US20110259029A1 - Air conditioning system for a building - Google Patents

Air conditioning system for a building Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110259029A1
US20110259029A1 US13095183 US201113095183A US2011259029A1 US 20110259029 A1 US20110259029 A1 US 20110259029A1 US 13095183 US13095183 US 13095183 US 201113095183 A US201113095183 A US 201113095183A US 2011259029 A1 US2011259029 A1 US 2011259029A1
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heat
air
conditioning system
air conditioning
system according
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US13095183
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Roland Burk
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Mahle Behr GmbH and Co KG
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Mahle Behr GmbH and Co KG
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B17/00Sorption machines, plant, or systems, operating intermittently, e.g. absorption or adsorption type
    • F25B17/08Sorption machines, plant, or systems, operating intermittently, e.g. absorption or adsorption type the absorbent or adsorbent being a solid, e.g. salt
    • F25B17/083Sorption machines, plant, or systems, operating intermittently, e.g. absorption or adsorption type the absorbent or adsorbent being a solid, e.g. salt with two or more boiler-sorbers operating alternately
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2315/00Sorption refrigeration cycles or details thereof
    • F25B2315/007Parallel systems therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/20Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation in buildings, dwellings or related infrastructures
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/272Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies using solar thermal energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/20Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation in buildings, dwellings or related infrastructures
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/276Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies of the sorption type
    • Y02A30/278Adsorption based systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/20Solar thermal
    • Y02B10/24Air conditioning or refrigeration systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/60Other technologies for heating or cooling
    • Y02B30/64Adsorption based systems

Abstract

An air conditioning system for a building is provided that includes a heat sink, a heat source and a heat pump, the heat pump having a plurality of hollow elements especially comprising an adsorption agent. A heat-transporting fluid for heat exchange with the heat source and/or the heat sink can be distributed in a variable manner between a plurality of flow paths associated with the hollow elements, by means of a rotary valve, whereby the hollow elements are brought into thermal contact with the fluid at a variable temperature. Air in the building can be conditioned by means of the hollow elements by a temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink. The heat pump is designed as a decentrally arranged structural unit spatially separated from at least either the heat source or heat sink.

Description

  • This nonprovisional application is a continuation of International Application No. PCT/EP2009/063794, which was filed on Oct. 21, 2009, and which claims priority to German Patent Application No. DE 10 2008 053 554.0, which was filed in Germany on Oct. 28, 2008, and which are both herein incorporated by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The invention relates to an air conditioning system for a building.
  • 2. Description of the Background Art
  • WO 2007/068481 A1, which corresponds to U.S. Publication No. 2009000327, describes a heat pump according to the adsorber/desorber principle, wherein a heat-transporting fluid can flow around a stack of hollow elements, each containing a working medium, on an adsorption/desorption side of the hollow elements via a plurality of flow paths. The flow paths are alternately cyclically interconnected by a pair of two rotary valves, wherein the large number of separate flow paths improves the overall efficiency of the heat pump. On an opposing evaporation/condensation side of the hollow elements, a second fluid, for example air, flows around them, which is likewise conducted alternately over the hollow elements by a pair of two rotary valves. An air conditioning system according to the invention is based on such a heat pump, wherein depending on the requirements of the invention, reference is made to the detailed explanations of the heat pump.
  • Previously, given the complex design, such heat pumps have been considered as central large-scale plants for building air conditioning, wherein the heat pump should be disposed centrally, for example in a basement or beneath the roof of a building, and heated or cooled water is conducted via a line network to different heating or cooling sites of a building.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an air conditioning system for a building that has a compact design, in particular is designed to be retrofittable, and to be used as needed.
  • By designing the system as a local unit, the heat pump can be provided in a manner similar to a facade or window air conditioner. The heat pump will then typically condition only one room, or a few rooms, and the output and size thereof are dimensioned accordingly.
  • In an embodiment, at least two locally disposed heat pumps are provided. These local heat pumps can be connected to a fluid line system of the building, similar to a radiator. In the case of retrofits, it may also be possible to use existing pipes of a heating system for this purpose or to embed the retrofits in the exterior facade insulation as part of the energy-related renovation measure. The fluid line system can notably be a liquid line system.
  • In a detailed design, the locally disposed heat pump is designed for a cooling power of no more than 10 kilowatts, and more particularly no more than 5 kilowatts, in the normal operating mode. In this way, an air conditioning unit is made possible that is flexible to install and, in particular, can also be retrofitted and that is sufficiently dimensioned for individual rooms of average size.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the heat sink can be designed as a heat exchanger through which air flows. In a possible detailed design, the heat exchanger is designed as an integrated unit comprising the locally disposed heat pump. In such a type, the heat pump can be connected to a dual-line system of the building, whereby the installation complexity and costs are reduced.
