly(hydroxystrene), poly(imide), poly(lactide) ((like poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(D,L-lactic acid)), poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(lysine), poly(methacrylate), poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(orthoester), poly(phenylene oxide), poly(phosphazene), poly(phosphoester), poly(propylene fumarate), poly(propylene), poly(propylene glycol), poly(propylene oxide), poly(styrene), poly(sulfone), poly(tetrafluoroethylene), poly(vinylacetate), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinylchloride), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(urethane), any copolymer thereof (like poly(ethylene oxide) poly(propylene oxide) copolymers (poloxamers), poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene), poly(styrene-co-allyl alcohol, and poly(ethylene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol), and/or any mixtures thereof; as well as alginate, chitin, chitosan, collagen, dextran, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, pectin, and/or mixtures thereof. Methods for making porogens are well known in the art and non-limiting examples of such methods are described in, e.g., Peter X. Ma, Reverse Fabrication of Porous Materials, US 2002/00056000; P. X. Ma and G. Wei, Particle-Containing Complex Porous Materials, U.S. 2006/0246121; and F. Liu, et al., Porogen Compositions, Methods of Making and Uses, Attorney Docket 18709PROV (BRE); each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Porogens are also commercially available from, e.g., Polyscience Inc. (Warrington, Pa.).
  • Porogens have a shape sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification. Any porogen shape is useful with the proviso that the porogen shape is sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification. Useful porogen shapes include, without limitation, roughly spherical, perfectly spherical, ellipsoidal, polyhedronal, triangular, pyramidal, quadrilateral like squares, rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, rhombus and kites, and other types of polygonal shapes.
  • In an embodiment, porogens have a shape sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix that allows tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In aspects of this embodiment, porogens have a shape that is roughly spherical, perfectly spherical, ellipsoidal, polyhedronal, triangular, pyramidal, quadrilateral, or polygonal.
  • Porogens have a roundness sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification. As used herein, “roundness” is defined as (6×V)/(π×D3), where V is the volume and D is the diameter. Any porogen roundness is useful with the proviso that the porogen roundness is sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification.
  • In an embodiment, porogens has a roundness sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix that allows tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In aspects of this embodiment, porogens have a mean roundness of, e.g., about 0.1, about 0.2, about 0.3, about 0.4, about 0.5, about 0.6, about 0.7, about 0.8, about 0.9, or about 1.0. In other aspects of this embodiment, porogens have a mean roundness of, e.g., at least 0.1, at least 0.2, at least 0.3, at least 0.4, at least 0.5, at least 0.6, at least 0.7, at least 0.8, at least 0.9, or at least 1.0. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, porogens have a mean roundness of, e.g., at most 0.1, at most 0.2, at most 0.3, at most 0.4, at most 0.5, at most 0.6, at most 0.7, at most 0.8, at most 0.9, or at most 1.0. In still other aspects of this embodiment, have a mean roundness of, e.g., about 0.1 to about 1.0, about 0.2 to about 1.0, about 0.3 to about 1.0, about 0.4 to about 1.0, about 0.5 to about 1.0, about 0.6 to about 1.0, about 0.7 to about 1.0, about 0.8 to about 1.0, about 0.9 to about 1.0, about 0.1 to about 0.9, about 0.2 to about 0.9, about 0.3 to about 0.9, about 0.4 to about 0.9, about 0.5 to about 0.9, about 0.6 to about 0.9, about 0.7 to about 0.9, about 0.8 to about 0.9, about 0.1 to about 0.8, about 0.2 to about 0.8, about 0.3 to about 0.8, about 0.4 to about 0.8, about 0.5 to about 0.8, about 0.6 to about 0.8, about 0.7 to about 0.8, about 0.1 to about 0.7, about 0.2 to about 0.7, about 0.3 to about 0.7, about 0.4 to about 0.7, about 0.5 to about 0.7, about 0.6 to about 0.7, about 0.1 to about 0.6, about 0.2 to about 0.6, about 0.3 to about 0.6, about 0.4 to about 0.6, about 0.5 to about 0.6, about 0.1 to about 0.5, about 0.2 to about 0.5, about 0.3 to about 0.5, or about 0.4 to about 0.5.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, coating an elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture. Suitable elastomer bases are as described above. Coating the porogens with an elastomer base can be accomplished by any suitable means, including, without limitation, mechanical application such as, e.g., dipping, spraying, knifing, curtaining, brushing, or vapor deposition, thermal application, adhering application, chemical bonding, self-assembling, molecular entrapment, and/or any combination thereof. The elastomer base is applied to the porogens in such a manner as to coat the porogens with the desired thickness of elastomer. Removal of excess elastomer can be accomplished by any suitable means, including, without limitation, gravity-based filtering or sieving, vacuum-based filtering or sieving, blowing, and/or any combination thereof.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, porogens are coated with an elastomer base to a thickness sufficient to allow formation of an elastomer matrix that allows tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In aspects of this embodiment, porogens are coated with an elastomer base to a thickness of, e.g., about 1 μm, about 2 μm, about 3 μm, about 4 μm, about 5 μm, about 6 μm, about 7 μm, about 8 μm, about 9 μm, about 10 μm, about 20 μm, about 30 μm, about 40 μm, about 50 μm, about 60 μm, about 70 μm, about 80 μm, about 90 μm, or about 100 μm. In other aspects of this embodiment, porogens are coated with an elastomer base to a thickness of, e.g., at least 1 μm, at least 2 μm, at least 3 μm, at least 4 μm, at least 5 μm, at least 6 μm, at least 7 μm, at least 8 μm, at least 9 μm, at least 10 μm, at least 20 μm, at least 30 μm, at least 40 μm, at least 50 μm, at least 60 μm, at least 70 μm, at least 80 μm, at least 90 μm, or at least 100 μm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, porogens are coated with an elastomer base to a thickness of, e.g., at most 1 μm, at most 2 μm, at most 3 μm, at most 4 μm, at most 5 μm, at most 6 μm, at most 7 μm, at most 8 μm, at most 9 μm, at most 10 μm, at most 20 μm, at most 30 μm, at most 40 μm, at most 50 μm, at most 60 μm, at most 70 μm, at most 80 μm, at most 90 μm, or at most 100 μm. In still other aspects of this embodiment, porogens are coated with an elastomer base to a thickness of, e.g., about 1 μm to about 5 μm, about 1 μm to about 10 μm, about 5 μm to about 10 μm, about 5 μm to about 25 μm, about 5 μm to about 50 μm, about 10 μm to about 50 μm, about 10 μm to about 75 μm, about 10 μm to about 100 μm, about 25 μm to about 100 μm, or about 50 μm to about 100 μm.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, devolitalizing an elastomer coated porogens. As used herein, the term “devolitalizing” or “devolitalization” refers to a process that removes volatile components from the elastomer coated porogens. Devolitalization of the elastomer coated porogens can be accomplished by any suitable means that substantially all the volatile components removed from the elastomer coated porogens. Non-limiting examples of devolitalizing procedures include evaporation, freeze-drying, sublimination, extraction, and/or any combination thereof.
  • In an embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens is devolitalized at a single temperature for a time sufficient to allow the evaporation of substantially all volatile components from the elastomer coated porogens. In an aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at ambient temperature for about 1 minute to about 5 minutes. In another aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at ambient temperature for about 45 minutes to about 75 minutes. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at ambient temperature for about 90 minutes to about 150 minutes. In another aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at about 18° C. to about 22° C. for about 1 minute to about 5 minutes. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at about 18° C. to about 22° C. for about 45 minutes to about 75 minutes. In still another aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are devolitalized at about 18° C. to about 22° C. for about 90 minutes to about 150 minutes.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, packing porogens into a mold prior to fusion. Any mold shape may be used for packing the porogens. As a non-limiting example, a mold shape can be a shell that outlines the contours an implantable device, such as, e.g., a shell for a breast implant, or a shell for a muscle implant. As another non-limiting example, the mold shape can be one that forms sheets. Such sheets can be made in a wide variety or proportions based on the needed application. For example, the sheets can be made in a size slightly bigger that an implantable device so that there is sufficient material to cover the device and allow for trimming of the excess. As another example, the sheets can be produced as a continuous roll that allows a person skilled in the art to take only the desired amount for an application, such as, e.g., creating strips having a textured surface for control of scar formation. The porogens may be packed into a mold using ultrasonic agitation, mechanical agitation, or any other suitable method for obtaining a closely packed array of porogens.
  • In an embodiment, an elastomer coated porogen mixture is packed into a mold. In an aspect of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogen mixture is packed into a mold in a manner suitable obtaining a closely packed array of porogens. In other aspects of this embodiment, an elastomer coated porogen mixture is packed into a mold using sonic agitation or mechanical agitation.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, treating an elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the elastomer base. As used herein, the term “treating” refers to a process that 1) fuses the porogens to form a porogen scaffold useful to make an elastomer matrix as disclosed herein and 2) cures the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores as disclosed in the present specification. As used herein, the term “curing” is synonymous with “setting” or “vulcanizing” and refers to a process that exposes the chains of a polymer to a element which activates a phase change in the polymer to a more stable state, such as, e.g., by physically or chemically cross-linked polymer chains to one another. Non-limiting examples of treating include thermal treating, chemical treating, catalyst treating, radiation treating, and physical treating. Treating of an elastomer coated porogen scaffold can be done under any condition for any length of time with the proviso that the treating fuses the porogens to form a porogen scaffold useful to make an elastomer matrix as disclosed herein and cures the elastomer to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores as disclosed in the present specification.
