US20110094964A1 - Membrane filter for water treatment - Google Patents

Membrane filter for water treatment Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110094964A1
US20110094964A1 US12981119 US98111910A US2011094964A1 US 20110094964 A1 US20110094964 A1 US 20110094964A1 US 12981119 US12981119 US 12981119 US 98111910 A US98111910 A US 98111910A US 2011094964 A1 US2011094964 A1 US 2011094964A1
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Prior art keywords
membranes
hollow fiber
fiber membranes
plurality
capillary
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12981119
Inventor
Klaus Vossenkaul
Stefan Schafer
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Koch Membrane Systems GmbH
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Koch Membrane Systems GmbH
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Publication date
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D65/00Accessories or auxiliary operations, in general, for separation processes or apparatus using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D65/08Prevention of membrane fouling or of concentration polarisation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • B01D63/024Hollow fibre modules with a single potted end or U-shaped
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • B01D63/04Hollow fibre modules comprising multiple hollow fibre assemblies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D63/00Apparatus in general for separation processes using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D63/02Hollow fibre modules
    • B01D63/04Hollow fibre modules comprising multiple hollow fibre assemblies
    • B01D63/043Hollow fibre modules comprising multiple hollow fibre assemblies with separate tube sheets
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D65/00Accessories or auxiliary operations, in general, for separation processes or apparatus using semi-permeable membranes
    • B01D65/02Membrane cleaning or sterilisation ; Membrane regeneration
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/44Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis
    • C02F1/444Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis by ultrafiltration or microfiltration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/06External membrane module supporting or fixing means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2313/00Details relating to membrane modules or apparatus
    • B01D2313/26Specific gas distributors or gas intakes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2315/00Details relating to the membrane module operation
    • B01D2315/06Submerged-type; Immersion type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/12Use of permeate
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2321/00Details relating to membrane cleaning, regeneration, sterilization or to the prevention of fouling
    • B01D2321/18Use of gases
    • B01D2321/185Aeration
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2303/00Specific treatment goals
    • C02F2303/16Regeneration of sorbents, filters

