US20110276056A1 - Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration - Google Patents

Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20110276056A1
US20110276056A1 US13/104,787 US201113104787A US2011276056A1 US 20110276056 A1 US20110276056 A1 US 20110276056A1 US 201113104787 A US201113104787 A US 201113104787A US 2011276056 A1 US2011276056 A1 US 2011276056A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
lead
shaft
distal end
slack anchor
method
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US13/104,787
Inventor
Eric J. Grigsby
Daniel M. Brounstein
Fred I. Linker
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
St Jude Medical Luxembourg Holding SMI SARL
Original Assignee
Spinal Modulation LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US33319910P priority Critical
Application filed by Spinal Modulation LLC filed Critical Spinal Modulation LLC
Priority to US13/104,787 priority patent/US20110276056A1/en
Publication of US20110276056A1 publication Critical patent/US20110276056A1/en
Assigned to SPINAL MODULATION, INC. reassignment SPINAL MODULATION, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: GRIGSBY, ERIC J., BROUNSTEIN, DANIEL M., LINKER, FRED I.
Assigned to SPINAL MODULATION LLC reassignment SPINAL MODULATION LLC CHANGE OF NAME (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SPINAL MODULATION, INC.
Assigned to ST. JUDE MEDICAL LUXEMBOURG HOLDINGS SMI S.A.R.L. ("SJM LUX SMI") reassignment ST. JUDE MEDICAL LUXEMBOURG HOLDINGS SMI S.A.R.L. ("SJM LUX SMI") ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: SPINAL MODULATION LLC
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • A61N1/0551Spinal or peripheral nerve electrodes
    • A61N1/0558Anchoring or fixation means therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • A61N1/0551Spinal or peripheral nerve electrodes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • A61N1/056Transvascular endocardial electrode systems
    • A61N1/057Anchoring means; Means for fixing the head inside the heart