  • Thermal treating an elastomer coated porogen mixture can be at any temperature or temperatures for any length of time or times with the proviso that the thermal treatment fuses the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cures the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification. A non-limiting example of temperatures useful in a thermal treatment are temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature or melting temperature of the porogens, such as between about 5° C. to about 50° C. higher than the glass transition temperature or melting temperature of the porogens. Any temperature can be used in a thermal treatment with the proviso that the temperature is sufficient to cause fusion of the porogens. As a non-limiting example, the thermal treatment can be from about 30° C. to about 250° C. Increasing the duration of the thermal treatment at a given temperature increases the connection size; increases the sintering temperature, and increases the growth rate of the connections. Any time can be used in a thermal treatment with the proviso that the time is sufficient to cause fusion of the porogens and cures the elastomer base. Suitable times are generally from about 0.5 hours to about 48 hours.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, elastomer coated porogens are treated by thermal treatment, chemical treatment, catalyst treatment, radiation treatment, or physical treatment. In another embodiment, elastomer coated porogens are treated at a single time, where the curing time is sufficient to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores.
  • In another embodiment, elastomer coated porogens are thermal treated at a single temperature for a single time, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores.
  • In other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In further aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores.
  • In another aspect of this embodiment, the thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogen scaffold is treated at about 30° C. to about 130° C. for about 10 minutes to about 360 minutes, where the treating temperature and time is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores.
  • In yet another embodiment, an elastomer coated porogens are thermal treated at a plurality of temperatures for a plurality of times, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In an aspect of this embodiment, elastomer coated porogens are treated at a first temperature for a first time, and then a second temperature for a second time, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different.
  • In aspects of this embodiment, thermal treatment comprises heating the elastomer coated porogens at a first temperature for a first time, and then heating the porogens at a second temperature for a second time, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different, and where the first and second temperatures are different. In other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the elastomer coated porogens, then heating for a second time the porogens at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different.
  • In further aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first and second temperatures are different.
  • In other aspects of this embodiment, thermal treatment comprises heating the elastomer coated porogens at a first temperature for a first time, heating the porogens at a second temperature for a second time, and then heating the porogens at a third temperature at a third time, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first temperature is different from the second temperature and the second temperature is different form the third temperature.
  • In other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a third time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher, about 10° C. higher, about 15° C. higher, about 20° C. higher, about 25° C. higher, about 30° C. higher, about 35° C. higher, about 40° C. higher, about 45° C. higher, or about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first temperature is different from the second temperature and the second temperature is different form the third temperature. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a third time at, e.g., at least 5° C. higher, at least 10° C. higher, at least 15° C. higher, at least 20° C. higher, at least 25° C. higher, at least 30° C. higher, at least 35° C. higher, at least 40° C. higher, at least 45° C. higher, or at least 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first temperature is different from the second temperature and the second temperature is different form the third temperature. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a third time at, e.g., at most 5° C. higher, at most 10° C. higher, at most 15° C. higher, at most 20° C. higher, at most 25° C. higher, at most 30° C. higher, at most 35° C. higher, at most 40° C. higher, at most 45° C. higher, or at most 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first temperature is different from the second temperature and the second temperature is different form the third temperature.
  • In further aspects of this embodiment, a thermal treatment comprises heating an elastomer coated porogens for a first time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a second time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, then heating the elastomer coated porogens for a third time at, e.g., about 5° C. higher to about 10° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, about 5° C. higher to about 50° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 15° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 20° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 25° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 30° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 35° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 40° C. higher, about 10° C. higher to about 45° C. higher, or about 10° C. higher to about 50° C. higher than the melting temperature or glass transition temperature of the porogens, where the treating temperatures and times are sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores, and where the first temperature is different from the second temperature and the second temperature is different form the third temperature.
  • In still other aspect of this embodiment, elastomer coated porogens are treated at about 60° C. to about 75° C. for about 15 minutes to about 45 minutes, and then at about 120° C. to about 130° C. for about 60 minutes to about 90 minutes, where the treating temperatures and times is sufficient to fuse the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer base to form an elastomer matrix sufficient to allow tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In a further aspect of this embodiment, elastomer coated porogen mixture is treated at about 60° to about 75° C. for about 15 minutes to about 45 minutes, then at about 135° C. to about 150° C. for about 90 minutes to about 150 minutes, and then at about 150° C. to about 165° C. for about 15 minutes to about 45 minutes.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, to form a porogen scaffold. As used herein, the term “porogen scaffold” refers to a three-dimensional structural framework composed of fused porogens that serves as the negative replica of the elastomer matrix defining an interconnected array or pores as disclosed in the present specification.
  • The porogen scaffold is formed in such a manner that substantially all the fused porogens in the porogen scaffold have a similar diameter. As used herein, the term “substantially”, when used to describe fused porogen, refers to at least 90% of the porogen comprising the porogen scaffold are fused, such as, e.g., at least 95% of the porogens are fused or at least 97% of the porogen are fused. As used herein, the term “similar diameter”, when used to describe fused porogen, refers to a difference in the diameters of the two fused porogen that is less than about 20% of the larger diameter. As used herein, the term “diameter”, when used to describe fused porogen, refers to the longest line segment that can be drawn that connects two points within the fused porogen, regardless of whether the line passes outside the boundary of the fused porogen. Any fused porogen diameter is useful with the proviso that the fused porogen diameter is sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification.
  • The porogen scaffold is formed in such a manner that the diameter of the connections between each fused porogen is sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix as disclosed in the present specification. As used herein, the term “diameter”, when describing the connection between fused porogens, refers to the diameter of the cross-section of the connection between two fused porogens in the plane normal to the line connecting the centroids of the two fused porogens, where the plane is chosen so that the area of the cross-section of the connection is at its minimum value. As used herein, the term “diameter of a cross-section of a connection” refers to the average length of a straight-line segment that passes through the center, or centroid (in the case of a connection having a cross-section that lacks a center), of the cross-section of a connection and terminates at the periphery of the cross-section. As used herein, the term “substantially”, when used to describe the connections between fused porogens refers to at least 90% of the fused porogens comprising the porogen scaffold make connections between each other, such as, e.g., at least 95% of the fused porogens make connections between each other or at least 97% of the fused porogens make connections between each other.
  • In an embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where substantially all the fused porogens have a similar diameter. In aspects of this embodiment, at least 90% of all the fused porogens have a similar diameter, at least 95% of all the fused porogens have a similar diameter, or at least 97% of all the fused porogens have a similar diameter. In another aspect of this embodiment, difference in the diameters of two fused porogens is, e.g., less than about 20% of the larger diameter, less than about 15% of the larger diameter, less than about 10% of the larger diameter, or less than about 5% of the larger diameter.
  • In another embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens have a mean diameter sufficient to allow tissue growth into the array of interconnected porogens. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., about 50 μm, about 75 μm, about 100 μm, about 150 μm, about 200 μm, about 250 μm, about 300 μm, about 350 μm, about 400 μm, about 450 μm, or about 500 μm. In other aspects, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., about 500 μm, about 600 μm, about 700 μm, about 800 μm, about 900 μm, about 1000 μm, about 1500 μm, about 2000 μm, about 2500 μm, or about 3000 μm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., at least 50 μm, at least 75 μm, at least 100 μm, at least 150 μm, at least 200 μm, at least 250 μm, at least 300 μm, at least 350 μm, at least 400 μm, at least 450 μm, or at least 500 μm. In still other aspects, an elastomer matrix comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., at least 500 μm, at least 600 μm, at least 700 μm, at least 800 μm, at least 900 μm, at least 1000 μm, at least 1500 μm, at least 2000 μm, at least 2500 μm, or at least 3000 μm. In further aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., at most 50 μm, at most 75 μm, at most 100 μm, at most 150 μm, at most 200 μm, at most 250 μm, at most 300 μm, at most 350 μm, at most 400 μm, at most 450 μm, or at most 500 μm. In yet further aspects of this embodiment, an elastomer matrix comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter of, e.g., at most 500 μm, at most 600 μm, at most 700 μm, at most 800 μm, at most 900 μm, at most 1000 μm, at most 1500 μm, at most 2000 μm, at most 2500 μm, or at most 3000 μm. In still further aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens comprising mean fused porogen diameter in a range from, e.g., about 300 μm to about 600 μm, about 200 μm to about 700 μm, about 100 μm to about 800 μm, about 500 μm to about 800 μm, about 50 μm to about 500 μm, about 75 μm to about 500 μm, about 100 μm to about 500 μm, about 200 μm to about 500 μm, about 300 μm to about 500 μm, about 50 μm to about 1000 μm, about 75 μm to about 1000 μm, about 100 μm to about 1000 μm, about 200 μm to about 1000 μm, about 300 μm to about 1000 μm, about 50 μm to about 1000 μm, about 75 μm to about 3000 μm, about 100 μm to about 3000 μm, about 200 μm to about 3000 μm, or about 300 μm to about 3000 μm.
  • In another embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens connected to a plurality of other porogens. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises a mean fused porogen connectivity, e.g., about two other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens, about six other fused porogens, about seven other fused porogens, about eight other fused porogens, about nine other fused porogens, about ten other fused porogens, about 11 other fused porogens, or about 12 other fused porogens. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises a mean fused porogen connectivity, e.g., at least two other fused porogens, at least three other fused porogens, at least four other fused porogens, at least five other fused porogens, at least six other fused porogens, at least seven other fused porogens, at least eight other fused porogens, at least nine other fused porogens, at least ten other fused porogens, at least 11 other fused porogens, or at least 12 other fused porogens. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises a mean fused porogen connectivity, e.g., at most two other fused porogens, at most three other fused porogens, at most four other fused porogens, at most five other fused porogens, at most six other fused porogens, at most seven other fused porogens, at most eight other fused porogens, at most nine other fused porogens, at most ten other fused porogens, at most 11 other fused porogens, or at most 12 other fused porogens.
