US20110139299A1 - System to establish a refueling infrastructure for coming fuel-cell vehicles/marine craft and interim production of gaseous products, power, and inner-city rejuvenation - Google Patents

System to establish a refueling infrastructure for coming fuel-cell vehicles/marine craft and interim production of gaseous products, power, and inner-city rejuvenation Download PDF

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US20110139299A1
US20110139299A1 US12978752 US97875210A US2011139299A1 US 20110139299 A1 US20110139299 A1 US 20110139299A1 US 12978752 US12978752 US 12978752 US 97875210 A US97875210 A US 97875210A US 2011139299 A1 US2011139299 A1 US 2011139299A1
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structure
power
electrical
system
water
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Robert J. Dederick
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Dederick Robert J
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B13/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates
    • F03B13/12Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy
    • F03B13/14Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using wave energy
    • F03B13/141Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using wave energy with a static energy collector
    • F03B13/142Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using wave energy with a static energy collector which creates an oscillating water column
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B13/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates
    • F03B13/12Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy
    • F03B13/14Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using wave energy
    • F03B13/148Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using wave energy using the static pressure increase due to the wave
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B13/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates
    • F03B13/12Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy
    • F03B13/26Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using tide energy
    • F03B13/266Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using tide energy to compress air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B13/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates
    • F03B13/12Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy
    • F03B13/26Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using tide energy
    • F03B13/268Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of machines or engines with driving or driven apparatus; Power stations or aggregates characterised by using wave or tide energy using tide energy making use of a dam
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B17/00Other machines or engines
    • F03B17/06Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head"
    • F03B17/062Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head" with rotation axis substantially at right angle to flow direction
    • F03B17/065Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head" with rotation axis substantially at right angle to flow direction the flow engaging parts having a cyclic movement relative to the rotor during its rotation
    • F03B17/066Other machines or engines using liquid flow with predominantly kinetic energy conversion, e.g. of swinging-flap type, "run-of-river", "ultra-low head" with rotation axis substantially at right angle to flow direction the flow engaging parts having a cyclic movement relative to the rotor during its rotation and a rotor of the endless-chain type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D15/00Transmission of mechanical power
    • F03D15/10Transmission of mechanical power using gearing not limited to rotary motion, e.g. with oscillating or reciprocating members
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D3/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor 
    • F03D3/06Rotors
    • F03D3/061Form
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/007Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations the wind motor being combined with means for converting solar radiation into useful energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/008Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations the wind motor being combined with water energy converters, e.g. a water turbine
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/10Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy
    • F03D9/11Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy storing electrical energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/10Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy
    • F03D9/19Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy storing chemical energy, e.g. using electrolysis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/20Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus
    • F03D9/25Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus the apparatus being an electrical generator
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, E.G. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S10/00PV power plants; Combinations of PV energy systems with other systems for the generation of electric power
    • H02S10/10PV power plants; Combinations of PV energy systems with other systems for the generation of electric power including a supplementary source of electric power, e.g. hybrid diesel-PV energy systems
    • H02S10/12Hybrid wind-PV energy systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2220/00Application
    • F05B2220/61Application for hydrogen and/or oxygen production
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2220/00Application
    • F05B2220/62Application for desalination
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2220/00Application
    • F05B2220/70Application in combination with
    • F05B2220/708Photoelectric means, i.e. photovoltaic or solar cells
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/21Rotors for wind turbines
    • F05B2240/211Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis
    • F05B2240/215Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis of the panemone or "vehicle ventilator" type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/21Rotors for wind turbines
    • F05B2240/211Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis
    • F05B2240/216Rotors for wind turbines with vertical axis of the anemometer type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2250/00Geometry
    • F05B2250/20Geometry three-dimensional
    • F05B2250/24Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal
    • F05B2250/241Geometry three-dimensional ellipsoidal spherical
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/138Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source
    • Y02A20/141Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source the source being wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/10Relating to general water supply, e.g. municipal or domestic water supply
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/138Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source
    • Y02A20/144Water desalination powered by a renewable energy source the source being wave energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/30Wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/70Hybrid systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/20Hydro energy
    • Y02E10/28Tidal stream or damless hydropower, e.g. sea flood and ebb, river, stream
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/30Energy from the sea
    • Y02E10/32Oscillating water column [OWC]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/30Energy from the sea
    • Y02E10/38Wave energy or tidal swell, e.g. Pelamis-type
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/74Wind turbines with rotation axis perpendicular to the wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/10Hydrogen from electrolysis with energy of non-fossil origin, e.g. PV, wind power, nuclear
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/20Systems combining fuel cells with production of fuel of non-fossil origin

Abstract

A facility for the generation of electrical power and products for the refueling of vehicles including but not limited to, fuel cell vehicles (FCV's) and marine craft and for use by the facility and/or general market. A host of electrical power generation devices including solar panels, solar collectors, wave action generators, mega capacitors reverse osmosis water purification apparatus, high density capacitor electrolizers, hydrogen/oxygen purifiers and compressors, storage units, fuel cells, AC/DC motors and generators and the various connectors, gauges and networks used for interconnecting and dispensing the products of a combined source system are used jointly and severally in a land/marine readily available site. The idealized site for this combined system is a bridge or other elevated structure such as buildings. The siting structure is most desirably located adjacent a water source, be it a river, bay, tidal estuary or the like. In addition to the generation of DC electrical power, gaseous products such as oxygen and hydrogen may be marketed for their open market value or used in the production of additional power via fuel cell operation are also marketed or use/consumed on site. Unique improvements are made in wind generators, a tidal barge generation system and a wave air generator. Unique improvements are also made in the ability to store energy through use of capacitors.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • The present patent application is a continuation-in-part of a non-provisional U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/142,862 filed Jun. 20, 2008, now abandoned, the disclosure of which is herein incorporated by reference to the extent not inconsistent with the present disclosure.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • 1. Technical Field
  • The instant disclosure relates, generally, to composite facilities that may be used to refuel non-polluting vehicles and marine craft. Specifically, the disclosure relates to a facility which generates and stores electrical power as hydrogen from a number of non-polluting, renewable sources, such as wind, water and solar sources. Most uniquely, the disclosure is situated in close proximity to and, in large part, on a generally man-made structure such as an industrial facility (possibly vacant), a bridge (possibly abandon), highway overpass system, or even an industrially polluted brown-field, in short, an area open to the sun and wind. Fullest potential of the disclosure is acquired when the facility is co-located adjacent a body of water, preferably moving.