Abstract

Devices, systems and methods for reducing migration of leads, catheters and similar devices are provided. In particular, devices, systems and methods are provided for creating a slack anchor which assists in maintaining the lead or catheter in a desired position. In some embodiments, the slack anchor is created within the epidural space. When targeting nerve anatomy within the spinal column or in the vicinity of the epidural space, anchoring within the epidural space allows the associated lead or catheter to be anchored as close to the target therapy site as desired or possible. By anchoring close to the target therapy site, the risk of movement or migration is significantly reduced or eliminated.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/333,199, entitled “Methods, Systems and Devices for Anchoring in the Epidural Space”, filed May 10, 2010, which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
  • NOT APPLICABLE
  • REFERENCE TO A “SEQUENCE LISTING,” A TABLE, OR A COMPUTER PROGRAM LISTING APPENDIX SUBMITTED ON A COMPACT DISK
  • NOT APPLICABLE
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Neuromodulation is a method of treating pain symptoms by therapeutically altering activity in pain pathways with the use of an implantable device. Neuromodulation works by either actively stimulating nerves with electrical energy to produce a natural biological response or by applying targeted pharmaceutical agents in small doses directly to a site of action.
  • Electrical stimulation involves the application of electrodes to the brain, the spinal cord or peripheral nerves of a patient. These precisely placed electrodes are typically mounted on a lead that is connected to a pulse generator and power source, which generates the necessary electrical stimulation. A low-voltage electrical current passes from the generator to the nerve, and can either inhibit pain signals or stimulate neural impulses where they were previously absent. One of the most common types of electrical stimulation is spinal cord stimulation (SCS), which has been used as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain since the 1960s. In the last 30 years, it has become a standard treatment for patients with chronic pain in their back and/or limbs who have not found pain relief from other treatments. While the treatment does not work for everyone, many patients who qualify for neurostimulation therapy receive a reduction in overall pain. Some patients find that they can decrease their pain medication after undergoing spinal cord stimulation. Given these benefits, many individuals suffering from chronic pain find that neurostimulation positively impacts the quality of their lives.
  • In some instances, neuromodulation can alternatively been achieved by delivering pharmacological agents through implanted leads or catheters. In this manner, the agent can be administered in smaller doses because it does not have to be metabolized and pass through the body before reaching the target area. Smaller doses—in the range of 1/300 of an oral dose—can mean fewer side effects, increased patient comfort and improved quality of life.
  • However, neuromodulation is not without its risks and complications. One complication associated with the implantation of leads is lead migration which can cause loss of effective stimulation over time. During migration, the stimulation electrodes, typically at the distal end of the lead, move in relation to the nerve creating a less desirable stimulation effect. Traditional SCS leads are positioned within the epidural space which is a largely unconfined area. In addition, such leads are typically anchored outside of the epidural space, such as to the fascia above the supraspinous ligament or to the supraspinous ligament itself. Consequently, the portion of the lead distal to the anchor is free to move along the entire length of the lead from the point of anchor to the tip in any direction within the epidural space. Such movement can reposition the lead such that stimulation is altered or even negated over time. Similarly, catheters positioned within the epidural space can also suffer from migration leading to agents being delivered outside of the target location,
  • Movement or migration of the lead can be caused by: 1) body motions (flexion, torsion, and so on), 2) tensile force transferred to the distal end of the lead from the proximal portion of the lead (ie from the anchor. IPG connection point, or fascia or ligaments), 3) gravity settling of the lead body, and/or 4) other factors. An anchor or other means to prevent migration is intended to prevent or reduce motion of the distal end of the lead due to these causes.
  • Improved anchoring of leads and catheters are desired. Such anchoring should be noninvasive to avoid damaging or harming the patient anatomy, particularly delicate nerve tissue and, in some instances, reversible so as to allow a revision of the system without having to access the epidural space directly to remove the lead. At least some of these objectives will be met by the present invention.
  • BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides devices, systems and methods for reducing migration of leads, catheters and similar devices. In particular, devices, systems and methods are provided for creating a slack anchor which assists in maintaining the lead or catheter in a desired position. In some embodiments, the slack anchor is created within the epidural space. When targeting nerve anatomy within the spinal column or in the vicinity of the epidural space, anchoring within the epidural space allows the associated lead or catheter to be anchored as close to the target therapy site as desired or possible. By anchoring close to the target therapy site, the risk of movement or migration is significantly reduced or eliminated.
  • The devices, systems and methods described herein are typically used in the treatment of pain. Treatment typically includes electrical stimulation and/or delivery of pharmacological or other agents to a target nerve site with the use of a lead or catheter. Examples herein will be described with the use of a lead providing electrical stimulation to a dorsal root or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the treatment of pain for illustration purposes. However, it may be appreciated that the present invention may be used in the treatment of other conditions, such as itching, Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, demylenating movement disorders, spinal cord injury, asthma, chronic heart failure, obesity and stroke (particularly acute ischemia), peripheral vascular disease, or angina pectoris, to name a few. Likewise, the present invention may be used to anchor devices targeting other therapy sites, such as the spinal cord itself, the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), any sites which are accessible through the epidural space and/or any sites which allow creation of a slack anchor within the epidural space. Further, the present invention may be used to anchor devices targeting peripheral nerves. In such embodiments, the device such as a lead or catheter may not pass through the epidural space and the slack anchor may be formed within the body near the target peripheral nerve. Further, the present invention may be used to anchor any device having characteristics which allow the creation of a slack anchor.
  • In a first aspect of the present invention, a method of creating a slack anchor is provided. In some embodiments, the method includes positioning a lead having a distal end and a shaft so that the distal end is positioned at a target location and the shaft extends along a first path, advancing a sheath having a curved distal end over the shaft, manipulating the sheath so that the curved distal end directs a portion of the shaft lateral to the first path and advancing the lead beyond the curved distal end directing the portion of the shaft lateral to the first path so that the portion of the shaft resides along a second path forming the slack anchor while substantially maintaining position of the distal end at the target location. In some embodiments, the slack anchor is formed within an epidural space.
  • some embodiments, the second path has a serpentine shape. In other embodiments, the second path has a loop shape. It may be appreciated that in some embodiments, the target location comprises a dorsal root ganglion. In such embodiments, the slack anchor may be formed at a location within the spinal column near the dorsal root ganglion. However, the lead may be positioned to target other anatomies and the slack anchor may be formed at other locations.
  • In some embodiments, the slack anchor creates sufficient friction to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location. In other embodiments, migration movement of the shaft is at least partially absorbed by the slack anchor to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
  • In a second aspect of the present invention, a method is provided of positioning a lead within an epidural space. In some embodiments, the method comprises advancing a distal end of the lead from an entry point into the epidural space to a target location so that a portion of a shaft of the lead extends from the entry point to the target location along a first path within the epidural space, and introducing an additional portion of the shaft of the lead into the epidural space in a manner that forms a slack anchor between the target location and the entry point.
  • In some embodiments, the slack anchor creates sufficient friction to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location. In other embodiments, migration movement of the shaft is at least partially absorbed by the slack anchor to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
  • in some embodiments, introducing the additional portion comprises positioning the additional portion of the shaft of the lead along a second path, wherein at least part of the second path is lateral to the first path. It may be appreciated that in some instances the slack anchor has a serpentine shape and in other instances the slack anchor has a loop shape. In some embodiments, the shaft includes a kink point so that introducing the additional portion of the shaft causes the shaft to bend near the kink point which assists in creating the slack anchor.
  • In some embodiments, the method of positioning a lead within an epidural space further comprises advancing a sheath having a curved distal end over the portion of the shaft so that the curved distal end directs the introduction of the additional portion. Optionally, the method further comprises manipulating the curved distal end to direct the introduction of the additional portion in a direction that is substantially lateral to the first path. In some instances, the target location comprises a dorsal root ganglion. In such instances, the slack anchor may be formed at a location within the spinal column near the dorsal root ganglion.
  • In a third aspect of the present invention, a device for treating a target location is provided. In some embodiments, the device comprises a lead comprising a shaft having at least one electrode disposed along its distal end and a structural kink point disposed along the shaft proximal to the at least one electrode so that the structural kink point resides within an epidural space while the at least one electrode is positioned near the target location, wherein the structural kink point assists in creating a slack anchor when a portion of the shaft is advanced into the epidural space while the position of the at least one electrode is substantially maintained near the target location.