  • In an embodiment, the locally disposed heat pump can be disposed in an outside wall region of the building, wherein at least one outside wall breakthrough connected to the heat pump enables air exchange with a room of the building. This arrangement has the advantage that circulating air and/or outside air can be fed selectively, or in a mixable manner, for example as circulating, mixed or fresh air, to the conditioned region. It is particularly preferred if the heat pump comprises an adjustable mixing member, wherein at least an air current of the group including outside air, building air or conditioned feed air can be mixed with another air current of the group and divided in a complementary fashion to an evaporation zone and a condensation zone of the heat pump. In this way, the air temperature, humidity and air renewal rate can be easily influenced in the room and the operation and efficiency of the heat pump can be further optimized, and additionally supply air/exhaust air heat recovery can be achieved. In an advantageous detailed design, the mixing member is disposed on the inlet side of the heat pump. The term ‘circulating air’, within the context of the present invention, shall generally be understood to mean building air that is withdrawn from the building. Depending on the particular use, this circulating air/building air can then be recirculated to the building or dissipated to the outside.
  • In a particularly simple and cost-effective installation type of the air conditioning system, the fluid is connected to the heat pump by way of a dual-line system. The dual-line system will generally lead to either a heat source or heat sink, wherein the respectively other component is provided locally or decentralized in the region of the heat pump, for example in the form of a recooling unit operated by outside air.
  • In an alternative embodiment, which may be preferred depending on the requirements, the fluid is connected to the heat pump by way of a triple-line system, wherein one of the lines leads to the heat source and another one of the lines leads to the heat sink, and wherein a third line forms a mean temperature return of the heat pump. The flow direction of the fluid runs preferably from the heat source to the heat pump and from the heat sink to the heat pump, wherein the fluid flow in the mean temperature return leads away from the heat pump. In a preferred detailed design, the third line is connected by way of a branch to the heat source and the heat sink. In a further preferred embodiment, the heat pump is spatially separated from both the heat source and the heat sink, which further reduces the size and makes the system more effective. In addition, in this way it is easy to switch from cooling operation to heating operation of the heat pump. In order to optimize the efficiency of the heat pump, moreover a fourth line may be provided, which likewise forms a mean temperature return of the heat pump, wherein in particular the third line is connected to the heat source and the fourth line is connected to the heat sink. In this way, the different temperature levels of the returns to the heat source and to the heat sink are taken into consideration, which develop with optimized internal heat recovery of the heat pump, whereby slightly higher thermal ratios can be achieved. The thermal ratio of a thermally driven heat pump is the quotient of useful heating or cooling power and the required drive thermal output, and therefore constitutes a measure of the efficiency.
  • In an embodiment comprising at least three lines, at least the third line can be connected to a mean temperature heat accumulator. In this way, the centrally developing adsorption heat can be utilized, which is dissipated via the hot or mean-temperature return of the heat pump. A mean temperature heat accumulator within this meaning can be any thermodynamically expedient storage or transfer of this heat volume. In particular, it can be designed as at least one of the group of process water accumulator, hot water accumulator or low-temperature heater. A low-temperature heater shall generally be understood to mean any type of component activation of the building, for example floor or wall surface heater.
  • In general, the heat pump can be designed so that it has both a cooling operating mode for cooling air that is fed to the building and a heating operating mode for heating air that is fed to the building. A heating operating mode shall preferably be understood to mean that not only energy of the heat source is delivered to the building, but that in fact additional heat pumping takes place to improve the utilization of energy. As a result, during such an operation, for example, air is conducted to the outside, which has been cooled by the heat pump driven by the heat source/heat sink to below the outside temperature. The amount of heat withdrawn from the outside air is then additionally available for heating the building.
  • In an embodiment and operating mode, in the heating mode the portion incurred as adsorption heat is transferred via the fluid circuit to the heat accumulator or the heat consumer of the building, and the portion incurred as condensation heat is transferred to the useful air of the building, while the evaporation heat is withdrawn from the air current delivered to the outside air. When using building air as the heat transfer medium, this corresponds to exhaust air/supply air heat recovery with a concurrent temperature increase due to the heat pump effect.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, a portion of the hollow elements around which air flows is provided with a water-storing device. In this way, condensation water that precipitates from the cooled air during an evaporator operation of the hollow element can be stored distributed in an areal manner, so that it evaporates again in the subsequent internal, and heat-emitting, condensation operation of the same respective hollow element and can be emitted to the air. In the usual operating mode, the condensation water precipitated from the air is conducted as steam to the outside or emitted to the outside air. In total, in this way an enthalpy transfer medium is formed for the condensation water formed when the useful air cools, by which an enthalpy exchange can be achieved between the supply air and exhaust air from the room to be conditioned. In addition, this has the considerable advantage that no area of the air-side heat pump collects any quantity of water over an extended period, preventing the formation of microorganisms and/or the odor-intensive metabolic products thereof. Typical cycle times of such a heat pump are 10 minutes, so that the surface of a hollow element of the invention around which air flows, in simplified terms, is alternately moist for 5 minutes and dry for 5 minutes.
