US20110056893A1 - Apparatus and Method for Separating and Concentrating Fluids Containing Multiple Components - Google Patents

Apparatus and Method for Separating and Concentrating Fluids Containing Multiple Components Download PDF

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Publication number
US20110056893A1
US20110056893A1 US12946338 US94633810A US2011056893A1 US 20110056893 A1 US20110056893 A1 US 20110056893A1 US 12946338 US12946338 US 12946338 US 94633810 A US94633810 A US 94633810A US 2011056893 A1 US2011056893 A1 US 2011056893A1
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Prior art keywords
buoy
fraction
tube
material
sample
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Granted
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US12946338
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US8808551B2 (en )
Inventor
Michael D. Leach
Joel C. Higgins
Matthew Swift
Nathan Gordon
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Zb Manufacturing LLC
Biomet Manufacturing LLC
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Biomet Biologics LLC
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K35/00Medicinal preparations containing materials or reaction products thereof with undetermined constitution
    • A61K35/12Materials from mammals; Compositions comprising non-specified tissues or cells; Compositions comprising non-embryonic stem cells; Genetically modified cells
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/36Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits
    • A61M1/3693Other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system, e.g. temperature adaptation, irradiation ; Extra-corporeal blood circuits using separation based on different densities of components, e.g. centrifuging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5021Test tubes specially adapted for centrifugation purposes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5021Test tubes specially adapted for centrifugation purposes
    • B01L3/50215Test tubes specially adapted for centrifugation purposes using a float to separate phases
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/483Physical analysis of biological material
    • G01N33/487Physical analysis of biological material of liquid biological material
    • G01N33/49Blood
    • G01N33/491Blood by separating the blood components
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/02Adapting objects or devices to another
    • B01L2200/026Fluid interfacing between devices or objects, e.g. connectors, inlet details
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/06Auxiliary integrated devices, integrated components
    • B01L2300/0681Filter
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/04Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means
    • B01L2400/0403Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces
    • B01L2400/0409Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific forces centrifugal forces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/04Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means
    • B01L2400/0475Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific mechanical means and fluid pressure
    • B01L2400/0478Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific mechanical means and fluid pressure pistons
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/06Valves, specific forms thereof
    • B01L2400/0605Valves, specific forms thereof check valves
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L9/00Supporting devices; Holding devices
    • B01L9/54Supports related to pipettes and burettes

Abstract

An apparatus that allows for separating and collecting a fraction of a sample. The apparatus, when used with a centrifuge, allows for the creation of at least three fractions in the apparatus. It also provides for a new method of extracting the buffy coat phase from a whole blood sample and mesenchymal stem cells from bone reaming material. A buoy system that may include a first buoy portion and a second buoy member operably interconnected may be used to form at least three fractions from a sample during a substantially single centrifugation process. Therefore, the separation of various fractions may be substantially quick and efficient.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/441,275, filed May 25, 2006, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/932,882, filed Sep. 2, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,374,678, issued on May 20, 2008, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/445,381, filed May 23, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,179,391, issued on Feb. 20, 2007, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/383,013, filed on May 24, 2002. The disclosures of the above applications are incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD
  • The present teachings relate to a multiple component material and an apparatus to separate and concentrate the various components. More particularly, the present teachings relate to a container operable with a centrifuge to separate and concentrate various biological components.
  • BACKGROUND
  • Multi-phase or multi-component materials where solid and fluids are combined (slurries and suspensions, for example) may be separated into the respective solid, semi-solid, or fluid components and subcomponents thereof. Complex multi-component materials may be difficult to separate because of particle sizes, fluid viscosities, interactions between the materials, etc. Depending on the desired end use of a subcomponent, separation of some multi-component materials may be too labor intensive or time consuming to warrant separating the materials.
  • For example, in arthroplasty procedures, the materials removed from the subject during bone bed preparation or bone reaming include a mixture of cartilage, bone chips, surrounding blood and fluids, and the dense spongy material known as bone marrow. The bone reaming materials can include beneficial undifferentiated cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, white blood cells, and platelets which may be used to expedite the healing of the injury site and incision or may be used as therapy in other procedures. To separate the bone reaming materials into the beneficial mesenchymal stem cells is a multi-step process and can occupy hours of preparation and waiting time. An exemplary separation process includes precipitating the unwanted cells via culturing, plating, incubating the preparation, and then washing and centrifuging the preparation several times to concentrate the desired stem cells. This process is time consuming, labor intensive, and inefficient—characteristics that are neither desirable in a self-paced laboratory environment, nor desirable under surgical conditions and time restraints. Accordingly, despite the vast applications of the undifferentiated cells, white blood cells, and platelets in bone reaming material, the extensive labor in separation is too burdensome and therefore, the bone reaming material or bone reaming “debris” is discarded.
  • Whole blood and fluids from the arthoplasty procedure may also be discarded despite the beneficial components. Like the bone reaming material, these fluids have fractions that may be used to expedite healing and promote tissue health. For example, the whole blood may be separated into platelets, red blood cells, and plasma by density in a device such as a centrifuge. Nonetheless, these methods do not provide a simple or efficient method to extract any more than one fraction and especially a fraction other than the top fraction. Even in these systems, multiple spins may be required to effectively separate the constituents without commingling the sample. These same difficulties may be encountered even using systems incorporating a float or other device that is disposed within the sample at the interfaces of the different fractions during the centrifuge process. Additionally, the current separation systems are generally designed to separate only same phase components and do not work with multiple states of matter such as partial fluid mixtures which contain macroparticles or large sized particles, such as the bone reaming materials described above.
  • Therefore, it is desired to provide a device to allow for collection of selected constituents from a multi-component material having macroparticles. It is desired to provide a device to allow for the easy and reproducible removal of a particular fraction which does not happen to be the top fraction of a sample. It is desired to remove the required sample without mixing the different fractions during the extraction process. In addition, it is desired to provide a device which allows for a consistent extraction of known volumes or concentrations of the fraction elements. Moreover, it is desired to separate and concentrate a multi-state composition with one centrifugation step.
  • SUMMARY
  • An apparatus that separates and concentrates a selected fraction or component of a fluid, such as a biological fluid. For example, undifferentiated cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, platelet fraction, buffy coat, or white blood cell fraction can be separated from bone reaming material, whole blood, bone marrow aspirate, and other materials. The apparatus, when used with a centrifuge, is generally able to create at least two fractions. It also provides for a new method of extracting the desired fraction or component or middle fraction from a sample.
  • The apparatus includes a container to be placed in a centrifuge after being filled with a sample. The apparatus can include a filtration system, a separation system, and an extraction system. The filtration system prevents the migration of undesired solids into the buoy system. The separation system includes a buoy or fraction separator, having a selected density that may be less than one fraction but greater than a second fraction, and is disposed in the container. In addition, a second buoy may be placed in the container with the first. The extraction system is connected to the buoy system or to the collection chamber such that the fraction in the container can be collected and drawn outside of the chamber. During the centrifuge processing, the buoy is forced away from a bottom of the container as the denser fraction collects at the bottom of the container. The buoy is generally able to physically separate the denser fraction from another fraction of the sample. The fractions can be withdrawn using the extraction system or member.