  • In some embodiments, the structural kink point comprises a change in material stiffness. In such embodiments, the structural kink point may comprise a flexible region disposed distally to a more rigid region. For example, the shaft may be comprised of at least one tube and the more rigid region may be formed by potting of the at least one tube.
  • In some embodiments, the distal end of the lead is configured for positioning the at least one electrode near a dorsal root ganglion. Optionally, the structural kink point may be disposed so as to create the slack anchor adjacent to a dorsal root associated with the dorsal root ganglion. In some embodiments, the slack anchor has a serpentine shape. In other embodiments, the slack anchor has a loop shape.
  • Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description to follow, together with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an example stimulation system which may utilize a slack anchor.
  • FIGS. 2A-2D illustrate an example lead and delivery devices for accessing a target site and creating a slack anchor.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment of a sheath advanced over a shaft of a lead with an internal stylet forming a first curvature.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates the lead with the internal stylet of FIG. 3 extending beyond the sheath forming a second curvature.
  • FIGS. 5A-5D illustrate an embodiment of a method of creating a slack anchor.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a serpentine shape comprising a single switchback,
  • FIG. 7 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a serpentine shape comprising a plurality of switchbacks.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having an irregular shape.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a loop shape.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor comprised of a variety of serpentine and loop shapes.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates an embodiment of a lead having a slack anchor which has been positioned with a retrograde approach.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates an embodiment of a lead having slack anchor formed by an elongated tip,
  • FIG. 13 illustrates an embodiment of a lead comprising a shaft having areas of differing stiffness.
  • FIGS. 14A-14B illustrate an embodiment of a method of creating a slack anchor using the lead of FIG. 13.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 illustrates an example stimulation system 10 which may utilize a slack anchor for anchoring the lead 100, such as within the epidural space of a patient. In this embodiment, the stimulation system 10 includes a lead 100, having at least one electrode 102 disposed thereon, and an implantable pulse generator (IPG) 112. The lead 100 comprises a shaft 103 having a proximal end 105 and a distal tip 106. The proximal end 105 is insertable into the IPG 112 to provide electrical connection to the lead 100. The IPG 112 contains a processor 114, an antenna 115, programmable stimulation information in memory 116, as well as a power supply 118, e.g., a battery, so that once programmed and turned on, the IPG 112 can operate independently of external hardware. The IPG 112 is turned on and off and programmed to generate the desired stimulation pulses from an external programming device using transcutaneous electromagnetic or RF links. The stimulation information includes signal parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, repetition rate, and burst rates. Example stimulation information is provided in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/607,009 entitled “Selective Stimulation Systems and Signal Parameters For Medical Conditions”, filed Oct. 27, 2009, incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.
  • Desired positioning of the lead 100 near a target site, such as the DRG, and creation of the slack anchor may be achieved with a variety of delivery systems, devices and methods. Referring to FIGS. 2A-2D, an example lead and delivery devices for accessing a target site and creating a slack anchor are illustrated. FIG. 2A illustrates an embodiment of a lead 100 comprising a shaft 103 having a distal end 101 with four electrodes 102 disposed thereon. It may be appreciated that any number of electrodes 102 may be present, including one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight or more. In this embodiment, the distal end 101 has a closed-end distal tip 106. The distal tip 106 may have a variety of shapes including a rounded shape, such as a ball shape (shown) or tear drop shape, and a cone shape, and donut shape to name a few. These shapes provide an atraumatic tip for the lead 100 as well as serving other purposes. The lead 100 also includes a stylet lumen 104 which extends toward the closed-end distal tip 106. A delivery system 120 is also illustrated, including a sheath 122 (FIG. 2B), stylet 124 (FIG. 2C) and introducing needle 126 (FIG. 2D).
  • Referring to FIG. 2B, an embodiment of a sheath 122 is illustrated. In this embodiment, the sheath 122 has a distal end 128 which is pre-curved to have an angle α. In some embodiments, the angle α is in the range of approximately 80 to 165 degrees. The sheath 122 is sized and configured to be advanced over the shaft 103 of the lead 100 until a portion of its distal end 128 abuts the distal tip 106 of the lead 100, as illustrated in FIG. 3. Thus, the ball shaped tip 106 of this embodiment also prevents the sheath 122 from extending thereover, Passage of the sheath 122 over the lead 100 causes the lead 100 to bend in accordance with the precurvature of the sheath 122. Thus, when approaching a target DRG, the sheath 122 assists in steering the lead 100 along the spinal cord S and toward the target DRG, such as in a lateral direction.
  • Referring back to FIG. 2C, an embodiment of a stylet 124 is illustrated. The stylet 124 has a distal end 130 which is pre-curved. In some embodiments, the pre-curvature has a radius of curvature is in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5. The stylet 124 is sized and configured to be advanced within the stylet lumen 104 of the lead 100. Typically the stylet 124 extends therethrough so that its distal end 130 aligns with the distal end 101 of the lead 100. Passage of the stylet 124 through the lead 100 causes the lead 100 to bend in accordance with the precurvature of the stylet 124, Typically, the stylet 124 has a smaller radius of curvature, or a tighter bend, than the sheath 122. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 4, when the stylet 124 is disposed within the lead 100, extension of the lead 100 and stylet 124 through the sheath 122 bends or directs the lead 100 through a first curvature 123. Further extension of the lead 100 and stylet 124 beyond the distal end 128 of the sheath 122 allows the lead 100 to bend further along a second curvature 125. When approaching a target DRG, this allows the laterally directed lead 100 to now curve around toward the target DRG along the nerve root. This two step curvature allows the lead 100 to be successfully positioned so that at least one of the electrodes 102 is on, near or about the target DRG, particularly by making a sharp turn along the nerve root.
  • Thus, the lead 100 does not require stiff or torqueable construction since the lead 100 is not torqued or steered by itself. The lead 100 is positioned with the use of the sheath 122 and stylet 124 which direct the lead 100 through the two step curvature. This eliminates the need for the operator to torque the lead 100 itself and allows the lead 100 to have a lower profile as well as a very soft and flexible construction. This, in turn, minimizes erosion and discomfort created by pressure on nerve tissue, such as the target DRG and/or the nerve root, once the lead 100 is implanted. For example, such a soft and flexible lead 100 will minimize the amount of force translated to the tip of the lead 100 by body movement (e.g. flexion, extension, torsion) which in turn will reduce the variability in position of the lead with respect to the target tissue.
  • Referring back to FIG. 2D, an embodiment of an introducing needle 126 is illustrated. The introducing needle 126 is used to access the epidural space of the spinal cord S. The needle 126 has a hollow shaft 127 and typically has a very slightly curved distal end 132. The shaft 127 is sized to allow passage of the lead 100, sheath 122 and stylet 124 therethrough. In some embodiments, the needle 126 is 14 gauge which is consistent with the size of epidural needles used to place conventional percutaneous leads within the epidural space. However, it may be appreciated that other sized needles may also be used, particularly smaller needles such as 16-18 gauge. Likewise, it may be appreciated that needles having various tips known to practitioners or custom tips designed for specific applications may also be used. The needle 126 also typically includes a Luer-Lok™ fitting 134 or other fitting near its proximal end. The Luer-Lok™ fitting 134 is a female fitting having a tabbed hub which engages threads in a sleeve on a male fitting, such as a syringe.
  • In some embodiments, the above described lead 100 and delivery system 120 is used to create a slack anchor. FIGS. 5A-5D illustrate an embodiment of a method of creating a slack anchor with the use of a lead 100 and delivery system 120 described above. In this embodiment, the lead 100 is delivered to a DRG from an antegrade approach. Each DRG is disposed along a dorsal root DR and typically resides at least partially between the pedicles PD or within a foramen. Each dorsal root DR exits the spinal cord S at an angle θ. This angle θ is considered the nerve root sleeve angulation and varies slightly by patient and by location along the spinal cord. In many instances, the nerve root angulation is significantly less than 90 degrees and sometimes less than 45 degrees. Therefore, advancement of the lead 100 toward the target DRG in this manner involves making a sharp turn along the angle θ. Turns of this severity are achieved with the use of the delivery system 120.
  • In this embodiment, the epidural space is accessed with the use of the introducing needle 126. Once the needle 126 has been successfully inserted into the epidural space, the lead 100 is delivered to the target DRG, as illustrated in FIG. 5A. The stylet 124 is inserted into the lead 100 and the sheath 122 is advanced over the lead 100. The sheath 122 is positioned so that its distal end 128 is near or against the distal tip 106 of the lead 100 causing the lead 100 to follow the curvature of the distal end of sheath 122. The assembled sheath 122/lead 100/stylet 124 is advanced within the epidural space toward a target DRG with the precurvature of the sheath 122 directing the lead 100 laterally outwardly. The lead 100/stylet 124 is then advanced beyond the distal end 128 of the sheath 122. The curvature of the stylet 124 within the lead 100 causes the lead 100 to bend further, along this curvature. This allows the laterally directed lead 100 to now curve around toward the target DRG along the nerve root angulation. This two step curvature allows the lead 100 to be successfully steered to position at least one of the electrodes 102 on, near or about the target DRG. Such methods of deliver are further described and illustrated in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/687,737, entitled “Stimulation Leads, Delivery Systems and Methods of Use”, filed Jan. 14, 2010; incorporated herein by reference for all purposes, along with examples of other delivery systems, devices and methods applicable to use with the present invention.