  • 2. Related Art
  • The following related art summaries are merely representative of portions of the disclosure disclosed in each reference. These summaries do not suffice for a thorough reading of each individual reference.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,189,925, issued to Long discloses a method for storing electric power and later utilizing the stored power to convert the electric power to chemical energy of molecular hydrogen, reacting the hydrogen with a source of carbon to produce a hydrocarbon compound such as methane or methanol, storing the hydrocarbon compound and then supplying the hydrocarbon compound to fuel a generator which operates to produce electrical power.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,776,171, issued to Perry, Jr. et. al. discloses a solar powered wind driven engine. Desalinization and electrolysis of the water is provided. The system produces carbon dioxide and hydrogen which are used to generate methanol. The methanol can then be used as a fuel to drive an internal combustion engine. This patent further discloses an integrated power system that is uniquely sited, that is, it is located adjacent a body of saline water by its installation on an island or, by inference, a similarly situated piece of land.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,123,667, issued to Decker, discloses a wave energy generator which produces electric power from wave motion. A distortable underwater section has flexible compartments containing liquid and gas and which are equipped with flexible, internal, one-way flow walls separating the compartments. In response to wave motion, the internal fluid of the compartments flow in one direction through the compartments and through a fluid flow-powered motor-generator combination.
  • The Aqua Magnetics brochure discloses a reciprocating generator which allows for direct conversion of the energy in ocean swells to electric energy. In a six foot ocean swell, one reciprocating generator is capable of producing 400 KW of electric power.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,185,947, issued to Menk, discloses an apparatus for transferring the kinetic energy of waves in a body of water into other forms of energy. Specifically, the invention relates to such apparatus which automatically takes advantage of the variations in the average level of the body of water.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,206,608, issued to Bell, discloses an apparatus and method for utilizing natural energy in the production of electricity having an alternating current (AC). The natural energy is utilized to pressurize hydraulic fluid. The hydraulic fluid is temporarily stored within high pressure storage tanks to be used in the production of electricity.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,305,003, issued to Basurto et al., disclose a power producing system which employs floats that move up or down in tanks, responsive to wave or water motion. The tanks may be located wherever desired in order to take advantage of water motion.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,272,879, issued to Wiggs, discloses a geothermal power system which uses a fluid refrigerant capable of changing phase between liquid and gaseous states. This system includes a heat exchanger exposed to a heat source such as earth, water, air or industrial waste for vaporizing the fluid in the heat exchanger.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,512,787, issued to Dederick, discloses a facility for the generation of electric power and products for refueling of clean air vehicles and marine craft and for use by the facility and/or general market. A host of electrical power generation devices including solar panels, solar collectors, wave action generators, reverse osmosis water purification apparatus, electrolyzers, hydrogen/oxygen purifiers and compressors, storage units, fuel cells, AC/DC motors and generators and the various connectors, gauges and networks used for interconnecting and dispensing the products of a combined source system are used jointly and severally in a unique setting above an elevated roadway or railway.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 7,178,337, issued to Pflanz discloses a geothermal power plant system for producing electricity and process heat at least one compressed gas storage device and at least one gas compression device connected to the at least one compressed gas storage device. At least one gas utilization device is connected to the at least one compressed air storage device. At least one device for utilizing renewable energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, ocean thermal energy, ocean waves, ocean current and tidal current, ambient heat or cold is provided.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,674,263, issued to Agbossou et al. discloses a renewable energy (RE) an hydrogen generator, an hydrogen storage, an energy conversion device, a boost converter, a DC to AC converter, and a monitoring system.
  • U.S. Patent Application Publication US 2008/0212261 to Ajayan et al. discloses energy storage devices, e.g., Capacitors and batteries that may include a composite article of elongated conductive structures embedded in a polymer matrix.
  • Incorporated Material
  • Of the above summarized U.S. Pat. No. 4,189,925 (Long) for METHOD OF STORING ELECTRIC POWER; No. 4,776,171 (Perry, Jr. et. al.) for SELF-CONTAINED RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM; No. 4,123,667 (Decker) for WAVE ENERGY GENERATOR-BRAKE WATER-BARGE-DOCK; No. 4,185,947 (Menk) for WAVE-ACTUATED ENERGY TRANSFER APPARATUS; No. 4,206,608 (Bell) for NATURAL ENERGY CONVERSION, STORAGE AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM; and No. 4,305,003 (Basurto et. al.) for ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEM are hereby incorporated by reference for pertinent and supporting information.
  • Additionally, U.S. Pat. No. 5,512,787 (Dederick) for FACILITY FOR REFUELING OF CLEAN AIR VEHICLES/MARINE CRAFT AND POWER GENERATION is hereby incorporated by reference.
  • Limitations within the Field of the Disclosure
  • A major source of air pollution and smog in metropolitan areas in the United States and world-wide is the burning of fossil fuels for transportation vehicles. In order to reduce this pollution, state governments have established or adopted clean air standards requiring car and truck manufacturers to strive to produce low emission vehicles (LEVs) or zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). Although LEVs are available, a broad market has not, as yet, developed because of the initial cost and the limited reliability record. Thus, despite the lower operational and maintenance costs, and the environmental advantages of these vehicles, no broad market exists for them because of the problems involved in refueling them.
  • Although ZEVs exist in the introductory stage, many problems must still be resolved before they become commercially available. Most ZEVs rely upon a variety of storage batteries to supply the electrical energy. These batteries cause a major expense in addition to the cost of the vehicle, have limited life expectancy and have a limited driving range because of the paucity of refueling and recharging facilities. Most of them are designed to be recharged overnight, using off-peak, fossil fuel-generated electricity from the local power grid, the logic here being that it is easier to control power plant emission than vehicle emissions. I believe that both the LEV and the ZEV are transitional steps to the development of the fuel-cell vehicle (FCV).
  • The fuel cell (FC), an energy generator which employs hydrogen and oxygen (or air) to produce direct current (DC) to power a vehicle appears to be the system which I feel will prevail. Although the fuel cell is currently expensive to produce, commercialization will reduce the cost. Some problems exist with the onboard storage of hydrogen, but such have been overcome in selective situations and will be more easily resolved as a market for the fuel cells develops. Among the major problems facing the development of the market for fuel cell driven vehicles is the limited availability of the fuel cell and accessibility of hydrogen to power it, a problem that this disclosure is designed to solve.
  • Although little has been done to limit the pollution generated by marine craft, especially pleasure power boats, the present disclosure will easily provide an extensive infrastructure of non-polluting refueling facilities for both these and commercial craft. A new generation of pleasure power boats and commercial craft designed to be propelled by electricity supplied by fuel cells or internal combustion/diesel engines converted to run on hythane or hydrothane will reduce this pollution. Fuel cells will rapidly develop once the refueling infrastructure is developed.
