US20110252552A1 - Cartridge apparatus for urinal - Google Patents

Cartridge apparatus for urinal Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110252552A1
US20110252552A1 US13/171,024 US201113171024A US2011252552A1 US 20110252552 A1 US20110252552 A1 US 20110252552A1 US 201113171024 A US201113171024 A US 201113171024A US 2011252552 A1 US2011252552 A1 US 2011252552A1
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Prior art keywords
cartridge
urinal
urine
cylindrical
trap
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Abandoned
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US13/171,024
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Terrance E. Janssen
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Janssen Terrance E
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Priority to US66218905P priority Critical
Priority to US11/375,940 priority patent/US20060207005A1/en
Application filed by Janssen Terrance E filed Critical Janssen Terrance E
Priority to US13/171,024 priority patent/US20110252552A1/en
Publication of US20110252552A1 publication Critical patent/US20110252552A1/en
Abandoned legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03CDOMESTIC PLUMBING INSTALLATIONS FOR FRESH WATER OR WASTE WATER; SINKS
    • E03C1/00Domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water; Sinks
    • E03C1/12Plumbing installations for waste water; Basins or fountains connected thereto; Sinks
    • E03C1/28Odour seals
    • E03C1/281Odour seals using other sealants than water
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03CDOMESTIC PLUMBING INSTALLATIONS FOR FRESH WATER OR WASTE WATER; SINKS
    • E03C1/00Domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water; Sinks
    • E03C1/12Plumbing installations for waste water; Basins or fountains connected thereto; Sinks
    • E03C1/28Odour seals
    • E03C1/298Odour seals consisting only of non-return valve
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03DWATER-CLOSETS OR URINALS WITH FLUSHING DEVICES; FLUSHING VALVES THEREFOR
    • E03D13/00Urinals ; Means for connecting the urinal to the flushing pipe and the wastepipe; Splashing shields for urinals

Abstract

A cartridge apparatus for use with a urinal (e.g., a waterless urinal) is configured to be received at least partially within a cartridge housing associated with the urinal bowl thereof. The cartridge apparatus includes a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in a urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus and a fluidless cartridge trap connected to the cartridge top member that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases (e.g., sewer gases or other odors) from exiting from a cartridge housing and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass therethrough when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member. A urinal apparatus with which the cartridge may be used may include a cleaning apparatus for use in disinfecting and/or deodorizing the urinal apparatus.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/662,189 entitled “FLUSHLESS URINAL APPARATUS,” filed 16 Mar. 2005, wherein such document is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to urinals (e.g., flushless or waterless urinals).
  • There is a continued emphasis on water conservation. As such, there is a desire to minimize the amount of water consumed in flushing toilets and urinals. Minimization of such flushing decreases the demands on water supplies, as well as on waste water disposal systems.
  • Generally, most sanitation codes require urinals to provide an odor seal to contain sewer gases and other odors which develop in the drain system to which they are connected (e.g., one or more drain pipes). Such odor seal functionality is generally performed by well-known P-traps and/or S-traps, in which the seal is formed by a residual portion of the water used in a flushing cycle. This seal effectively locks in sewer odors from the drain pipe beyond the trap. However, the upward facing liquid surface communicates freely with the user environment. As such, the trap must be kept free of residual urine by copious flushing to prevent unacceptable odor levels from the liquid in the trap.
  • To minimize the amount of water used in flushing, both low flush urinals and toilets, as well as waterless or flushless urinal systems, have become cost effective as the cost of water/sewer disposal increases and/or the demand on water supplies increases. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,053,197 to Gorges issued 25 Apr. 2000, entitled “Horizontal-flow oil-sealant-preserving drain odor trap,” describes a waterless urinal or flushless urinal that uses a cartridge trap with a liquid seal. The liquid seal includes urine to block sewer gases with an oil-seal to block the odor (e.g., urine odor) from escaping into the room. Yet further, for example, other flushless urinal systems, such as the F-2000 Water-Free urinal from Falcon Waterfree Technologies (Grand Rapids, Mich.), employs a cartridge similar to that described by Gorges that uses a sealant liquid to control the urine odor in the room. Still further, for example, an EcoTrap® cartridge is used in a Waterless No-Flush urinal, available from Waterless Co., which uses a BlueSeal® liquid to control urine odor.
  • However, there are various disadvantages with cartridges used for waterless urinals that utilize liquids or other solutions as an odor trap. For example, such systems require maintenance (e.g., replacement of the solution and/or cartridge). Such maintenance is usually dependent on the longevity of the liquid sealant utilized in the internal structure of the cartridges of such waterless urinals.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention, at least in one embodiment, provides a cartridge apparatus installed in a urinal (e.g., a flushless or waterless urinal) that includes a trap device (e.g., one way valve device) that allows urine to flow to a drain when in a first open state and prevents gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from escaping to the location of the urinal when in a second closed state.
  • In one embodiment, a urinal apparatus includes a urinal bowl configured to receive urine. The urinal bowl includes at least one opening. For example, the urinal bowl may be a wall mounted bowl, a floor mounted bowl, a bowl that connects to a drain pipe in the wall, a multi-user bowl or trough, a bowl that connects to a drain pipe in the floor, a flushless bowl, a low flush bowl, etc. The urinal apparatus further includes a cartridge housing associated with the at least one opening of the urinal bowl and configured to allow urine received in the urinal bowl to be directed to a drain (e.g., provides a sealed connection between the opening of the urinal bowl and a drain pipe for allowing urine to be drained away or disposed of).
  • The urinal apparatus further includes a cartridge apparatus configured to at least partially be positioned in the cartridge housing (e.g., in a sealed relationship with the cartridge housing such that urine in the bowl is directed to within the cartridge apparatus). The cartridge apparatus includes a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in the urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus (e.g., because the cartridge apparatus is in a sealed relationship to the cartridge housing and the cartridge housing is in a sealed relationship with the urinal bowl). The cartridge apparatus further includes a cartridge trap in watertight connection with the cartridge top member. The cartridge trap includes a valve device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from exiting from the cartridge housing through the valve device and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member.
  • In one embodiment of a urinal apparatus according to the present invention, the valve device includes a flexible material (e.g., a flexible plastic) that is partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and which is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present. In another embodiment, the valve device includes a flexible material that includes two surfaces at least partially in direct contact with one another forming a seal when in the closed state.
  • In another embodiment, the cartridge apparatus includes a cylindrical body portion having a first end and a second end. The cartridge top member includes a urine receiving element located at the first end of the cylindrical body portion. The second end of the cylindrical body portion is open to allow urine to pass into the cartridge housing. Further, the cartridge trap is located within the cylindrical body in watertight connection with the cartridge top member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element.
  • In still a further embodiment, the cartridge top member includes a cylindrical member having an opening extending therethrough. The cylindrical member extends from the urine receiving element into the interior of the cylindrical body portion. The cartridge trap includes a first open end attached to the cylindrical member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element and a second end. The second end of the cartridge trap is partially rolled in the closed state and is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present in the cartridge trap.
  • Yet further, in another embodiment, the cylindrical body portion of the cartridge apparatus includes a channel defined therein proximate the first end thereof for receiving a sealing component. The sealing component provides for a sealed fit between the cylindrical body portion and the cartridge housing of the urinal.
  • In another embodiment of a urinal apparatus according to the present invention, the urinal apparatus may include a cleaning apparatus for use in disinfecting and/or deodorizing the urinal apparatus. The cleaning apparatus may provide a disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition through a plurality of openings defined in the urinal bowl.
  • In another embodiment of a urinal apparatus according to the present invention, the cleaning apparatus may include a canister device for holding the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition therein. The canister device may be configured such that the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition can be provided to a supply line associated with the urinal bowl to provide the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition to the plurality of openings.
  • In yet another embodiment of a urinal apparatus according to the present invention, the cleaning apparatus may be associated with a time release mechanism for controlling the provision of the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition to the plurality of openings.
  • In still a further embodiment, the urinal apparatus further includes a curved trap defined therein extending from the cartridge housing associated with the at least one opening of the urinal bowl and configured to allow urine received in the urinal bowl to be directed to a drain.
  • A cartridge apparatus for use with a urinal (e.g., retrofitting a conventional flushless urinal) is also described. The cartridge apparatus is configured to be received at least partially within a cartridge housing (e.g., a retrofit cartridge housing or a conventional housing) associated with a urinal bowl of the urinal. The cartridge apparatus includes a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in the urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus. The cartridge apparatus further includes a cartridge trap in watertight connection with the cartridge top member. The cartridge trap includes a valve device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from exiting from the cartridge housing through the valve device and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member when installed in the urinal (e.g., a flexible material that is partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and which is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present).
  • Another cartridge apparatus for use with a urinal is described. The cartridge apparatus is configured to be received at least partially within a cartridge housing associated with a urinal bowl of the urinal. The cartridge apparatus includes a solution free cartridge trap that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from a cartridge housing and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass therethrough when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus when installed in the urinal.
  • In one embodiment of the cartridge apparatus, the cartridge apparatus may further include a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in a urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus. Further, the solution free cartridge trap is connected to the cartridge top member.
  • In another embodiment, the solution free cartridge trap includes a valve device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from a cartridge housing through the valve device and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member when installed in the urinal (e.g., flexible material that is partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and that is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present).
  • A fixture is also described that includes at least one of a flush urinal, a flushless urinal, a sink, a toilet, and a toilet seat. The fixture is formed of one or more ceramic forming raw materials and an antimicrobial formulation. In one embodiment the antimicrobial formulation includes silver. In another embodiment, the antimicrobial formulation includes antimicrobial nano-silver powder. Further, the fixture may be coated or the antimicrobial formulation may be mixed with ceramic forming materials (e.g., clay, silica, feldspar, etc.) prior to molding of the fixtures.
  • The above summary of the present invention is not intended to describe each embodiment or every implementation of the present invention. Advantages, together with a more complete understanding of the invention, will become apparent and appreciated by referring to the following detailed description and claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1A is a perspective view of one exemplary urinal apparatus including a cartridge apparatus according to the present invention.
  • FIG. 1B is a side view of the urinal apparatus shown in FIG. 1A.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a cartridge apparatus that may be used in the urinal apparatus shown generally in FIGS. 1A-1B.
  • FIG. 3 is a top view of the cartridge apparatus shown in FIG. 2.
  • FIG. 4 is a bottom view of the cartridge apparatus shown in FIG. 2.
  • FIGS. 5A-5B are cross-sectional views of the cartridge apparatus shown in FIG. 2, taken along line 5-5 as shown in FIG. 3, which show a valve device in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from the cartridge housing through the valve device, and a valve device in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device when urine is present in the cartridge apparatus, respectively.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
  • Generally, exemplary embodiments of a urinal apparatus 10 which may be used with one or more embodiments of a cartridge apparatus 70 shall be described with reference to FIG. 1, as well as FIG. 2. Thereafter, illustrative embodiments of one or more cartridge apparatus shall thereafter be further described with reference to FIGS. 2-5.
  • One skilled in the art will recognize from the description herein that various illustrative embodiments described herein include some features or elements included in other illustrative embodiments and/or exclude other features or elements. However, a urinal apparatus and/or a cartridge apparatus, according to the present invention, may include any combination of features or elements selected from one or more of the various embodiments described herein with reference to FIGS. 1-5. For example, a urinal apparatus may include a cleaning apparatus and a P-trap drain connection, as described herein, whereas another embodiment of a urinal apparatus may include only a cleaning apparatus. Yet further, for example, the cartridge apparatus described herein may be used in combination with a flushless urinal apparatus, including a cartridge housing sized for such a cartridge apparatus, or the cartridge apparatus may be used in retrofitting a waterless urinal that includes a substantially different cartridge apparatus (e.g., a cartridge apparatus that uses a liquid seal (e.g., urine) and a sealant or other solution to prevent gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from exiting the cartridge housing associated with the urinal). One skilled in the art will readily recognize that any number of various embodiments of a urinal apparatus and/or a cartridge apparatus may benefit from one or more of the features described herein.
  • Generally, the description and figures herein provide various concepts that can be used according to the present invention. Many of the concepts shown can be used to provide, for example, a flushless urinal apparatus, a cartridge for use with a flushless urinal, a kit for retrofitting a flushless urinal, etc.
  • In one or more embodiments of the present invention, a urinal apparatus may be designed to operate without using water to flush. The urinal is generally more odor-free and sanitary than urinals that are designed to use water in order to function. Such a urinal may be used to replace urinals that flush with water so as to accomplish the conservation of water resources while providing a more sanitary restroom environment.
  • Restrooms equipped with one or more urinals according to one or more embodiments of the present invention may be more hygienic than conventional urinals for one or more of the following reasons. For example, such urinals are touch-free, so there is no chance of bacteria transfer from a flush valve handle as is possible with manual flush systems. Since there is no water being used, there is no breeding ground for bacteria. In several studies conducted by various entities, bacteria counts in restrooms with urinals that use no water are found to be significantly lower than those that flush with water. Further, urinals that use no water create more pleasant restrooms because they eliminate the ammonia odor caused when urine reacts with water to create ammonia oxide. In other words, no water means no reaction. Still further, a urinal, according to one embodiment of the present invention, may include a built-in mechanism to release a disinfecting cleaner on a time basis. The timer can be set to release a disinfecting cleaner. For example, a user (e.g., a facilities manager or owner) may set the time of the apparatus depending on the frequency of use of the urinal fixture. The time release settings can be set as frequently as every few minutes, or as infrequently as once every several hours or days. Still further, one or more urinals according to one or more embodiments of the present invention (e.g., with a self cleaning mechanism and related cartridge apparatus with a valve device as described herein) may add permanent, effective anti-odor properties and an effective shield against one or more strains of bacteria, yeast, fungi, and molds.
  • Restrooms equipped with one or more urinals according to one or more embodiments of the present invention may provide significant economic benefit. For example, one or more urinals may use no water and, as such, there is no flush valve to be installed, replaced, and/or maintained. Additional savings may be generated by not having to plumb and maintain a water supply line to the urinal fixture. Further, costs associated with stuck or broken valves resulting from normal wear and vandalism are also eliminated. In addition, the need for pipe cleaning may be reduced, since lines will remain free of calcification as there is no hard water running through them. Yet further, energy costs associated with transporting water to and from the urinals is reduced.
  • Yet further, in one or more embodiments, savings in maintenance and cleaning costs may be achieved (e.g., such tasks may be need less frequently) when the urinal fixture contains a self-cleaning disinfectant device. Further, due to the nature (e.g., long life or permanency) of the cartridge apparatus according to one or more embodiments of the present invention, the cartridge apparatus does not require periodic changing or sealant liquid to be added, such as is common with other previously described cartridges. Thus, significant savings are achieved compared to other urinal fixtures that use no water. Still further, one or more embodiments of the urinal are less expensive to purchase and install than a flush urinal because they have no flushing mechanism. The only requirement is a drainage outlet.
  • Yet further, one or more embodiments of the urinals according to the present invention may save 100% of the water going through the urinal and 100% of the water and sewer charges. Using water to dispose of water is not economically sensible, particularly since there is a more limited supply of readily available fresh water.
  • Restrooms equipped with one or more urinals in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention also may provide significant environmental benefits. For example, as much as 5% of the world's total fresh water consumed is currently used to carry away urine. With use of one or more embodiments of the present invention, the water does not need to be transported to the urinal or away from it to a water treatment facility. Therefore, energy is saved. Yet further, by reducing the load on treatment plants, the present invention can reduce the need for costly water treatment capacity and reduce the incidents of overflowing at treatment facilities.
  • Further, the use of a cartridge apparatus according to one or more embodiments of the present invention also reduces the landfill burden. For example, one or more embodiments of a cartridge apparatus according to the present invention is designed for long use without the need to replace it. This is quite different than other cartridges for flushless urinals that require a sealant liquid which do need periodic replacement (e.g., add to the landfill burden).
  • FIG. 1A shows a perspective view of one illustrative embodiment of a urinal apparatus 10, according to the present invention, using a cartridge apparatus 70. FIG. 1B shows a side view of the urinal apparatus 10 shown in FIG. 1A as mounted to a wall 8 such that the urinal apparatus 10 can be connected to plumbing 9 located behind the wall 8.
  • The urinal apparatus 10 comprises a urinal body 12. The urinal body 12 includes a back wall region 23 and side wall regions 22, 24 which extend from a lower region 27 of the urinal apparatus 10 to an upper region 29 of the urinal apparatus 10. The urinal body 12 further includes a urinal bowl 14 located at the lower region 27 of the urinal apparatus 10 for receiving urine or one or more other fluids therein. The urinal apparatus 10 further includes a trap extension region 16 located below the urinal bowl 14.
  • The urinal bowl 14 includes at least one opening 15 defined therein. A cartridge housing 60 is associated with the at least one opening 15 of the urinal bowl 14 and configured to allow urine received in the urinal bowl 14 to be directed to a drain. For example, as shown in FIG. 1A, cartridge housing 60 is connected to a drain connection line 61 for providing a pathway from the urinal bowl 14 to a sewer drain (not shown) (e.g., via plumbing 9 behind wall 8, such as shown in FIG. 1B). The drain connection line 61 could be a P-trap such that, for example, when used with a cartridge apparatus according to the present invention, the cartridge apparatus may provide an odor barrier and the P-trap with urine therein acts to block the sewer gases. A sealant may also be placed in the P-trap (e.g., a sealant that floats on the urine) which would act as a further barrier to urine odor. However, the valve device of the present invention also provides both a sewer gas barrier and a urine odor barrier.
  • The cartridge housing 60 may be formed as an integral part of a urinal apparatus 10 (e.g., an extension of urinal bowl 14) or may be a separate cartridge housing attached in a sealing relationship with a surface defining bowl opening 15.
  • The cartridge housing 60 may be formed of any suitable material, including that used to form urinal body 12, and may take one or more various shapes and/or configurations. In one particular embodiment, at least the upper region of the cartridge housing 60 is sized to accommodate a sealing relationship with cartridge apparatus 70 to prevent urine from flowing or seeping therebetween when the cartridge apparatus 70 is installed within the cartridge housing 60.
  • A cartridge apparatus 70 is configured to at least partially be positioned in the cartridge housing 60 (e.g., such that a top surface thereof is flush with the surface of the bowl receiving urine therein). In one embodiment, the cartridge apparatus 70 is mounted in a sealed relationship with the cartridge housing 60 and in the opening 15 of the urinal bowl 14.
  • The cartridge apparatus 70 includes a solution-free cartridge trap 72 that includes a valve device 76 that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from exiting from the cartridge housing 60 through the valve device 76 and is in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device 76 when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus 70. As used herein, when gases are prevent from exiting the cartridge housing, such gases may include sewer gases, urine odor, or any other gas or odor.
  • In one embodiment, as generally shown in FIG. 1A, the cartridge apparatus 70 further includes a cartridge top member 74 having at least one opening configured to allow urine in the urinal bowl 14 to pass into the cartridge apparatus 70. The solution-free cartridge trap 72 is generally in watertight connection with the cartridge top member 74 such that urine passes through the cartridge top member into the solution-free cartridge trap 72. When urine is present in the cartridge trap 72, the valve device 76 enters an open state to allow the urine within the cartridge trap 72 to pass through the valve device 76 and into the cartridge housing 60 for transport through drain connection line 61 to a sewer (not shown).
  • The urinal body 12 of the urinal apparatus 10 may be made of any suitable material. For example, the urinal body 12 may be formed of Vitreous China, ceramic, porcelain, plastics, or metals (e.g., stainless steel).
  • One will recognize that the urinal bowl 14, as well as the entire configuration of the urinal apparatus 10, may take one of various forms. For example, the urinal bowl 14 may be a part of a wall-mounted urinal, a floor-mounted urinal, a bowl that is connected to a drain pipe in a wall, a multi-user bowl or trough, a bowl that connects to a drain pipe in a floor, etc. As such, as used herein, a urinal apparatus 10 may be of any size or shape that includes a urinal bowl associated with a cartridge housing for use in receiving a cartridge apparatus 70.
  • For example, at least in one embodiment, a urinal bowl may be a trough that includes a plurality of cartridge housings that may be employed to receive a plurality of cartridge apparatus, respectively. Further, for example, the trough-like structure, including a plurality of cartridge housings, may be of any configuration.
  • One will recognize that the present invention is particularly suited for use in waterless or flushless urinals where no water is used to flush urine through the system. However, a cartridge apparatus, such as described herein, may be useful in flush-type urinal apparatus where water is used or only used periodically to remove urine from the urinal bowl. In other words, one or more components of the present invention, as described herein, may be useful not only with respect to waterless or flushless-type urinals, but may also be used when water is coupled to the urinal to perform one or more functions (e.g., cleaning the urinal, use of a low amount of water to flush any remaining urine in the bowl, etc.).
  • Various flushless urinals may employ the use of a cartridge apparatus 70, as described herein. For example, one or more currently available urinals may be retrofitted using a cartridge apparatus 70 provided according to one or more embodiments of the present invention that use a solution-free cartridge trap 72 (e.g., a trap that includes a valve device 76). For example, in one or more embodiments, the cartridge apparatus 70 is provided as a part that is sized to fit cartridge housings 60 that exist in currently available flushless urinals.
  • For example, the cartridge of an F-2000 Water-Free urinal from Falcon Waterfree Technologies, as described in the Background of the Invention section herein, may be replaced by a like-configured cartridge apparatus 70 that includes a solution-free valve device, as generally described herein. Further, for example, an EcoTrap® cartridge of a Waterless No-Flush urinal available from Waterless Co., as described in the Background of the Invention section herein, may be replaced by a like-configured cartridge 70 that includes a solution-free valve device, as described herein. One will recognize that various flushless-type urinals may be modified to beneficially use the cartridge apparatus 70 (e.g., that includes the solution-free cartridge trap 72) described herein, which successfully resists emission of sewer gas when in the closed state, yet, when in an open state, permits liquid flow therethrough. Further, flushless or waterless urinals, such as Zero Flush urinals available from ZeroFlush (Ocala, Fla.), Zurn Waterless Urinals available from Zurn Plumbing Products (Sandord, N.C.), or Uridan waterless urinals available from GDK International Inc., may be modified, as well.
  • The cartridge apparatus 70 may include any valve device 76 as part of the solution-free cartridge trap 72 that is capable of at least a closed state and an open state. As described herein, in the closed state, the valve device 76 prevents gases (e.g., including sewer gases and other urine odors) from passing through the solution-free cartridge trap 72 (e.g., trap guard), and in the open state, urine is allowed to pass through the valve device 76. Such a valve device 76 (e.g., trap guard) may be formed of any material that provides such functionality (e.g., opens when urine is present, and closes (preferably seals) when urine is not present).
  • For example, at least in one embodiment, the seal is provided by the forced contact of two or more surfaces against one another (e.g., two surfaces being forced to be in direct contact with one another forming a seal). In another embodiment, the two or more surfaces may be provided as a device that includes two surfaces in direct contact and which is normally flat, but when opened (e.g., surfaces no longer in contact) forms an opening therethrough (e.g., forms a channel or tube). In another embodiment, the surfaces forced into contact may be curled or otherwise shaped to hold the surfaces in contact and in a sealed relationship to prevent sewer gases or other odors from flowing therethrough. One will recognize that various other mechanical type sealing configurations may be used for the valve device.
  • In one or more embodiments, the valve device (e.g., trap guard) and functionality provided thereby may be provided by a valve member as shown and described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,795,987 to Cornwall issued 28 Sep. 2004, entitled “Trap guard device;” a one-way valve as shown and described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,828,554 to Griffin issued 9 May 1989, entitled “One-way valve for leg urinals or the like;” and/or a valve as shown and described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,098,287 to Baumbach issued 4 Jul. 1978, entitled “Drain control device,” all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Further, such valve functionality may be provided by any other suitable valve apparatus.
  • In one embodiment of the cartridge apparatus 70, one or more components of the cartridge apparatus 70, including the cartridge top member 74, may be made of a high quality rigid plastic. The cartridge apparatus 70 may be sized and/or configured to lock into a cartridge housing 60 associated with the opening 15 in the urinal bowl 14 such that it can be removed as needed, or it can be sized to fit without locking.
  • As further described herein, the cartridge top member 74 may include a cylindrical member (e.g., pipe, tube, or other shaped channel) affixed (e.g., permanently affixed) to the cartridge top member 74 (see, for example, FIGS. 5A-5B). The cylindrical member affixed to the cartridge top member may include a flexible material attached thereto for accomplishing the functionality of valve device 76. For example, the flexible material may be a flexible plastic material attached to the cylindrical member (e.g., attached about the outside of the cylindrical member or in the inside of the cylindrical member), but in a watertight relationship to the cartridge top member 74 such that urine passing through one or more openings in the cartridge top member 74 is only allowed to flow through the cylindrical member and through valve device 76 when in its open state.
  • In one embodiment, the flexible plastic may be a tube that is in a watertight relationship about the outside of the cylindrical member that is connected to the cartridge top member and stays open when liquid is flowing through it but closes when the flow stops. For example, if the plastic flexible tube is closed (e.g., rolled up), it successively resists any emission of sewer gas.
  • Further, in another embodiment, the flexible tube may be manufactured from a plastic material (e.g., a space age plastic material) that is treated to change shape (e.g., rolled up into a curved configuration or a partial roll, rolled into at least one full circle of material, rolled into multiple loops, or rolled to any other degree) when liquid is not passing therethrough to, for example, provide a seal (e.g., preventing escaping sewer gas) but is flexible enough to open and permit liquid flow from an intermittent drip to high flow rates (e.g., when liquid, such as urine, is present).
  • In another embodiment of the cartridge apparatus 70, the cartridge is designed to be a permanent part of the urinal apparatus 10 and is not necessarily changed out. This is unlike other previously utilized cartridges which require periodic changing such as for example, other cartridges that require a liquid seal with a sealant (e.g., cartridges available from Falcon Waterfree Technologies; Uridan non-water system cartridges available from Uridan-USA, a division of GDK International, Inc.; etc.). In other words, the cartridge apparatus 70 is a solution-free cartridge that does not use a liquid seal (e.g., urine) with a liquid sealant or any other fluid for blocking sewer gas odor and/or urine odor. Yet, sewer gas odor and urine odor is prevented from entering the restroom where a urinal is located using a valve device 76, as described herein.
  • As shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, in one embodiment of the urinal apparatus 10, a curved trap for receiving and directing urine to plumbing 9 behind wall 8 is provided as the drain connection line 61. For example, the drain connection line 61 may be a P-trap line defined in the urinal body (e.g., during the molding of the urinal) or a curved pipe (e.g., a P-trap) within a cavity of the urinal apparatus 10. The drain connection line 61 is coupled by way of connection element 67 (e.g., spud), or any other connection element, to plumbing 9.
  • With use of a P-trap, it is possible to set the lip 19 of urinal bowl 14 at a particular height from the floor. In other words, in one configuration, the P-trap connection line 61 is used in combination with a solution-free cartridge trap 72 for successfully achieving desired height of lip 19 from a floor (not shown). Urine in the P-trap blocks sewer gases. Further, an additional sealant may be used in the trap to provide additional odor barrier (e.g., in addition to the barrier provided by the valve of the cartridge trap 72).
  • Further, urinal apparatus 10 may include a cleaning apparatus 30 for use in disinfecting and/or deodorizing the urinal apparatus 10. For example, the cleaning apparatus 30 may provide a disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition through a plurality of openings 34 defined in the urinal apparatus 10.
  • As shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, the cleaning apparatus 30 includes a cleaning control body 36 for enclosing a composition holding device 38 and a time release mechanism 40 operably coupled thereto by control line 42. The time release mechanism 40 controls the timing of the release of disinfecting and/or deodorizing compositions from the composition holding device 38. The composition holding device 38 is coupled through connection element 33 (e.g., spud) to a supply line 32 located in the upper body region 37 in the upper region 29 of the urinal body 12.
  • Further, as shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, supply line 32 includes one or more supply pipes or tubes for directing flow of a disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition to openings 34 located in the upper body region 37 of the urinal body 12. The openings 34, at least in one embodiment, are provided in a spaced relationship relative to one another and are termination points of one or more channels defined within the upper body region 37 of the urinal body 12. Such channels are then fluidly coupled to the other supply line components which direct the flow of composition from composition holding device 38 to the openings 34.
  • One will recognize that the cleaning apparatus 30 may be totally or partially incorporated within the urinal body 12 or cavities formed therein, or may include components that are separately mounted to the urinal apparatus 10 and coupled to other components integrally created in urinal body 12 (e.g., entirely or partially) or provided in cavities thereof. In other words, various configurations and locations of the components of the cleaning apparatus 30 are possible (e.g., openings in the urinal can be defined to accept the mounting of various components, such as a canister or timer, or to provide channels or openings through which a fluid or other compositions may pass).
  • In one embodiment, the urinal apparatus 10 can be constructed so as to accommodate a canister (e.g., a replaceable canister) that will contain a disinfectant/deodorizer composition (e.g., a liquid). The canister containing the deodorizer and/or disinfectant may be easily changeable, allowing a fresh canister to be easily inserted when the deodorizer and/or disinfectant liquid is depleted. The deodorizer and/or disinfectant liquid composition may be misted onto the urinal bowl 14 through portholes built into the urinal body 12. The mist may be released on a preset timed basis depending on the frequency of use of the urinal apparatus 10. Yet further, the supply line 32 from the canister may be an internal part of the urinal apparatus 10 and shaped as a part of the mold used to form the urinal body.
  • In one embodiment, the urinal apparatus 10 may be manufactured to accommodate a powered timer device (e.g., time release mechanism 40) to release disinfectant and/or deodorizer composition at a preset time. For example, the powered timer device can be permanently installed in the urinal apparatus 10 and only be removed in the event of a part failure or failure of the device.
  • In one embodiment, the cleaning control body 36 may be mounted on the upper body region 37 of the urinal body 12 and be formed of any suitable material. For example, it may be formed of cold rolled steel and then powder-coated to match the construction of the urinal body 12.
  • Although various cartridge apparatus 70 may be used with one or more illustrative urinal apparatus embodiments, FIGS. 2-5 show one illustrative cartridge apparatus 100 that may be used for retrofitting one or more currently available flushless urinals and/or that may be utilized with one or more other urinal apparatus, such as that shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B.
  • FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of the cartridge apparatus 100. FIG. 3 shows a top view of the cartridge apparatus 100, and FIG. 4 shows a bottom view of the cartridge apparatus 100. Yet further, FIGS. 5A and 5B show the cartridge apparatus 100 as mounted within a cartridge housing 60 associated with an opening 15 defined in a urinal bowl 14. FIG. 5A shows the cartridge apparatus 100 in a closed state, where gases are prevented from exiting the cartridge housing 60. FIG. 5B shows the cartridge apparatus 100 in an open state, where urine or any other fluid present is allowed to pass through the cartridge apparatus 100 and into the cartridge housing 60 and associated drain connection line 61.
  • The cartridge apparatus 100 includes a cylindrical body 102 extending between a first end region 104 and a second end region 106 along axis 108. The cartridge apparatus 100 further includes a cartridge top member 110 located at the first end region 104. The cartridge top member 110 includes a urine receiving element 112 extending from the cylindrical body 102 to the axis 108 of the cartridge apparatus 100. The urine receiving element 112 has an incline configuration so as to assist a fluid flow towards the axis 108 of the cartridge apparatus 100. In other words, at least a substantial portion of the urine receiving element 112 extends downward towards axis 108 from the cylindrical body 102 (e.g., lies at an angle to axis 108).
  • At the center of the urine receiving element 112 is at least one opening 114. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, these openings 114 are separated by debris prevention elements 115 connected by a centerpiece positioned at axis 108. One will recognize that any configuration of openings may be provided proximate axis 108 of the urine receiving element 112 to facilitate receiving urine into the cartridge apparatus 100. Such openings should be small enough to prevent debris from falling into the cartridge apparatus 100.
  • The cartridge top member 110 further includes a cylindrical member 134 (see FIGS. 5A and 5B) having an opening extending therethrough and lying along axis 108. The cylindrical member 134 extends from a first end 136 adjacent and integral with urine receiving element 112 to a second end 138 located in the interior of the cylindrical body 102.
  • The cartridge apparatus 100 further includes a cartridge trap 120 provided in watertight connection with the cylindrical member 134 of the cartridge top member 110. As shown in FIGS. 5A and 5B, the cartridge trap 120 includes a tube of flexible material having a first open end 160. The first open end 160 of the tube is stretched about the perimeter of tube element 178 (e.g., having first and second open ends). The tube element 178 is mounted (e.g., slid upon or otherwise positioned or fit) in sealing relationship with cylindrical member 134 (e.g., either partially covering the cylindrical member 134 or entirely covering the outer surface 139 of cylindrical member 134). The flexible tube extends from the first open end 160 to a second end 170 which forms the valve device 122.
  • One will recognize that any structure for providing a watertight seal between the cartridge trap 120 and the cartridge top member 110 may be used according to the present invention. For example, the cartridge trap 120 may be affixed thereto with an adhesive or cement, the cartridge trap 120 may be formed integral with the top member 110, etc. Further, for example, the first open end 160 of the tube may be stretched directly over the cylindrical member 134.
  • The flexible material tube is in a watertight configuration with the cylindrical member 134, and the second end 170 is in a normally closed state when no fluid is present within the interior volume 121 of the cartridge trap 120. In one embodiment, the flexible tube is a plastic material treated to roll up when liquid is not passing therethrough but is flexible enough to open and permit liquid flow, from an intermittent drip to high flow rates, when a fluid is present.
  • As shown in FIG. 5A, with no fluid present within the interior 121 of the cartridge trap 120, the elastomeric valve device 122 has a second end 170 that is rolled up. Further, as shown in FIG. 5B, with fluid or urine present within the volume 121 enclosed by cartridge trap 120, the urine or fluid causes the second end 170 of the elastomeric valve device 122 to unroll and open, allowing the urine or fluid to flow into cartridge housing 60.
  • Further, as shown in FIG. 2 and FIGS. 5A-5B, the cartridge apparatus 100 includes a channel 130 defined at the first end region 104 of the cylindrical body 102. The channel 130 is defined to hold a sealing component 116 (e.g., an O-ring, or any other like sealing component). As the cartridge apparatus 100 is inserted into the cartridge housing 60, the sealing component 116 is forced to the upper region of the channel 130 and forms a watertight seal between the cylindrical body 102 and the inner surface 69 of the cartridge housing 60 (e.g., inner surface 69 defining the volume in which the cartridge apparatus 100 is inserted).
  • When inserted in the cartridge housing 60, the second end region 106 of the cylindrical body 102 is spaced apart from the cartridge housing 60 and does not rest thereon. Further, there is an opening (e.g., gap 173) formed between the inner surface 69 of the cartridge housing 60 and the outer surface 175 of the cylindrical body 102. As such, in one embodiment, the sealing component 116 provides for the entire sealing of the cartridge apparatus 100 in relation to cartridge housing 60 and prevents emission of sewer gas at the intersection of such components. A slight insertion force when installing the cartridge apparatus 100 within the cartridge housing 60 may be necessary to form the sealing relationship using the sealing component 116.
  • According to the present invention, one or more of the components described herein (e.g., a cartridge apparatus, a urinal, an elastomeric valve device, etc.) and/or one or more associated products such as toilet seats, ceramic restroom fixtures (e.g., sinks, toilet bowls, wall or floor mounted stools, etc.) whether provided as an apparatus, a kit, a system, etc., may incorporate antimicrobial materials (e.g., combined with the raw materials that are used to form, mold, coat, cover, etc.), such as, for example, nano-silver powders that provide antimicrobial capabilities, or other formulations including silver used to provide antimicrobial functionality. For example, such antimicrobial nano-silver powders may be incorporated into materials such as ceramic, plastisol coating formulations (e.g., such as formulations available from Sinclair and Rush, Inc.—Vynaflex Plastisol Compounds (Arnold, Mo.)), formulations for use in dip coating and dip molding processes, extruded plastics of all types, raw powder material used for powder coated finishes, and elastomeric material (e.g., material used to form valve devices such as described herein). Such antimicrobial capabilities may arise through enhancements that take place at the molecular level.
  • Such antimicrobial formulations including silver may include antimicrobial nano-silver powders. For example, silver containing antimicrobial formulations, such as SmartSilver™ anti-odor/antimicrobial additives available from NanoHorizons, Inc. (State College, Pa.) may be used. However, any antimicrobial formulation may be adequate for providing functionality in conjunction with restroom fixtures such as described herein. For example, formulations described in WO 2006/026026 A2, entitled “Antimicrobial Silver Compositions” may be used.
  • The antimicrobial nano-silver powders, or other additives, may be mixed into the raw materials (e.g., while they are in the raw state) used to produce the finished products (e.g., urinals, cartridge apparatus, sinks or other restroom fixtures including toilet stools). For example, such antimicrobial nano-silver powders may be mixed with ceramic forming materials (e.g., clay, silica, feldspar, etc.) prior to molding of restroom fixtures such as urinals, stools, toilet seats, sinks, etc. Such mixed materials may then be heat treated to form the desired product.
  • Still further, the antimicrobial nano-silver powders, or other additives, may be mixed into the raw materials (e.g., while they are in the raw state) used to produce exterior applied coatings to the finished products (e.g., urinals, cartridge apparatus, sinks or other restroom fixtures including toilet stools, seats, etc.). For example, such antimicrobial nano-silver powders may be mixed with plastisol formulations and used to coat a toilet stool (e.g., a metal toilet stool such as formed from cold rolled steel, stainless steel, or any other metal material, may be coated).
  • Such use of the antimicrobial nano-silver powders produces an effective shield against numerous strains of bacteria, yeast, fungi, and molds including related odors. The silver based antimicrobial compound may provide the natural protection of silver. Encapsulated silver ions are slowly released from the antimicrobial compound to interact with microorganisms on the surface of the finished products of the invention. This produces an effective shield against numerous strains of bacteria, yeast, fungi, and molds. The antimicrobial finish will generally remain effective for the useful life of the products described herein according to the present invention and does not cause any product discoloration.
  • All patents and references cited herein are incorporated in their entirety as if each were incorporated separately. This invention has been described with reference to illustrative embodiments and is not meant to be construed in a limiting sense. As described previously, one skilled in the art will recognize that various modifications of the illustrative embodiments, as well as additional embodiments to the invention and combinations of various elements and/or steps herein, will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to this description. It is therefore contemplated that the patent and claims will cover any such modifications or embodiments that may fall within the scope of the present invention, as defined by the accompanying claims.

Claims (21)

1-24. (canceled)
25. A urinal apparatus, comprising:
a urinal bowl configured to receive urine, the urinal bowl including at least one opening;
a cartridge housing associated with the at least one opening of the urinal bowl and configured to allow urine received in the urinal bowl to be directed to a drain; and
a cartridge apparatus configured to at least partially be positioned in the cartridge housing, wherein the cartridge apparatus comprises:
a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in the urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus, wherein the at least one opening comprises a maximum opening dimension less than one-third the diameter of the cartridge top member,
a cartridge trap in watertight connection with the cartridge top member, wherein the cartridge trap comprises a device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from the cartridge housing through the device and that allows urine to pass through the device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member, and
a cylindrical body portion having a first end and a second end, wherein the cartridge top member comprises a urine receiving element located at the first end of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the urine receiving element comprises an uncovered inclined configuration to assist the flow of urine received directly thereon and not impeded by a cover thereover to flow towards a center thereof where the at least one opening of the cartridge top member is located, wherein the second end of the cylindrical body portion is open to allow urine to pass into the cartridge housing, and further wherein the cartridge trap is located within the cylindrical body portion in watertight connection with the cartridge top member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element, wherein the cartridge top member further comprises a cylindrical member having an opening extending therethrough, wherein the cylindrical member extends from the urine receiving element into the interior of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the device of the cartridge trap comprises a first open end fluidly coupled to the cylindrical member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element after passing through the cylindrical member, and further wherein a second end of the device of the cartridge trap empties urine into the cartridge housing when urine is present to be directed to a drain.
26. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein the device of the cartridge trap is free of a liquid sealant used to block sewer gas odor and/or urine odor.
27. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein the device comprises a flexible material that is at least partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and that is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present.
28. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein the device comprises a flexible material, wherein the flexible material includes two surfaces at least partially in direct contact with one another forming a seal when in the closed state.
29. The cartridge apparatus of claim 25, wherein the cylindrical body portion comprises a channel defined therein proximate the first end thereof for receiving a sealing component, wherein the sealing component provides for a sealed fit between the cylindrical body portion and the cartridge housing of the waterless urinal.
30. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein the urinal apparatus further comprises a cleaning apparatus for use in disinfecting and/or deodorizing the urinal apparatus, wherein the cleaning apparatus provides a disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition through a plurality of openings defined in the urinal apparatus.
31. The urinal apparatus of claim 30, wherein the cleaning apparatus comprises a holding device for holding the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition therein, wherein the holding device is configured such that the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition is provided to a supply line associated with the urinal bowl to provide the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition to the plurality of openings.
32. The urinal apparatus of claim 30, wherein the cleaning apparatus is associated with a time release mechanism for controlling the provision of the disinfecting and/or deodorizing composition to the plurality of openings.
33. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein the urinal apparatus further comprises a curved trap extending from the cartridge housing associated with the at least one opening of the urinal bowl and configured to allow urine received in the urinal bowl to be directed to a drain.
34. The urinal apparatus of claim 25, wherein at least the urinal bowl is formed using an antimicrobial formulation.
35. A cartridge apparatus for use with a urinal, wherein the cartridge apparatus is configured to be received at least partially within a cartridge housing associated with a urinal bowl of the urinal, wherein the cartridge apparatus comprises:
a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in a urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus, wherein the at least one opening comprises a maximum opening dimension less than one-third the diameter of the cartridge top member;
a cartridge trap in watertight connection with the cartridge top member, wherein the cartridge trap comprises a device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from the cartridge housing through the device when installed in a urinal and that allows urine to pass through the device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus through the cartridge top member when installed in the urinal; and
a cylindrical body portion having a first end and a second end, wherein the cartridge top member comprises a urine receiving element located at the first end of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the urine receiving element comprises an uncovered inclined configuration to assist the flow of urine received directly thereon and not impeded by a cover thereover to flow thereon towards a center thereof where the at least one opening of the cartridge top member is located, wherein the second end of the cylindrical body portion is open to allow urine to pass into the cartridge housing, and further wherein the cartridge trap is located within the cylindrical body portion in watertight connection with the cartridge top member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element when installed in the urinal, wherein the cartridge top member further comprises a cylindrical member having an opening extending therethrough, wherein the cylindrical member extends from the urine receiving element into the interior of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the device of the cartridge trap comprises a first open end fluidly coupled to the cylindrical member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element after passing through the cylindrical member when installed in the urinal, and further wherein a second end of the device of the cartridge trap empties urine into the cartridge housing when urine is present to be directed to a drain.
36. The cartridge apparatus of claim 35, wherein the device of the cartridge trap is free of a liquid sealant used to block sewer gas odor and/or urine odor.
37. The cartridge apparatus of claim 35, wherein the device comprises a flexible material that is at least partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and that is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present.
38. The cartridge apparatus of claim 37, wherein the device comprises a flexible material, wherein the flexible material includes two surfaces at least partially in direct contact with one another forming a seal when in the closed state.
39. The cartridge apparatus of claim 35, wherein the cylindrical body portion comprises a channel defined therein proximate the first end thereof for receiving a sealing component, wherein the sealing component provides for a sealed fit between the cylindrical body portion and the cartridge housing of the urinal when installed.
40. A cartridge apparatus for use with a urinal, wherein the cartridge apparatus is configured to be received at least partially within a cartridge housing associated with a urinal bowl of the urinal, wherein the cartridge apparatus comprises a solution free cartridge trap that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from a cartridge housing when installed in the urinal and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass therethrough when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus when installed in the urinal.
41. The cartridge apparatus of claim 40, wherein the cartridge further comprises a cartridge top member having at least one opening configured to allow urine in a urinal bowl to pass into the cartridge apparatus, and further wherein the solution free cartridge trap is connected to the cartridge top member.
42. The cartridge apparatus of claim 41, wherein the cartridge apparatus comprises a cylindrical body portion having a first end and a second end, wherein the cartridge top member comprises an urine receiving element located at the first end of the cylindrical body portion, wherein the second end of the cylindrical body portion is open to allow urine to pass into the cartridge housing, and further wherein the cartridge trap is located within the cylindrical body in watertight connection with the cartridge top member such that urine is received in the cartridge trap through the urine receiving element when installed in the urinal.
43. The cartridge apparatus of claim 40, wherein the solution free cartridge trap comprises a valve device that is normally in a closed state to prevent gases from exiting from a cartridge housing through the valve device and that is in an open state to allow urine to pass through the valve device when urine is received in the cartridge apparatus when installed in the urinal.
44. The cartridge apparatus of claim 43, wherein the valve device comprises a flexible material that is at least partially rolled at one end thereof in the closed state and that is unrolled when in the open state and urine is present.
US13/171,024 2005-03-16 2011-06-28 Cartridge apparatus for urinal Abandoned US20110252552A1 (en)

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US11/375,940 US20060207005A1 (en) 2005-03-16 2006-03-15 Cartridge apparatus for urinal
US13/171,024 US20110252552A1 (en) 2005-03-16 2011-06-28 Cartridge apparatus for urinal

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US20060207005A1 (en) 2006-09-21
WO2006102015A3 (en) 2009-04-16

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