  • Thus, distal end 101 of the lead 100 is positioned at the target location and the shaft 103 extends along a first path. The sheath 122 and stylet 124 are then retracted, leaving the flexible shaft 103 of the lead 100 extending along the first path. Referring to FIG. 5B, the sheath 122 is manipulated so that the curved distal end 128 directs a portion of the shaft 103 lateral to the first path within the epidural space. FIG. 5B shows the sheath 122 directing a portion of the shaft 103 laterally outward, away from the midline of the spinal cord S. However it may be appreciated that the sheath 122 may be rotated so as to direct a portion of the shaft 103 laterally inward, toward the midline of the spinal cord S. Likewise, the sheath 122 may be manipulated so as to face a variety of other directions.
  • Referring to FIG. 5C, the lead 100 is then advanced beyond the curved distal end 128 of the sheath 122. Since the stylet 124 has been retracted, the shaft 103 of the lead 100 is very flexible, particularly in contrast to the sheath 122. The more rigid distal end 128 of the sheath 122 directs a portion of the flexible shaft 103 lateral to the first path so that this portion of the flexible shaft 103 resides along a second path. Thus, the difference in stiffness or flexibility between the sheath 122 and the shaft 103 of the lead 100 creates a “kink point” or bend area allowing the shaft 103 to bend and curve. This portion of curved lead 100 forms the slack anchor. Thus, the curvatures of the lead 100 provide slack and/or anchoring. The slack absorbs any movement or migration of the lead 100 within the epidural space and prevents or minimizes translation such movement to the distal end 101. This allows the distal end 101 to maintain its position and continue to provide desired stimulation to the target site. The anchoring is achieved by frictional forces created by the curvatures of the lead 100 within the epidural space and the increased surface area created by the slack. The slack and anchoring significantly reduces or eliminates the risk of migration of the leads within the epidural space.
  • It may be appreciated that the slack anchor may alternatively or additionally be formed with the use of the stylet 124. In such embodiments, the stylet 124 is advanced beyond the distal end 128 of the sheath 122 to a desired location within the shaft 103 of the lead 100. The stylet 124 provides increased rigidity to the shaft 103 along the areas where the stylet 124 resides within. Thus, the location where the stylet 124 ends within the shaft 103 creates a natural kink point allowing the shaft 103 to bend and curve. Consequently, the stylet 124 can be manipulated to create a variety of curvatures at any desired location along the shaft 103 of the lead 100.
  • In conventional spinal cord stimulation, the SCS lead is either delivered without a delivery sheath or the lead is delivered with the use of a delivery sheath which does not impart stiffness. Likewise, the lead itself is of consistent stiffness. Without a means for creating difference in stiffness, a kink point cannot be created and therefore a slack anchor cannot be easily formed.
  • In the present invention, a variety of different slack anchors may be formed by manipulating the sheath 122 and/or stylet 124. Once the desired slack anchor is created, the sheath 122 and stylet 124 are removed and the lead 100 is left in place, as illustrated in FIG. 5D. Since the slack anchor is disposed within the epidural space, the lead 100 is anchored as close to the target therapy site, such as the DRG, as possible. In this example, the slack anchor is formed at a location along the spinal cord, adjacent the dorsal root. By anchoring close to the target therapy site, the risk of movement or migration of the distal end 102 of the lead 100 is significantly reduced or eliminated. Such anchoring is particularly useful when accessing the epidural space on the same spinal level as the target therapy site or on a spinal level which is adjacent or nearby the target therapy site. In such instances, the distance between the entry site and the target therapy site is relatively short which increases the risk of migration. Thus, the use of a slack anchor is particularly useful in resisting migration in these instances.
  • The slack anchors of the present invention may have a variety of shapes or forms. In some embodiments, the slack anchor has a serpentine shape. In such embodiments, the shaft 103 of the lead 100 curves through one or more switchbacks, such as forming an S shape, snake shape, or zigzag shape. The switchbacks may be short, such as to form wavy shapes, or long, such as to form lobe shapes. In addition, the number of switchbacks may be minimal, such as one or two, or more plentiful. FIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a serpentine shape comprising a single switchback 300. Here, the distal end 101 of the lead 100 is positioned near a DRG and the shaft 101 extends along the nerve root angulation and along portions of the spinal cord. Had the lead 100 not included a slack anchor, the shaft 103 would reside along a first path extending toward the point of entry to the epidural space. However, in this embodiment, the shaft 103 is positioned along a second path having the serpentine shape which forms the slack anchor. FIG. 7 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a serpentine shape comprising a plurality of switchbacks 300. In this embodiment, four switchbacks 300 are present. Each switchback 300 is relatively long so as to form lobe shapes.
  • In some embodiments, the slack anchor has an irregular shape, such as a combination of shapes. For example, FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having an irregular shape. Here, the distal end 101 of the lead 100 is positioned near a DRG and the shaft 101 extends along the nerve root angulation into the spinal area of the spinal cord S. Again, had the lead 100 not included a slack anchor, the shaft 103 would reside along a first path extending toward the point of entry to the epidural space. However, in this embodiment, the shaft 103 is positioned along a second path having the irregular shape which forms the slack anchor. The second path includes a serpentine shape, wherein the shaft 103 extends through two small switchbacks 300. The second path then extends across the epidural space forming a large switchback or lobe 300′ before extending toward the point of entry. In this embodiment, the slack anchor extends across the width of the spinal cord S providing significant slack and anchoring capabilities.
  • In some embodiments, the slack anchor has a loop shape. For example, FIG. 9 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor having a loop shape. Here, the loop shape is formed by creating a switchback that crosses over itself forming a loop 302. As shown in FIG. 9, the distal end 101 of the lead 100 is positioned near a DRG and the shaft 101 extends along the nerve root angulation into the spinal column. The shaft 101 begins along a first path and then extends along a second path having a loop shape. In this embodiment, the loop 302 extends away from the midline of the spinal cord S. However, it may be appreciated that in some embodiments the loop 302 extends toward the midline of the spinal column S. Likewise, it may be appreciated that any number of loops 302 may be present and the loops 302 may be of any size.
  • in some embodiments, the slack anchor has a combination of serpentine and loop shapes. For example, FIG. 10 illustrates an embodiment of a slack anchor comprised of a variety of serpentine and loop shapes. In this embodiment, the slack anchor includes as least four loops 302, wherein some of the loops 302 cross over underlying switchbacks 300. Thus, the shaft 103 of the lead 100 follows a complex path forming the slack anchor.
  • In some embodiments, the slack anchor is configured to allow atraumatic removal of the lead 100 from the epidural space after the slack anchor has been formed. The epidural space is comprised of fluid and fibrous connective tissue. Fibrous tissue forms around the lead 100 over time creating a biological structure within the epidural space. The path of the lead 100 is essentially a tunnel or passageway through the biological structure so the lead 100 is able to move freely, and therefore migrate. However, the slack anchors of the present invention are supported by the biological structure so that the tunnels or passageways follow the curves and contours of the slack anchor path. Since the slack anchor path is non-linear, such as serpentine, the lead 100 is held in place by the biological structure and migration is reduced. In addition, if it is desired to remove the lead 100, the lead 100 may be withdrawn from the epidural space by gently pulling the proximal end of the lead 100 until the lead 100 is removed. The lead 100 will move through the tunnels or passageways, following the curves and contours of the slack anchor path. Such movement may be achieved with the force of withdrawal, however such movement is not achieved with the mere forces of migration. It may be appreciated that in some embodiments the slack anchor is configured to remain as a permanent anchor wherein the lead 100 is not easily removable after the biological structure has formed therearound. Such slack anchors are typically convoluted or complex resisting easy withdrawal of the lead 100 through the path.
  • It may be appreciated that although the epidural delivery methods described above illustrate an antegrade approach to a target site accessible through the epidural space, a variety of other approaches may also be used. For example, a retrograde, contralateral or transforaminal approach may be used, to name a few. FIG. 11 illustrates an embodiment of a lead 100 which has been positioned with a retrograde approach. Here the target site is the DRG and the lead 100 is positioned so that the at least one electrode is in the vicinity of the DRG. Thus, the distal end 101 of the lead 100 extends along the dorsal root DR and into the area of the spinal cord S where a slack anchor is formed by the shaft 103 of the lead 100. In this embodiment, the slack anchor is comprised of two switchbacks 300. Leads 100 positioned with this approach benefit greatly from the presence of a slack anchor since the first path of the lead 100 is often substantially linear which can have very little resistance to migration.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates an embodiment of a lead 100 which has been positioned with a transforaminal/extraforaminal approach, wherein the DRG is approached from outside of the spinal column. In this embodiment, the lead 100 has an elongated distal tip 350 so that the distal tip 350 extends into the area of the spinal cord S while the at least one electrode 102 resides in proximity to the DRG. Here, the slack anchor is formed by the elongated distal tip 350 so as to anchor the lead 100 within the epidural space. Such a slack anchor may be formed with any of the techniques described above, such as with the use of the sheath 122 and/or stylet 124.
  • It may also be appreciated that the slack anchors of the present invention may be formed by leads and devices provided in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/178,847, entitled “Methods, Systems and Devices for Delivering Stimulation to Spinal Anatomy, filed on May 15, 2009, incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. Likewise, the slack anchors of the present invention may be used to anchor such leads and devices positioned with the methods described therein.
  • In some embodiments, a modified lead 400 is used to create a slack anchor. In these embodiments, the lead 400 includes a structural kink point or bend area which assists in the creation of the slack anchor. For example, in some embodiments the structural kink point comprises a geometric feature, such as uv-notch. In other embodiments, the kink point comprises a change in material stiffness. For example, in some embodiments, the lead 400 comprises a shaft 402 having areas of differing stiffness, such as illustrated in FIG. 13. Here, the shaft 402 includes a flexible region 404 disposed between more rigid regions 406 (indicated by shading). Since the flexible region 404 is the area within which the slack anchor will be formed, the flexible region 404 is typically located proximal and close to the at least one electrode 408. Thus, the at least one electrode 408 will be anchored close to the target stimulation site.