  • In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens connected to, e.g., about two other fused porogens to about 12 other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about 11 other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about ten other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about nine other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about eight other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about seven other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about six other fused porogens, about two other fused porogens to about five other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about 12 other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about 11 other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about ten other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about nine other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about eight other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about seven other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about six other fused porogens, about three other fused porogens to about five other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about 12 other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about 11 other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about ten other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about nine other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about eight other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about seven other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about six other fused porogens, about four other fused porogens to about five other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about 12 other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about 11 other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about ten other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about nine other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about eight other fused porogens, about five other fused porogens to about seven other fused porogens, or about five other fused porogens to about six other fused porogens.
  • In another embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where the diameter of the connections between the fused porogens is sufficient to allow formation of a porogen scaffold useful in making an elastomer matrix that allows tissue growth within its array of interconnected of pores. In aspects of this embodiment, the porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where the diameter of the connections between the fused porogens is, e.g., about 10% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, or about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter. In other aspects of this embodiment, the porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where the diameter of the connections between the fused porogens is, e.g., at least 10% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 20% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 30% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, at least 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, or at least 90% the mean fused porogen diameter. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, the porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where the diameter of the connections between the fused porogens is, e.g., at most 10% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 20% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 30% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, at most 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, or at most 90% the mean fused porogen diameter.
  • In still other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold comprises fused porogens where the diameter of the connections between the fused porogens is, e.g., about 10% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 35% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 40% to about 90% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 10% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 35% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 40% to about 80% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 10% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 35% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 40% to about 70% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 10% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 35% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 40% to about 60% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 10% to about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 30% to about 50% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 10% to about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 15% to about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 20% to about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, about 25% to about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter, or about 30% to about 40% the mean fused porogen diameter.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, removing a porogen scaffold from a cured elastomer. Removal of the porogen scaffold can be accomplished by any suitable means, with the proviso that the resulting porous material comprises a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores useful in allowing substantial tissue growth into the interconnected pores in a time sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring. As such, the resulting elastomer matrix should support aspects of tissue growth such as, e.g., cell migration, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, nutrient exchange, and/or waste removal. Non-limiting examples of porogen removal include solvent extraction, thermal decomposition extraction, degradation extraction, mechanical extraction, and/or any combination thereof. The resulting porous material comprising a substantially non-degradable, biocompatible, an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores is as described above in the present specification. In extraction methods requiring exposure to another solution, such as, e.g., solvent extraction, the extraction can incorporate a plurality of solution changes over time to facilitate removal of the porogen scaffold. Non-limiting examples of solvents useful for solvent extraction include water, methylene chloride, acetic acid, formic acid, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylsulfoxide, dioxane, benzene, and/or mixtures thereof. A mixed solvent can be in a ratio of higher than about 1:1, first solvent to second solvent or lower than about 1:1, first solvent to second solvent.
  • In an embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by extraction, where the extraction removes substantially all the porogen scaffold leaving an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% of the porogen scaffold, about 90% of the porogen scaffold, or about 95% of the porogen scaffold. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., at least 75% of the porogen scaffold, at least 80% of the porogen scaffold, at least 85% of the porogen scaffold, at least 90% of the porogen scaffold, or at least 95% of the porogen scaffold. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, or about 85% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold. In an aspect, a porogen scaffold is removed by a solvent extraction, a thermal decomposition extraction, a degradation extraction, a mechanical extraction, and/or any combination thereof.
  • In another embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by solvent extraction, where the extraction removes substantially all the porogen scaffold leaving an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by solvent extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% of the porogen scaffold, about 90% of the porogen scaffold, or about 95% of the porogen scaffold. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by solvent extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., at least 75% of the porogen scaffold, at least 80% of the porogen scaffold, at least 85% of the porogen scaffold, at least 90% of the porogen scaffold, or at least 95% of the porogen scaffold. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by solvent extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, or about 85% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold.
  • In yet another embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by thermal decomposition extraction, where the extraction removes substantially all the porogen scaffold leaving an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by thermal extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% of the porogen scaffold, about 90% of the porogen scaffold, or about 95% of the porogen scaffold. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by thermal extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., at least 75% of the porogen scaffold, at least 80% of the porogen scaffold, at least 85% of the porogen scaffold, at least 90% of the porogen scaffold, or at least 95% of the porogen scaffold. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by thermal extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, or about 85% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold.
  • In still another embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by degradation extraction, where the extraction removes substantially all the porogen scaffold leaving an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by degradation extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% of the porogen scaffold, about 90% of the porogen scaffold, or about 95% of the porogen scaffold. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by degradation extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., at least 75% of the porogen scaffold, at least 80% of the porogen scaffold, at least 85% of the porogen scaffold, at least 90% of the porogen scaffold, or at least 95% of the porogen scaffold. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by degradation extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, or about 85% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold.
  • In still another embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by mechanical extraction, where the extraction removes substantially all the porogen scaffold leaving an elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by mechanical extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% of the porogen scaffold, about 90% of the porogen scaffold, or about 95% of the porogen scaffold. In other aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by mechanical extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., at least 75% of the porogen scaffold, at least 80% of the porogen scaffold, at least 85% of the porogen scaffold, at least 90% of the porogen scaffold, or at least 95% of the porogen scaffold. In aspects of this embodiment, a porogen scaffold is removed by mechanical extraction, where the extraction removes, e.g., about 75% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 75% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, about 80% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 90% of the porogen scaffold, about 85% to about 95% of the porogen scaffold, or about 85% to about 100% of the porogen scaffold.
  • The present specification discloses in part, biocompatible implantable device comprising a layer of porous material as disclosed in the present specification, wherein the porous material covers a surface of the device. See, e.g., FIG. 2, FIGS. 4-8. As used herein, the term “implantable” refers to any material that can be embedded into, or attached to, tissue, muscle, organ or any other part of an animal body. As used herein, the term “animal” includes all mammals including a human. A biocompatible implantable device is synonymous with “medical device”, “biomedical device”, “implantable medical device” or “implantable biomedical device” and includes, without limitation, pacemakers, dura matter substitutes, implantable cardiac defibrillators, tissue expanders, and tissue implants used for prosthetic, reconstructive, or aesthetic purposes, like breast implants, muscle implants or implants that reduce or prevent scarring. Examples of biocompatible implantable devices that the porous material disclosed herein can be attached to are described in, e.g., Schuessler, Rotational Molding System for Medical Articles, U.S. Pat. No. 7,628,604; Smith, Mastopexy Stabilization Apparatus and Method, U.S. Pat. No. 7,081,135; Knisley, Inflatable Prosthetic Device, U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,068; Falcon, Reinforced Radius Mammary Prostheses and Soft Tissue Expanders, U.S. Pat. No. 6,605,116; Schuessler, Rotational Molding of Medical Articles, U.S. Pat. No. 6,602,452; Murphy, Seamless Breast Prosthesis, U.S. Pat. No. 6,074,421; Knowlton, Segmental Breast Expander For Use in Breast Reconstruction, U.S. Pat. No. 6,071,309; VanBeek, Mechanical Tissue Expander, U.S. Pat. No. 5,882,353; Hunter, Soft Tissue Implants and Anti-Scarring Agents, Schuessler, Self-Sealing Shell For Inflatable Prostheses, U.S. Patent Publication 2010/0049317; U.S. 2009/0214652; Schraga, Medical Implant Containing Detection Enhancing Agent and Method For Detecting Content Leakage, U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0157180; Schuessler, All-Barrier Elastomeric Gel-Filled Breast Prosthesis, U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0030515; Connell, Differential Tissue Expander Implant, U.S. Patent Publication 2007/0233273; and Hunter, Medical implants and Anti-Scarring Agents, U.S. Patent Publication 2006/0147492; Van Epps, Soft Filled Prosthesis Shell with Discrete Fixation Surfaces, International Patent Publication WO/2010/019761; Schuessler, Self Sealing Shell for Inflatable Prosthesis, International Patent Publication WO/2010/022130; Yacoub, Prosthesis Implant Shell, International Application No. PCT/US09/61045, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • A biocompatible implantable device disclosed herein can be implanted into the soft tissue of an animal during the normal operation of the device. Such implantable devices may be completely implanted into the soft tissue of an animal body (i.e., the entire device is implanted within the body), or the device may be partially implanted into an animal body (i.e., only part of the device is implanted within an animal body, the remainder of the device being located outside of the animal body). A biocompatible implantable device disclosed herein can also be affixed to soft tissue of an animal during the normal operation of the medical device. Such devices are typically affixed to the skin of an animal body.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, a porous material that covers a surface of the biocompatible implantable device. Any of the porous materials disclosed herein can be used as the porous material covering a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In general, the surface of a biocompatible implantable device is one exposed to the surrounding tissue of an animal in a manner that promotes tissue growth, and/or reduces or prevents formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material covers the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In another embodiment, a porous material covers a portion of a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material covers to a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In other aspects, a porous material covers only to, e.g., about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70% about 80% or about 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In yet other aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70% at least 80% or at least 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In still other aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., at most 20%, at most 30%, at most 40%, at most 50%, at most 60%, at most 70% at most 80% or at most 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In further aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., about 20% to about 100%, about 30% to about 100%, about 40% to about 100%, about 50% to about 100%, about 60% to about 100%, about 70% to about 100%, about 80% to about 100%, or about 90% to about 100% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device.