  • In addition to providing a first buoy and/or a second buoy, a buoy system may be provided. Generally, the buoy system may separate the sample into at least three fractions. The fractions may be separated or extracted from the container without substantially comingling the various fractions. Generally, a first buoy and a second buoy operate together to separate the sample into the various fractions and a syringe or tube may then be interconnected with a portion of the buoy system to extract the selected fractions. For example, a first buoy may be generally density tuned to a white blood cell fraction of a whole blood sample, and a second buoy tuned to a density less than the density of the undifferentiated cell fraction from bone reaming material.
  • According to various embodiments a method of forming at least one fraction for application relative to an anatomy is taught. The method may include obtaining a volume of a heterogeneous whole material and separating the material into the desired fraction(s). At least one of the fractions may be applied to the scaffold.
  • Further areas of applicability of the present teachings will become apparent from the detailed description provided hereinafter. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating various embodiments of the teachings, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the teachings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The present teachings will become more fully understood from the detailed description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
  • FIG. 1A is a plan view of a separator according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 1B depicts a separator according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 1C depicts a separator system being filled with a multi-component material according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 1D depicts a separator system after a centrifugation process according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 2A depicts a filtration system according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 2B depicts a filtration system according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 3A is a side plan view of a buoy system according to various embodiments;
  • FIG. 3B is a cross-sectional view of the buoy system of FIG. 3A;
  • FIG. 4 is a plan view of a separator including a plunger in a tube according to a second embodiment of the present teachings;
  • FIG. 5 is a cross-section view taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 4;
  • FIG. 6 is an exploded view of the separator including a plunger;
  • FIG. 7A is a perspective view of the separator being filled;
  • FIG. 7B is a perspective view of a sample in the separator after the centrifuge process;
  • FIG. 7C is a plan view of the plunger plunged into the tube with the depth gage to further separate the bone reaming sample;
  • FIG. 7D is a plan view of the platelet fraction and the plasma fractions being extracted from the separator;
  • FIG. 8 depicts the removal of bone reaming material from a subject; and
  • FIG. 9 illustrates a plan view of a selected fraction of the separated material being extracted from a tube according to various embodiments.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS EMBODIMENTS
  • The following description of various embodiments is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the teachings, its application, or uses. Although the following description exemplary refers to bone reaming material, whole blood, and/or bone marrow aspirate separation, it will be understood that the present teachings may be used to separate and concentrate any appropriate material. It will be further understood that many multi-component materials containing macroparticles may be separated. The components or fractions are generally inter-mingled in the whole sample but may be separated with a centrifuge device that causes increased local gravity or gravitational forces.
  • With reference to FIGS. 1A-1D, according to various embodiments a separator 10, also referred to as a concentrator, is illustrated according to a first embodiment of the present teachings. The separator 10 generally includes a tube or container 12 that is adapted to hold a multi-component sample, such as a mixture of a bone reaming material and an anti-coagulated whole blood sample, for further processing. The tube 12 includes a top or open end 12 a, which is closeable, and a bottom or closed end 12 b. The bottom 12 b may also be selectively closeable. Disposed within the tube 12 is a filtration system or member 13 and a separation system or buoy 14, 300. The filtration system 13 and the buoy 14, 300 are in fluid communication within the tube 12. The buoy 14, 300 is generally nearer the bottom end 12 b of the tube 12 rather than the open end 12 a. The buoy 14, 300 is able to move along a central axis A of the tube 12. A cap 18 substantially mates with the open end 12 a of the tube 12 to close the tube 12 save for ports formed in the cap 18. Extending from the cap 18 is a plasma valve or port 20 that communicates with an area, described further herein, within the tube 12 defined between the buoy 14, 300 and the cap 18. It will be understood that the plasma port 20 is merely exemplary in nature and simply allows for removal of a selected fraction of a sample, such as plasma from the mixture of bone reaming material and whole blood.
  • Although the tube 12 is described here as a cylinder, it will be understood that other shapes may be used, such as polygons. The internal portions, such as the cap 18, filtration system 13, and buoy 14, 300, would also include this alternate shape. Preferably the tube 12 is formed of a thermal plastic material which is flexible under the forces required to separate multi-component biological materials such as a mixture of bone reaming material and whole blood. The tube 12 may be made of a material that includes the properties of both lipid and alcohol resistance. These properties help increase the separation speed and decrease the amount of material which may cling to the tube wall 23. For example, Cyrolite MED2® produced by Cyro Industries of Rockaway, N.J. may be used to produce the tube 12.
  • The tube 12 has a tube wall 23 with a thickness of between about 0.01 millimeters and about 30.0 millimeters, although the tube wall 23 may be any appropriate thickness. The thickness of the tube wall 23 allows the tube wall 23 to flex during the centrifuge process yet be rigid enough for further processing of a bone reaming debris and blood sample disposed in the tube 12. The tube 12 is closed at the bottom end 12 b with a tube bottom 24 formed of the same material as the tube wall 23 and is formed integrally therewith. Generally the tube bottom 24 has a thickness which is substantially rigid under the forces required to separate the sample such that it does not flex.
  • The cap 18 provides a structure to substantially close the tube 12. The cap 18 particularly includes a plate 26 that has an external circumference substantially equal to the external circumference of the tube 12. Extending from the plate 26 and into the tube 12 is a flange 28. The external circumference of the flange 28 is substantially equal to the internal circumference of the tube 12. In this way, the cap 18 substantially closes the tube 12. It will be understood the cap 18 may be in any form so long as the cap 18 substantially closes and/or seals the tube 12 when installed.
  • The filtration system 13 is generally near the open end 12 a of the tube. The filtration system 13 prevents migration of unwanted solid materials, such as macroparticles 32, through the filter and past the buoy 14, 300. The macroparticles 32 can be used for other purposes, such as void filling, but can be selected to not be further separated within the tube 12.
  • The filtration system 13 can comprise a mesh 30. The mesh 30 can be made of a rigid material such as high molecular weight PTFE. The mesh 30 can be rigid enough to support a mass during a centrifuge procedure. Alternatively, or in addition thereto, a support can be provided to support the mesh and the macroparicles during a selected procedure. For example, a filter plate 31 can be provided to support the mesh 30. The filter plate 31 can includes spacers large enough to allow a material to pass there through, but also support the mesh 30.
  • The mesh 30 can have a pore or mesh size that is of a sufficient diameter to prevent passage of unselected solid materials or macroparticles 32 through the filtration system 13. An example mesh size useful in the separation and concentration of a mixture of bone reaming material and whole blood is from about 10 micrometers to about 200 micrometers. In various embodiments, the mesh size is less than about 50 micrometers. It is understood that the mesh size may be modified depending on the fine or coarse nature of the bone reaming and the resultant sized macroparticles 32. As used herein, “macroparticle” refers to a solid or semi-solid material having a greater diameter than the pores used in the filtration system 13. For example, where the mesh 30 has a pore size of about 50 micrometers, the macroparticle 32 has a greatest cross-section length of greater than about 50 micrometers. In yet another example, where the mesh size is about 1 centimeter, the macroparticle 32 would have a cross-section length of greater than about 1 centimeter.