  • I have overcome major limitations within the art in the field by providing a system that will refuel the fuel-cell vehicles and marine crafts. Since the market for the refueling of FCVs may lag the introduction of facilities such as I have envisioned, the power generated by the facilities envisioned within the present disclosure can be used as an adjunct to the area power grid and serve to amortize the cost of their installation. The preponderance of components which make up a FCV (fuel cell vehicle) and marine craft refueling system currently exist and are commercially available. Elements which will be hereinafter incorporated in the instant system and which are commercially available are: solar panels, for DC photovoltaic; solar collectors; wave action generators, such as patented by Aqua-Magnetics of Tampa, Fla.; a mega-capacitor to stabilize the load to the electrolyzer; reverse osmosis apparatus, for pure deionized water; electrolizers, for the production of gaseous products such as hydrogen and oxygen; hydrogen purifiers and compressors; storage units; fuel cells (FCs); AC/DC motors and generators; and accessory connectors, valves, gauges, meters etc.
  • In devising a composite system that would meld the diversity of non-polluting, renewable energy sources with a highly functional situs which would facilitate one of several possible combinations, it was necessary for me to make developments or improvements to other existing devices such as: wind generators, tidal generator barges and wave/air generators. Of the relevant patents discussed above, none provide the totality of power source subsystems that I do save for that disclosed by the composite system of U.S. Pat. No. 4,776,171 issued to Perry, Jr. et al. Notwithstanding the multiplicity of subsystems available, it was my idea to combine the many energy devices into a compact vertical and horizontal system rather than the purely horizontal system envisioned in '171. Thus, dispensation can be made of the coral quarry, the lobster pond, distillation columns, (fresh) water storage tanks, metal oxide storage facility and, not the least of all, the air strip. Such a wide area facility is right and proper for what amounts to a fuel refinery, but would not suit my needs as to the titled instant disclosure.
  • SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • When an industry, possibly the one which caused the city to grow up around it, closes its doors, urban decay begins. Commercial firms near the industry go out of business due to the lack of traffic, and malady spreads.
  • Cities throughout the nation suffer from these dead zones. The structures become eye-sores and attractive nuisances subject to vandalism and arson, not to mention the financial loss of tax revenue to the municipal coffers. While the buildings may be structurally sound, no one wants them.
  • I have invented a system to allow these buildings to not only provide their own power but add power to the local energy grid, and eventually to develop the infrastructure for fuel-cell (hydrogen) vehicles and marine craft. The power is generated by renewable energy sources-solar, wind, and Hydro (where available) with no transmission lines. Since these buildings were already standing, any litigation regarding the building of power plants or land usage will be minimal, and federal, state, and/or municipal funds are often available to rejuvenate these areas. Further, virtually all elements of the project are currently available.
  • I have overcome problems and shortcomings of the relevant art relating to generating electricity and fuels for nonpolluting vehicle and marine craft refueling by inventing a physically compact, essentially fixed site system that contemporaneously provides electrical and fuel products for immediate site-servicing of such environmentally friendly vehicles. On an elevated structure possessing a substructure and, when available a superstructure, that is adjacent or proximate a roadway or waterway, there is provided one (or more) electricity generating subsystem(s) such as a solar panel collector, a wind generator, a tidal barge or a water power/wind-wave generator that is (are) located on, in or otherwise operatively situated proximate to the structure. The electric power produced is DC and is attended by the electrical network necessary for conducting the power to electrolysis equipment and charging stations. An adjacent water supply is preferred, such as a stream, fjord, river, lake, bay, tidal estuary or the like.
  • Compression and storage device for handling gaseous products produced such as hydrogen or oxygen are also part of the facility proper.
  • In cases where a larger body of water capable of taking advantage of tidal flow is the adjacent water system, a compact floating energy generation system consisting of a barge mounted with various electrical energy producing devices is also contemplated. The barge equipment includes wind generators, wave generators and a hydro-electrical generator that is internal of the barge proper.
  • Should the situs of the facility be near a bay or body of water subjected to significant wave action, I have provided an additional auxiliary energy production subsystem termed a wave powered air generator. In this regard, having not been the initial inventor, I have made a significant improvement to the air generator subsystem which makes it a valuable adjunct to the other subsystems of my facility.
  • In particular, the present disclosure relates to:
  • A first aspect of the disclosure includes a site system for provision of electrical and fuel products for site servicing of vehicles and marine craft comprising in combination: at least one elevated structure for providing a substantial base for said site and having at least one utility area; at least one electrical generation subsystem selected from a group consisting of: a solar panel collector, a wind generator and a water power generation means, said electrical generation subsystem being operatively positioned in said at least one utility area; electrical conduction structure for transferring electrical output of said subsystem to at least one electrolysis structure, said electrical conduction structure including switching means for shunting said electrical output to said electrolysis structure or to electrical power storage structure; at least one water source; the electrolysis structure being capable of producing gaseous products while in electrical communication with said electrical conduction structure and receptive of water from said water source; compression and storage structures for receiving said gaseous products; a multi-service station network for tapping into said compression and storage structures containing said gaseous products, using said gaseous products for generating electrical power and for dispensing hydrogen and oxygen product therefrom; and electric conversion structure capable of generating alternating current power.
  • A second aspect of the disclosure includes a compact system for production of electrical power and electrolysis products derivable economically from wind and solar energies and comprising: an elevated building structure including platform means that afford mounting of equipment thereon; at least one solar collector fixed thereto, said solar collector array being electrically in communication with a switching means; at least one vertical axis wind generator operatively disposed on said platform means and/or operatively suspended thereunder, said group electrically ganged to at least one switching means for connecting electrical output of said at least one solar collector and said at least one vertical axis wind generator to at least one gas forming electrolysis equipment; and a water source for use by said at least one gas forming electrolysis equipment.