  • In a simple and preferred detailed design, the water-storing device is designed as a rib member having capillary structures and/or as a hydrophilic coating. For example, conventional louvered corrugated fins are suited to retain condensation water in a capillary manner in the fine louver slits, which were originally provided in heat exchangers to cause better turbulence of the air current. A possible embodiment would therefore be to provide conventional louvered fins in the gap between adjoining hollow elements through which air flows, whereby at the same time the heat transfer between the air and the hollow elements is improved.
  • In an embodiment, an air filter can be designed on the heat pump for filtering outside air and/or circulating air, so that pollen, dust and the like are easily filtered out.
  • In general, the heat sink of an air conditioning system according to the invention can have any arbitrary design, preferably, for example, as at least one of the group including a heat exchanger through which air flows, body of flowing water, wet cooling tower or geothermal probe. Likewise, the heat source can have any arbitrary design, and in a particularly preferred embodiment it is designed as at least one of the group including a solar thermal system, district heating connection, boiler or co-generation plant.
  • In an embodiment, the heat sink and/or the heat source can be switched or connected, depending on the heating or cooling operating mode.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the local heat pump comprises at least one integrated pump for delivering the fluid. In this way, when a plurality of heat pumps are connected in parallel to a fluid line system of the building, each heat pump can branch off an individual amount of fluid, without impairing the operation of the other heat pumps. This is preferably supported in that the pressure differential of the central feed lines coming from the heat source and heat sink and leading to the heat pumps is regulated by means of central pumps in relation to the return.
  • In an embodiment, the heat pump has an electronic controller, wherein in particular a rotational speed of the rotary valve and a volume flow of the fluid can be controlled in an actuatable manner. The volume flow and rotational speed are notably linked by a fixed characteristic curve. Particularly with a heat pump according to the invention, electronic control is particularly suited because optimizing the efficiency under changing operating conditions is key here.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, at least a fluid-side part of the heat pump comprises exactly only one rotary valve. In this way, the size, number of moving components, and manufacturing costs of a heat pump can be reduced. So as to improve the efficiency, the exactly one rotary valve alternately interconnects at least 4, and more particularly at least 6, separate flow paths. The document WO 2007/068481 A1 describes in detail only heat pumps that have pairs of two opposing rotary valves, respectively, both on the fluid side and on the air side. Hereinafter, additionally an embodiment is described in which exactly only one rotary valve is required at least on the fluid side, with the overall function being analogous otherwise.
  • Further scope of applicability of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description given hereinafter. However, it should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating preferred embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description given hereinbelow and the accompanying drawings which are given by way of illustration only, and thus, are not limitive of the present invention, and wherein:
  • FIG. 1 shows a first embodiment of an air conditioning system according to the invention.
  • FIG. 2 shows a detailed view of a heat pump of the embodiment of FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 3 shows a schematic illustration of an air-side part of the heat pump of FIG. 2 in a cooling operation.
  • FIG. 4 shows a second embodiment of an air conditioning system according to the invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows a detailed view of a heat pump of the embodiment of FIG. 4.
  • FIG. 6 shows a schematic illustration of an air-side part of the heat pump of FIG. 5 in a heating operation.
  • FIG. 7 shows a schematic longitudinal section of the heat pump of FIG. 5 or FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 8 shows a schematic cross-section of the heat pump of FIG. 5 or FIG. 2 in the outlet plane.
  • FIG. 9 shows a schematic cross-section of the heat pump of FIG. 5 or FIG. 2 in the inlet plane.
  • FIG. 10 shows a variant of a rotary valve for a heat pump that is suited for all embodiments.
  • FIG. 11 shows a map projection of the rotary valve of FIG. 1 in a first position.
  • FIG. 12 shows the rotary valve of FIG. 11 in a second position.
  • FIG. 13 shows a detailed longitudinal section of the rotary valve of FIGS. 11 and 12.
  • FIG. 14 shows the view of a section along the line XXIX-XXIX in FIG. 13.
  • FIG. 15 shows the view of a section along the line XXX-XXX in FIG. 13.
  • FIG. 16 shows a map projection of a modified embodiment of the rotary valve of FIG. 11 in a first position.