  • The filtration system 13 may be provided to be separable from the tube 12. For example, a seam or break 34 can be formed on the tube 12 such that the filtration system 13 and macroparticles 32 collected therein can be easily removed from the tube 12. The break 34 may include perforations or scoring that allows for removal either by hand manipulation from a user (such as snapping off the filtration system) or require the use of a tool to cut or remove the filtration member. As depicted in FIGS. 2A and 2B, filtration system 13 can also include threads 17 as a mechanism to separate the filtration system from the tube 12. The threads 17, or similar separation mechanism, can allow for re-attaching the cap 18 to the top end 12 a of the tube 12 after unscrewing and removing the filtration system 13.
  • As illustrated in FIG. 1A, multiple mesh filters 30 can be included in the filtration system 13. Each mesh 30 filter may have a different pore size to enhance the trapping of macroparticles in the filtration system 13. For example, it may be desirable to have a mesh 30 located closest to the cap 18 having a greater mesh size than another mesh 30 located nearer the buoy 14, 300. As disclosed later herein, the filtration system 13 may be used to collect bone particles useful for filling bone voids. In various embodiments the material provided to the tube 12 can include reaming debris from bone, a blood sample, or other portions that may define a whole sample. The whole sample can be placed in the tube 12 to separated according to various embodiments.
  • The separation system 10 can also includes the buoy 14, 300 to assist in separation and extraction of selected fractions from the whole sample. The buoys 14, 300 can include an upper or collection face 46 that defines an inverse cone or concave surface. Generally the cone has an angle of between about 0.5° to about 45°, and may be about 0.5° to about 90° from a vertical axis, wherein the apex of the cone is within the buoy 14, 300. The collection face 46 forms a depression in the buoy 14, 300 which collects and concentrates material during the separation process. Additionally, the buoy 14, 300 has a bottom face 40 that defines an inverse cone, dome, or covered surface. The buoy bottom face 40 includes an apex 42 that engages the tube bottom 24 before a buoy edge 44 engages the tube bottom 24. The buoy 14, 300 includes a material that is a substantially rigid such that the buoy edges 44 never meet the tube bottom 24. Therefore, there is a gap or free space 46 formed between the buoy edge 44 and the tube bottom 24 along the perimeter of the buoy 14, 300.
  • The separator 10 is generally provided to separate a multi-component material that can have macroparticles 32 that includes various components or constituents of varying densities that are commingled or mixed together. The separator 10 includes the buoy 14, 300 that is of a selected density depending upon a selected constituent of the multi-constituent material. Although the buoy 14, 300 may be tuned or of any selected density, the following example relates to separation of a bone reaming debris and whole blood mixture into various components. Therefore, the buoy 14, 300 will be discussed to include a selected density relative to bone reaming material and whole blood separation. It will be understood, however, that the buoy 14, 300 may be of any appropriate density depending upon the multi-component fluid being separated.
  • The buoy 14, 300 may be formed of any appropriate material that may have a selected density. With bone reaming materials, selected materials can include white blood cells, platelets, or undifferentiated cells, including, but not limited to mesenchymal stem cells. For example, when the separator 10 is to separate blood, the buoy 14, 300 generally has a density which is greater than that of platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells in a bone reaming material and whole blood sample, but less than the undifferentiated cell fraction of the sample. For bone reaming material and whole blood mixtures, the density of the buoy 14, 300 is generally between about 1.02 g/cc and about 1.09 g/cc. This range is sufficient to separate at least red blood cells from the other fractions. The bone reaming debris and whole blood mixture (or saline) provides a choice of several desirable fractions, such as the white blood cells, platelets, and undifferentiated cells discussed herein. The value of 1.02 g/cc to about 1.09 g/cc is given only as a benchmark, assuming that the desired collection fraction is the platelet fraction or the undifferentiated stem cells as the value segregates the white and red blood cells from the other fractions. If for example, a different fraction was desired for collection, the density fraction, or a slightly higher density, would be an appropriate for the buoy to separate the undesired fraction.
  • To achieve the selected density, the buoy 14, 300 may be formed as a composite or multi-piece construction, including a plurality of materials. Particularly, a first or outside portion 48 defines the collection face or surface 38 and the buoy edge 44 and is formed of the same material as the tube 12. The outside portion 48 defines a cup or void into which a plug or insert 50 is placed. The insert 50 has a mass such that the density of the entire buoy 14, 300 is within the selected range, for example the range described above. Generally, a high density polyethylene may be used, but the material and size of the insert 50 may be altered to produce the desired density of the buoy 14, 300. Alternatively, the buoy 14, 300 may be formed of a single suitable material that has a density in the selected range. Nevertheless, the buoy 14, 300 formed unitarily or of a single material would still include the other portions described in conjunction with the buoy 14, 300.
  • The outside portion 48 of the buoy 14, 300 also defines the outside circumference of the buoy 14, 300. The outside circumference of the buoy 14, 300 is very close to the internal circumference of the tube 12. Due to the operation of the buoy 14, 300, however, described further herein, there is a slight gap between the outside of the buoy 14, 300 and the inside of the tube 12. Generally, this gap is between about 1 and about 10 thousandths of an inch around the entire circumference of the buoy 14, 300. Generally, it is desired that the distance between the outside circumference of the buoy 14, 300 and the inside circumference of the tube 12 is great enough to allow a selected material or component to pass. For example, in bone reaming material the distance is selected so that white and red blood cells may pass through the gap without being lysed, damaged, or activated.
  • Referring to FIGS. 3A and 3B, a buoy system 100 is illustrated. The buoy system 100 generally includes a first buoy or fraction separator member 102 and a second buoy member or fraction separator 104. The first buoy 102 and the second buoy 104 may be operably interconnected with a buoy system cylinder or member 106. The buoy system 100 may be placed in a tube, such as the tube 12. The tube 12 may be formed of any appropriate material, such as the Cryolite Med® 2 as discussed above. Nevertheless, the buoy system 100 may be designed to fit in the tube 12 or may be formed to fit in any appropriate member that may be disposed within a selected centrifuging device. It will be understood that the following discussion relating to buoy system 100 to be substantially matched to the size of the tube 12 is merely exemplary. As the buoy 14, 300 may be sized to fit in any appropriate tube, the buoy system 100 may also be sized to fit in any appropriate tube. It will be further understood that the tube 12 may be any appropriate shape. The tube 12 need not only be cylindrical but may also be or include conical portions, polygonal portions, or any other appropriate shapes.