  • A third aspect of the disclosure is a site system for provision of electrical and fuel products for site servicing of vehicles or marine craft comprising in combination: a source of flowing water: at least one elevated structure operatively positioned proximate the flowing source of water and being adapted to utilize the water from the flowing source of water to power a turbine system for generating electrical energy, the at least one elevated structure having at least one utility area; at least one additional energy generating system for generating electrical energy, operatively positioned on the at least one utility area, and the additional energy generating system being selected from a group consisting of a solar panel collector, a wind power generator and combinations thereof; a conduction device for transferring the generated electrical energy of the turbine and the at least one additional system, the conduction device including a capacitor for electrical energy storage and voltage leveling, the conduction device further including at least one switching device operatively connected thereto for shunting the generated electrical energy to an electrolyzer, to the electrical energy storage device or to a power grid; an electrolyzer operatively positioned relative to the elevated structure for receiving the generated electrical energy for production of gaseous products from the water; compression and storage devices, operatively positioned relative to the elevated structure, for receiving the produced gaseous products; and a multi-service station system for utilizing the produced gaseous products stored in the compression and storage devices such that the gaseous products are used to generate electrical energy.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • Some embodiments of this disclosure will be described in detail, with reference to the following figures, wherein like designations denote like members, wherein:
  • FIGS. 1A and 1B are a block diagram of a typical installation of the present disclosure;
  • FIG. 2A is an illustration of one embodiment of the disclosure with the tidal barge adjunct to a bridge;
  • FIG. 2B is an illustration of another embodiment of the disclosure utilizing a previously vacant building;
  • FIG. 3 is a plan of a vertical axis wind generator;
  • FIG. 4 is a vertical mounting elevational depiction of the vertical axis wind generator;
  • FIG. 5 is an inverted mounting elevational depiction of the vertical axis wind generator;
  • FIG. 6 is a plan of the tidal barge;
  • FIG. 7 is an elevational illustration of the tidal barge;
  • FIG. 8 is a frontal elevation of the tidal barge;
  • FIG. 9 is a schematic of the prior art;
  • FIG. 10 is a schematic of an improvement to the FIG. 9 illustration;
  • FIG. 11 is a schematic illustration of a tidal mill of the prior art; and
  • FIG. 12 is a sectional detail of a foramen cover in the vertical axis wind generator.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • 1. Definitions
  • Certain definitions and acronyms will be referred to throughout the remainder of this discussion. Fuel-cell vehicles (FCV's) are propelled by electricity drawn from a fuel cell. In the fuel cell, energy is produced by recombining hydrogen and oxygen (or air) to produce direct current (DC) and water. My present disclosure is conceived as operating as a stand-alone refueling facility to refuel FCVs.
  • 2. Components of the FCV or Marine Craft Refueling System
  • The majority of the mechanical components of my FCV or marine craft refueling system currently exist and are commercially available. This system combines these elements at sites which provide maximum operational efficiency and accessibility for the vehicles they will serve. The major elements of the system which are commercially available are: solar panels (for DC photovoltaics); wave action generators; mega capacitors; reverse osmosis water de-ionizers; electrolizers (electrolysis unit); hydrogen purifiers and compressors; storage units for gaseous products; fuel cells; AC/DC motors and generators; and accessory connectors along with valves, gauges, meters and other electrical networking devices. In addition to the unique combination of the aforesaid elements, I have invented and/or improved the following energy generating components for integration with the FCV or marine craft refueling system: vertical axis wind generator; tidal generator barge; and a wave/air generator to be totally integrated with my system disclosure. The components of the system infrastructure may be located at or near waterways, roadways, industrial sites, commercial sites, dwellings, savannas, buildings, open spaces, public areas, parks, rivers, lakes, oceans, or any other suitable location. An elevated structure may be an abridgement, overpass, bridge, manmade landscape feature, scaffolding, elevated walkway, overpass, marine craft, or any other structure, superstructure, fixed or movable construction, or any other manmade or natural feature that has sufficient size for the placement thereon of a solar collecting mechanism, wind power generator, water power generator, or any other energy collecting or energy generating component of the system. Energy may be electrical, chemical, mechanical, nuclear, solar, geothermal, kinetic, potential, heat, wind, water, or any other form of energy that may be collected, generated, released, or converted. An elevated structure may be proximate water in the form of tidal flows or basins, rivers, large creeks or estuaries and be subject to higher than the normal surface winds, while being free of shadowing influences. As will be seen in the drawings, primarily FIGS. 2A and 2B, abandoned or underused structures or mills or a bridge by its nature provides the various hard points for mounting equipment while affording the facility (the disclosed FCV or marine craft refueling system) its required compliment of energy sources and physical advantages: since it is high, it is rarely overshadowed and is perfect for solar panels or collectors; since inner-city structures and bridges are unobstructed from the sides, and passage of high winds therethrough is normal, light-weight wind generators function well when positioned under, or on the horizontal surfaces of extensive roof areas or the bridge; frequently constructed over bodies of water and such bodies of water can power tidal, wave or hydro-generating subsystems; there is generally space beneath them for production or storage facilities; the necessary highways pass over them which would provide access for the vehicles that the FCV or marine craft facility is intended to serve; and because they are facilities associated with high volumes of traffic and communication, there is often a ready access to the power grids of the region in which they are located. In a novel siting concept, I have ideally positioned my FCV and marine craft refueling infrastructure on abandoned or underused structures or brown-fields, and abridgments, overpasses.
  • 3. Integration of the Components and Subsystems
  • Having reference now to FIGS. 1A and 1B, a series of direct current producers—a solar panel collector 12, a wind generator 14, a tidal barge 16, a wave action generator 18, and a wave wind generator 20—are shown electrically ganged to a capacitor 21. A capacitor 21 may be large enough to store electrical energy from direct current producers 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and even out voltage fluctuations from direct current producers 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. A capacitor 21 may be a single capacitor or a plurality of capacitors. The capacitor 21 is electrically connected to a switching center S1. This first switching center S1is capable of routing the totality of generated DC power to either electrolyzer 22 or a second switching center S2. A conduction device may be used to transfer electricity. For example, a conduction device may be connected to an energy generating device to other components such as an electrolyzer 22 or an electrical power storage device 44. An electrical power storage device 44 may be a battery, capacitor, or any other device that can store electrical power either directly or through an energy conversion. A conduction device may include a switching device S1, S2 or a capacitor 21 or a mega capacitor. Following the former channel, electrolyzer 22 receives direct current power and pure water from reverse osmosis apparatus 24 in order to produce gaseous products, normally hydrogen and oxygen. The gaseous products may serve as an energy storage medium. Stored gaseous products may be used for energy conversion within the system or for dispensing to components or devices outside the system. These products are then directed pneumatically to compression devices that may include an oxygen compression purifier 26 and a hydrogen compressor purifier 28. Thereafter, the oxygen is directed to oxygen storage device 30 and the hydrogen to hydrogen storage device 32. Such storage devices may consist in a series of fixed or portable high pressure tanks. Thus, the stored oxygen and hydrogen are available as shown in FIG. 1B for either removal to market or further transfer within the indicated system. Following the latter path, both oxygen and hydrogen are transmissible to a fuel cell array 38 or, hydrogen alone is conducted to a fuel cell charging station 34. Although not depicted herein, the FCV charging station (not shown) could alternately draw and use direct current taken from the second switching system S2.