  • The layer of porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device can be of any thickness with the proviso that the material thickness allows tissue growth within the array of interconnected of pores of an elastomer matrix in a manner sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a layer of porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device is of a thickness that allows tissue growth within the array of interconnected of pores of an elastomer matrix in a manner sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring. In aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., about 100 μm, about 200 μm, about 300 μm, about 400 μm, about 500 μm, about 600 μm, about 700 μm, about 800 μm, about 900 μm, about 1 mm, about 2 mm, about 3 mm, about 4 mm, about 5 mm, about 6 mm, about 7 mm, about 8 mm, about 9 mm, or about 10 mm. In other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., at least 100 μm, at least 200 μm, at least 300 μm, at least 400 μm, at least 500 μm, at least 600 μm, at least 700 μm, at least 800 μm, at least 900 μm, at least 1 mm, at least 2 mm, at least 3 mm, at least 4 mm, at least 5 mm, at least 6 mm, at least 7 mm, at least 8 mm, at least 9 mm, or at least 10 mm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., at most 100 μm, at most 200 μm, at most 300 μm, at most 400 μm, at most 500 μm, at most 600 μm, at most 700 μm, at most 800 μm, at most 900 μm, at most 1 mm, at most 2 mm, at most 3 mm, at most 4 mm, at most 5 mm, at most 6 mm, at most 7 mm, at most 8 mm, at most 9 mm, or at most 10 mm. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material covering a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., about 100 μm to about 500 μm, about 100 μm to about 1 mm, about 100 μm to about 5 mm, about 500 μm to about 1 mm, about 500 μm to about 2 mm, about 500 μm to about 3 mm, about 500 μm to about 4 mm, about 500 μm to about 5 mm, about 1 mm to about 2 mm, about 1 mm to about 3 mm, about 1 mm to about 4 mm, about 1 mm to about 5 mm, or about 1.5 mm to about 3.5 mm.
  • The present specification discloses in part, a method for making biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material. In an aspect, a method for making biocompatible implantable device comprises the step of attaching a porous material to the surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In another aspect, a method for making biocompatible implantable device comprises the steps of a) preparing a surface of a biocompatible implantable device to receive porous material; b) attaching a porous material to the prepared surface of the device. Any of the porous materials disclosed herein can be used as the porous material attached to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device.
  • In yet another aspect, a method for making biocompatible implantable device comprising the step of: a) coating a mandrel with an elastomer base; b) curing the elastomer base to form a base layer; c) coating the cured base layer with an elastomer base; d) coating the elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture; e) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer; and f) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores. In this method steps (c) and (d) can be repeated multiple times until the desired thickness of the material layer is achieved.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, preparing a surface of a biocompatible implantable device to receive porous material. Preparing a surface of a biocompatible implantable device to receive porous material can be accomplished by any technique that does not destroy the desired properties of the porous material or the biocompatible implantable device. As a non-limiting example, a surface of a biocompatible implantable device can be prepared by applying a bonding substance. Non-limiting examples of bonding substances include silicone adhesives, such as, e.g., RTV silicone and HTV silicone. The bonding substance is applied to the surface of a biocompatible implantable device, the porous material, or both, using any method known in the art, such as, e.g., cast coating, spray coating, dip coating, curtain coating, knife coating, brush coating, vapor deposition coating, and the like.
  • The present specification discloses, in part, attaching a porous material to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. The porous material can be attached to the entire surface of the device, or only to portions of the surface of the device. As a non-limiting example, porous material is attached only to the front surface of the device or only the back surface of the device. Attachment of a porous material to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device can be accomplished by any technique that does not destroy the desired properties of the porous material or the biocompatible implantable device.
  • For example, attachment can occur by adhering an already formed porous material onto a surface of a biocompatible implantable device using methods known in the art, such as, e.g., gluing, bonding, melting. For instance, a dispersion of silicone is applied as an adhesive onto a surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a porous material sheet, or both, and then the two materials are placed together in a manner that allows the adhesive to attached the porous material to the surface of the device in such a way that there are no wrinkles on the surface of the device. The silicone adhesive is allowed to cure and then the excess material is cut off creating a uniform seam around the device. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material disclosed in the present specification. Examples 2 and 4 illustrate method of this type of attachment.
  • Alternatively, attachment can occur by forming the porous material directly onto a surface of a biocompatible implantable device using methods known in the art, such as, e.g., cast coating, spray coating, dip coating, curtain coating, knife coating, brush coating, vapor deposition coating, and the like. For instance, an elastomer base is applied to a mandrel and cured to form a base layer of cured elastomer. The base layer is then initially coated with an elastomer base and then subsequently with porogens to create a elastomer coated porogen mixture. This mixture is then treated as disclosed herein to form a porogen scaffold and cure the elastomer. The porogen scaffold is then removed, leaving a layer of porous material on the surface of the device. The thickness of the porous material layer can be increased by repeated coatings of additional elastomer base and porogens. Examples 5-8 illustrate method of this type of attachment.
  • Regardless of the method of attachment, the porous material can be applied to the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or only to portions of the surface of a biocompatible implantable device. As a non-limiting example, porous material is applied only to the front surface of a biocompatible implantable device or only the back surface of a biocompatible implantable device.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a porous material is attached to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device by bonding a porous material to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material is attached to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device by gluing, bonding, or melting the porous material to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material is attached to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device by forming the porous material onto a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material is attached to a surface of a biocompatible implantable device by cast coating, spray coating, dip coating, curtain coating, knife coating, brush coating, or vapor deposition coating.
  • In another aspect of this embodiment, forming a porous material on a surface of a biocompatible implantable device comprises coating a cured elastomer base layer with an elastomer base and then coating the uncured elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture. In other aspects of this embodiment, coating a cured elastomer base layer with an uncured elastomer base and then coating the uncured elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture can be repeated, e.g., at least once, at least twice, at least three times, at least four times, at least five times, at least six times, at least seven times, at least eight times, at least nine times, or at least ten times, before the mixture is treated.
  • In another embodiment, a porous material is applied to the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In another embodiment, a porous material is applied to a portion of a surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In aspects of this embodiment, a porous material is applied to a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In other aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70% about 80% or about 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In yet other aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70% at least 80% or at least 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In still other aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., at most 20%, at most 30%, at most 40%, at most 50%, at most 60%, at most 70% at most 80% or at most 90% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device. In further aspects, a porous material is applied only to, e.g., about 20% to about 100%, about 30% to about 100%, about 40% to about 100%, about 50% to about 100%, about 60% to about 100%, about 70% to about 100%, about 80% to about 100%, or about 90% to about 100% of the entire surface of a biocompatible implantable device, a front surface of a biocompatible implantable device, or a back surface of a biocompatible implantable device.
  • The layer of porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device can be of any thickness with the proviso that the material thickness allows tissue growth within the array of interconnected of pores of an elastomer matrix in a manner sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Thus, in an embodiment, a layer of porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device is of a thickness that allows tissue growth within the array of interconnected of pores of an elastomer matrix in a manner sufficient to reduce or prevent formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring. In aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., about 100 μm, about 200 μm, about 300 μm, about 400 μm, about 500 μm, about 600 μm, about 700 μm, about 800 μm, about 900 μm, about 1 mm, about 2 mm, about 3 mm, about 4 mm, about 5 mm, about 6 mm, about 7 mm, about 8 mm, about 9 mm, or about 10 mm. In other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., at least 100 μm, at least 200 μm, at least 300 μm, at least 400 μm, at least 500 μm, at least 600 μm, at least 700 μm, at least 800 μm, at least 900 μm, at least 1 mm, at least 2 mm, at least 3 mm, at least 4 mm, at least 5 mm, at least 6 mm, at least 7 mm, at least 8 mm, at least 9 mm, or at least 10 mm. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., at most 100 μm, at most 200 μm, at most 300 μm, at most 400 μm, at most 500 μm, at most 600 μm, at most 700 μm, at most 800 μm, at most 900 μm, at most 1 mm, at most 2 mm, at most 3 mm, at most 4 mm, at most 5 mm, at most 6 mm, at most 7 mm, at most 8 mm, at most 9 mm, or at most 10 mm. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a layer porous material applied to a biocompatible implantable device comprises a thickness of, e.g., about 100 μm to about 500 μm, about 100 μm to about 1 mm, about 100 μm to about 5 mm, about 500 μm to about 1 mm, about 500 μm to about 2 mm, about 500 μm to about 3 mm, about 500 μm to about 4 mm, about 500 μm to about 5 mm, about 1 mm to about 2 mm, about 1 mm to about 3 mm, about 1 mm to about 4 mm, about 1 mm to about 5 mm, or about 1.5 mm to about 3.5 mm.
  • The present specification also discloses a method of implanting a prosthesis, the method comprising the step of implanting the prosthesis in a patient, the prosthesis covered by a porous material disclosed herein; wherein at any time after implantation, if a capsule has formed, the capsule has a thickness of 75 μm or less, has fiber disorganization comprising 50% or more of the fibers that are not parallel to the prosthesis surface, has tissue growth into the biomaterial of the prosthesis of 100 μm or more, has less than 40% collagen content, adheres to tissue with a peak force of at least 8 N and/or and has a stiffness of 20 mmHg/mL or less.