  • FIG. 17 shows the rotary valve of FIG. 16 in a second position.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The air-conditioning system according to FIG. 1 comprises a heat source 1 disposed in a building, which in the present example takes on the form of a solar thermal system, comprising a solar collector 1 a and a heat accumulator 1 b (for example insulated fluid tank), and a plurality of heat pumps 2 disposed locally in the building. The heat pumps 2, which are provided, for example, on broken-through outside walls, each have an integrated local heat sink 3 in the form of an air-cooled recooling unit. This recooling unit integrated in the local units 2 comprises a heat exchanger 3 a through which fluid flows and a blower fan 3 b for efficiently dissipating the heat to the outside air (FIG. 2). Unless reference is made to the contrary, the description of the operation of the air conditioning system in all embodiments relates to a cooling mode, in which cooled air is conducted through the building.
  • The fluid, which in the present case is a water/glycol mixture, is connected by way of a dual-line system 4, which has a first line 4 a leading from the heat source and a second line 4 b leading back to the heat source, to the heat pumps, which are connected to the line system 4 in parallel to each other. A circulating pump 5 applies a pressure to the line system 4, wherein each of the heat pumps 2 connected in parallel additionally comprises a dedicated feed pump 6 (see FIG. 2). In this way, a fluid volume flow can be individually set for each heat pump 2, without the volume flow being influenced by the operation of the other heat pumps.
  • The local heat pumps 2 are each dimensioned such that they produce a cooling power between 1 kW and 5 kW in a typical cooling operating mode. With respect to the design thereof, they correspond to a heat pump according to WO 2007/068481 A1 or a heat pump that is modified in this respect, comprising only a single fluid-side rotary valve. Such a rotary valve is described below by way of example and shown schematically in FIGS. 10 to 17.
  • In addition to the aforementioned feed pump 6, the local heat pumps 2 shown in detail in FIG. 2 comprise a region 7 on the air side or through which air flows and a region 8 through which fluid flows, or a regenerative adsorption model, in which the adsorption/desorption process takes place. The two regions 7, 8 are in fluid connection with each other via closed hollow elements (not shown), wherein in the hollow elements methanol as the working medium is displaced between an adsorber side comprising activated carbon as the adsorption component and an evaporator/condenser side comprising capillary component for receiving a liquid phase of the working component (see WO 2007/068481). The fluid lines of the heat pumps cross over the air-side region 7 only for illustration purposes, but have no direct thermal exchange with the same.
  • Depending on the current operating mode of the individual hollow elements, the air-side region is divided into an evaporator region 9 and a condenser region 10. Depending on the requirements and operating conditions, circulating air (building air) L1 and/or outside air L2 is fed for conditioning via two fans 11, 12 to the region 7. On the outlet side of the region 7, an air current L3 is dissipated to the outside (exhaust air) and another air current L4 (useful air), which is conditioned if desired, is fed to the building.
  • The air currents L1 out of the building and L4 into the building are conducted locally via wall or ceiling breakthroughs (see for example FIGS. 7 to 9), and the heat pumps 2 are disposed on the building facade or the building roof. The heat pumps are preferably disposed on the outside or integrated in the brickwork or the facade insulation.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of the individual air currents L1-L4 and the interconnection thereof in the air-conducting region in two operating modes. An electromechanically adjustable mixing member 15, by which the fed circulating air L1 and outside air L2 can be mixed, is disposed on the inlet side of the air-conducting region 7. In the top view, a first extreme of the setting is selected, wherein only outside air flows through the evaporator 11 and only circulating air flows through the condenser 10. In this operating mode, the condensation that develops is generally particularly high because of the higher humidity of the outside air. In the bottom view of FIG. 3, the opposite extreme operating mode is selected, wherein only circulating air L1 is conducted over the cold evaporator region 9 and only outside air L2 is conducted over the hot condenser region 10. In this operating mode, generally particularly effective cooling of the building air is achieved, but no air renewal by outside air.
  • All mixing ratios between the extreme settings described above can, of course, also be adjusted, depending on the requirements.
  • So as to improve the efficiency and suppress microorganisms, the hollow elements of the heat pump 2 are provided on the air side with a water-storing device, in the present case are soldered-on louvered corrugated fins (not shown). Because during a complete cycle, which typically lasts approximately 10 minutes, the hollow elements undergo an evaporator mode and a condenser mode, in the first case condensation water is deposited from the conditioned air and is held in a capillary manner by the louvered fins, whereupon in the condensation mode the hollow elements are dried again by means of the dissipated air. Depending on the design, the entire cycle may also take up to 20 minutes or longer.
  • The second embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 4 to 6 has the following differences as compared to the first example: the heat pumps 2 are connected by way of a triple-line system comprising three lines 4 a, 4 b and 4 c; and the heat sink 3 is not disposed in each case locally on the heat pumps 2, but centrally in or on the building. Accordingly, only a single large heat exchanger 3 a comprising a fan 3 b is present, which is likewise connected to the triple-line system. Instead of a heat exchanger 3 a comprising a fan 3 b, heat dissipation could also take place via a body of flowing water, wet cooling tower, geothermal probe or the like.