Abstract

The invention relates to a membrane filter for water treatment, comprising a head piece including a permeate collecting chamber with a permeate outlet, and at least one fiber bundle made from capillary membranes, which are secured into the head piece with an end that is open towards the permeate collecting chamber and sealed on the opposite end thereof. The head piece contains an air duct to which the mouth piece that protrudes into the fiber bundle is connected with at least one air outlet. At its other end, the fiber bundle terminates in freely movable manner in the untreated water.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a continuation of U.S. application No. Ser. 12/761,896, filed Apr. 16, 2010, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/354,917, filed Jan. 16, 2009, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/611,294, filed Dec. 15, 2006, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/419,054, filed May 18, 2006, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,160,454, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/380,568, filed Aug. 1, 2003, now abandoned, which is a national stage entry of PCT/EP2001/009788, filed Aug. 24, 2001, which claims priority to German Application No. 10045227.2, filed Sep. 13, 2000, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • BACKGROUND
  • A membrane filter having capillary membranes of the membrane filter that can be used in immersion operation that are clamped between two head pieces at their ends is known from WO 98/28066. A gasification device is connected at the one head piece, which is the lower one in operation. The other, upper end contains the permeate collecting chamber. It forms a displacement body, which has the effect of displacing the rising air bubbles towards the outside of the membrane fiber bundle. Effective gasification is no longer guaranteed in the upper region of the fiber bundle. Here, no membrane movements are possible either, or only slight membrane movements are possible. As a consequence, the formation of membrane cover layers and of gross dirt deposits occurs in the upper region of the fiber bundle.
  • In a membrane filter known from DE 198 11 945 A1, the fiber bundle of capillary membranes is set into a pressure-resistant mantle pipe, through which the flow passes in the lengthwise direction of the capillary membranes. The capillary membranes are secured into an in-flow base at their ends, which base has a plurality of bores uniformly distributed over its cross-section, to allow the untreated water to flow through. In order to prevent cover layers from forming on the outside of the capillary membranes, and to prevent the micropores of the capillary membranes from becoming blocked, a uniform flow through the membrane filter chamber, at a defined flow velocity, is required. In order to improve the material exchange, the untreated water can be gasified with air before it enters into the membrane filter chamber. Sufficient air distribution within the fiber bundle is not guaranteed. The air is essentially guided along the outside of the membrane bundle, with the untreated water flow, and does not make any effective contribution to the membrane purification effect.
  • SUMMARY
  • The invention relates to a membrane filter for water treatment, comprising a head piece including a permeate collecting chamber with a permeate outlet, at least one fiber bundle made from capillary membranes, which are secured into the head piece with an end that is open towards the permeate collecting chamber and individually sealed on the opposite end thereof, and a gasification device with a mouth piece that has at least one outlet for air and extends essentially parallel to the capillary membranes, within the fiber bundle, whereby the capillary membranes of the fiber bundle that are surrounded by the untreated water to be treated are attached, in a dense packing, to a connecting surface of the head piece, and clarified liquid can be withdrawn in the capillary membranes, to the permeate collecting chamber. The capillary membranes possess a diameter of less than 5 mm and preferably have the permeability of microfiltration membranes or ultrafiltration membranes. However, the use of capillary membranes for reverse osmosis or nanofiltration is not supposed to be precluded. Capillary membranes in a diameter range between 0.5 and 3 mm are preferred. The driving force for the membrane filtration is a pressure difference that can be implemented on the permeate by means of a pressure reduction. A pressure reduction on the permeate side is a particular possibility if the membrane filter is supposed to be used in immersion operation and is suspended in a basin that contains the untreated water, e.g. the activated sludge basin of a sewage treatment plant.
  • The invention is based on the task of indicating a membrane filter for water treatment in which effective gasification over the entire length of the fiber bundle is guaranteed, and an effective transport to remove membrane deposits that come loose from the membrane surfaces is assured.
  • This task is accomplished, according to the invention, in that the head piece contains an air duct to which the mouth piece that protrudes into the fiber bundle is connected, and that the fibers of the bundle terminate, at their other ends, without being clamped in place, in freely movable manner in the untreated water. The air that exits from the mouth piece flows through the fiber bundle from the inside to the outside, and partially flows away in the lengthwise direction of the capillary membranes. The air feed is preferably supplied intermittently, with the goal of cleaning off cover layers that have formed on the membrane surface during membrane filtration. The air introduction into the fiber bundle, according to the invention, allows surprisingly effective cleaning, independent of the flow velocity of the untreated water. In this regard, the membrane filter according to the invention can also be used in immersion operation.