  • FIG. 14A illustrates the lead of FIG. 13 positioned near a target treatment site, in this instance a DRG. In this embodiment, the lead 400 is delivered to the DRG from a contralateral approach. The epidural space is accessed with the use of an introducing needle 426 and the lead 400 is advanced toward the target DRG so that the at least one electrode 408 is desirably positioned in relation to the target DRG. Thus, the distal end 401 of the lead 400 is positioned at the target location and the shaft 402 extends along a first path. Referring to FIG. 14B, the shaft 402 is then advanced through the introducing needle 426 along the first path due to the rigidity of the proximal more rigid region 406. However, this force is not significantly translated to the distal end 401 of the lead 400 due to the flexible region 404 therebetween, and the flexible region 404 bends or curves along a second path which typically includes portions which are lateral to the first path. Thus, the flexible region 404 forms a slack anchor and resists translation of motion to the distal end 401 of the lead 400. This assist in anchoring and prevention of lead migration.
  • It may be appreciated that forming a slack anchor in this manner, without the use of a sheath and/or stylet, is typically a less controlled method. The bends and curves formed in the flexible region are typically a product of the lead configuration in combination with the anatomical environment, wherein the user has less control over the actual shape of the slack anchor. In contrast, formation of a slack anchor with the use of a sheath and/or stylet, as described above, allows the user detailed control over each contour of the slack anchor.
  • A change in material stiffness along a lead 400, such as described and illustrated in relation to FIG. 13, can be created by a variety of methods or techniques. In some embodiments, the lead 400 has a construction as described and illustrated in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/687,737, entitled “Stimulation Leads, Delivery Systems and Methods of Use”, filed Jan. 14, 2010, incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. In particular, in some embodiments the shaft 402 of the lead 100 is comprised of single lumen tube formed from an extruded polymer, such as urethane. Additional elements, such as conductor cables and optionally a tensile element, extend through the single lumen tube. In such embodiments, the shaft 402 is potted with a harder material to create the more rigid regions 406 of the lead 400. When the shaft 402 is comprised of a soft durometer material, such as polyurethanes (e.g. Bionate, Pellethane) or silicone, the potting material is comprised of a material having a relatively higher stiffness, such as epoxy (e.g. Epotek). The potting material is injected or deposited within the single lumen tube, surrounding the elements extending therethrough, and allowed to harden. This potting material increases the stiffness of the lead 400 in the areas within which it is deposited. Therefore, specific more rigid regions 406 may be created anywhere along the lead 400. In some embodiments, the lead 400 is potted in all areas except for the area within which the slack anchor is formed. In other embodiments, the lead 40 is potted proximally, leaving the distal-most end of the lead unspotted and more flexible. For example, in some embodiment where the lead 400 has a length of approximately 40 cm, the most proximal 30 cm of the lead 400 are potted.
  • It may be appreciated that particular portions of the lead 400, such as the distal end 401, may be preformed into a curve so as to more easily access a DRG (particularly through an antegrade approach.). Pre-curving of potted areas may be achieved by pre-curving the shaft 402 prior to hardening of the potting material therein so that the hardened potting material sets the precurvature. Such precurvature may be useful when delivering the lead 400 without the use of a sheath or stylet. In addition, in such embodiments the lead 400 may not include a stylet lumen which reduces the outer diameter, such as up to approximately 25-40%. Such reduction in diameter may increase the ability to access particular anatomy, such as stenosed foraminal openings or peripheral nerves
  • In other embodiments, the shaft 402 is interoperatively tilled with a deployable curing polymer to create the more rigid regions 406 of the lead 400. Again, in some embodiments the shaft 402 of the lead 100 is comprised of single lumen tube formed from an extruded polymer, such as urethane. Additional elements, such as conductor cables and optionally a tensile element, extend through the single lumen tube. In such embodiments, the shaft 402 is injected with a polymer or other material that cures to create the more rigid regions 406 of the lead 400. This cured material increases the stiffness of the lead 400 in the areas within which it is deposited. Since the material is injected interoperatively, the user is able to determine the desired locations for the more rigid regions 406 based on the specific anatomy of the patient and on the particulars of the surgical procedure. Thus, the location and configuration of the slack anchor may be precisely individualized for the patient.
  • It may be appreciated that a change in material stiffness along a lead 400 can alternatively be created by a variety of other methods or techniques. For example, the wall of the shaft 402 may be reinforced in the more rigid regions 406, such as by a harder durometer material, a reinforcing braid or straight wire composite, co-extrusion with a second stiffer material, overmolding, or thickening of the wall, to name a few. Likewise, the shaft 402 may be comprised of a variety of materials, each having a different durometer. For example, the shaft 402 may be comprised of single lumen tube having a stiffer durometer in the more rigid regions 406 and a less stiff durometer in the flexible regions 404. There are several scales of durometer, each used for materials with different properties. The two most common scales, using slightly different measurement systems, are the ASTM D2240 type A and type D scales. The A scale is for softer plastics, while the D scale is for harder ones. However, the ASTM D2240-00 testing standard calls for a total of 12 scales, depending on the intended use: types A, B, C, D, DO, E, M, O, OO, OOO, OOO-S, and R. Each scale results in a value between 0 and 100, with higher values indicating a harder material. Thus, the use of materials having widely differing values, such as a “C” durometer 55 and 70, may be used to create a kink point according to the present invention.
  • In other embodiments, a change in material stiffness along the lead 400 is created by a separable stylet. In such embodiments, the stylet is first used to assist in positioning the lead 400, such as described above. Once the lead 400 has been desirably positioned, the stylet is separated, divided, disjoined or decoupled so as to leave a portion of the stylet within the lead 400 forming a more rigid region 406. The area having the stylet removed therefrom forms the flexible region 404. For example, in some embodiments the stylet extends to or near the distal tip of the lead 400 wherein the stylet is separable at a location proximal to the distal tip. The stylet is then pulled back a desired distance to create a flexible region wherein which a slack anchor is formable. The remainder of the stylet then resides proximal to this flexible region so as to create a lead having a change in material stiffness such as illustrated in FIG. 13. A slack anchor may then be created, such as according to methods similar to the methods illustrated in FIGS. 14A-14B, It may be appreciated that the stylet may be separable in a variety of locations so as to create various patterns of more rigid regions 406. It may also be appreciated that the stylet may be used for the purpose of creating material stiffness, without the use of positioning the lead.
  • Similarly, in some embodiments a change in material stiffness along the lead 400 is created by a separable sheath. In such embodiments, the sheath is first used to assist in positioning the lead 400, such as described above. Once the lead 400 has been desirably positioned, the sheath is separated, divided, disjoined or decoupled so as to leave a portion of the sheath along the lead 400 forming a more rigid region 406. The area having the sheath removed therefrom forms the flexible region 404. For example, in some embodiments the sheath extends near the distal tip of the lead. 400, proximal to the electrodes, wherein the sheath is separable at a location proximal to the distal end of the sheath. The sheath is then pulled back a desired distance to create a flexible region wherein which a slack anchor is formable. The remainder of the sheath then resides proximal to this flexible region. A slack anchor may then be created, such as according to methods similar to the methods illustrated in FIGS. 14A-14B. It may be appreciated that the sheath may be separable in a variety of locations so as to create various patterns of more rigid regions 406. It may also be appreciated that the sheath may be used for the purpose of creating material stiffness, without the use of positioning the lead.
  • It may be appreciated that the devices, systems and methods described herein may be used to reduce lead migration in leads targeting any portion of the nervous system. Leads may be positioned so as to stimulate portions of the central nervous system, such as the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and brain. Likewise, leads may be positioned so as to stimulate portions of the peripheral nervous system. In particular, leads may be positioned as described in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/473,132 entitled “Devices, Systems and Methods for Modulation of the Nervous System”, filed Apr. 7, 2011, incorporated herein by reference for all purposes. To reduce the potential for lead migration in any of these lead positions, a slack anchor may be formed along the lead according to any of the methods described herein. Such a slack anchor may be positioned within the epidural space. Or, the slack anchor may be formed outside of the epidural space. In some embodiments, when creating a slack anchor in tissue outside of the epidural space, a virtual space is created in the tissue with the use of a variety of space generating techniques, such as with the use of expanders, retractors, dissectors, tunneling tools, and insufflators to name a few. The slack anchor is then created within the virtual space providing strain relief and anchoring capabilities which assist in maintaining the position of the distal end of the lead near the target tissue. In other embodiments, when creating a slack anchor in tissue outside of the epidural space, naturally existing spaces are utilized for positioning a slack anchor therein.
  • Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example, for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be obvious that various alternatives, modifications, and equivalents may be used and the above description should not be taken as limiting, in scope of the invention which is defined by the appended claims.
  • INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
  • All publications and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