  • The reason for the depicted set up is that, as will be seen in the further discussion of FIGS. 1A and 1B, power from the DC generator bank of various collectors 12-20 may be insufficient at any particular time to operate the main charging station. At such time, full reliance would be made upon the hydrogen/oxygen storage sub facilities and the system would downmode to a simple production mode only. In other instances, for example when there is little demand for the charging stations or hydrogen and oxygen products, the generator bank power would be shunted through switching system S1 to switching system S2. Switching system S2 is an electrical network which sends DC power from either the generator bank 12-20 or the fuel cell bank 38 to a battery bank 44. Thus, the system 10 is capable of long term and continuous storage of direct current power which can then be immediately used to power a motor generator complex 46 which will produce alternating current (AC). The alternating current is sent from the motor generator through a third switching network S3 that will shunt the power (AC) to either the immediate facility bus and/or a nearby commercial power grid.
  • In particular, a capacitor 21 in the present disclosure may be a mega capacitor supercapacitor, ultracapacitor, or double-layer capacitor. Supercapacitors, ultracapacitors, and double-layer capacitors have high energy density when compared to common capacitors and also have very high rates of charge and discharge with little degradation over hundreds of thousands of cycles. Supercapacitors, ultracapacitors, mega capacitors and double-layer capacitors may incorporate electrolytes, metal oxide coated electrodes, carbon nanotubes and conductive polymers, organic electrolytes, or carbon aerogel. Carbon nanotubes have excellent nanoporosity properties, allowing tiny spaces for the polymer to sit in the tube and act as a dielectric. Some polymers (e.g. polyacenes) have a redox (reduction-oxidation) storage mechanism along with a high surface area. Supercapacitors, ultracapacitors, mega capacitors and double-layer capacitors may include carbon aerogel. Carbon aerogel is a material providing extremely high surface area. The electrodes of aerogel supercapacitors may be made of paper made from carbon fibers and coated with organic aerogel, which then undergoes pyrolysis. The paper may be a composite material where the carbon fibers provide structural integrity and the aerogel provides the required large surface. Supercapacitors, ultracapacitors, and double-layer capacitors may include activated carbon that is unaligned and irregular in shape or the activated carbon may be aligned and regular in shape.
  • One embodiment of the system 10 is illustrated in FIG. 2A. There, a bridge 48 seen spanning a river or tidal estuary bears thereon a complex of solar panels 12 and vertical axis wind generators 14. The solar panels are arrayed along the superstructure while at the bases (pediments) of the vertical supports, at essentially water level, is disposed a series of wave action generators 18. Situated close to the bridge, but for illustration purposes only, is a tidal barge 16. Although primary equipment of the barge is not shown herein, it may be seen that the barge itself affords an excellent base for secondary power generation subsystems such as the wind generators 14 and wave action generators 18.
  • A second embodiment of the system 10 is illustrated in FIG. 2B. As shown, a site 202 including buildings 204, 206, that had outlived their apparent usefulness, adjacent a waterway 208 possibly in an inner city environment are shown having a complex of solar panels 12 and vertical axis wind generators 14 operatively positioned thereon. A bridge 210 over the waterway 208 may be included at the site 202. A presently preferred site would be a textile mill that had a hydropower generating capability such that a turbine (not shown) may be housed therein in order to generate electrical power.
  • Also housed in the building is an electrolyzer (not shown) that breaks down the water into oxygen and hydrogen and may be stored in suitable tanks (not shown) inside or adjacent to the buildings 204, 206. The stored hydrogen and oxygen can either be sold or dispensed to fuel cell vehicles as well as used in a fuel cell to produce alternating current (AC) electricity which may be fed into the local power grid, provide AC current for the buildings and equipment at the site and provide AC current to as much as an 8 to 10 block radius therefrom, as depicted in FIGS. 1A and 1B.
  • As clearly illustrated in FIG. 2B, the waterway 208 may flow adjacent to the buildings 202, 204 and under the optional bridge 210. Solar panels 12 and wind turbines 14 that generate DC electricity may be operatively positioned on the roofs 212 of the buildings 204, 206. Water from the waterway 208 may be diverted into at least one of the buildings 204, 206 and through a Hydro turbine (not shown) that produces DC electricity and then exits the buildings 204, 206 farther downstream at point 214. As shown, in this particular embodiment, the buildings 204, 206 may be off set so that water may be diverted into a first channel 216 and then into building 206, returning to the waterway at point 214.
  • In another representative embodiment of a plurality of representative embodiments, water may also be diverted into a second building in a manner similar to the diversion of the water from the waterway 208 into building 206. The main stream of the waterway 208 continues but may be separated from the diverted water so that the flow of diverted water to 216 through at least one building 206 is controlled and separate from the main waterway 224. The water diversion may be accomplished by structure such as a wall 220 or embankment or, in the case of multiple buildings, a plurality of walls. A small waterfall 222, may change the level of the water flowing in the main waterway 208 from the height of the wall to a point lower than the wall thereby splitting the water in the waterway 208 into two paths, A and B, it being understood that this is merely one of a plurality of different approaches that may be taken to divert the water from the waterway to and through the turbine located in the buildings. While the turbine located inside the buildings are not specifically shown, they are conventional and are well known in the art. However, some conversion cost may be required to convert the old AC turbine, which may remain in the structure, to DC for the system of the present disclosure.
  • Depending upon the location of the buildings and the type of waterway utilized, other electricity generating vehicles such as those described above may be strategically positioned in close proximity to the buildings so that the electricity generated thereby can be stored in the mega capacitor for production of hydrogen and oxygen for utilization by fuel-cell vehicles that will utilize additional superstructure constructed in the near proximity to the buildings, such as hydrogen and oxygen dispensing structure for the fuel-cell vehicles that utilize streets and highways proximate the buildings and bridge, if present.
  • With respect to fuel-cell vehicles, the establishment of a plurality of these sites at abandon buildings, such as, for example, textile plants throughout the United States, in addition to providing electrical energy to the local power grid and producing sufficient electrical energy for the site and the surrounding area, would effectively develop an infrastructure for the refueling of fuel-cell vehicles. In other words, one of the major holdups to the practicality of fuel-cell vehicles is the lack of a refueling infrastructure and the cost to develop thereof. The development of sites as described in the present disclosure would jumpstart the commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles for use throughout the United States, with the establishment of a plurality of sites as disclosed in the present disclosure.
  • As is known, former textile plants are usually located adjacent to open spaces such as parking lots that would be ideal for building apartments and/or condos as the population moves back to the inner city from the suburbs. Thus, with the implementation of the present disclosure, it may be possible to reduce the inner-city blight and at the same time provide new neighborhoods adjacent thereto.