  • The first buoy 102 of the buoy system 100 may be generally similar in geometry to the buoy 14, 300. It will be understood that the first buoy member 102 may be formed in the appropriate manner including shape or size to achieve selected results. Nevertheless, the first buoy member 102 generally includes an exterior diameter that may be slightly smaller than the interior diameter of the tube 12. Therefore, the first buoy member 102 may be able to move within the tube 12 during the centrifugal process. Also, as discussed above, the tube 12 may flex slightly during the centrifuging process, thus allowing the first buoy member 102 to include an exterior diameter substantially equivalent to the interior diameter of the tube 12. As discussed further herein, during the centrifugation process, a portion of the fraction of a sample may pass between the exterior wall of the first buoy member 102 and the tube 12.
  • The first buoy member 102 may generally include a density that is substantially equivalent to a first or selected fraction of the sample. If the sample to be separated includes bone reaming material and is desired to separate the white/red blood cells from the other portions of the sample, the first buoy member 102 may have a selected density that may be about 1.00 grams per cc (g/cc) to about 1.10 g/cc. It will be understood that the density of the first buoy member 102 may be any appropriate density, depending upon the fraction to be separated, and this range of densities is merely exemplary for separating white/red blood cells from a whole blood sample.
  • In addition, the first buoy member 102 includes a collection face or area 108 at a proximal or upper portion of the first buoy member 102. The collection face 108 generally defines a concave area of the first buoy member 102 and may have a selected angle of concavity. The buoy assembly 100 defines a central axis D. The collection face 108 defines a surface E that is formed at an angle γ to the central axis D of the buoy system 100. The angle γ may be any appropriate angle and may be about 0.5° to about 90°. The angle γ may, however, be between about 45° and 89.5°. Nevertheless, it will be understood that the angle γ may be any appropriate angle to assist in collection of a selected fraction or portion of the sample by the first buoy member 102.
  • A bottom or lower surface 110 of the first buoy member 102 may define a bottom face. The bottom face 110 may also be formed at an angle D relative to the central axis D. The bottom surface 110 defines a surface or plane F that may be formed at an angle Δ relative to the central axis D of the buoy system 100. The angle Δ may be any appropriate angle and may be about 90° to about 180°. For example, the angle Δ may be about 105°. Similarly to the buoy bottom face 40, the bottom surface 110 defines an apex 112 that may first engage the bottom 12 b of the tube 12, such that most or the majority of the bottom surface 110 does not engage the tube 12. As illustrated further herein, the apex 112 allows for a free space or gap to be formed between the bottom face 110 of the first buoy member 102 and the bottom 12 b of the tube 12.
  • The second buoy member 104 may include an outer diameter substantially equivalent to the outer diameter of the first buoy member 102. Therefore, the second buoy 104 may move with the first buoy 102, particularly if the second buoy 104 is interconnected with the first buoy 102 with the buoy central cylinder 106. Nevertheless, the second buoy member 104 may be allowed to move substantially freely within the tube 12 during the centrifuging process.
  • The second buoy member 104 also includes an upper or superior surface 114 that defines a plane G that is formed at an angle relative to the central axis D of the buoy system 100. The angle ε of the plane G relative to the central axis D of the buoy system 100 may be any appropriate angle. For example, the angle ε may be about 90° to about 180°. Generally, the angle ε may assist in allowing a selected fraction or a portion of the sample to pass over the top surface 114 and past the second buoy member 104 during the centrifuging process.
  • The second buoy member 104 also define a bottom or inferior surface 116 that also defines a plane H that may be formed at an angle K relative to the central axis D of the buoy system 100. The angle K may be any appropriate angle, such as about 90° to about 150°. Nevertheless, the angle K may be convex and substantially complimentary to the angle γ of the collection face 108 that may be concave of the first buoy member 102. For example, if the angle γ0 is about 80°, the angle K may be about 80° as well so that the surfaces 316 and 308 mate as the first buoy member 102 engages the second buoy member 104. This may be for any appropriate reason, such as extraction of a fraction that may be disposed near the collection face 108 of the first buoy member 102. Nevertheless, the angle K may be any appropriate angle as the angle γ.
  • The second buoy member 104 may be formed to include any appropriate density. For example, the second buoy member 104 may include a density that is less than the plasma fraction of a bone reaming material and whole blood sample. It will be understood that the second buoy member 104 may include any appropriate density and a density that is less than the undifferentiated cell and/or platelet fractions of a bone reaming material blood sample is merely exemplary. Nevertheless, if a bone reaming material sample is desired to be separated and the plasma sample is to be substantially separated from another fraction, the second buoy member 104 may include a density that is less than the plasma fraction. Therefore, the density of the second buoy member 104 may be about 0.01 g/cc to about 1.03 g/cc.
  • The buoy post 106 may operably interconnect the first buoy member 102 and the second buoy member 104. The buoy post 106 may be any appropriate connection member. The buoy post need not be a single cylindrical portion. For example the buoy post 106 may include one or more members interconnecting the first buoy member 102 and the second buoy member 104, such as around a perimeter thereof. In addition, the buoy post 106 may include any appropriate shape or geometry.
  • The buoy system post 106 may be rigidly affixed to the first buoy member 102 and the second buoy member 104, such that the first buoy member 102 may not move relative to the second buoy member 104 and vice versa. Alternatively, the buoy post 106 may be slidably connected to either or both the first buoy member 102 and the second buoy member 104. According to various embodiments, the buoy post 106 is generally fixedly connected to the first buoy member 102 and slidably interconnected to the second buoy member 104. The buoy post 106 may include a catch portion or lip 120 that is able to engage a portion of the second buoy member 104, such that a range of travel of the second buoy member 104, relative to the first buoy member 102 is limited. Nevertheless, the range of travel of the second buoy member 104 towards the first buoy member 102 may be substantially unlimited until the second buoy member 104 engages the first buoy member 102.
  • The buoy post 106 may also define a central cannula or bore 122. The post bore 122 may include a connection portion 124 substantially defined near an upper or a proximal end of the buoy post 106. This may allow for interconnection of various components with the buoy post 106, such that various components may be moved through the bore 122 from an exterior location. The buoy post 106 may also define a port or cannula 126 that connects the post cannula 122 with the collection face 108. Therefore, a substance may travel through the post cannula 122 and through the port 126. Various substances may then be provided to or removed from the collection face 108 of the first buoy member 102.
  • The tube 12 may include the cap 18 that further defines a plasma valve or port 20. Extending through the cap 18 and interconnecting with a first flexible tube or member 54, the plasma port 20 may be used to extract plasma of the sample that is positioned above the second buoy member 104. The tube 12 may also define a second port 21, which may also be referred to as a plasma rich port (PRP). As discussed herein, a second flexible member, such as a flexible tube 21 a, may interconnect the PRP port 21 and a connection portion 124 of a buoy cylinder 106.
  • Other portions of the separator system 10, particularly those portions of the tube 12 and the cap 18 that have various valves connected therewith may be included in the tube 12 and used with the buoy system 100. Nevertheless, once the buoy system 100 is interconnected, it may be positioned in the interior of the tube 12 and the syringe 200 used to place a sample into the tube 12.