Claims (27)

1. A method of creating a slack anchor comprising:
positioning a lead having a distal end and a shaft so that the distal end is positioned at a target location and the shaft extends along a first path;
advancing a sheath having a curved distal end over the shaft;
manipulating the sheath so that the curved distal end directs a portion of the shaft lateral to the first path; and
advancing the lead beyond the curved distal end directing the portion of the shaft lateral to the first path so that the portion of the shaft resides along a second path forming the slack anchor while substantially maintaining position of the distal end at the target location.
2. A method as in claim 1, wherein the slack anchor is firmed within an epidural space.
3. A method as in claim 1, wherein the second path has a serpentine shape.
4. A method as in claim 1, wherein the second path has a loop shape.
5. A method as in claim 1, wherein the target location comprises a dorsal root ganglion.
6. A method as in claim 5, wherein the slack anchor is formed at a location within the spinal column near the dorsal root ganglion.
7. A method as in claim 1, wherein the slack anchor creates sufficient friction to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
8. A method as in claim 1, wherein migration movement of the shaft is at least partially absorbed by the slack anchor to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
9. A method of positioning a lead within an epidural space comprising:
advancing a distal end of the lead from an entry point into the epidural space to a target location so that a portion of a shaft of the lead extends from the entry point to the target location along a first path within the epidural space; and
introducing an additional portion of the shaft of the lead into the epidural space in a manner that forms a slack anchor between the target location and the entry point.
10. A method as in claim 9, wherein the slack anchor creates sufficient friction to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
11. A method as in claim 9, wherein migration movement of the shaft is at least partially absorbed by the slack anchor to resist migration of the distal end in relation to the target location.
12. A method as in claim 9, wherein introducing the additional portion comprises positioning the additional portion of the shaft of the lead along a second path, wherein at least part of the second path is lateral to the first path.
13. A method as in claim 9, wherein the slack anchor has a serpentine shape.
14. A method as in claim 9, wherein the slack anchor has a loop shape.
15. A method as in claim 9, wherein the shaft includes a kink point and wherein introducing the additional portion of the shaft causes the shaft to bend near the kink point which assists in creating the slack anchor.
16. A method as in claim 9, further comprising advancing a sheath having a curved distal end over the portion of the shaft so that the curved distal end directs the introduction of the additional portion.
17. A method as in claim 16, further comprising manipulating the curved distal end to direct the introduction of the additional portion in a direction that is substantially lateral to the first path.
18. A method as in claim 9, wherein the target location comprises a dorsal root ganglion.
19. A method as in claim 18, wherein the slack anchor is formed at a location within the spinal column near the dorsal root ganglion.
20. A device for treating a target location comprising:
a lead comprising a shaft having at least one electrode disposed along its distal end and a structural kink point disposed along the shaft proximal to the at least one electrode so that the structural kink point resides within an epidural space while the at least one electrode is positioned near the target location,
wherein the structural kink point assists in creating a slack anchor when a portion of the shaft is advanced into the epidural space while the position of the at least one electrode is substantially maintained near the target location.
21. A device as in claim 20, wherein the structural kink point comprises a change in material stiffness.
22. A device as in claim 21, wherein the structural kink point comprises a flexible region disposed distally to a more rigid region.
23. A device as in claim 22, wherein the shaft is comprised of at least one tube and the more rigid region is formed by potting of the at least one tube.
24. A device as in claim 20, wherein the distal end of the lead is configured for positioning the at least one electrode near a dorsal root ganglion.
25. A device as in claim 24, wherein structural kink point is disposed so as to create the slack anchor adjacent to a dorsal root associated with the dorsal root ganglion.
26. A device as in claim 20, wherein the slack anchor has a serpentine shape.
27. A device as in claim 20, wherein the slack anchor has a loop shape.
US13/104,787 2010-05-10 2011-05-10 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration Abandoned US20110276056A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US33319910P true 2010-05-10 2010-05-10
US13/104,787 US20110276056A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2011-05-10 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13/104,787 US20110276056A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2011-05-10 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration
US15/178,012 US20160279408A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-06-09 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/178,012 Continuation US20160279408A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-06-09 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20110276056A1 true US20110276056A1 (en) 2011-11-10