  • Turning now to more specific devices of my disclosure, FIG. 3 illustrates my vertical axis wind generator in plan view. FIGS. 4 and 5 may be elevational illustrations of the FIG. 3 apparatus in a top mounted and a bottom mounted configuration, respectively. The vertical axis of rotation may allow the wind generator to react to winds from any direction. In FIG. 3, a wind generator subsystem may be seen featuring an annular ring 52 which may ride on a series of support rollers 54 (not shown) and may be movably secured by a series of concentric rim supports 56. Radiating from a central spindle 58 may be a plurality of foraminous vanes 55 which may be rigidly mounted to the spindle 58 and to the ring 52. The vanes 55 may have an air foil shape, that may be, a cupped or concave configuration that may cause the apparatus to rotate so that a concave portion us may always be presented to the wind and the wind-engaging vane transports a segment of the annular ring so as to bring its diametrically opposite vane's convex face into the wind. For this reason, I term the wind-catching, concave portion of a vane 55 as its windward face and the other convex side, its leeward surface or face. As those convex vanes diametrically opposed to the wind “catching” vanes come into the wind stream W, I have devised a device of uncovering the foramens within the vanes. The foramen covers may consist in a light, flapper valve array (see FIG. 12) that may be hingedly mounted over the foramens on the windward (concave or cupped) surface of the vane. Thus, as the vane moves with the wind, literally “catching” the air movement, the cover may be closed and the integrity of the vane surface may be undiminished. As the vane convex or leeward surface moves into the wind stream, the air force on the normally leeward surface may pass through the foramens, the covers may hingedly flapp open.
  • Referring specifically now to FIGS. 4 and 5, the remaining features of my wind generator can be readily seen in the low dome-like profile, which may be designed to mount over or under a horizontal support structure 61. My design functions so as not to place undue lateral strain on the support structure, especially functional in the case when such support structure may be a bridge 48 (FIG. 2). Angular momentum of the rotating dome may be taken off via transmission 62, in this instance a belt and pulley arrangement, which may be coupled to generator 64. Those of ordinary skill will recognize this as being a simplistic expression of such power take-off and understand that it may be merely representative of the types of transmissions which may be used. In small, compact emplacements, I favor the use of belts and wheels in this typical pulley arrangement, since they are readily and inexpensively replaceable. However, more efficient transfer can be made through a traditional gear transmission wherein the primary mover may be the annular ring and it supports thereon an annular gearing arrangement (not shown prior art). Thus, the generator main shafts may be directly linked to the annular mounting ring by a gear transmission which, although more expensive, would not be as susceptible to the elements as a belt and wheel transmission. For the most part, my wind generator may be constructed of lightweight material such as PVC (plastic) and may be available in three diameters to allow for a variety of available spaces for mounting. The energy developed by the wind generator may be transmitted to the lightweight, high-output DC generator by either of the transmission devices previously mentioned. As illustrated in the Figs., I have encased the expose generator of my previous design such that the generator is now encased in the base unit and is not exposed to the weather, as in my previous design.
  • Referred to earlier, a problem faced by vertical axis generators may be that the energy developed by the rotating ring may be reduced both by the resistance of vanes turning into the wind and the partial vacuum developed behind those vanes by their air foil configuration. Note FIG. 12 wherein I eliminate this problem by placing perforations or foramens 66 in the vanes to allow the air pressure on each side of the vane to equalize as it turns into the wind. The detail illustration of this figure portrays how, as the foraminous vane 55 turns its normally leeward (convex) face into the wind, a cover of lightweight plastic 68 (e.g. mylar, polyethylene, etc.) may be forced away from the surface, allowing the air pressure or wind stream to pass through the foramen 66. Thereafter, as the concave or windward surface of the vane begins to “catch” the wind, the foramen cover 68 may be forced to the face of the vane thereby covering the foramen and restoring the solid wind-resistance surface of the vane. Any number of devices may be used to hingedly fix the foramen cover 68 over the foramen 66. I have shown in FIG. 14 a pop-riveted cover, for illustration purposes only, which would be as suitable as any other device used in the industry today.
  • The wind generator structures may be fitted with a three arm reinforcement brace which may be connected to a retainer ring on the top of the rotating vertical axis rod to provide stability during periods of high winds. Should the wind generator be mounted vertically, additional support rollers would be affixed to the base of the reinforcement braces. A hinge may be affixed alongside a base to facilitate servicing of the drive mechanism and the DC generator.
  • I term my overall disclosure 10 a system and the various supportive units for the production or generation of products or power as, generally, subsystems. The vertical axis wind generator discussed above may be one of the subsystems of my disclosure while the tidal barge 16 may be another having, perhaps, a more significant importance. FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 are the tidal barge illustrations in partial plan, partial elevation and sectionalized vertical elevation, respectively. A tidal barge may be an energy generating facility designed to be anchored in a location where the water flow would be sufficient to turn the generating equipment. Tidal wind from either direction flows to the two mounted in the center of the barge below the waterline. A Kaplin type turbine 240 may be mounted in the housing amidships. The Kaplin turbine 240 has adjustable vanes to allow for changing water flow. Flow speed may be the lowest at ebb tide and increases to maximum it halfway to high tide then decreases. As the tide reverses. The process may be repeated in the opposite direction. The debris screen at either end of the tube protects a turbine from flotsam in the tidal flow. As the tide reverses, any accumulated material may be forced back into the flow. The barge may be firmly anchored to provide a fixed point of resistance against the tidal flow. Further, the barge may be fore-aft symmetrical, which allows it, and its associated apparatus to be directed into the tidal flow and thereafter fixed. The idea here being that, as the tide moves inward and outward, the tidal barge power generating equipment will be fixed to take advantage of the flow and thus require no further movement other than fine adjustments to maintain it in the direct tidal stream. Referring to FIG. 6, the barge 16 may be shown in plan view having a boat 200 docked thereat. The main power generating subsystems include: vertical axis wind generators 14 mounted on the upper flat surfaces; wave action generators 18 serially mounted along the flanks of the barge and protruding into and below the water line to take advantage of any wave action encountered; and, most significantly, a tunnel 70 passing completely through the barge in the form of a conduit through which the tidal waters may pass and yet not enter into the hold 17 of the barge. Positioning anchor mechanisms 79 assure that the barge is aligned so that the tunnel 70 is brought directly into tidal flow TF. As the water stream enters the tunnel 70 it encounters a debris screen DS, and then the main tidal generator apparatus. Reference to FIG. 7 clearly discloses some of the items and elements of this subsystem that have not been mentioned. Most notably, storage tanks 32/30 for hydrogen/oxygen are shown in the enclosed portion at the left portion of the intermediate deck. This is in anticipation of the barge containing a significant amount of the system depicted in FIG. 1; however, such ingredients of the tidal barge will allow for the refueling of FCV pleasure power boats or commercial craft. Suffice it to say that the production of DC power that may be readily transferable to the shore/land-based main system facility may be most desirous until such a purpose or market develops. For this reason, I mentioned that the center stream anchorage of the tidal barge, as depicted in FIG. 2, was simply for illustration purposes. Final to FIG. 7, the fore and aft emplacements of water turbines 78 are an adjunct. These water turbines 78 are reverse cycle devices which when placed in the water and below the hull, allow this apparatus to be used as a DC power generation device or, alternatively, as a motive device for moving the barge 16. Final to the tidal barge, FIG. 8 provides to the reader a front elevation of the barge 16 clearly defining the tunnel 70 which may be set off from the hold 17.