  • The heat pump 2 is connected to the triple-line system such that both a hot fluid line 4 a leads from the heat source 1 and a cold fluid line 4 c leads from the heat sink to the heat pump, wherein accordingly an additional circulating pump 5′ is provided in the line 4 c. A mean temperature line 4 b leads away from the adsorption module 8 and opens via a T-piece 13, respectively, into a common return line, wherein a first branch 4 d leads back to the heat source and a second branch 4 e leads back to the heat sink.
  • The heat pump 2 comprises two separate feed pumps 6, 6′, by means of which an adsorption-side fluid flow 8 b and a desorption-side fluid flow 8 a of the adsorption module 8 are delivered separately. Depending on the operating conditions, the volume flows 8 a, 8 b may be different. Downstream of the two pumps 6, 6′, the flows 8 a, 8 b unite to form a flow that opens into the returning mean temperature line 4 b (see FIG. 5). Because of the distributing branch 13 in the triple-line system, any arbitrary ratio of fluid flows 8 a, 8 b can be set in relation to each other for each heat pump 2.
  • FIG. 4 additionally schematically shows an inside building wall 14, which is intended to symbolize the separation of two rooms inside a building with respect to climate control. In general, the returning mean temperature line 4 b can lead through built-in or subsequently added wall surface heaters, floors or generally parts of the concrete core of the building, at least in a heating operation of the heat pumps. In this way, the amount of heat contained in the recirculated fluid is also used for heating and storage purposes, whereby the overall efficiency of the system is improved. As an alternative or in addition, the return line can also be connected to a process water accumulator, a swimming pool or the like, for which in general heating is desired even in the summer or during a cooling operation of the heat pumps 2.
  • FIG. 6 shows the air-side region comprising the mixing member 15 analogous to FIG. 3, however with the heat pump being in heating mode. In the top view, the control is set to the extreme where only heated circulating air is fed. In the bottom view, the control is set to the extreme where only heated outside air is fed.
  • It is pointed out that heating operation is also possible in the first embodiment using local heat sinks. To this end, an adjustable air by-pass must be provided, so that in the heating operation the useful air is conducted over the heat exchanger 3 a of the recooling unit 3.
  • FIGS. 7 to 9 show schematically the installation situation of the heat pump 2 according to any one of the above embodiments on a facade of the building. In terms of the design, the present heat pump corresponds to that of WO 2007/068. It comprises two cooperating rotary valves 2 a, 2 b in the adsorption/desorption region 8 and two cooperating rotary valves 2 c, 2 d in the air conducting region 7. Additionally shown are breakthroughs 16, 19 in a facade 17 of the building, wherein the lower breakthrough 19 conducts circulating air L1 to the heat pump and the top breakthrough 16 conducts useful air into the building. In addition, an air filter 18 is shown, which filters particles and/or harmful substances out of the outside air L2 that is fed.
  • In a further embodiment, which is not shown, a quadruple-line system is provided to improve the efficiency. Contrary to the triple-line system, separate returning lines are provided instead of a collecting line 4 b. The colder discharge from the adsorption module 8 is recirculated to the heat sink and the warmer discharge is recirculated to the heat source.
  • FIG. 10 shows the switching design of a rotary valve 100 according to an embodiment of a heat pump that deviates from WO 2007/068481 A1 as a 2-D diagram for the case of the quadruple-line system, wherein the heat sink 118 and the heat source 120 are connected via two lines 128 and 129, respectively, to the heat pump. The rotary valve that is shown replaces the two rotary valves disposed opposite of each other on the adsorber/desorber side, so that at least on this side only a single rotary valve is provided.
  • The rotary valve 100 comprises a plurality of inlets 101 to 112 and outlets 201 to 212, which can be individually associated with the inlets 101 to 112 via connecting lines 126 or 128 and 129. The inlets and outlets are connected, for example, to thermally active modules (adsorber/desorber hollow elements) 301 to 312. The rotary valves 100 comprises a switching member 114, which in turn comprises a rotary body 115, which can be rotated as indicated by an arrow 116. A first heat exchanger in the form of a cooler 118 is shown in the rotary body 115, with a pump 119 being connected downstream of the cooler. A second heat exchanger is configured as a heater 120.