  • The multi-component sample may be positioned in the separator 10 adjacent to the filtration system 13 for separation and concentration. The bone reaming material, whole blood, bone marrow aspirate, or other materials may be positioned by inserting the materials using a syringe through the port 22 or by removing the cap 18 and spreading the multi-component material into the region above the filtration system 13. In the latter placement method, the cap 18 is screwed or otherwise secured into place on the separator 10. Additional materials can be added to the multi-component sample to maintain the integrity of the sample, such as an anticoagulant. It will also be understood that various centrifuge times or forces may be altered depending upon the exact material that is being separated with the separator 10. It will also be understood that the separation of bone reaming material, a mixture of whole blood and bone reaming material, or whole blood, are merely exemplary of the materials that may be separated using the separator 10. It will be understood that two buoys 102 and 104 may generally be near one another when the sample is positioned in the tube 12, but are illustrated apart for clarity of the present discussion.
  • After the sample is positioned within the tube 12, as described above, a cap may be positioned over the port 22, such that the sample is not allowed to escape from the tube 12. After the sample is placed in the tube 12 and the cap 52 placed on the port 22, the tube 12 including the sample and the buoy system 100 may be centrifuged. The system 10 may remain stationary for a selected amount of time prior to centrifuging to allow the components of the bone reaming material and whole blood mixture, other than macroparticles 32, such as bone fragments, cartilage, etc. to transverse the filter and collect in the tube 12.
  • With reference to FIG. 1D, after a centrifugation of the tube 12, including the buoy system 100, substantially three fractions of the sample may be formed. After the bone reaming material sample is delivered to the tube 12, the separator 10 is placed in a centrifuge. The centrifugation forces affect the tube wall 23. The forces compress the tube 12 linearly along axis A thereby bowing or flexing the tube wall 23. As the tube wall 23 compresses it increases the diameter of the tube 12 making it easier for the buoy 14, 300 to move in the direction of the top 12 a of the tube 12. In addition, the bottom face 48, defining an inverse cone, helps the initial movement of the buoy 14, 300. Because the buoy 14, 300 is not substantially flat along its bottom, it does not form a vacuum interaction with the tube bottom 24. Therefore, the initial movement of the buoy 14, 300 away from the tube bottom 24 is quicker than if the bottom of the buoy 14, 300 was flat.
  • During the centrifuge process the white/red bloods cells of the white/red blood cell fraction 222 force the buoy 14, 300 in the direction of the top 12 a of the tube 12 because the buoy 14, 300 is less dense than the white/red blood cell fraction 222. Although the bone reaming material, including the white/red blood cells is loaded above the buoy 14, 300, the red blood cells are able to move between the buoy 14, 300 and the tube wall 23 because the circumference of the buoy 14, 300 is less than the internal circumference of the tube 12. During the centrifuge process the buoy 14, 300 stops at an interface of a plasma fraction 224 and the white/red blood cell fraction 222 because of the selected or tuned density of the buoy 14, 300.
  • With particular reference to FIG. 1D, the centrifuge process has been completed and the buoy 14, 300 has moved to the interface of the white/red blood cell fraction 222 and plasma fraction 224. After the centrifuge has slowed or stopped, and before or after the tube 12 has been removed from the centrifuge, the tube wall 23 decompresses which helps support the buoy 14, 300 at the interface position. It is also understood that applying an external pressure to the tube 12 via fingers or another apparatus may help stabilize the buoy 14, 300 during the plunging procedure described herein.
  • A first fraction 130 may be positioned between the bottom face 110 and the bottom of the tube 24. A second fraction may be positioned between the collection face 108 and the bottom surface 116 of the second buoy 104. In addition, a third fraction may be positioned between the upper surface 114 and the cap 18 of the tube 12. Generally, the first fraction 130, the second fraction 132, and the third fraction 134 are substantially physically separated with the buoy system 100. During the centrifugation process, the tube 12 may flex slightly to allow for ease of movement of the buoy system 100 through the tube 12 and the sample. Nevertheless, the buoy system 100, during the centrifugation process, substantially creates the three fractions 130, 132, and 134 without the operation of an operator. Therefore, the formation of at least three fractions may be substantially simultaneous and automatic using the buoy system 100.
  • The buoy system 100 substantially separates the fractions 130, 132, and 134, such that they may be easily removed from the tube 12. For example, with reference to FIG. 1D, a syringe or other instrument 140 may be used to extract the second fraction 132 by interconnecting a cannula or bored tube 142 with the connection portion 124 of the buoy cylinder 106. By drawing the plunger 144 into the extraction syringe 140, a vacuum or upward force is produced within the extraction syringe 140. This force draws the second fraction 132 through the ports 126 of the buoy post 106 and through the buoy cannula 122. Therefore, the second fraction 132 may be extracted from the tube 12 without substantially comingling the second fraction 132 with either the first fraction 130 or the third fraction 134. The second fraction 132 is drawn in the direction of arrow M through the cannula 122 and into the extraction syringe 140.
  • It will be understood that the second tube 21 a may also be used. The extraction syringe 140 may be interconnected with the PRP 21 that is interconnected with the connection portion 124 of the buoy cylinder 106. As discussed herein the buoy cylinder allows access to the platelet rich area between the buoy portions. Thus, it will be understood, that access may be obtained and the platelet rich portion of the sample, between the two buoys, may be extracted in a plurality of ways. The illustrations and method described herein is merely exemplary.
  • Alternatively, if the post 106 is not provided other portions may be provided to gain access to the second fraction 132. For example, if a plurality of members are provided around the perimeter of the first buoy 102 and the second buoy 104 a valve portion, such as a puncture-able valve, may be provided in the second buoy 104 to be punctured with an object. In this way an extraction needle may puncture the valve to gain access to the second fraction 132. Regardless, it will be understood that the buoy system 100 may be able to form a plurality of fractions, such as the three fractions 130, 132, and 134 and at least the second fraction 132 may be extracted without substantially commingling the various fractions.
  • During the extraction of the second fraction 132 through the cannula 122, the second buoy member 104 may move in the direction of arrow M towards the first buoy member 102. As described above, the collection face 108 of the first buoy member may include an angle γ that is substantially complementary to the bottom face 116 of the second buoy member 104. Therefore, if the second buoy member 104 is allowed to move along the buoy cylinder 106, the bottom face 116 of the second buoy member 104 may be able to substantially mate with the collection face 108 of the first buoy member 102. Alternatively, if the second buoy member 104 is not allowed to move, the second buoy member may be provided with a vent port or valve, such that the extraction of the second fraction 132 from the collection face 108 may not be hindered by the buildup of undesirable forces. Nevertheless, if the second buoy member 104 may move, the interaction of the bottom face 116 of the second buoy member 104 may assist in substantially removing the entire second fraction 132 from the tube 12. As described above, the bottom face 84 of the plunger 16 may also serve a similar purpose when engaging the collection face 46 of the buoy 14, 300.
  • Once the second fraction 132 has been extracted from the tube 12, the second buoy member 104 may substantially mate with a portion of the first buoy member 102. As discussed above, the second buoy member 104 may substantially only mate with the first buoy member 102 if the second buoy member 104 is able to substantially move relative to the first buoy member 102. Therefore, it will be understood that the second buoy member 104 need not necessarily mate with the first buoy member 102 and is merely exemplary of an operation of various embodiments. Nevertheless, once the second fraction 132 has been extracted from the tube 12, the port 21 may be used in conjunction with a selected instrument, such as a plasma extraction syringe 200 to remove the plasma or the third fraction 134 from the tube 12 using the extraction tube 54 interconnected with the port 20.