  • 4. Improvements in Existing Tidal/Wave Devices
  • A very practical, simple and inexpensive wave energy generator has been designed by the engineering staff of Queens University, Glasgow, Scotland, which consisted of a small, firmly-built structure into which an incoming wave flows through an orifice, compressing air within an adjacent structure. Reference to FIG. 9 will acquaint the reader with the Queens University design 80 wherein an air turbine generator 82 is situated adjacent an inlet 82′ and interconnectively with an enclosure 84. It should be noted that the enclosure integrity encompasses only the input of the air turbine generator and thus, as air pressure increases or decreases within the enclosure 84, air will be forced through the generator input 82′ and out the generator exhaust end or drawn in from the exhaust end to enter the enclosure through the inlet 82′, respectively. The normal operating mode for an air turbine generator is to have air flow (first) through one end and then, be literally “sucked” backed through from the other end. The internal mechanism of the generator is contrived to allow for this positive and negative air flow to keep the impeller and turbine shaft continuously spinning in the same direction. Other designs actually conceive of reversing the turbine angular motion and either producing an alternating electrical current or reversing plurality of the output network in order to maintain a pulsating direct current output. All these attributes of air turbine generators are well-known in the art and it is my purpose herein to improve on the Queens University design so as to obviate the necessity of placing the enclosure 84 and its generator 82 companion near the water so that the enclosure inlet 86 is sufficiently submersed and that an incoming wave will serve to raise the water level within the enclosure sufficiently to increase air pressure. The receding wave will reduce the volume and hence the air pressure within the enclosure.
  • Referring to FIG. 10, my improvement firstly raises the entire enclosure 85 generator 83 complex well above the storm tide line to a safe location. In distinction to the Queens University design 80, my instant improvement 81 conceives of the enclosure 85 completely enveloping the generator 83. More distinctively, the heightened and elongated air tube 87 does enter the enclosure, but well above the water. Most distinctively, the entire generator 83 is within the enclosure and the exhaust duct 83′ vents from the generator to outside the enclosure 85; but, never at any time is the integrity of the exhaust duct 83′ violated. My arrangement allows the enclosure to also act as a protective covering for the generator assembly. Further to my improvement 81, the vertical conduit 87 is extended below the storm tide line 90 and the high tide line 91 into the water just below the low tide line 92. There it is moored by suitable basing 94 so that the incoming waves, irrespective of tide level, will provide the requisite compression of air through the vertical portion of conduit 87. I conceive of several installations of this type colocated with a bridge emplacement of the system 10 or, in their AC generation mode, located along a coastline and connected to the local power grid.
  • FIG. 11 is an illustration of prior art which I have not sought to improve but which I feel is a useful adjunct proximate sites that I would select for installation of my disclosure. The Eling Tide Mill 94 was constructed about 1086 A. D. and rebuilt for modern usage in 1980. This particular mill is situated at South Hampton, England and first became known to me through the Old Mill News, Spring 1992, page 4. In order to operate, a tide mill has to have a dam 95 which creates a head of water in a tidal pond 96. At Eling, the sea hatches 97 situated at the east end of the causeway 95 is suspended like flaps and opens by the force of the incoming tide 98. This allows the incoming sea water to enter the tidal pond and extend about two miles upstream in Bartley Water. This river feeds the inlet and provides some fresh water to mix with the incoming salt water. At high tide, the sea hatches slowly close and, as the tide ebbs, the impounded water makes the head required to run the mill 99. About one and a half hours after high tide, when the ebb tide falls enough to almost clear the water wheel 100, the sluicegate 101, inside the mill, is raised slowly to release the pent-up waters through a mill race to turn the wheel and drive the mill machinery. Although tidal mills produce limited amounts of power, they are totally reliable, allowing eight hours or more of generation, depending on the extent of the estuary. A DC generator is substituted for the mill stones and the energy developed is used for immediate electrolysis or it is transmitted to a production site to produce hydrogen and oxygen for FCVs and marine crafts.
  • The embodiments disclosed herein have been discussed for the purpose of familiarizing the reader with the novel aspects of this disclosure. Although preferred embodiments of the disclosure have been shown, many changes, modifications and substitutions may be made by one having ordinary skill in the art without necessarily departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as described in the hereinafter appended claims.

Claims (19)

  1. 1. A site system for provision of electrical and fuel products for site servicing of vehicles and marine craft comprising in combination:
    at least one elevated superstructure for providing a substantial base for said site and having at least one utility area;
    at least one electrical generation subsystem selected from a group consisting of: a solar panel collector, a wind generator and a water power generation structure, said electrical generation subsystem being operatively positioned in said at least one utility area;
    electrical conduction structure for transferring electrical output of said subsystem to at least one electrolysis structure, said electrical conduction structure including switching structure for shunting said electrical output to said electrolysis structure or to electrical power storage structure;
    at least one water source;
    the electrolysis structure being capable of producing gaseous products while in electrical communication with said electrical conduction structure and receptive of water from said water source;
    compression and storage structures for receiving said gaseous products;
    a multi-service station network for tapping into said compression and storage structures containing said gaseous products, using said gaseous products for generating electrical power and for dispensing hydrogen and oxygen product therefrom; and
    electric conversion structure capable of generating alternating current power.
  2. 2. The system of claim 1 wherein said elevated structure is sited on a river, a valley, a fjord, a highway, a canal, a bay or a.
  3. 3. The system of claim 1 wherein said multi-service station network comprises a fuel cell charging station.
  4. 4. The system of claim 1 wherein said electrical conversion structure is a motor generator subsystem.