  • The present specification also discloses a method of implanting a prosthesis, the method comprising the step of implanting the prosthesis in a patient, the prosthesis covered by a porous material disclosed herein; wherein at any time after implantation, if a capsule has formed, the capsule has a thickness of 50 μm or less, has fiber disorganization comprising 60% or more of the fibers that are parallel to the prosthesis surface, has tissue growth into the biomaterial of the prosthesis of 125 μm or more, has less than 30% collagen content, adheres to tissue with a peak force of at least 9 N and/or and has a stiffness of 15 mmHg/mL or less.
  • The present specification also discloses a method of implanting a prosthesis, the method comprising the step of implanting the prosthesis in a patient, the prosthesis covered by a porous material disclosed herein; wherein at any time after implantation, if a capsule has formed, the capsule has a thickness of 25 μm or less, has fiber disorganization comprising 70% or more of the fibers that are not parallel to the prosthesis surface, has tissue growth into the biomaterial of the prosthesis of 150 μm or more, has less than 20% collagen content, adheres to tissue with a peak force of at least 10 N and/or and has a stiffness of 10 mmHg/mL or less.
  • The present specification also discloses a method of implanting a prosthesis, the method comprising the step of implanting the prosthesis in a patient, the prosthesis covered by a porous material disclosed herein; wherein at any time after implantation, if a capsule has formed, the capsule has a thickness of about 5 μm to about 75 μm, has fiber disorganization comprising about 50% to about 90% of the fibers that are not parallel to the prosthesis surface, has tissue growth into the biomaterial of the prosthesis of about 100 μm to about 300 μm, has about 5% to about 40% collagen content, adheres to tissue with a peak force of about 8 N to about 11 N, and/or and has a stiffness of about 5 mmHg/mL to about 20 mmHg/mL.
  • EXAMPLES
  • The following examples illustrate representative embodiments now contemplated, but should not be construed to limit the disclosed porous materials, methods of forming such porous materials, biocompatible implantable devices comprising such porous materials, and methods of making such biocompatible implantable devices.
  • Example 1 A Method of Making a Porous Material Sheet
  • This example illustrates how to make a sheet of porous material disclosed in the present specification.
  • To coat porogens with an elastomer base, an appropriate amount of PLGA (50/50) porogens (500 μm diameter) is mixed with an appropriate amount of 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED 6400; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.). The mixture is filtered through a 43 μm sieve to remove the excess silicone and is poured into about 20 cm×20 cm square mold coated with a non-stick surface.
  • To treat an elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the non-degradable biocompatible elastomer, the PLGA/silicone mixture is placed into an oven and is heated at a temperature of 75° C. for 45 min, and then 126° C. for 75 minutes. After curing, the sheet of cured elastomer coated porogen scaffold is removed.
  • To remove a porogen scaffold from the cured elastomer, the cured elastomer/porogen scaffold is immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride is removed and fresh methylene chloride is added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride is removed and the resulting 30 cm×30 cm×1.5 mm sheet of porous material is air dried at ambient temperature. This process results in a porous material sheet as disclosed in the present specification.
  • A sample from the sheet of porous material can be characterized by microCT analysis and/or scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
  • Example 2 A Method of Making a Biocompatible Implantable Device Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material disclosed in the present specification.
  • Sheets of porous material comprising an elastomer matrix defining an interconnected array of pores is obtained as described in Example 1.
  • To attach a porous material to a biocompatible implantable device, a first porous material sheet is coated with a thin layer of silicone and then placed in the bottom cavity of a mold, adhesive side up. A biocompatible implantable device is then placed on top of the material surface coated with the adhesive. A second porous material sheet is then coated with a thin layer of silicone and applied to the uncovered surface of the biocompatible implantable device. The top piece of the mold cavity is then fixed in place pressing the two material sheets together creating a uniform interface. The silicone adhesive is allowed to cure by placing the covered device into an oven and heated at a temperature of 126° C. for 75 minutes. After curing, excess material is trimmed off creating a uniform seam around the biocompatible implantable device. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device 10 as disclosed herein (FIG. 2). FIG. 2A is a top view of an implantable device covered with a porous material 10. FIG. 2B is a side view of an implantable device covered with a porous material 10 to show a bottom 12 of the implantable device 10 and a top 14 of the implantable device 10. FIGS. 2C and 2D illustrate the cross-sectional view of the biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material 10 to show an implantable device 16, a porous material layer 20 including an internal surface 22 and an external surface 24, where the internal surface 22 is attached to an implantable device surface 18. Due to the presence of the porous material on the device surface of the biocompatible implantable device there will be a reduction or prevention of the formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Alternatively, the porous material can be laminated onto a biocompatible implantable device while the device is still on a mandrel. In this process, a first porous material sheet is coated with a thin layer of silicone and then draped over the device on the mandrel in such a way that there are no wrinkles on the surface. After curing the silicone adhesive, as described above, another coating of silicone is applied to the uncovered surface of the biocompatible implantable device and a second porous material is stretched up to cover the back of the device. After curing the silicone adhesive, as described above, the biocompatible implantable device is then taken off the mandrel and the excess porous material is trimmed to create a uniform seam around the device. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. See, e.g., FIG. 2.
  • Example 3 A Method of Making a Porous Material Shell
  • This example illustrates how to make a porous material shell disclosed in the present specification.
  • To coat porogens with a non-degradable biocompatible elastomer, an appropriate amount of PLGA (50/50) porogens (500 μm diameter) is mixed with an appropriate amount of 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED 6400; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.). The mixture is filtered through a 43 μm sieve to remove the excess silicone.
  • The filtered elastomer coated porogen mixture is poured into a mold in the shape of a breast implant shell and the mold is mechanically agitated to pack firmly the mixture. The thickness of the shell is controlled based upon the design of the shell mold.
  • To treat an elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the non-degradable biocompatible elastomer, the PLGA/silicone mixture is placed into an oven and is heated at a temperature of 75° C. for 45 min, and then 126° C. for 75 minutes. After curing, the shell mold is dismantled and the cured elastomer coated porogen scaffold is removed.
  • To remove a porogen scaffold from the cured elastomer, the cured elastomer/porogen scaffold is immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride is removed and fresh methylene chloride is added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride is removed and the resulting 30 cm×30 cm×1.5 mm sheet of porous material is air dried at an ambient temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. This process results in a porous material shell 10 as disclosed herein (FIG. 3). FIG. 3A is a top view of a material shell 10. FIG. 2B is a side view of a material shell 10 to show a bottom 12 of the material shell 10 and a top 14 of the material shell 10. FIG. 3C is a bottom view of a material shell 10 to show a hole 16 from which a biocompatible implantable device may be subsequently inserted through. FIG. 3D illustrate the cross-sectional view of the material shell 10 to show the hole 16, an internal surface 20 of the material shell 10 and an external surface 22 of the material shell 10.
  • A sample from the sheet of porous material can be characterized by microCT analysis and/or scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
  • Example 4 A Method of Making a Biocompatible Implantable Device Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material disclosed in the present specification.
  • A porous material shell comprising an elastomer matrix defining an interconnected array of pores is obtained as described in Example 3.
  • To attach the porous material shell to a biocompatible implantable device, the surface of the device is coated with a thin layer of silicone. The material shell is then placed over the adhesive coated device in a manner that ensures no wrinkles in the material form. The silicone adhesive is allowed to cure by placing the covered device into an oven and heating at a temperature of 126° C. for 75 minutes. After curing, excess material is trimmed off creating a uniform seam around the biocompatible implantable device. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material 10 as disclosed herein (FIG. 4). FIG. 4A is a top view of an implantable device covered with a porous material 10. FIG. 4B is a side view of an implantable device covered with a porous material 10 to show a bottom 12 of the implantable device 10 and a top 14 of the implantable device 10. FIG. 4C is a bottom view of a biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material 10 to show a hole 16 and an implantable device 18. FIG. 4D illustrates the cross-sectional view of the biocompatible implantable device covered with a porous material 10 to show an implantable device 18, a porous material layer 20 including an internal surface 22 and an external surface 24, where the internal surface 22 is attached to implantable device surface 19. Due to the presence of the porous material on the device surface of the biocompatible implantable device there will be a reduction or prevention of the formation of fibrous capsules that can result in capsular contracture or scarring.
  • Example 5 A Method of Making an Implant Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make an implant comprising a porous material disclosed herein of about 0.5 mm to about 1.5 mm in thickness.
  • To prepare the surface of a device to receive a porous material, a base layer of 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED4810; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.) was coated on a mandrel (LR-10), placed into an oven, and cured at a temperature of 126° C. for 75 minutes.
  • To coat the base layer with a mixture comprising a non-degradable biocompatible elastomer and porogens, the cured base layer was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED4810; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.) and then air dried for about 3 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the Mandrel with the uncured silicone was dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the uncured silicon/PGLA coating was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate.
  • To treat an elastomer coated porogen mixture to allow fusing of the porogens to form a porogen scaffold and curing of the non-degradable biocompatible elastomer, the Mandrel coated with the uncured silicone/PLGA mixture was placed into an oven and cured at a temperature of 75° C. for 30 min, and then 126° C. for 75 minutes.
  • To remove porogen scaffold, the cured silicone/PLGA mixture was immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was again removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and the resulting implant comprising a porous material of about 0.5 mm to about 1.5 mm was air dried at an ambient temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. See, e.g., FIG. 2 and FIG. 4.