  • As described above, the tube 54 allows for extraction of the third fraction 134 from the tube 12 without commingling the third fraction 134 with the remaining first fraction 130 in the tube 12. Therefore, similar to the separator and extraction system 10, three fractions may be substantially formed within the tube 12 with the buoy system 100 and may be extracted without substantially commingling the various fractions. Once the third fraction 134 is extracted from the tube 12, the buoy system 100 may be removed from the tube 12, such that the first fraction 130 may be removed from the tube 12. Alternatively, the first fraction 130 may be discarded with the tube 12 and the buoy system 100 as a disposable system. Alternatively, the system may be substantially reusable, such that it can be sterilized and may be sterilized for various uses.
  • The description of the method of use of the buoy system 100 is exemplary of a method of using a system according to various other embodiments. It will be understood, however, that various specifics may be used from various embodiments to allow for the extraction of selected fractions. For example, the centrifugation process may be substantially a single step centrifugation process. The buoy system 100, according to various embodiments, may allow for the formation of three fractions during a single centrifugation process.
  • The separator 10 is then spun in the centrifuge in a range between about 1,000 and about 8,000 RPMs. This produces a force between about 65 and about 4500 times greater than the force of normal gravity, as generally calculated in the art, on the separator 10 and the bone reaming material sample placed in the separator 10. At this force, the more dense material in a bone reaming material sample is forced towards the bottom 12 b of the tube 12. The dense material, such as white and red blood cells or a white/white/red blood cell fraction 222, collects on the tube bottom 24. Because the buoy 14, 300 has a density that is less than the white/red blood cell fraction 222, it is forced in a direction toward the top 12 a of the tube 12 in the centrifuge. Nevertheless, because the buoy 14, 300 is denser than a plasma fraction 224, the buoy 14, 300 does not reach the top 12 a of the tube 12.
  • Referring to FIGS. 4-6, in a second embodiment of the present teachings a plunger is incorporated into the separator 10. The plunger 60 is also able to move within the tube 12 generally between a position closer to the open end 12 a to a position closer to the closed end 12 b of the tube 12.
  • In embodiments utilizing the piston, the cap 18 also includes a depth gage port 62. Extending from the plunger 60 and through the depth gage port 62 is a first plunger port 22. A depth guide or gage 38 includes a female connector 25 adapted to connect with the first plunger port 22. The depth gage 38 also includes a depth gage housing or cannula 28. The depth gage housing 66 defines a depth gage bore 68. Incorporated in the housing 66 and extending distal from the end mating with the plunger is a neck 70. The neck 70 includes external neck threads 72. The external neck threads 72 are adapted to engage appropriate internal threads of a mating member.
  • The mating member may include a compression nut 74 that mates with the external neck threads 72 to lock a depth gage rod 76 in a predetermined position. A split bushing 39 is also provided to substantially seal the depth gage housing 66 when the depth gage rod 76 is locked in place. The depth gage rod 76 extends through the depth gage housing 66 and terminates at a rod handle 78. The rod handle 78 may be a form easily manipulated by a human operator. The rod 76 extends coaxially with axis A of the tube 12. The depth gage rod 76 extends through the plunger 60 a predetermined distance and may be locked at that distance with the compression nut 74.
  • The plunger 60 includes a plunger front or collection face 84 and a plunger wall 80 that extends from the plunger front face 84. The plunger wall 80 extends relatively perpendicular to the plunger front face 84 and substantially parallel to the tube wall 23. Extending from the center of the plunger 60 is a sample collection projection 82. Extending from the top of the collection projection 82 is the first plunger port 22. The sample collection projection 82 includes a plunger sample collection bore 68 defined therethrough. The plunger sample collection bore 68 terminates at a sample collection aperture 86 that is substantially in the center of the plunger front face 84. The plunger front face 84 also defines an inverse cone where the sample collection aperture 86 is the apex of the cone. The plunger front face 84 defines a cone with an angle substantially similar or complimentary to the collection face 46 of the buoy 14, 300. In this way, the plunger front face 84 may mate substantially completely with the collection face 46 for reasons described more fully herein.
  • The plunger 60 also includes a back face 88. Extending from the plunger front face 84 to the back face 88 is a bore 74. A check valve 90 is operably connected to the bore 74. The check valve 90 allows a liquid to move from the plunger front face 84 to the back face 88 while not allowing the liquid to move from the back face 88 to the plunger front face 84. Therefore, the check valve 90 is substantially a one-way valve which allows a material to move in only one direction. The check valve 90 may also operate automatically allowing flow in only one predetermined direction. Alternatively, the check valve 90 may be operated manually and include a portion extending from the check valve 90 requiring manipulation to stop or start a flow through the check valve 90.
  • The plunger 60 may be made out of any appropriate material which does not interfere with the separation of the fractions of the fluid, such as whole blood. The plunger 60, however, is made of a material that is flexible or at least partially deformable. A flexible material allows the plunger 60 to have an external circumference defined by the plunger walls 63 that is substantially equal to the internal circumference of the tube 12. Because of the deformability of the plunger 60, however, the plunger 60 is still able to move within the tube 12. The plunger 60 is able to move through the tube 12 and also substantially wipe the interior of the tube wall 23. This creates, generally, a moveable seal within the tube 12. Thus, substantially no material escapes the action of the separator 10 when the plunger 60 is plunged into the tube 12. This also helps concentrate the portion of the sample desired to be collected, described more fully herein.
  • Formed through the center of the plate 26 is the depth gage port 62. The depth gage port 62 is also adapted to receive the sample collection projection 82. The first plunger port 22 extends above the plate 26 through the depth gage port 62. The circumference of the depth gage port 62 is substantially equal to the external circumference of the sample collection projection 82 such that a liquid seal is formed. The plate 26 defines a sample face 84 that includes an interior side of the cap 18. The area between the sample face 84 of the cap 18 and the back face 88 of the plunger 60 define a plasma collection area 92. Although the plasma collection area 92 is exemplary called the plasma collection area, it will be understood that the plasma collection area 92 may also collect any appropriate fraction of the sample that is positioned within a separator 10. The plasma collection area 92 is merely an exemplary name and an example of what material may be collected in the area of the separator 10. As discussed herein, the separator 10 may used to separate whole blood into various fractions, therefore the plasma collection area 92 is used to collect plasma. The plasma collection area 92 also allows a space for the check valve 90 to be installed.