  • The rotary valve 100 shown in FIG. 10 is used to control the flow of a heat transfer fluid through twelve thermally active modules. By means of the rotary valve 100 shown in FIG. 10, a heat transfer fluid can flow serially through the twelve thermally active modules 301 to 312. The heat source, notably the heater 120, and the heat sink, notably the recooling unit 118, are connected between each of the modules, respectively. The function of the rotary valve 100 is to incrementally shift the site of interconnection of the heater 120 and the recooling unit 118, without having to rotate them as well, as it would be required with a direct implementation of the schematic circuit. Deviating from the illustration of FIG. 10, the cooler 118, the pump 119 and the heater 120 are therefore disposed outside of the rotary valve 100 in a stationary manner in the following figures of an exemplary design implementation.
  • FIGS. 11 and 12 show the rotary valve 100 of FIG. 10 first in a schematic map projection. The rotary valve 100 comprises twelve inlets 101 to 112, which are also referred to as entrances and combined to form an inlet region 81. Analogously, the rotary valve 100 comprises twelve outlets 201 to 212, which are also referred to as exits and combined to form an outlet region 82. Using the switching member 114, which comprises the rotary body 115, the inlets 101 to 112 can be connected in a variety of ways to the outlets 201 to 212 when the rotary body 115 rotates in the direction of the arrow 116. In FIGS. 11 and 12, the cooler 118 and the heater 120 are disposed outside of a housing 125.
  • Each of the inlets 101 to 112 and each outlet 201 to 212 are associated with an opening in an end face of the housing 125, which substantially has the shape of a hollow circular cylinder. The inlets and outlets open into the end faces of the housing 125. Each opening in the housing 125 can be associated with an opening in the rotary body 115. Because of these associations, each of the inlets 101 to 112 can be connected in a defined manner to the related outlet 201 to 212. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 11, each of the inlets 102 to 106 and 108 to 112 is connected via a through-channel 126 to the related outlets 202 to 206 and 208 to 212. The through-channels 126 extend in a linear fashion through the rotary body 115.
  • The inlets 101 and 107 are connected to the related outlet 201, 207, respectively, via interrupted connecting channels 128, 128. The connecting channels 128, 128 are divided by means of separating walls or the like into sub-channels 128 a, 128 b or 129 a, 128 b such that they force a flow diversion over the cooler 118 or the heater 120. For this purpose, four annular chambers 131 to 134 are provided inside the housing 125, which in the map projections of FIGS. 11 and 12 are shown as straight channels. The inlet 101 is connected via the interrupted connecting channel 129 to the annular chamber 133, which in turn is connected to the heater 120.
  • The heater 120 is connected via the annular chamber 134 to the outlet 201. Analogously, the inlet 107 is connected via the annular chamber 131 to the cooler 118, which in turn is connected via the annular chamber 132 and the interrupted connecting channel 128 to the outlet 207. By rotating the rotary body 115 in the direction of the arrow 116, the through-channels 126 and the interrupted connecting channels 128, 129 are associated with other inlets and outlets. This displacement preferably takes place incrementally, so that the rotary body 115 always come to a stop when the mouth openings of the channels 126, 128, 129 provided in the rotary body 115 cover the corresponding openings in the housing 125.
  • FIG. 12 shows the rotary body 114 rotated by one increment in relation to the illustration of FIG. 11. In FIG. 12, the inlet 102 is connected via the heater 120 to the related outlet 202. Analogously, the inlet 108 is connected via the cooler 118 to the related outlet 208. The remaining inlets 101, 103 to 107, 109 to 112 are connected via the through-channels 126 directly to the related outlets 201, 203 to 207, 209 to 212.
  • FIGS. 13 to 15 show the rotary valve 100, which in FIGS. 11 and 12 is shown in a simplified illustration, in slightly more detail. In the longitudinal sectional view of the cylindrical housing 125, the rotary body 115 is rotatably driven using a mounted drive shaft 150 that is sealed with respect to the surroundings. To axially mount the rotary body 115, two ceramic sealing plates 151, 152 are provided at each end face of the housing 125. The ceramic sealing plate 151 is fixedly associated with the housing 125. The ceramic sealing plate 152 is associated with the rotary body 115 and rotates with the same relative to the ceramic sealing plate 151 and the housing 125. The two plate pairs can be elastically preloaded with respect to each other by way of a spring device (not shown).
  • Four annular chambers or annular spaces 131 to 134 are connected via a radial opening 141 to 144 to the related connecting channel 128, 129. The radial openings 141 to 144 constitute a radial through-window, which creates a fluid connection between the annular chambers 131 to 134 and the radially inwardly disposed axial connecting channels 128, 128, which contrary to all other connecting channels 126 are divided by at least one dividing wall 128 c or 129 c into two sub-channels 128 a and 128 b, or 129 a and 129 b. The association between the sub-channels 128 a, 128 b or 129 a, 129 b and the annular chambers 131 to 134 is preferably selected so that in each case two adjoining annular chambers 131, 132 and 133, 134 are connected to corresponding, which is to say mutually aligned, inlets 101; 107 and outlets 201; 207. In this way, one fluid path always leads through the heater 120 and another of the total of twelve available fluid paths leads through the cooler or recooling unit 118, depending on the position or rotation of the rotary body 115.