  • A sample from the implant was characterized by SEM. This analysis revealed that the porous material was about 1.4 mm to about 1.6 mm in thickness.
  • To increase the thickness of the porous material covering the base layer, multiple dippings were performed to produce a mandrel coated with multiple layers of an uncured silicone/porogen mixture. Dippings were repeated until the desired thickness is achieved. Examples 4-6 below describe specific examples of this multiple dipping technique.
  • Example 6 A Method of Making an Implant Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make an implant comprising a porous material disclosed herein of about 1 mm to about 2.5 mm in thickness.
  • A mandrel comprising a base layer of elastomer was prepared as described in Example 3.
  • To coat the base layer with a mixture comprising a non-degradable biocompatible elastomer and porogens, the cured base layer was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED4810; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.) and then air dried for about 3 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel with the uncured silicone was dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the uncured silicon/PGLA coating was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the second coating of uncured silicon/PGLA porogen mixture was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate.
  • The mandrel comprising the two coats of uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was treated as described in Example 3.
  • To remove porogen scaffold, the cured silicone/PLGA mixture was immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was again removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and the resulting implant comprising a porous material of about 1 mm to about 2.5 mm was air dried at an ambient temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. See, e.g., FIG. 2 and FIG. 4.
  • A sample from the implant was characterized by SEM and microCT analysis. This analysis revealed that the porous material was about 2 mm to about 2.5 mm in thickness with a porosity of about 88%.
  • Porous materials of a similar characteristic were also produced using PCL porogens instead of PLGA porogens.
  • Example 7 A Method of Making an Implant Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make an implant comprising a porous material disclosed herein of about 2.5 mm to about 4.5 mm in thickness.
  • A mandrel comprising a base layer of elastomer was prepared as described in Example 3.
  • To coat the base layer with a mixture comprising a non-degradable biocompatible elastomer and porogens, the cured base layer was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED4810; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.) and then air dried for about 3 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel with the uncured silicone was dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the uncured silicon/PGLA coating was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the second coating of uncured silicon/PGLA was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the two layers of the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 32% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the third coating of uncured silicon/PGLA porogen mixture was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate.
  • The mandrel comprising the two coats of uncured silicone/PLGA porogens was treated as described in Example 3.
  • To remove porogen scaffold, the cured silicone/PLGA mixture was immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was again removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and the resulting implant comprising a porous material of about 2.5 mm to about 4.5 mm was air dried at an ambient temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. See, e.g., FIG. 2 and FIG. 4.
  • A sample from the implant was characterized by SEM and microCT analysis. This analysis revealed that the porous material was about 3.5 mm to about 4.5 mm in thickness.
  • Example 8 A Method of Making an Implant Comprising a Porous Material
  • This example illustrates how to make an implant comprising a porous material disclosed herein of about 3.5 mm to about 5.5 mm in thickness.
  • A mandrel comprising a base layer of elastomer was prepared as described in Example 3.
  • To coat the base layer with a mixture comprising a non-degradable biocompatible elastomer and porogens, the cured base layer was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene (MED4810; NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, Calif.) and then air dried for about 3 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the Mandrel with the uncured silicone was dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the uncured silicon/PGLA coating was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 35% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the second coating of uncured silicon/PGLA was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the two layers of the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 32% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the third coating of uncured silicon/PGLA porogen mixture was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate. After xylene evaporation, the mandrel coated with the three layers of the uncured silicone/PLGA porogen mixture was dipped first in 28% (w/w) silicon in xylene, air dried to allow xylene evaporation (about 3 minutes), and then dipped in PLGA porogens until the maximum amount of porogens were absorbed into the uncured silicone. The mandrel with the fourth coating of uncured silicon/PGLA porogen mixture was air dried for about 60 minutes to allow the xylene to evaporate.
  • The mandrel comprising the two coats of uncured silicone/PLGA porogens was treating as described in Example 3.
  • To remove porogen scaffold, the cured silicone/PLGA mixture was immersed in methylene chloride. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was again removed and fresh methylene chloride was added. After 30 minutes, the methylene chloride was removed and the resulting implant comprising a porous material of about 3.5 mm to about 5.5 mm was air dried at an ambient temperature of about 18° C. to about 22° C. This process results in a biocompatible implantable device comprising a porous material as disclosed in the present specification. See, e.g., FIG. 2 and FIG. 4.
  • A sample from the implant was characterized by microCT analysis. This analysis revealed that the porous material was about 4.5 mm to about 5.5 mm in thickness.
  • Example 9 Capsule Thickness and Disorganization
  • In order to measure the thickness and disorganization of capsules formed, disks (1 cm in diameter) of various porous biomaterials were implanted subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley rats using standard procedures. The biomaterials tested were taken from commercially available implants or experimentally produced as follows: Smooth 1, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (NATRELLE®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Smooth 2, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (MEMORYGEL®, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 1, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from a lost-salt method (BIOCELL®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 2, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from an imprinting method (SILTEX®, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 3, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from either an imprinting or gas foam method (SILIMED®, Sientra, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 4, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from an imprinting method (Perouse Plastie, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 5, a biomaterial having an open-cell polyurethane surface; Textured 6, a biomaterial having an open-cell textured surface produced according to the methods disclosed herein. Samples were harvested at 6 weeks, fixed in formalin, and processed to produce paraffin blocks. The paraffin blocks were sectioned using a microtome at 2 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E).
  • Capsules were characterized by measuring the thickness and disorganization of the capsule formed over the porous biomaterial. Capsule thickness was measured by acquiring 2 representative 20× images of the H&E stained biomaterials and measuring the thickness of the capsule at 3 points in the image. Capsule disorganization was evaluated by acquiring 3 representative 20× images of the H&E stained biomaterials, and then drawing a reference vector tangent to the implant surface, as well as, drawing vectors along collagen fibers within the capsule. The angle of each vector relative to the reference vector was then measured, and the standard deviation of the angles was calculated, where greater standard deviations reflected a higher degree of disorganization. All image analysis calculations were performed on the Nikon Elements Advanced Research software.
  • All thickness and disorganization measurements were acquired blinded and each measurement was normalized to the data obtained from Textured 1 biomaterial. For the thickness data collected, a one-way ANOVA was run to determine significant effects (p<0.05). If there were any statistically significant effects from the ANOVA analysis, the Tukey's post-hoc test was run for multiple comparisons at α=0.05. For the disorganization data collected, a Levene's Test for Equal Variance was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in disorganization between experimental groups (p<0.05). Between individual groups, the criteria for non-significance were overlap of confidence intervals (95%), adjusted for the number of groups.
  • The capsule thicknesses and disorganization, normalized to the Texture 1 biomaterial within each respective study, are shown in FIG. 5. Smooth Texture 1 and 2 biomaterials, and Textures 1-4 biomaterials (having closed-cell texture) exhibited pronounced capsule formation, and the capsules formed were of equivalent thicknesses of about 100 μm to about 140 μm (FIG. 5A). Texture 5-6 biomaterials exhibited minimal capsule formation with capsules formed having a thickness of less than 10 μm (FIG. 5A). With respect to capsule organization, it was found that Texture 1 biomaterial resulted in a capsule that was more disorganized than Smooth 1 and 2 and Texture 2-4 biomaterials (FIG. 5B). Texture 5 and 6 biomaterials demonstrated extensive ingrowth (about 200 μm) that was interconnected and significantly more disorganized 50% of fibers were not parallel to implant surface) than Smooth 1 and 2 and Texture 1-4 biomaterials (FIG. 5B). These findings show that Smooth 1 and 2 biomaterials (smooth surface) and Textures 1-4 biomaterials (closed-cell textured surfaces) resulted in a capsule with predominantly organized collagen. Textures 5-6 biomaterials (open-cell textured surfaces), in contrast, induce significant ingrowth that can eliminate capsule and disorganize the tissue at the material-tissue interface.
  • Example 10 Capsule Collagen
  • In order to measure the collagen content of capsules formed, disks (1 cm in diameter) of various porous biomaterials were implanted subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley rats using standard procedures. The biomaterials tested were taken from commercially available implants or experimentally produced as follows: Smooth 1, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (NATRELLE®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Smooth 2, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (MEMORYGEL®, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 1, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from a lost-salt method (BIOCELL®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 2, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from an imprinting method (SILTEX®, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 3, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from an imprinting method (Perouse Plastie, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 4, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from either an imprinting or gas foam method (SILIMED®, Sientra, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 5, a biomaterial having an inverse foam polyurethane-polyethylene glycol surface; Textured 6, a biomaterial having an inverse foam polyurethane-polyethylene glycol surface; Textured 7, a biomaterial having an open-cell polyurethane surface; Textured 8, a biomaterial having a non-woven felt surface. Samples were harvested at 6 weeks, fixed in formalin, and processed to produce paraffin blocks. The paraffin blocks were sectioned using a microtome at 2 μm thickness and stained with aniline blue.
  • Capsules were characterized by measuring staining darkness of the capsule formed over the implanted porous biomaterials. The darkness of the capsule was measured from 5 representative 20× images, with overall intensity averaged over the capsules to reflect the depth of staining. To account for variations in parameters, such as section thickness and precise staining times, all measurements were normalized to the intensity measured within the dermis of the same section, which was utilized as a standard due to the consistent staining that was observed in this region. A one-way ANOVA was run to determine significant effects (p<0.05). If there were any statistically significant effects from the ANOVA analysis, the Tukey's post-hoc test was run for multiple comparisons at α=0.05.