  • The mouth piece possesses a pipe-shaped section, for example, with bores on the circumference, or is structured as a ring gap nozzle, from which the air exits radially or at least with a radial movement component. The air can be introduced into the fiber bundle in targeted manner by means of sizing the length of the mouth piece and by the arrangement of the exit bores or exit nozzles. It also proves to be advantageous if the mouth piece has a kick-back valve that closes if the pressure of the air feed drops.
  • The fiber bundle is attached to a connecting surface of the head piece, in a dense packing; in case of immersion operation of the membrane filter, this connecting surface is not penetrated by flow channels for the untreated water. The capillary membranes, which are sealed at their free ends, move in the untreated water to be filtered, since they are only clamped in place at one end. To limit the lateral movements of the fiber bundle, a basket can be set onto the head piece around the fiber bundle. The basket can be made of rods or, for example, can consist of a pipe that has been provided with openings on its circumference. The head piece can furthermore have connecting devices for attachment to a frame, which can be lowered into a basin that contains the untreated water. It lies within the scope of the invention to structure the head piece in block shape, whereby the permeate run-off takes place at a narrow side surface or at the bottom. Several of these units can be arranged next to one another, in the form of a filter package, whereby it is practical if the permeate outlets are connected with one another by means of a collecting line.
  • If the membrane filter is used in immersion operation, no devices are required for making the untreated water flow against the capillary membranes. According to the invention, a fiber bundle is provided that contains the capillary membranes in a very dense packing, whereby the untreated water is guided past the fiber bundle on the outside, and air is introduced within the fiber bundle. Preferably the fiber bundle is arranged vertically in the untreated water in all the embodiments, whereby the capillary membranes are fixed in place on the head piece at their lower ends, and their upper end can move in the liquid. The air bubbles rise to the top essentially within the fiber bundle, and they are not entrained, or only entrained to a slight extent, by the liquid on the outside.
  • In the following, the invention will be explained in greater detail, using drawings that merely represent an exemplary embodiment.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate membrane filters for water treatment, according to the invention, which can be used in immersion operation, in lengthwise cross-section, in each instance.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • The fundamental structure of the membrane filters according to the invention as shown in the figures includes a head piece 1, which has a permeate collecting chamber 2 with a permeate outlet 3, and at least one fiber bundle 4 made up of capillary membranes 5, which are sealed at one end and are secured into the head piece 1 at their other end, with an open end towards the permeate collecting chamber 2. The capillary membranes 5 are preferably ultrafiltration membranes or microfiltration membranes, the diameter of which is less than 5 mm. Preferably, the capillary membranes possess a diameter between 0.5 and 3 mm. The capillary membranes 5 are surrounded by the untreated water 6 that is to be treated. Filtration takes place on the basis of a trans-membrane pressure difference, which can be generated by means of an excess pressure on the untreated water side and/or by a reduced pressure on the permeate side. The clarified liquid flows off through the lumen of the capillary membranes towards the permeate collecting chamber 2 connected to the open end of capillary membranes 5.
  • The capillary membranes 5 of the fiber bundle 4 are attached, in a dense packing, to a connecting surface 7 of the head piece, which surface is not penetrated by flow channels for the untreated water. A gasification device 8, from which air exits, is arranged within the fiber bundle 4. The air feed preferably takes place intermittently, with the goal of cleaning off cover layers that have formed on the membrane surface during membrane filtration. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the gasification device 8 has a protruding mouth piece 10 provided with at least one air outlet, which mouth piece extends essentially parallel to the capillary membranes 5 within the fiber bundle 4, and is connected to an air duct 16 that is arranged in the head piece 1. The mouth piece 10 has a pipe-shaped section with bores 11 on the circumference, but can also be structured as a ring gap nozzle, for example, from which the air exits with a radial alignment. The capillary membranes 5 secured into the head piece 1 at one end are freely movable at their other, sealed end, and perform more or less marked lateral movements under the effect of the turbulence that prevails in the untreated water and/or the flows that occur in the untreated water. To limit the lateral movements, a basket 12 is used, which is formed from rods and rings in the exemplary embodiment. A pipe that can be provided with perforations can also be used as the basket 12.
  • In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 2, it is indicated that the head piece 1 can be structured as a block-shaped element. In the lengthwise direction of the head piece 1, a plurality of gasification devices 8 is arranged, in order to introduce air into the fiber bundle 4. The fiber bundle 4 consists of a dense packing of capillary membranes 5. The head piece 1 is suitable for immersion operation and can have connecting devices, not shown, for attachment to a frame, which can be lowered into a basin containing untreated water. The permeate outlet 3 is provided at the narrow face. In this regard, it becomes clear that a plurality of the head pieces 1 can be arranged parallel, next to one another.