Family

ID=44902436

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13/104,787 Abandoned US20110276056A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2011-05-10 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration
US15/178,012 Pending US20160279408A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-06-09 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US15/178,012 Pending US20160279408A1 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-06-09 Methods, systems and devices for reducing migration

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (2) US20110276056A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2568904B1 (en)
JP (1) JP6231384B2 (en)
CN (1) CN103079489B (en)
AU (3) AU2011250941A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2798961A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2011143233A2 (en)

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080183257A1 (en) * 2007-01-29 2008-07-31 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Sutureless lead retention features
US8380318B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2013-02-19 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Pain management with stimulation subthreshold to paresthesia
US8712546B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2014-04-29 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Neurostimulation system
US8983624B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2015-03-17 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Delivery devices, systems and methods for stimulating nerve tissue on multiple spinal levels
US9056197B2 (en) 2008-10-27 2015-06-16 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Selective stimulation systems and signal parameters for medical conditions
US9205261B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2015-12-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Neurostimulation methods and systems
US9259569B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2016-02-16 Daniel M. Brounstein Methods, systems and devices for neuromodulating spinal anatomy
US9314618B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2016-04-19 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Implantable flexible circuit leads and methods of use
US9327110B2 (en) 2009-10-27 2016-05-03 St. Jude Medical Luxembourg Holdings SMI S.A.R.L. (“SJM LUX SMI”) Devices, systems and methods for the targeted treatment of movement disorders
US9486633B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2016-11-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Selective stimulation to modulate the sympathetic nervous system
US20170281936A1 (en) * 2016-04-01 2017-10-05 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Convertible Implantable Stimulator
US10342576B2 (en) 2015-10-14 2019-07-09 Christopher Zarembinski Integrated needle-catheter systems and methods of use
US10369354B2 (en) 2016-05-17 2019-08-06 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Systems and method for anchoring a lead for neurostimulation of a target anatomy

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8361067B2 (en) 2002-09-30 2013-01-29 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Methods of therapeutically heating a vertebral body to treat back pain
US10028753B2 (en) 2008-09-26 2018-07-24 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Spine treatment kits
WO2010036865A2 (en) 2008-09-26 2010-04-01 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Systems and methods for navigating an instrument through bone
AU2012362524B2 (en) 2011-12-30 2018-12-13 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Systems and methods for treating back pain
EP2914186B1 (en) 2012-11-05 2019-03-13 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Systems for creating curved paths through bone and modulating nerves within the bone
US9724151B2 (en) 2013-08-08 2017-08-08 Relievant Medsystems, Inc. Modulating nerves within bone using bone fasteners

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040116977A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-06-17 Finch Philip M. System and method for electrical stimulation of the intervertebral disc
US20080154349A1 (en) * 2004-06-30 2008-06-26 Cvrx, Inc. Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US20080183257A1 (en) * 2007-01-29 2008-07-31 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Sutureless lead retention features

Family Cites Families (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4414986A (en) 1982-01-29 1983-11-15 Medtronic, Inc. Biomedical stimulation lead
US7890188B2 (en) * 2002-12-19 2011-02-15 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Implantable lead for septal placement of electrode with fixation mechanism in the pulmonary artery
US8135476B2 (en) 2006-04-27 2012-03-13 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical electrical stimulation lead fixation method and apparatus
US7890174B2 (en) * 2006-06-02 2011-02-15 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Medical electrical lead with deployable fixation features
US8442656B2 (en) * 2006-06-02 2013-05-14 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Cardiac lead having implantable stiffening structures for fixation
US20080103572A1 (en) * 2006-10-31 2008-05-01 Medtronic, Inc. Implantable medical lead with threaded fixation
US8244378B2 (en) * 2007-01-30 2012-08-14 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Spiral configurations for intravascular lead stability
JP2011517575A (en) * 2007-06-04 2011-06-16 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エレクトロニクス エヌ ヴィ Insertion system and lead for treatment of target tissue region
US8019443B2 (en) * 2008-04-01 2011-09-13 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Anchoring units for leads of implantable electric stimulation systems and methods of making and using
US8108052B2 (en) * 2008-05-29 2012-01-31 Nervo Corporation Percutaneous leads with laterally displaceable portions, and associated systems and methods