  • FIG. 6 shows the mean collagen density of capsules and ingrowth formed over smooth and textured porous biomaterials. It was found that the capsules formed over Smooth 1 and 2 biomaterials and Textured 1-4 biomaterials (closed-cell textured surfaces) showed a statistically significant increase in collagen density over the Texture 5 and 6 biomaterials (inverse foam textured surface), Textured 7 biomaterial (open-cell textured surface), and Textured 8 biomaterial (non-woven felt textured surface). As such, the prevention of capsule formation was shown to be linked to significant ingrowth into an open, interconnected texture, where the ingrowth has a low collagen density.
  • Example 11 Tissue Adhesion
  • In order to evaluate the effect of texture on tissue adhesion to a porous biomaterial, strips of various biomaterial were implanted subcutaneously in a Sprague-Dawley rat using standard procedures. The biomaterials tested were taken from commercially available implants or experimentally produced as follows: Smooth 1, n=38, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (NATRELLE®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 1, n=64, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from a lost-salt method (BIOCELL®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 2, n=6, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from an imprinting method (SILTEX®, Mentor, Inc., Santa Barbara, Calif.); Textured 3, n=6, a biomaterial having an inverse foam polyurethane-polyethylene glycol surface; Textured 4, n=45, a biomaterial having an inverse foam polyurethane-polyethylene glycol surface; Textured 5, n=45, a biomaterial having an open-cell polyurethane surface; Textured 6, n=6, a biomaterial having an open-cell polyurethane surface; Textured 7, n=6, a biomaterial having an open-cell textured surface of 0.8 mm produced according to the methods disclosed herein; Textured 8, n=6, a biomaterial having an open-cell textured surface of 1.5 mm produced according to the methods disclosed herein. Samples were harvested at 4 weeks, and tissue was pulled from the test strip on a mechanical tester with a pullout speed of 2 mm/second. Adhesion strength was measured as the peak force required to separate the implant from the surrounding tissue. A one-way ANOVA was run to determine significant effects (p<0.05). If there were any statistically significant effects from the ANOVA analysis, the Tukey's post-hoc test was run for multiple comparisons at α=0.05.
  • Smooth 1 biomaterial showed little adhesion, as there were no significant protrusions above a micro-scale and had minimal drag on the surrounding tissue (FIG. 7). Textured 1 and 2 biomaterials (closed-cell textured surfaces) exhibited limited amount of tissue interaction and showed greater adhesion than Smooth 1 (FIG. 7). Textured 3 and 4 biomaterials (inverse Foam textured surface) and Textures 5-8 biomaterials (open-cell textured surfaces) showed the highest degree of tissue adhesion (FIG. 7). As such, Textured 5-8 biomaterials promoted significant tissue infiltration/ingrowth because of the highly porous and interconnected textures.
  • Example 12 Capsule Stiffness
  • In order to evaluate stiffness of capsules/ingrowth formed over a porous biomaterial, 7 mL mini-expanders comprising silicone biomaterial of various textures were implanted subcutaneously in a Sprague-Dawley rat using standard procedures. The biomaterials tested were taken from commercially available implants or experimentally produced as follows: Smooth 1, a biomaterial having a smooth surface (NATRELLE®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 1, a biomaterial having a closed-cell textured surface produced from a lost-salt method (BIOCELL®, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.); Textured 2, a biomaterial having an open-cell textured surface of 0.8 mm produced according to the methods disclosed herein; Textured 3, a biomaterial having an open-cell textured surface of 1.5 mm produced according to the methods disclosed herein. At time 0 (immediately post-implantation) and at 6 weeks, saline was incrementally added to each expander, and the resulting pressure exerted on and by the expander at each step was measured with a digital manometer. Stiffness was calculated by fitting a trend-line to the linear region of the pressure-volume curve and measuring the slope of the line. Increases in the stiffness of the capsule/ingrowth were reflected by increases in the slope. To account for expander-to-expander variability, each stiffness measurement was normalized to the stiffness of the expander itself. A one-way ANOVA was run to determine significant effects (p<0.05). If there were any statistically significant effects from the ANOVA analysis, the Tukey's post-hoc test was run for multiple comparisons at α=0.05.
  • Capsules formed over Smooth 1 biomaterial expander showed the greatest stiffness after 6 weeks (FIG. 8). Textured 1 biomaterial expander (closed-cell textured surface) showed lower stiffness than Smooth 1 biomaterial expander but greater stiffness than the Textured 2 and 3 biomaterial expanders (open-cell textured surface) (FIG. 8). This data demonstrates that closed-cell biomaterials result in capsules that are stiffer than those that result from open-cell biomaterials that support ingrowth and prevent capsule formation.
  • Example 13 Bleeding and Capsule Response
  • In order to identify critical morphological and physical characteristics of the porous biomaterials disclosed herein, disks (1 cm in diameter) of various biomaterials were implanted subcutaneously in a Sprague-Dawley rat using standard procedures and the response to such implantation in terms of capsule formation and bleeding were determined. The morphological and physical characteristics tested for each biomaterial are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  • TABLE 1
    Morphological Characteristics of Biomaterials
    Mean
    Mean Mean Mean pore Mean interconnection
    thickness porosity size interconnections/ size
    Biomaterial (mm) (%) (μm) pore (μm)
    Polyurethane 1 2.40 ± 0.10 98.0 ± 0.4 522 ± 87  14.2 ± 3.2  166 ± 48
    Polyurethane 2 2.90 ± 0.01 98.0 ± 0.0 488 ± 119 14.2 ± 1.4  230 ± 69
    Mesh 1 0.89 ± 0.06 72.2 ± 1.5 522 ± 137 N/A N/A
    Mesh 2 1.38 ± 0.10 70.9 ± 2.9 560 ± 134 N/A N/A
    Fused Porogen 1 0.56 ± 0.38 55.6 ± 0.5 530 ± 150 7.0 ± 3.1  325 ± 242
    Fused Porogen 2 0.79 ± 0.06 72.6 ± 5.4 458 ± 48  7.8 ± 1.5 151 ± 59
    Fused Porogen 3 1.10 ± 0.00 77.6 ± 1.0 596 ± 150 4.6 ± 1.9 106 ± 42
    Fused Porogen 4 1.14 ± 0.09 66.4 ± 3.2 424 ± 68  8.0 ± 1.1 111 ± 49
    Fused Porogen 5 1.32 ± 0.02 77.9 ± 0.9 408 ± 64  7.6 ± 2.0 118 ± 44
    Fused Porogen 6 1.60 ± 0.10 77.8 ± 1.2 N/D N/D N/D
    Fused Porogen 7 1.60 ± 0.10 81.2 ± 1.3 608 ± 268 4.9 ± 1.9 130 ± 85
    Fused Porogen 8 1.60 ± 0.00 85.3 ± 1.4 421 ± 48  8.2 ± 2.1 128 ± 38
    Fused Porogen 9 1.61 ± 0.03 80.3 ± 1.0 456 ± 81  7.4 ± 1.6 154 ± 50
    Fused Porogen 1.80 ± 1.20 80.6 ± 0.4 634 ± 124 7.5 ± 2.6  95 ± 33
    10
    Fused Porogen 1.93 ± 0.78 82.8 ± 0.5 456 ± 65  7.1 ± 2.2 133 ± 46
    11
    Fused Porogen 1.95 ± 0.19 76.5 ± 2.0 431 ± 57  7.0 ± 1.2 114 ± 58
    12
    Fused Porogen 2.34 ± 0.06 74.0 ± 0.5 478 ± 112 7.1 ± 2.0 141 ± 47
    13
    Fused Porogen 2.36 ± 0.12 81.1 ± 0.5 399 ± 93  7.4 ± 0.8 126 ± 64
    14
  • TABLE 2
    Physical Characteristics of Biomaterials
    Compressive Response (kPa) Elongation
    at 10% at 20% at Break
    Biomaterial at 5% strain strain strain (%)
    Polyurethane 1 1.74 ± 0.40 2.60 ± 0.53 3.38 ± 0.52 N/D
    Polyurethane 2 1.41 ± 0.13 2.63 ± 0.03 2.89 ± 0.20 454 ± 7 
    Mesh 1 0.07 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.02 0.74 ± 0.08 336 ± 39
    Mesh 2 0.09 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.09 0.74 ± 0.39 439 ± 56
    Fused Porogen 1 0.05 ± 0.00 0.18 ± 0.01 1.01 ± 0.14 N/D
    Fused Porogen 2 0.05 ± 0.03 0.23 ± 0.10 1.59 ± 0.46 N/D
    Fused Porogen 3 0.04 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.36 N/D
    Fused Porogen 4 0.55 ± 0.21 1.55 ± 0.50 5.21 ± 1.18 287 ± 78
    Fused Porogen 5 0.13 ± 0.02 0.59 ± 0.14 3.26 ± 0.64 N/D
    Fused Porogen 6 0.10 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.11 2.24 ± 0.92 N/D
    Fused Porogen 7 0.094 ± 0.00 0.35 ± 0.06 1.86 ± 0.36 N/D
    Fused Porogen 8 0.04 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.04 0.61 ± 0.13 222 ± 33
    Fused Porogen 9 0.11 ± 0.03 0.46 ± 0.12 2.00 ± 0.26 N/D
    Fused Porogen 0.14 ± 0.01 0.43 ± 0.03 1.48 ± 0.01 N/D
    10
    Fused Porogen 0.17 ± 0.00 0.64 ± 0.01 2.15 ± 0.03 N/D
    11
    Fused Porogen 0.42 ± 0.14 1.07 ± 0.29 3.17 ± 0.61 384 ± 20
    12
    Fused Porogen 0.19 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.16 3.48 ± 0.39 N/D
    13
    Fused Porogen 0.06 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.06 0.61 ± 0.10 335 ± 11
    14
  • Implanted porous biomaterials were harvested, fixed in formalin, and processed to produce paraffin blocks. The paraffin blocks were sectioned using a microtome at 2 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Depending on the morphological characteristic being assessed, capsule response was measured by acquiring at least 3 representative 1×, 4×, 20×, or 50× images of sectioned biomaterial, digitally capturing the images, and measuring the characteristic at 3 or more point in each captured image. All image analysis calculations were performed on the Nikon Elements Advanced Research software. Bleeding response and physical characteristics were measured using routine methods. See, e.g., Winnie, Softness Measurements for Open-Cell Foam Materials and Human Soft Tissue, Measurement Science and Technology (2006).