  5. 5. The system of claim 1 wherein said wind generator comprises:
    mounting structure;
    rotational structure over which said mounting structure may travel, said rotational structure fixed to a superstructure enabling said annular mounting to rotate relative to said superstructure;
    a plurality of foramenous vanes operatively disposed about an axis to individual, equally spaced points on said mounting structure and effecting, elevationally, a hemispheric silhouette, each vane of said plurality of vanes defined by a concave windward face, an opposite leeward face and a plurality of foramens therethrough, said vanes further comprising moveable foramen covers disposed over foramens of said plurality at said windward face so that, as said leeward face of a particular vane is presented to a wind force by said rotation, said moveable foramen covers on the wind-ward side of said particular vane reflex and uncover their respective foramens; and
    power transmission structure for transferring angular momentum of said mounting structure to an electrical power generation structure.
  6. 6. The wind generator of claim 5 wherein said mounting structure comprises a ring for mounting said vanes of the generator and includes a mechanism that facilitates transfer of angular momentum from movement of said ring to an electric generator.
  7. 7. The wind generator of claim 6 wherein said mechanism comprises:
    structure, operatively connected to the ring that is receptive therein of a belt structure.
  8. 8. The wind generator of claim 6 wherein said mechanism includes a gear tooth array operatively disposed on the ring.
  9. 9. The system of claim 5 wherein said rotational structure comprises:
    a circular array of wheels which support said mounting structure and rotatably couple said mounting structure with the superstructure.
  10. 10. The system of claim 1 wherein said barge is a barge hull for anchoring in a water flow and further comprises:
    a tunnel structure for admitting water flow through the barge hull, said tunnel structure aligned centrally and longitudinally within said hull;
    an electrical generator assembly for immersion into a water stream and comprising a turbine;
    power take-off means for extracting energy from movement of the turbine and for delivering said mechanical energy to an electrical power generator; and
    anchoring structure for securing the barge hull in a fore-aft orientation with respect to said water flow.
  11. 11. The system of claim 1 wherein said water power generation structure is at least one subsystem selected from the group of subsystems consisting of fixed tidal mills and wave actuated energy generators.
  12. 12. A compact system for production of electrical power and electrolysis products derivable economically from wind and solar energies and comprising:
    an elevated building structure including platform structure that afford mounting of equipment thereon;
    at least one solar collector fixed thereto, said solar collector array being electrically in communication with a switching structure;
    at least one vertical axis wind generator operatively disposed on said platform structure and/or operatively suspended thereunder, said group electrically ganged to at least one switching structure for connecting electrical output of said at least one solar collector and said at least one vertical axis wind generator to at least one gas forming electrolysis equipment; and
    a water source for use by said at least one gas forming electrolysis equipment.
  13. 13. The system of claim 1, wherein said barge comprises:
    an elongated hull having a tunnel passing longitudinally therethrough, said hull bearing thereover an essentially flat deck;
    an anchor structure for mooring said barge in a tidal flow so that said tunnel is in alignment therewith;
    one or more vertical axis wind generators disposed on said deck, said wind generators including first electrical power generators coupled thereto, said power generators connected to an electric power network and said network connected to a battery structure;
    a tunnel structure for admitting water flow through the barge hull and aligned centrally and longitudinally therewith;
    a Kaplin turbine operatively positioned in the water flow through the barge hull for immersion into a water stream;
    power take-off structure for extracting mechanical energy from Kaplin turbine and delivering said mechanical energy to at least a second electrical power generator, said at least second electrical power generator outputting to said electric power network; and
    at least one tidal mill generator disposed at an end of said tunnel structure for providing electrical output to said electric power network.
  14. 14. The system of claim 13 further comprising an array of wave-actuated power generators staged alongside said hull and protruding downward below said water line, said array productive of electric power, said power transferrable by an electric conduction means to said electric power network.
  15. 15. The system of claim 12 wherein said structure comprises:
    a fuel cell charging station.
  16. 16. An energy generating system for supplying usable power to transportation devices, comprising in combination:
    a) a building structure, operatively proximate a source of water, the building structure being operatively proximate a roadway;
    b) an electrical generation system for generating electrical power, including a solar powered generator, a wind powered generator, and a water powered generator, each operatively mounted to the building structure respectively;
    c) power storage structure for storing electrical power generated from the electrical generation system; and
    d) power delivery structure for delivering electrical power from the power storage structure to the transportation devices.
  17. 17. The generating system of claim 16, wherein the wind powered generator is mounted to an underside of the road-way; and the solar powered generator is mounted substantially above the roadway.
  18. 18. The generating system of claim 17, further comprising:
    a) structure operatively coupled to receive electrical output from the electrical generation system for generating gases from water through electrolysis;
    b) gas storage structure for storing the generated gases; and
    c) electrical generating structure for generating electrical power from the generated gases.
  19. 19. A site system for provision of electrical and fuel products for site servicing of vehicles or marine craft comprising in combination:
    a source of flowing water:
    at least one elevated structure operatively positioned proximate the flowing source of water and being adapted to utilize the water from the flowing source of water to power a turbine system for generating electrical energy, the at least one elevated structure having at least one utility area;
    at least one energy generating system for generating electrical energy, operatively positioned on the at least one utility area, and the additional energy generating system being selected from a group consisting of a solar panel collector, a wind power generator and combinations thereof;
    a conduction device for transferring the generated electrical energy of the turbine and the at least one energy generating system, the conduction device including a capacitor for electrical energy storage and voltage leveling, the conduction device further including at least one switching device operatively connected thereto for shunting the generated electrical energy to an electrolyzer, to the electrical energy storage device or to a power grid;
    an electrolyzer operatively positioned relative to the elevated structure for receiving the generated electrical energy for production of gaseous products from the water;
    compression and storage devices, operatively positioned relative to the elevated structure, for receiving the produced gaseous products; and
    a multi-service station system for utilizing the produced gaseous products stored in the compression and storage devices such that the gaseous products are used to generate electrical energy.
US12978752 2008-06-20 2010-12-27 System to establish a refueling infrastructure for coming fuel-cell vehicles/marine craft and interim production of gaseous products, power, and inner-city rejuvenation Abandoned US20110139299A1 (en)

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US20110043044A1 (en) * 2009-08-10 2011-02-24 Yu-Lin Chu Generating System Using Solar Energy and Wind Power
US20120200156A1 (en) * 2011-02-08 2012-08-09 Chuck Weller System for generating electrical power for a port
WO2013063681A1 (en) * 2011-10-11 2013-05-10 Haisam Yakoub Wind energy turbine shell station (wetss)
WO2014196921A1 (en) * 2013-06-07 2014-12-11 Scanmediator A water based modular power plant
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WO2014120402A3 (en) * 2013-02-01 2015-02-19 Costas Dan N Dual intake wave energy converter
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WO2014202381A3 (en) * 2013-06-18 2015-11-19 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Power supply system using a fuel cell, controller for the same and control method
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