  • In FIG. 13, the fluid travels from the inlet 101 via the radial opening 143 and the annular chamber 133 to the heater 120, as is indicated by an arrow 121. Another arrow 122 indicates that the fluid travels from the heater 120 via the annular chamber 134 and the radial opening 144 to the outlet 201. Analogously, the fluid travels from the inlet 107 via the radial opening 141 and the annular chamber 131 to the cooler 118, as is indicated by an arrow 123. Another arrow 124 indicates that the fluid travels from the cooler 118 via the annular chamber 132 and the radial opening 142 to the outlet 207.
  • It is apparent from FIG. 13 that the rotor axis comprising the bearings 155, 156 is mounted in the cylindrical housing and the total inside volume is sealed with respect to the surroundings by a sealing element 154. In addition, aside from the two preferably ceramic surface seal pairs 151, 152, only three further sealing elements 157, 158, 159 are required to seal the four annual chambers 131 to 134 with respect to each other in the axial direction.
  • FIGS. 14 and 15 show two sections of the rotary valve 100 of FIG. 13. In FIG. 14, arrows 161 and 162 indicate how the fluid travels from the heater 120 to the radial opening 144. In FIG. 15, additional arrows 163, 164 indicate how the fluid travels from the cooler 118 to the radial opening 142. In addition, the sections show the rotary body 115 divided into 12 axial chambers, which are preferably made of plastic injection molded elements and positively stacked on a common shaft 150. The reference numerals 128 and 129 denote the through-channels, which are each divided by means of separating walls 128 c or 129 c into two sub-channels 128 a, 128 b or 129 a, 129 b.
  • In the case of indirect air cooling by way of a likewise liquid heat transfer medium, the use of a slightly modified valve is advantageous for controlling the fluid circuits of the evaporation/condensation zones identified as zones B, the map projection of such a valve being shown in FIGS. 16 and 17 in two positions.
  • As is shown in FIG. 16, the rotary body 115 in a first embodiment shown here comprises only interrupted through-channels in the manner of reference numerals 128 and 129, which in each case are again divided by separating walls 128 c and 129 c into sub-channels 128 a, 128 b or 129 a, 129 b and comprise radial through-windows to the annual chambers 131 to 134, which in turn are connected in pairs to two heat transfer units, which here are identified as “ heat sink” and “recooling unit”. In the embodiment shown, there are no pure through-channels any longer of the kind as denoted by reference numeral 126.
  • FIG. 17 shows the rotary valve in the next position.
  • This modified embodiment enables an association of thermally active modules 301 to 312 that is dependent on the switch position of the rotary valve with at least two separate fluid circuits driven by dedicated feed devices, with the associated modules experiencing parallel flow inside these fluid circuits.
  • Because of the respective parallel arrangement of two groups of through-channels 128 and 129 in the rotary body 115, a plurality of radial through-windows are required, which each establish a flow connection into a common of the total of four required annular chambers. In a preferred embodiment, the separating walls within a group of through-channels can be eliminated in the rotary body, whereby then each annular chamber only requires one large radial through-window, which is not shown in the illustration here in detail.
  • In a further embodiment, which is not shown in detail in the illustration, the respectively last channel of a group of parallel channels (for example 102/202 and 108/208) comprises no radial breakthrough to an annular chamber, whereby flow is suppressed. In this way, no flow takes place through the connected modules. This can have advantages during the process changes between condensation and evaporation phases, which entail intermediate temperatures that cannot be used further.
  • The two embodiments according to FIG. 11, 12 or 16, 17 represent only two examples of the division of the through-channels in keeping with the categories 126, 128 and 129. Other divisions of the through-channels to these categories are of course possible and useful for particular applications.
  • The advantages of the rotary valve 100 include the following: high integration of switch functions replaces two conventional rotary valves; reduced complexity for drive and control; compact, material-saving design; simple, cost-effective to produce, for example from plastic injection molded parts; easy-to-implement, low-wear surface seal using ceramic disks or ceramic plates 151, 152; short flow paths with low heat exchange between the individual flow paths; low friction and required driving torque; and low by-pass losses.
  • The individual characteristics of the different embodiments can of course be expediently combined with each other, depending on the requirements. When directly using air to transfer the evaporation and condensation heat, it is in particular advantageous to not deviate from the solution comprising two communicating rotary valves in keeping with WO 2007/068481 A1.