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040116977A1 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-06-17 Finch Philip M. System and method for electrical stimulation of the intervertebral disc
US7069083B2 (en) * 2002-12-13 2006-06-27 Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc. System and method for electrical stimulation of the intervertebral disc
US20080154349A1 (en) * 2004-06-30 2008-06-26 Cvrx, Inc. Connection structures for extra-vascular electrode lead body
US20080183257A1 (en) * 2007-01-29 2008-07-31 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Sutureless lead retention features

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9486633B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2016-11-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Selective stimulation to modulate the sympathetic nervous system
US10232180B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2019-03-19 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Selective stimulation to modulate the sympathetic nervous system
US8712546B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2014-04-29 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Neurostimulation system
US10159838B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2018-12-25 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Methods for stimulating a dorsal root ganglion
US9205259B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2015-12-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Neurostimulation system
US9205261B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2015-12-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Neurostimulation methods and systems
US9205260B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2015-12-08 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Methods for stimulating a dorsal root ganglion
US8983624B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2015-03-17 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Delivery devices, systems and methods for stimulating nerve tissue on multiple spinal levels
US9314618B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2016-04-19 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Implantable flexible circuit leads and methods of use
US9623233B2 (en) 2006-12-06 2017-04-18 St. Jude Medical Luxembourg Holdings SMI S.A.R.L. (“SJM LUX SMI”) Delivery devices, systems and methods for stimulating nerve tissue on multiple spinal levels
US9044592B2 (en) 2007-01-29 2015-06-02 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Sutureless lead retention features
US20080183257A1 (en) * 2007-01-29 2008-07-31 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Sutureless lead retention features
US9409021B2 (en) 2008-10-27 2016-08-09 St. Jude Medical Luxembourg Holdings SMI S.A.R.L. Selective stimulation systems and signal parameters for medical conditions
US9056197B2 (en) 2008-10-27 2015-06-16 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Selective stimulation systems and signal parameters for medical conditions
US9468762B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2016-10-18 St. Jude Medical Luxembourg Holdings SMI S.A.R.L. (“SJM LUX SMI”) Pain management with stimulation subthreshold to paresthesia
US8380318B2 (en) 2009-03-24 2013-02-19 Spinal Modulation, Inc. Pain management with stimulation subthreshold to paresthesia
US9259569B2 (en) 2009-05-15 2016-02-16 Daniel M. Brounstein Methods, systems and devices for neuromodulating spinal anatomy
US9327110B2 (en) 2009-10-27 2016-05-03 St. Jude Medical Luxembourg Holdings SMI S.A.R.L. (“SJM LUX SMI”) Devices, systems and methods for the targeted treatment of movement disorders
US10342576B2 (en) 2015-10-14 2019-07-09 Christopher Zarembinski Integrated needle-catheter systems and methods of use
US20170281936A1 (en) * 2016-04-01 2017-10-05 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Convertible Implantable Stimulator
US10369354B2 (en) 2016-05-17 2019-08-06 Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corporation Systems and method for anchoring a lead for neurostimulation of a target anatomy

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP2568904A4 (en) 2014-06-18
JP2013526346A (en) 2013-06-24
CA2798961A1 (en) 2011-11-17
EP2568904B1 (en) 2019-10-02
CN103079489A (en) 2013-05-01
AU2016202797A1 (en) 2016-06-09
AU2011250941A1 (en) 2012-11-29
WO2011143233A3 (en) 2012-03-15
AU2017245268A1 (en) 2017-11-02
WO2011143233A2 (en) 2011-11-17
US20160279408A1 (en) 2016-09-29
CN103079489B (en) 2016-11-16
JP6231384B2 (en) 2017-11-15
EP2568904A2 (en) 2013-03-20

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7212867B2 (en) Directional brain stimulation and recording leads
US8359101B2 (en) System and method for electrical stimulation of the intervertebral disc
US8600495B2 (en) Techniques for positioning therapy delivery elements within a spinal cord or brain
US8244378B2 (en) Spiral configurations for intravascular lead stability
EP2125105B1 (en) Dual spiral lead configurations
US9044592B2 (en) Sutureless lead retention features
EP1181947B1 (en) Spinal cord stimulation leads
EP2142104B1 (en) Medical device implantation system
CN102438698B (en) Pain management with stimulation subthreshold to parasthesia
EP1181948B1 (en) Catheter leads for the intrathecal space
US5344439A (en) Catheter with retractable anchor mechanism
US6847849B2 (en) Minimally invasive apparatus for implanting a sacral stimulation lead
US20150141787A1 (en) Multi-electrode peripheral nerve evaluation lead and related system and method of use
US20060025841A1 (en) Thalamic stimulation device
US7286879B2 (en) Method of stimulating fastigium nucleus to treat neurological disorders
CN102065947B (en) Bundle of HIS stimulation system
Coffey Deep brain stimulation devices: a brief technical history and review
US9999532B2 (en) Methods and devices for treating obesity, incontinence, and neurological and physiological disorders
EP2252363B1 (en) Directional lead assembly
US9713706B2 (en) Implantable medical elongated member including intermediate fixation
US8805543B2 (en) Insertion tool for paddle-style electrode
EP2142117B1 (en) Cannula configured to deliver test stimulation
US7684873B2 (en) Implantable medical lead including a directional electrode and fixation elements along an interior surface
US20050256541A1 (en) Catheter with temporary stimulation electrode
US6971393B1 (en) Minimally invasive method for implanting a sacral stimulation lead

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: SPINAL MODULATION, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GRIGSBY, ERIC J.;BROUNSTEIN, DANIEL M.;LINKER, FRED I.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110526 TO 20110608;REEL/FRAME:027367/0641

AS Assignment

Owner name: SPINAL MODULATION LLC, DELAWARE

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:SPINAL MODULATION, INC.;REEL/FRAME:037150/0872

Effective date: 20150720

AS Assignment

Owner name: ST. JUDE MEDICAL LUXEMBOURG HOLDINGS SMI S.A.R.L.

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SPINAL MODULATION LLC;REEL/FRAME:037199/0142

Effective date: 20150727

STCB Information on status: application discontinuation

Free format text: ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION