US20110240008A1 - Solar Receiver for Electric Power Conversion System - Google Patents

Solar Receiver for Electric Power Conversion System Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110240008A1
US20110240008A1 US13075468 US201113075468A US2011240008A1 US 20110240008 A1 US20110240008 A1 US 20110240008A1 US 13075468 US13075468 US 13075468 US 201113075468 A US201113075468 A US 201113075468A US 2011240008 A1 US2011240008 A1 US 2011240008A1
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Prior art keywords
heat exchange
plate
inlet
outlet
manifold
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Abandoned
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US13075468
Inventor
James B. Kesseli
Thomas L. Wolf
James S. Nash
Fiona Hughes
Shaun D. Sullivan
Eric W. Vollnogle
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Southwest Solar Tech Inc
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Southwest Solar Tech Inc
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F3/00Plate-like or laminated elements; Assemblies of plate-like or laminated elements
    • F28F3/02Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations
    • F28F3/025Elements or assemblies thereof with means for increasing heat-transfer area, e.g. with fins, with recesses, with corrugations the means being corrugated, plate-like elements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/30Solar heat collectors using working fluids with means for exchanging heat between two or more working fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/50Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed between plates
    • F24S10/503Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed between plates having conduits formed by paired plates, only one of which is plane
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/20Solar heat collectors for receiving concentrated solar energy, e.g. receivers for solar power plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28FDETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
    • F28F13/00Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing
    • F28F13/003Arrangements for modifying heat-transfer, e.g. increasing, decreasing by using permeable mass, perforated or porous materials
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/41Tower concentrators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy
    • Y02E10/46Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling solar thermal engines

Abstract

A solar receiver for conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy includes an enclosure defining a cavity and having an aperture for receiving an influx of concentrated solar radiation. A heat exchanger is received within the cavity for transferring heat out of the solar receiver. The heat exchanger comprises a plurality of heat exchange cells arranged in polygonal array within the cavity. Each heat exchange cell comprises an inlet, an outlet, and a heat exchange matrix interposed within a first volume defined between a first plate and a second plate spaced apart from the first plate. The inlet and outlet are in fluid communication with the first volume and the first plate, second plate, and heat exchange matrix are monolithically bonded as a unit. The first plate receives concentrated solar radiation and the heat exchange media defines a pathway for a fluid flowing from the inlet to the outlet between the first and second plates. The solar receiver further includes an inlet manifold in fluid communication with the inlet of each of the heat exchange cells and an outlet manifold in fluid communication with the outlet of the each of heat exchange cells. In a further aspect, a heat exchanger is provided.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) based on U.S. provisional application No. 61/319,042 filed Mar. 30, 2011. The aforementioned provisional application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND
  • The present disclosure relates generally to the field solar energy conversion, and more specifically to the use of solar receivers for heating gases.
  • DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR ART
  • FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a prior art parabolic dish collector system, where incident solar rays 50 reflect off a mirrored parabolic dish concentrator 51, concentrating reflected rays 52 through the aperture 53 of a cavity solar receiver. The receiver is composed of an entrance cone 54 that connects the cavity absorber panel to the aperture plane 53. The absorber 55 is a heat exchanger with fluid inlet 56 and outlet 57. The purpose of the solar absorber is to heat the fluid to elevated temperatures.
  • FIG. 2 schematically illustrates a generalized representation of prior art for a cavity solar receiver. The receiver is composed of a cavity 56, an aperture 53, and the interconnecting cavity walls 54. The aperture is usually sized to accept solar flux at the highest concentration ratio available from the solar reflecting surface. The concentrated solar energy 5 enters through the aperture 53 and irradiates the cavity interior surface 56. This surface is referred to as the solar absorber. The conical cavity walls 54 connecting the absorber and the front plate containing the aperture is typically not irradiated by the focused solar rays. The solar heat-absorbing element 66 forms the interior surface of the cavity and contains the fluid which flows from the inlet 34 to the outlet 35. Typically, the heat-absorbing elements 56 is an array of tubes. Other past designs incorporate two concentric cylinders, the inner first cylinder serves as the solar absorber cavity and the outer second cylinder forms an annular passage to contain the heat-absorbing fluid.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 illustrates the principle of using a parabolic dish concentrator to focus solar power through the aperture of a cavity solar receiver.
  • FIG. 2 schematically provides a general definition of prior art for a cavity solar receiver.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates the cross section of a heat exchanger element utilizing secondary surface fins between parallel plates. A heated fluid is contained within the plate-fin matrix and first surface of the heat exchanger is exposed to concentrated solar radiation.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates the principle referred to as series heating for a first and a second fluid at unequal pressures.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates an example of series heating, using a plate-fin composite cellular structure with inlet and outlet manifolds for first and second fluids.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates two composite absorber elements, one rectangular and one trapezoidal, either of which may be formed into a polygonal shaped cavity.
  • FIG. 7 illustrates a polygonal shaped cavity receiver formed of trapezoidal-shaped heat exchange cells.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates one method for integrating the cell with a distribution manifold for the purpose of providing fluid to and from the cell.
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a solar cavity receiver composed of trapezoidal heat exchange elements with torroidal ring manifolds to provide inlet and outlet fluid transport.
  • FIG. 10 provides an illustrative description of one method of manufacturing for the single layer cell structure for heating a single fluid.
  • FIG. 11 provides an illustrative description of one method of manufacturing for a two layer cell structure employing the series heating principle for first and second fluids.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates yet another method for connecting the heat exchanger cell to a manifold.
  • FIGS. 13 and 14 illustrate exemplary gas turbine cycles with which the solar receiver in accordance with this disclosure may be employed.
  • SUMMARY
  • In one aspect, a solar receiver for conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy is provided, which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and having an aperture for receiving an influx of concentrated solar radiation. A heat exchanger is received within the cavity for transferring heat out of the solar receiver. The heat exchanger comprises a plurality of heat exchange cells arranged in polygonal array within the cavity. Each heat exchange cell comprises an inlet, an outlet, and a heat exchange matrix interposed within a first volume defined between a first plate and a second plate spaced apart from the first plate. The inlet and outlet are in fluid communication with the first volume and the first plate, second plate, and heat exchange matrix are monolithically bonded as a unit. The first plate receives concentrated solar radiation and the heat exchange media defines a pathway for a fluid flowing from the inlet to the outlet between the first and second plates. The solar receiver further includes an inlet manifold in fluid communication with the inlet of each of the heat exchange cells and an outlet manifold in fluid communication with the outlet of the each of heat exchange cells. In a further aspect, a heat exchanger is provided.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • The present disclosure is directed to a compact heat exchanger intended to function as a cavity solar receiver. While typical solar receivers utilize tubes formed in bundles and involutes, the present design employs a plurality of cellular panels forming a polygonal shell. The densely fined panels are compact heat exchangers designed to absorb highly concentrated solar flux from a parabolic solar concentrator. Its purpose is to enable efficient heating of either one or two separated fluids within the solar cavity.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a heat exchange element 66 containing a first plate or sheet 1, a fin or other heat exchange medium or matrix 2, and a second plate or sheet 3. The heat exchange element 66 is a monolithic cellular structure created when the fin 2 is bonded to the first sheet 1 and the second sheet 3. The volume defined between the plates 1 and 3 serves as a passage for flowing fluid 4. When the first plate 1 is exposed to concentrated solar radiation 5, the flowing fluid 4 interior absorbs heat. In this arrangement, the fin 2 provides structural support for plates 1, 3, given the load exerted by the pressurized fluid 4. The space behind the second plate 3 is preferably insulated with refractory insulation material 13.
  • The fin 2 also conducts heat from the first plate 1 to the second plate 3, thereby providing increased surface area for heat transfer between the fluid 4 and the radiated surface 1. FIG. 3 illustrates one of many types of enhanced surface fins. Others include pins, foam metals, porous metal structures, screen packs, wavy folded sheet, lanced folded sheet and other secondary surfaces commonly used in the heat exchanger industry. The heat exchanger industry refers to this a plate-fin construction.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates an example of series heating, using a plate-fin composite cellular structure 67. The plate-fin heat exchanger elements 67 include a first surface or plate 6, which is irradiated by concentrated solar power 5. A second surface or plate 8 serves to separate a first fluid 7 flowing between the plates 6 and 8 and a second fluid 9. A third surface 10 serves to contain the second fluid 9 flowing between the second plate 8 and the third plate 10. A first fin 11 or extended heat exchange matrix is interposed between the first 6 and second surface 8, and a second fin 12 or extended heat exchange matrix is interposed between the second and third surfaces 8 and 10.
  • The three sheets or surfaces 6, 8, and 10, and the two fin matrix elements 11, 12 are bonded to form a composite heat exchanger element 67 with adequate structural integrity to support the structural loads, which are largely pressure-induced. The space behind the third surface 10 is preferably insulated with refractory insulation material 13. The fluids 7 and 9, passing through the first and second fin matrix elements 11 and 12, respectively, are typically at differing pressures. Thus, the individual fin matrix geometries 11, 12 may be optimized to maximize the heat transfer coefficient for the allowable fluid pressure drops.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a cross sectional view of a two-cell solar absorbing heat exchanger with manifolds for series heated cavity solar receivers. Plates 6, 8, 10 are bonded to fin or matrix elements 11, 12 to form the heat exchanger, as described in FIG. 4. The first fluid 7 enters a manifold 14, passes through the fin matrix 11 and exits at a higher temperature from manifold 16. Likewise, the second fluid 9 enters a manifold 15, passes through the fin matrix 12, absorbs heat through the parting sheet 8, and exits from a manifold 17. In this so-called series heating arrangement, the highly conductive fin members are designed to cause the first 7 and second fluids 9 to remain approximately equal to one another in temperature as they flow between the two manifolds.
  • If the two fluids enter at the same temperature, then the temperature of the second fluid 9 must necessarily lag below the temperature of the first fluid 7, but through careful design practice, this difference may be minimized. In the preferred embodiment, the first fluid 7 would be the higher of the two fluid pressures. The higher-pressure fluid enables a proportionally denser fin or heat exchange matrix 11. A denser fin or matrix is created by closer packed and/or shorter fins, which have the effect of achieving higher heat exchange coefficient between the fluid and the solar irradiated wall 6. An increase in heat transfer coefficient and a denser fin matrix both serve to increase the maximum tolerable solar flux levels. The ability to tolerate highly concentrated solar flux levels allows for a minimization of the solar cavity size and cost.
  • In a cavity solar absorber, formed into a cylindrical or conical shell comprising multiple heat exchange elements, with is base closest to the aperture, the concentrated solar flux levels are naturally highest near the base. A further characteristic of the preferred solar absorber embodiment is to locate the inlet manifolds 14 and 15 so that the fluid enters the base of the absorber matrix in the vicinity of the highest fluxes; thus forcing the coolest fluid into the region of highest concentrated solar flux.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates two variations 76, 77 of a composite absorber cell which may be formed into a polygonal cylindrical or conical absorber shell. If the cell is rectangular (77), the polygonal cavity formed would be generally cylindrical. That is, with a large number of rectangular heat exchange cells, the heat exchanger would form a polyhedron shape approximating that of a cylinder. A rectangular cell would be the typical form created from the use of a folded fin heat exchange matrix that forms generally parallel channels.
  • Composite screen fin, foam metal, or similar matrix allows fluid to flow in three mutually orthogonal directions, x, y, and z. Such a heat exchange matrix allows for converging composite panels with non-parallel sides, forming a trapezoidal cell 76.
  • The trapezoidal cell or panel 76 may be configured in an array that forms a solar absorbing cavity with a pyramidal interior. With a large number of the trapezoidal heat exchange cells 76, the cavity shape approximates that of a cone, as shown in FIG. 7. In yet another practical variation using an omni-directional flow matrix, the cells thickness and fin matrix height may vary in the y-direction along the flow length in the z-direction. This special geometry would lead to a reduction in pressure drop, relative to the cell formed with parallel sheets. FIG. 7 illustrates a solar-absorbing cavity receiver formed of trapezoidal heat exchange cells 76. The cells may be either single layer, as described in FIG. 3, or two-layer, as described in FIG. 4. In the embodiment shown, a fluid enters inlet 79, flows around torroidal ring manifold 78, which serves the purpose to provide nearly uniform flow to the inlet of each heat-absorbing cell 76. The heated fluid exits the cells 76 into a second toroid ring manifold 75, and exits into conduit 80.
  • FIG. 8 illustrates a method of integrating the plate and fin cell into a tube or conduit. As previously described, the fin segments 11, 12 provide both structural and thermal enhancements to the cell. One method for delivering the flow into the cell or taking the heated flow out of the cell is shown in FIG. 8. For the purpose for this explanation, FIG. 8 is described as an inlet manifold, however similar principles and construction methods may be applied to the fluid outlet end of the cell as well.
  • FIG. 8 shows a cell in which the parting plates 6, 8, and 10 extend beyond the length of the internal fin segments 11, 12. A first array of pin fins 71 is shown in the volume between the first parting plate 6 and the second parting plate 8, in communication with the first fluid, as it enters from fin matrix 11. Likewise, a second array of pin fins 70 is located in the volume between second parting plate 8 and third parting plate 10, arranged to communicate with the second fluid as it enters the first fin segment 11. A tube or conduit 72 is aligned with a hole in parting plate 8, with an opening sized to allow the tube 72 to penetrate through the fluid boundary to contact parting plate 6. At the point of contact with the plate 6, the tube 72 is slotted or castellated to enable the first fluid to enter the tube 72 from the space between parting plates 6 and 8. An internal structural rib 74 is shown inside the tube 72 to provide structural enhancements.
  • A tube or conduit 73 is aligned with a hole in the parting plate 10, with an opening sized to allow the tube 73 to penetrate through the fluid boundary to contact parting plate 8. At the point of contact, the tube 73 is slotted or castellated to enable the first fluid to enter the tube from the space between parting plates 8 and 10. An internal structural rib 64 is shown inside the tube 73 to provide structural enhancements.
  • As would be understood by persons skilled in the art upon a reading and understanding of this disclosure, several alternatives to the fins 70 and 71 may be employed to perform substantially similar purpose. For example, alternatives such as porous metal media, screen matrices, or machined square pins provide the necessary function of enabling the channeled flow from the fins 11, 12, to travel in direction allowing the fluid to congregate at the transport tube 72. It should also be clear that the aforementioned method of connecting a cell with internal fin structure to a pipe or conduit may be applied to a single cell or a double cell arrangement as shown in FIG. 8.
  • FIG. 9 shows a method for manifolding plate-fin solar-absorbing cells to a toroid or ring manifold. In one embodiment, a plurality of the solar absorbing cells 76 are arranged within a cavity solar receiver. As illustrated in the close-up view, the ring manifold 75 for the hot exit fluid is arranged to be of smaller hoop diameter than the cavity diameter. The tubular conduit 72 of FIG. 8 is extended radially inward to transport the fluids from the individual cells 76 using a toroidal ring manifold arrangement. Likewise, a ring manifold for the cell inlet fluid 78 is located at a larger radius than that formed by the solar absorbing cavity formed by a polygon. In should be clear to one skilled in the field that the fluid transport tubes 72 may be connected to manifolds of any number of geometries. For a solar cavity employing the series heating of two fluids, a similar method for connecting each solar absorber panel to a common hoop manifold may be employed. For the case illustrated in FIG. 5, four toroidal hoop manifolds would be required; two at the base of the cavity for the first and second fluids, and two at the top of the cavity receiver to collect the heated fluids.
  • FIG. 10 illustrates one of many possible methods of construction, where first sheet 20 is formed into a substantially channel-shaped section with formed edges 21. A fin or matrix heat exchange element 22 is sized to fit within the channel. A second sheet or plate 24 is also formed with a substantially channel-shaped section with edges 23. The second channel 24 is formed with a width approximately equal to the width of the fin element 22 and sized to mate with the inside edge 21 of the first channel 20.
  • Final assembly is also shown in FIG. 10, where formed channel 22, fin element 22, and second channel 24 are fit together. The construction materials may be any number of metals or ceramic materials, as are commonly used in the heat exchanger industry. The three elements 20, 22, 24 are brazed, diffusion bonded, sintered, or bonded into a monolithic structure 26 by methods commonly employed in the metal-working and ceramics industry. If a metallic material is used, rather than a ceramic material, a weld 37 may be applied either before metallurgical bonding, to self-fixture the three elements, or after metallurgical bonding, to insure proper sealing and mechanical integrity. In using ceramic materials, the three elements may be sintered or sintered and hot-isostatic pressed (HIP) to form a monolithic element capable of supporting the pressure loads exerted by the interior fluid.
  • FIG. 11 illustrates a method of construction for a two-layer heat exchanger cell 38. A first channel section 30 is formed with edges 31. A first fin segment 32 is sized to fit within the first channel. A second sheet or plate 33 is also sized with a width to fit within the first channel. A second fin or matrix segment 34 is also sized with a width to fit within the first channel. The second fin or matrix heat exchange element 34 is sized with a passage height and fin density appropriate to meet the heat transfer and pressure drop specifications of the second fluid. A third channel section 36 is formed with edges 35 and is also sized to fit within the first channel 30.
  • The final assembly 38 of elements 30, 32, 33, and 36 is also illustrated in FIG. 11. All four elements may be formed of ceramic or metallic materials and bonded into a monolithic structure by means established with in the industry. In the case of a metal structure, a weld joint 37 is shown to provide sealing of the cell, joining parting sheets 30, 33, and 36.
  • FIG. 12 illustrates one of several methods of joining the single layer 66 and two layer heat exchanger 67 elements into a manifold. A plurality of the heat exchange elements may be joined to a common inlet manifold 40 and exit manifold 44. In the case of a single layer heat exchanger, the heat exchange element 66 has a fluid inlet 41 and outlet 43. Cast or formed inlet manifold 40, containing pressurized fluid is formed with a slot width substantially equal to that of heat exchange element 66. A weld 42 is employed to secure the heat exchange element into the manifold 40. Similarly, the outlet manifold 44 is sized with a slot to accept heat exchange element 66 and a weld 42 is employed to seal the cell into the manifold.
  • A family of solar absorbers is illustrated, suitable for cavity-type solar receivers. When the present solar receiver is deployed with a conventional gas turbine cycle (see FIG. 13), only a single pass through the solar receiver is required. A novel single-pass design for a cellular receiver construction is disclosed herein. The present solar receiver may also be deployed with a so-called intercooled recuperated reheat cycle (see FIG. 14), which requires two passes through the solar receiver.
  • A cavity solar receiver containing passages for both first and second stage heating has also been disclosed herein. The underlying principles of series heating arrangements for heating two or more isolated fluid streams are defined and illustrated. The invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments. Modifications and alterations may occur to others upon reading and understanding the preceding detailed description. It is intended that the invention be construed as including all such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the appended claims or the equivalents thereof.

Claims (11)

  1. 1. A solar receiver for conversion of solar radiation to thermal energy comprising:
    an enclosure defining a cavity;
    an aperture in said enclosure for receiving an influx of concentrated solar radiation;
    a heat exchanger received within said cavity for transferring heat out of the solar receiver, the heat exchanger comprising a plurality of heat exchange cells arranged in polygonal array within said cavity, each heat exchange cell comprising:
    a first inlet, a first outlet, and a first heat exchange matrix interposed within a first volume defined between a first plate and a second plate spaced apart from the first plate;
    said first inlet and said first outlet in fluid communication with said first volume;
    said first plate, second plate, and first heat exchange matrix monolithically bonded as a unit, said first plate for receiving the concentrated solar radiation; and
    said first heat exchange media defining a pathway for a first fluid flowing from said first inlet to said first outlet between said first and second plates;
    a first inlet manifold in fluid communication with the first inlet of each of said heat exchange cells; and
    a first outlet manifold in fluid communication with the first outlet of each of said heat exchange cells.
  2. 2. The solar received of claim 1, wherein said heat exchange matrix is selected from fins, pins, foam metals, porous metal structures, screen packs, wavy folded sheet, and lanced folded sheet.
  3. 3. The solar receiver of claim 1, wherein said heat exchange cells comprise:
    a third plate spaced apart from the second plate and defining a second volume therebetween;
    a second inlet and a second outlet, said second inlet and said second outlet in fluid communication with said second volume;
    a second heat exchange matrix interposed within said second volume;
    said third plate, second plate, and second heat exchange matrix being monolithically bonded;
    said second heat exchange media defining a pathway for a second fluid flowing from said second inlet to said outlet between said second and third plates;
    a second inlet manifold in fluid communication with the second inlet of each of said heat exchange cells; and
    a second outlet manifold in fluid communication with the second outlet of said heat exchange cells.
  4. 4. The solar receiver of claim 1, wherein said first plate, second plate, and first heat exchange matrix are bonded together by metallurgical bonding or ceramic sintering.
  5. 5. The solar receiver of claim 1, wherein said heat exchange cells comprise:
    a third plate spaced apart from the second plate and defining a second volume therebetween;
    a second inlet and a second outlet, said second inlet and said second outlet in fluid communication with said second volume;
    a second heat exchange matrix interposed within said second volume; and
    said third plate, second plate, and second heat exchange matrix being monolithically bonded.
  6. 6. The solar receiver of claim 5, further comprising:
    said first fluid flowing through said first volume and a second fluid flowing through said second volume;
    said first manifold fluidicly connected to the first inlet of each heat exchange cell;
    said second manifold fluidicly connected to the first outlet of each heat exchange manifold;
    a third manifold fluidicly connected to the second inlet of each heat exchange manifold; and
    a fourth manifold fluidicly connected to the second outlet of each heat exchange manifold.
  7. 7. A solar receiver of claim 2 where said first fluid has a pressure higher than said second fluid.
  8. 8. The solar receiver of claim 1, further comprising:
    said first plate has two long edges and two short edges;
    said two long edges are bent to a generally 90-degree fold in the edge to form a channel;
    said first heat exchange matrix having a width to fit tightly into the channel;
    said second plate is sized to the width of said first heat exchange matrix; and
    said first sheet, first fin element, and second sheet are monolithically bonded.
  9. 9. The solar receiver of claim 1 further comprising:
    said first and second sheets having a generally trapezoidal shape;
    said first heat exchange matrix formed of a screen pack, porous foam structure, or an array of pins and cut into a trapezoidal shape which substantially matches the shape of the first and second sheets; and
    said first and second sheets and said first heat exchange matrix monolithically bonded into a substantially trapezoidal heat exchange cell.
  10. 10. The solar receiver of claim 8, further comprising:
    said plurality of heat exchange cells forming an array of said substantially trapezoidal cells positioned in the solar cavity to form a polygon shell with a substantially conical shape.
  11. 11. A heat exchanger for a solar receiver, comprising:
    a plurality of heat exchange cells arranged in polygonal array, each heat exchange cell comprising:
    an inlet, an outlet, and a heat exchange matrix interposed within a volume defined between a first plate and a second plate spaced apart from the first plate;
    said inlet and said outlet in fluid communication with said volume;
    said first plate, second plate, and heat exchange matrix monolithically bonded as a unit, said first plate for receiving concentrated solar radiation; and
    said heat exchange media defining a pathway for a fluid flowing from said inlet to said outlet between said first and second plates; and
    an inlet manifold in fluid communication with the inlet of each of said heat exchange cells; and
    an outlet manifold in fluid communication with first outlet of each of said heat exchange cells.
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US20120118378A1 (en) * 2010-11-16 2012-05-17 Michael Gurin Non-Linear Solar Receiver
EP2869013A1 (en) * 2013-11-05 2015-05-06 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Method for indirect heat exchange between a salt melt and a heat transfer medium in a solar thermal energy power plant
GB2534239A (en) * 2015-03-26 2016-07-20 Solar Fluidics Pte Ltd Solar energy system
US10107556B2 (en) 2013-12-19 2018-10-23 Dana Canada Corporation Conical heat exchanger

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US20120118378A1 (en) * 2010-11-16 2012-05-17 Michael Gurin Non-Linear Solar Receiver
EP2869013A1 (en) * 2013-11-05 2015-05-06 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Method for indirect heat exchange between a salt melt and a heat transfer medium in a solar thermal energy power plant
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