  • The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are to be included within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (27)

  1. 1. An air conditioning system for a building, the air conditioning system comprising:
    a heat sink;
    a heat source;
    a heat pump comprising a plurality of hollow elements, which include an adsorption component; and
    a heat-transporting fluid that is in heat exchange with the heat source and/or the heat sink and is variably distributable via a rotary valve arranged among a plurality of flow paths associated with the hollow elements,
    wherein the hollow elements are configured to be brought in thermal contact with the heat-transporting fluid under variable temperatures,
    wherein a temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink is usable to bring about conditioning of air fed to the building via the hollow elements, and
    wherein the heat pump is configured as a locally disposed unit that is separate spatially from at least either the heat source or the heat sink.
  2. 2. The air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein at least two locally disposed heat pumps are provided.
  3. 3. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the locally disposed heat pump is designed for cooling power of no more than 10 kilowatts, and more particularly no more than 5 kilowatts, in a normal operating mode.
  4. 4. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat sink is designed as a heat exchanger through which air flows.
  5. 5. The air conditioning system according to claim 4, wherein that the heat exchanger is designed as an integrated unit comprising the locally disposed heat pump.
  6. 6. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the locally disposed heat pump is disposed in an outside wall region of the building, wherein at least one outside wall breakthrough connected to the heat pump enables air exchange with a room of the building.
  7. 7. The air conditioning system according to claim 6, wherein the heat pump comprises an adjustable mixing member, wherein at least an air current of outside air, building air or conditioned feed air are mixable with another air current of the group.
  8. 8. The air conditioning system according to claim 7, wherein the mixing member is disposed on an inlet side of the heat pump.
  9. 9. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the fluid is connectable to the heat pump via a dual-line system.
  10. 10. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the fluid is connected to the heat pump by a triple-line system, wherein one of the lines leads to the heat source and another one of the lines leads to the heat sink, and wherein a third line forms a mean temperature return of the heat pump.
  11. 11. The air conditioning system according to claim 11, wherein the third line is connectable to the heat source and the heat sink via a branch.
  12. 12. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein a pressure differential of the feed lines is regulated by a central pump in relation to the common return line.
  13. 13. An air conditioning system according to claim 10, wherein the heat sink and the heat source are disposed spatially separated from the heat pump.
  14. 14. An air conditioning system according to claim 10, wherein a fourth line is provided, which forms a mean temperature return of the heat pump, wherein the third line is connectable to the heat source and the fourth line is connectable to the heat sink.
  15. 15. An air conditioning system according to claim 10, wherein at least the third line is connectable to a mean temperature heat accumulator.
  16. 16. The air conditioning system according to claim 15, wherein the mean temperature heat accumulator is configured as at least one of a process water accumulator, a low-temperature heater, or a fluid duct system of a component or concrete core activation.
  17. 17. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat pump has both a cooling operating mode for cooling air that is fed to the building and a heating operating mode for heating air that is fed to the building.
  18. 18. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein a part of the hollow elements around which air flows is provided with a water-storing device.
  19. 19. The air conditioning system according to claim 18, wherein the water-storing device is designed as a fin member having capillary structures and/or as a hydrophilic coating.
  20. 20. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, further comprising an air filter for filtering outside air and/or circulating air, the air filter being arranged on the heat pump (2).
  21. 21. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat sink is designed as a heat exchanger through which air flows, a body of flowing water, a wet or hybrid cooling tower, or a geothermal probe.
  22. 22. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat source is designed as a solar thermal plant, a local or district heating connection, a boiler, a co-generation plant or a fuel cell.
  23. 23. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat pump comprises at least one integrated pump for delivering the fluid.
  24. 24. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein the heat pump comprises an electronic controller, wherein a mean rotational speed of the rotary valve and a volume flow of the fluid is controllable in an actuatable manner.
  25. 25. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein at least one fluid-side portion of the heat pump comprises exactly only one rotary valve.
  26. 26. The air conditioning system according to claim 25, wherein at least 4 or at least 6 separate flow paths are alternately interconnected by the exactly one rotary valve.
  27. 27. An air conditioning system according to claim 1, wherein different heat sources and/or heat sinks are interconnectable to the heat pump via a fluid circuit, based on a heating or cooling operation mode.
US13095183 2008-10-28 2011-04-27 Air conditioning system for a building Abandoned US20110259029A1 (en)

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DE200810053554 DE102008053554A1 (en) 2008-10-28 2008-10-28 Air system for a building
PCT/EP2009/063794 WO2010049325A3 (en) 2008-10-28 2009-10-21 Air conditioning system for a building

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CN102197268B (en) 2014-01-01 grant
WO2010049325A3 (en) 2010-07-01 application
EP2352956A2 (en) 2011-08-10 application
WO2010049325A2 (en) 2010-05-06 application
DE102008053554A1 (en) 2010-04-29 application
CN102197268A (en) 2011-09-21 application

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