Claims (10)

  1. 1. A method to dislodge fouling materials from external surfaces of hollow fiber membranes immersed vertically in an open basin containing feed liquid at a feed liquid pressure, the method comprising the steps of:
    a) vertically mounting a plurality of porous hollow fiber membranes having fixed lower ends fixed in a head piece and freely moveable sealed upper ends adapted to prevent accumulation of deposits along the external surfaces and upper regions of the of the membranes, the plurality of membranes supported within a support structure;
    b) submerging the porous hollow fiber membranes in the head piece into the feed liquid in the open basin with the porous hollow fiber membranes oriented substantially vertically such that the sealed, freely movable upper ends are free to float within the feed liquid;
    c) applying a pressure less than the feed liquid pressure to the permeate collecting chamber to cause permeate to pass through the pores of the hollow fiber membranes in to the permeate collecting chamber; and
    d) aerating the plurality of porous hollow fiber membranes by providing pressurized gas from underneath the hollow fiber membranes to form bubbles that flow through a bundle of hollow fiber membranes from the inside to the outside of the bundle of membranes and partially flow away in the lengthwise direction, to contact external surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes over the entire length of the membranes and remove fouling materials from the hollow fiber membranes independent of the flow velocity of the feed liquid, and to cause the hollow fiber membranes to sway.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the pressurized gas is provided constantly.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the pressurized gas is provided intermittently.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1 further comprising the step of providing a liquid to internal surfaces of the hollow fiber membranes to backwash the hollow fiber membranes.
  5. 5. The method of claim 4 wherein the liquid is permeate.
  6. 6. A module for a membrane filter to treat untreated water contained in a tank or basin at an ambient pressure comprising:
    a) a plurality of head pieces arranged adjacent to one another, wherein the headpieces are block-shaped elements having a plurality of vertical fiber bundles that are a dense packing of capillary membranes having fixed lower ends and sealed, freely movable upper ends adapted to float within the untreated water within the tank or basis and thus prevent accumulation of deposits along external surfaces and upper regions of the of the membranes;
    b) a plurality of gasification devices arranged to introduce air into the fiber bundles to provide bubbles that flow through the bundle of capillary membranes from the inside to the outside of the bundle of membranes and partially flow away in the lengthwise direction, move upwardly, and contact the capillary membranes over the external surfaces and upper regions of the membranes to remove fouling materials from the capillary membranes independent of the flow velocity of the untreated water;
    c) a basket configured to support the capillary membranes; and
    d) connecting devices for attachment to a frame which can be lowered into a tank or basin containing untreated water.
  7. 7. The module of claim 6 further comprising a frame for immersing the plurality of head pieces into the tank or basin.
  8. 8. The module of claim 6 wherein the capillary membranes are packed relative to one another so as to produce a rubbing effect between the membranes when moved.
  9. 9. The module of claim 6 wherein the bubbles are provided constantly.
  10. 10. The module of claim 6 wherein the bubbles are provided intermittently.
US12981119 2000-09-13 2010-12-29 Membrane filter for water treatment Abandoned US20110094964A1 (en)

Priority Applications (9)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2000145227 DE10045227C1 (en) 2000-09-13 2000-09-13 Membrane filter for water treatment uses capillary membrane fibre bundle projecting into untreated water and fitting into permeate collection space at opposite end
DE10045227.2 2000-09-13
PCT/EP2001/009788 WO2002022244A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2001-08-24 Membrane filter for water treatment
US10380568 US20040035779A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2001-08-24 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11419054 US7160454B2 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-05-18 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11611294 US20070080111A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-12-15 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12354917 US20090152198A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2009-01-16 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12761896 US20100200505A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-04-16 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12981119 US20110094964A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-12-29 Membrane filter for water treatment

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12981119 US20110094964A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-12-29 Membrane filter for water treatment

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12761896 Continuation US20100200505A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-04-16 Membrane filter for water treatment

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20110094964A1 true true US20110094964A1 (en) 2011-04-28

Family

ID=7656022

Family Applications (6)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10380568 Abandoned US20040035779A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2001-08-24 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11419054 Active US7160454B2 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-05-18 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11611294 Abandoned US20070080111A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-12-15 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12354917 Abandoned US20090152198A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2009-01-16 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12761896 Abandoned US20100200505A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-04-16 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12981119 Abandoned US20110094964A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-12-29 Membrane filter for water treatment

Family Applications Before (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10380568 Abandoned US20040035779A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2001-08-24 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11419054 Active US7160454B2 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-05-18 Membrane filter for water treatment
US11611294 Abandoned US20070080111A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2006-12-15 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12354917 Abandoned US20090152198A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2009-01-16 Membrane filter for water treatment
US12761896 Abandoned US20100200505A1 (en) 2000-09-13 2010-04-16 Membrane filter for water treatment

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (6) US20040035779A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1317318B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4278377B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100732436B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1296123C (en)
CA (1) CA2422333C (en)
DE (2) DE10045227C1 (en)
DK (1) DK1317318T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2252305T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2002022244A1 (en)

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