  • The summary of the results obtained from this analysis are given in Table 3. The results indicate that porous biomaterials having a wide range in porosity are well tolerated in that in only a very narrow range of porosity (74-86%) was bleeding observed in some of the biomaterials tested. In terms of capsule formation, increased porosity resulted in decreased capsule formation. Interconnection diameter between pores also influenced the bleeding response in that increased diameter resulted in a decreased bleeding response (Table 3). More strikingly, increasing the number of interconnections per pore decreased both the bleeding response and capsule formation seen in the animals in response to the implanted biomaterials (Table 3). Lastly, a fine balance in the stiffness of a biomaterial, as measured by compressive forces, was needed to provide the optimal in vivo responses. This is because increased stiffness of a biomaterial resulted in decreased bleeding, whereas decreased stiffness was needed in order to decease capsule formation (Table 3).
  • TABLE 3
    Bleeding and Capsule Response of Biomaterials
    Bleeding Response Capsule Response
    No No
    Characteristic Bleeding Bleeding Capsule Capsule
    Mean thickness (mm) 0.6-2.9 1.6-2.3 0.8-2.9 0.6-2.9
    Mean porosity (%) 56-98 74-86 72-98 56-81
    Mean pore size (μm) 408-624 456-608 456-641 408-634
    Mean interconnections/  7-14 4.9-9.5 7.1-14  4.6-9.5
    pore
    Mean interconnection 118-325 130-153 456-641 408-634
    size (μm)
    Compressive at 5% 0.05-2.57 0.10-0.20 0.05-1.70 0.00-2.57
    strain (kPa)
    Compressive at 10% 0.18-8.00 0.10-4.20 0.22-4.17 0.10-8.00
    strain (kPa)
    Compressive at 20% 1.00-16.0 1.90-3.50 1.10-7.60 0.90-16.0
    strain (kPa)
  • Analyzing all the data obtained from these experiments revealed optimal morphological and physical characteristics for a porous material produced from the porogen method disclosed herein, was as follows: having a porosity of about 80% to about 88%, having an interconnection size of about 110 μm to about 140 μm, having about 7 to about 11 interconnections per pore, having a compressive force of about 0.50 kPa to about 0.70 kPa at 5% strain, having a compressive force of about 1.0 kPa to about 2.0 kPa at 10% strain, and having a compressive force of about 3.5 kPa to about 5.5 kPa at 20% strain. In an aspect of this embodiment, optimal morphological and physical characteristics for a porous material produced from the porogen method disclosed herein, was as follows: having a porosity of about 83% to about 85%, having an interconnection size of about 120 μm to about 130 μm, having about 8 to about 10 interconnections per pore, having a compressive force of about 0.55 kPa to about 0.65 kPa at 5% strain, having a compressive force of about 1.3 kPa to about 1.7 kPa at 10% strain, and having a compressive force of about 4.0 kPa to about 5.0 kPa at 20% strain.
  • In closing, it is to be understood that although aspects of the present specification are highlighted by referring to specific embodiments, one skilled in the art will readily appreciate that these disclosed embodiments are only illustrative of the principles of the subject matter disclosed herein. Therefore, it should be understood that the disclosed subject matter is in no way limited to a particular methodology, protocol, and/or reagent, etc., described herein. As such, various modifications or changes to or alternative configurations of the disclosed subject matter can be made in accordance with the teachings herein without departing from the spirit of the present specification. Lastly, the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, which is defined solely by the claims. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to that precisely as shown and described.
  • Certain embodiments of the present invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Of course, variations on these described embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventor expects skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventors intend for the present invention to be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described embodiments in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.
  • Groupings of alternative embodiments, elements, or steps of the present invention are not to be construed as limitations. Each group member may be referred to and claimed individually or in any combination with other group members disclosed herein. It is anticipated that one or more members of a group may be included in, or deleted from, a group for reasons of convenience and/or patentability. When any such inclusion or deletion occurs, the specification is deemed to contain the group as modified thus fulfilling the written description of all Markush groups used in the appended claims.
  • Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing a characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, term, and so forth used in the present specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” As used herein, the term “about” means that the characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, or term so qualified encompasses a range of plus or minus ten percent above and below the value of the stated characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, or term. Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical indication should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and values setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical ranges and values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical range or value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements. Recitation of numerical ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate numerical value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value of a numerical range is incorporated into the present specification as if it were individually recited herein.
  • The terms “a,” “an,” “the” and similar referents used in the context of describing the present invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., “such as”) provided herein is intended merely to better illuminate the present invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the present specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.
  • Specific embodiments disclosed herein may be further limited in the claims using consisting of or consisting essentially of language. When used in the claims, whether as filed or added per amendment, the transition term “consisting of” excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claims. The transition term “consisting essentially of” limits the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s). Embodiments of the present invention so claimed are inherently or expressly described and enabled herein.
  • All patents, patent publications, and other publications referenced and identified in the present specification are individually and expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for the purpose of describing and disclosing, for example, the compositions and methodologies described in such publications that might be used in connection with the present invention. These publications are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing in this regard should be construed as an admission that the inventors are not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention or for any other reason. All statements as to the date or representation as to the contents of these documents is based on the information available to the applicants and does not constitute any admission as to the correctness of the dates or contents of these documents.

Claims (15)

  1. 1. A porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores, wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40% and wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%.
  2. 2. The porous material of claim 1, wherein the elastomer matrix comprises a silicone-based elastomer.
  3. 3. The porous material of claim 1, wherein the material exhibits a reversible elastic elongation of at least 90%.
  4. 4. The porous material of claim 1, wherein the material exhibits an ultimate strength of at least 1 MPa.
  5. 5. The porous material of claim 1, wherein the material exhibits a flexural strength of at most 50 MPa.
  6. 6. The porous material of claim 1, wherein the material exhibits a compressibility of at most 30 kPa.
  7. 7. A biocompatible implantable device comprising a layer of porous material, wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40%, wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%, and wherein the layer of porous material has a thickness of at least 300 μm.
  8. 8. The biocompatible implantable device of claim 7, wherein the device is a breast implant.
  9. 9. A method for making biocompatible implantable device comprising the steps of:
    a) preparing a surface of a biocompatible implantable device to receive a porous material; and
    b) attaching a porous material to the prepared surface of the biocompatible implantable device,
    wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40%, wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%, and wherein the layer of porous material has a thickness of at least 300 μm.
  10. 10. The method for making biocompatible implantable device of claim 9, wherein the device is a breast implant.
  11. 11. A method for forming a porous material, the method comprising the steps of:
    a) coating porogens with an elastomer base to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture;
    b) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer, wherein the porogen scaffold comprises a three-dimensional structure where substantially all the fused porogens are each connected to at least four other fused porogens, and wherein the diameter of substantially all the connections between each fused porogen in between about 15% to about 80% of the mean porogen diameter; and
    c) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores, wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40% and wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%.
  12. 12. A method for making biocompatible implantable device comprising the steps of:
    a) preparing the surface of a device to receive a porous material;
    b) attaching a porous material to the prepared surface of the device, wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40%, wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%, and wherein the layer of porous material has a thickness of at least 300 μm.
  13. 13. A method for making biocompatible implantable device comprising the step of:
    a) coating a mandrel with an elastomer base;
    b) curing the elastomer base to form a base layer;
    c) coating the cured base layer with an elastomer base;
    d) coating the elastomer base with porogens to form an elastomer coated porogen mixture;
    e) treating the elastomer coated porogen mixture to form a porogen scaffold comprising fused porogens and cure the elastomer base, wherein the porogen scaffold comprises a three-dimensional structure where substantially all the fused porogens are each connected to at least four other fused porogens, and wherein the diameter of substantially all the connections between each fused porogen in between about 15% to about 40% of the mean porogen diameter; and
    f) removing the porogen scaffold, wherein porogen scaffold removal results in a porous material, the porous material comprising a non-degradable, biocompatible, elastomer matrix defining an array of interconnected pores, wherein the material has a porosity of at least 40%, wherein the material exhibits an elastic elongation of at least 80%, and wherein the layer of porous material has a thickness of at least 300 μm.
  14. 14. The method of claim 13, wherein steps (c) and (d) are repeated at least once.
  15. 15. The method of claim 13, wherein steps (c) and (d) are repeated at least repeated twice.
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US13565670 US9138308B2 (en) 2010-02-03 2012-08-02 Mucosal tissue adhesion via textured surface
US13625159 US9138309B2 (en) 2010-02-05 2012-09-24 Porous materials, methods of making and uses
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CN102985119A (en) 2013-03-20 application

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