  • A second bore 94 is formed in the plate 26. Extending through the second bore 94 is the fraction collection valve 20. In liquid communication with the fraction collection valve 20 is a plasma collection tube 54. The plasma collection tube 54 has a length such that the plasma collection tube 54 is able to extend from the fraction collection valve 20 to substantially the tube bottom 24. The plasma collection tube 54, however, is flexible enough such that it may be folded or compressed to fit within the plasma collection area 92 when the plunger is substantially near the top 12 a of the tube 12. The plasma collection tube 54 may also be connected to a hose barb 93 that includes a plasma collection bore 93 a. The plasma collection bore 93 a is substantially level with the plunger back face 88. Alternatively, the plasma collection bore 93 a may be positioned below the plunger back face 88 but in fluid communication with the plasma collection tube 54.
  • The outboard side of the fraction collection valve 20 may include external threads 94 to mate with internal threads of a plasma valve cap 96. Therefore, the fraction collection valve 20 may be selectively opened and closed via the plasma valve cap 96. It will be understood, however, that other appropriate means may be used to open and close the fraction collection valve 20 such as a clip or a plug. It will be understood that the fraction collection valve 20, plasma collection tube 54, plasma bore 23 a may be used to collect any appropriate material or fraction from the separator 10.
  • Also formed in the plate 26 is a vent bore 98. The vent bore 98 allows air to flow into the collection area 92 as the plunger 60 is being plunged into the tube 12. The vent bore 98 may include an air filter 101 such that liquid cannot escape from the tube 12. The air filter 101 allows air to enter or escape from the collection area 92 while maintaining the liquid seal of the tube 12 produced by the cap 18.
  • Selectively attachable to the first plunger port 22 is the depth gage 38. The female connector 24 interconnects the depth gage housing 66 to the first plunger port 22. Internal threads in the female connector 24 mate with an external thread 103 formed on the first plunger port 22. It will be understood, however, that other engagement mechanisms between the depth gage 38 and the plunger 60 may be used. For example, a snap connection rather than a threaded connection between the two may be used.
  • The depth gage housing 66 is formed to be substantially rigid. Suitable materials, when sized properly, include polycarbonate and CYRO MED2®. The material preferably is both rigid and does not substantially react with the sample. It is rigid enough to provide a mechanism to plunge the plunger 60 into the tube 12. In addition the external circumference of the depth gage housing 66 is substantially equal to the circumference of the depth gage port 62 in the plate 26. Therefore, as the plunger 60 is being plunged into the tube 12 with the depth gage 38, no liquid material is allowed to escape around the depth gage housing 66 and through depth gage port 62.
  • Formed within the depth gage housing 66 is the bore 68 which receives the depth gage rod 76. The depth gage rod 76 extends through the sample collection bore 68 of the sample collection projection 82 and protrudes through the sample collection aperture 86 a predetermined length. The depth gage rod 76 extends through the sample collection aperture 86 a length such that when an end 105 of the depth gage rod 76 meets the buoy 14, 300, the volume defined by the collection face 46 and the plunger front face 84 is between about 5 percent and about 30 percent of the total volume of the sample that the tube 12 holds. The projection of the depth gage rod 76 allows for an easily reproducible collection amount and concentration over several trials.
  • The compression nut 74 locks the depth gage rod 76 in the predetermined position. Nevertheless, once the plunger 60 has been plunged to the desired depth in the tube 12, the compression nut 74 may be loosened so that the depth gage rod 76 may be removed from the plunger 60 and the depth gage housing 66 without moving the plunger 60. A syringe or other appropriate device may then be affixed to the external neck threads 72 of the depth gage 38 to extract the fraction or phase that is between the plunger front face 84 and the collection face 46. As described further herein, the fraction or phase that is left between the plunger front face 84 and the collection face 46 may be the undifferentiated cells or platelets of a bone reaming material sample. Nevertheless, it will be understood that the fraction between the plunger front face 84 and the collection face 46 may be any appropriate fraction of the sample that is disposed in the separator 10.
  • With reference to FIGS. 7A-7D a method using the separator 10 is illustrated. The following example relates specifically to the taking and separation of a sample of bone reaming material and whole blood from a patient. Nevertheless, it will be understood that another appropriate biological material may be separated and concentrated using the separator 10, such as adipose tissue. The bone reaming material sample may be positioned in the separator 10 and on top of the filtration system 13. As the liquid transverses the mesh 30, the separator 10 can then be used to remove unwanted macroparticles 32, such as bone chips, cartilage, etc. from the bone reaming material.
  • With reference to FIGS. 7A-7D and to a bone reaming material sample, a sample of bone reaming material taken from a patient is placed in the tube 12. Suitable delivery methods include spreading the material into the open end 12 a of the tube using a spatula or scooping the material into the tube 12. An additional suitable delivery method includes connecting a first syringe 204 to the first plunger port 22. After which the bone reaming material sample is provided to the tube 12 via the sample collection bore 68 and sample collection aperture 86. In various embodiments, the bone reaming material is placed directly into the filtration system 13 of the tube 12. In such embodiments, the bone reaming material will filter through the mesh 30 and down towards the bottom of the tube 12 b. The filtration system 13 may remain attached to the separator 10 or it may be disengaged using the break 34 prior to centrifugation. It may be advantageous to leave the filtration system 13 engaged with the tube 12 to facilitate extraction of all desired materials from the bone reaming material.
  • A cap 220 is then placed over the first plunger port 22 to substantially seal the tube 12. Similarly, whole blood or saline may be added to the tube to increase the viscosity of the bone reaming material. The whole blood or saline may also be introduced using the plunger port 22.
  • On or near collection face 46 is a third fraction 226 including a small, yet concentrated, amount of red blood cells, white blood cells, and a substantial portion of the platelets and undifferentiated cells of the bone reaming material sample. Although the undifferentiated cells are also present near the collection face 46 at this point the solid portions of the buffy coat are more compressed against the collection face 46. The position of the buoy 14, 300 also helps in this matter. Because the buoy 14, 300 is a single body it defines the interface of the plasma fraction 224 and the white/red blood cell fraction 222. Also the density of the buoy 14, 300 assures that it has not passed into the plasma fraction 224. Therefore, the fractions remain separated after the centrifuge process. In addition because the buoy 14, 300 is tuned to the density of the white/red blood cell fraction 222, it is not affected by variations in the density of the plasma fraction 224 and the position of the buoy 14 can always be at the interface of the white/red blood cell fraction 222 and the plasma fraction 224.
  • With particular reference to FIG. 7C, the depth gage 38 is affixed to the first plunger port 22 of the sample collection projection 82. After connecting the depth gage 38 to the first plunger port 22, the plunger 60 is plunged into the tube 12 by pushing on the depth gage 38. As this is performed the plasma fraction 224, formed and separated above the buoy 14, 300, is able to flow through the check valve 90 into the plasma collection area 92. This displacement of the plasma fraction 224 allows the plunger 60 to be plunged into the tube 12 containing the blood sample.
  • The plunger 60 is plunged into the tube 12 until the point where the end 105 of the depth gage rod 76 reaches the buoy 14, 300. The volume left in the collection face 46 is the third fraction 226 and is determined by the depth gage 38. It may be adjusted by selectively determining the amount that the depth gage rod 76 extends below the plunger front face 84. By adjusting the depth gage 38, the concentration of the third fraction 226 can be adjusted depending upon the desires of the operator.
  • The plasma fraction 224 is held in the plasma collection area 92 for later withdrawal. Therefore, the use of the plunger 60 and the buoy 14, 300 creates three distinct fractions that may be removed from the tube 12 after only one spin procedure. The fractions include the white/red blood cell fraction 222, held between the buoy 14, 300 and the tube bottom 24. The third or platelet or undifferentiated cell fraction 226 is held between the plunger 60 and the buoy 14, 300. Finally, the plasma fraction 224 is collected in the plasma collection area 92.
  • The third fraction 226 may be extracted from the tube 12 first, without commingling the other fractions, through the sample collection bore 68. With particular reference to FIG. 7D, the depth gage rod 76 may be removed from the depth gage housing 66. This creates a sample collection cannula which includes the depth gage bore 68, the sample collection bore 68, and the sample collection aperture 86. After the depth gage rod 76 has been removed, the second syringe 210 may be affixed to the depth gage housing 66 via the external neck threads 72. The second syringe 210 may be substantially similar to the first syringe 204.
  • Before attempting to withdraw the third fraction 226, the separator 10 may be agitated to re-suspend the platelets and concentrated white/red blood cells in a portion of the plasma remaining in the collection face 46. This allows for easier and more complete removal of the third fraction 226 because it is suspended rather than compressed against the collection face 46. A vacuum is then created in the second syringe 210 by pulling back the plunger to draw the third fraction 226 into the second syringe 210.
  • As the third fraction 226 is drawn into the second syringe 210 the plunger 60 moves towards the buoy 14, 300. This action is allowed because of the vent bore 98 formed in the cap 18. Atmospheric air is transferred to the plasma collection area 92 through the vent bore 98 to allow the third fraction 226 to be removed. This allows the movement of the plunger 60 towards the buoy 14, 300. This action also allows the plunger 60 to “wipe” the collection face 46. As the plunger front face 84 mates with the collection area 46 the third fraction 226 is pushed into the sample collection aperture 86. This ensures that substantially the entire third fraction 226 collected in the collection area 46 is removed into the second syringe 210. It can also increase the repeatability of the collection volumes. In addition, because the second syringe 210 does not protrude out the sample collection aperture 86, it does not interfere with the collection of the third fraction 226. Once the plunger front face 84 has mated with the collection face 46 there is substantially no volume between the plunger 60 and the buoy 14, 300.
  • Once the third fraction 226 is extracted the second syringe 210 is removed from the first plunger port 22. Also the extraction of the third fraction 226 leaves the plasma fraction 224 and the red blood cell fractions 222 separated in the tube 12. At this point a third syringe 212 may be affixed to the fraction collection valve 20. The third syringe 212 is connected to the external threads 94 of the fraction collection valve 20 to ensure a liquid tight connection. It will be understood, however, that another connection mechanism such as a snap or compression engagement may be used to connect the third syringe 212 to the fraction collection valve 20.
  • A vacuum is then created in the third syringe 212 to draw the plasma fraction 224 from the plasma collection area 92 through the plasma collection tube 54. As discussed above, the plasma collection tube 54 is connected to the hose barb 93. Therefore, the plasma flows through the plasma collection bore 93 a through the hose barb 93, and then through the plasma collection tube 54. It will be understood that the plasma collection tube 54 may alternatively simply rest on the plunger back face 88 to collect the plasma fraction 224. In this way the plasma fraction 224 may be removed from the separator 10 without commingling it with the white/red blood cell fraction 222. After the plasma fraction 224 is removed, the separator 10 may be dismantled to remove the white/red blood cell fraction 222. Alternatively, the separator 10 may be discarded in an appropriate manner while retaining the white/red blood cell fraction 222.
  • The separator 10 allows for the collection of three components of a bone reaming material and whole blood sample's fractions with only one centrifugation spin. The interaction of the buoy 14, 300 and the plunger 60 allows a collection of about 40% to nearly 100% of the available buffy coat in the whole blood sample portion of the mixture after a centrifuge processing time of about 5 minutes to about 15 minutes. The complimentary geometry of the plunger front face 84 and the collection face 46 help increase the collection efficiency. Although only the cone geometry is discussed herein, it will be understood that various other geometries may be used with similar results.
  • The plunger front face 84 being flexible also helps ensure a complete mating with the collection face 46. This, in turn, helps ensure that substantially the entire volume between the two is evacuated. The process first begins with the suction withdrawal of the third fraction 226 via the second syringe 210, but is completed with a fluid force action of the third fraction 226 as the plunger front face 84 mates with the collection face 46. As the plunger front face 84 mates with the collection face 46 the fluid force assists in removal of the selected fraction.
  • The plunger 60 also substantially wipes the tube wall 23. Because the plunger 60 is formed of a flexible material it forms a seal with the tube wall 23 which is movable. Therefore, substantially no liquid is able to move between the plunger wall 80 and the tube wall 23. Material is substantially only able to go past the plunger front face 84 via the check valve 90.
  • The complimentary geometry also helps decrease the collection time of the third fraction 226. Therefore, entire time to prepare and remove the third fraction 226 is generally about 5 to about 40 minutes. This efficiency is also assisted by the fact that the separator 10 allows for the removal of the third fraction 226 without first removing the plasma fraction 224, which includes the buffy coat, and respinning the plasma fraction 224. Rather one spin in the separator 10 with the whole blood sample allows for the separation of the buffy coat for easy extraction through the plunger 60.
  • The separator 10 may be used to separate any appropriate material. The material may be separated for any purpose, such as a surgical procedure. For example, a selected fraction of a whole heterogeneous material or multi-component material may be separated and purified into a desired fraction according to various embodiments. The multi-component material can be harvested from a patient by methods such as bone reaming, as depicted in FIG. 8, or by withdrawing whole blood from the patient. The selected fraction of the bone reaming material may include various components, such as undifferentiated cells. The various undifferentiated cells may be positioned in a selected scaffold or relative to a selected portion of a patient for providing a volume of the undifferentiated cells to the patient. The selected fraction is applied to or delivered to the patient at a selected region of the anatomy. The selected fraction may be placed on a prosthetic, a stent, or any other implantable medical device. The selected fraction may be applied directly to the anatomy or to the medical implant in any appropriate manner, such as by spraying, dipping, infiltrating, or any appropriate method. The macroparticles 32 recovered can also be used to fill a void in bone.
  • The description of the teachings is merely exemplary in nature and, thus, variations that do not depart from the gist of the teachings are intended to be within the scope of the teachings. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the teachings.

Claims (10)

  1. 1. A method of separating a fraction from a whole sample, comprising:
    obtaining a volume of a whole heterogenous material, including a liquid and a solid;
    separating the solid from the liquid;
    forming a fraction of the liquid; and
    extracting the fraction.
  2. 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising forming a scaffold of a selected material for implantation relative to the anatomy.
  3. 3. The method of claim 1, wherein obtaining a volume of the whole heterogenous material includes withdrawing from the anatomy a selected volume of whole blood.
  4. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein obtaining a volume of the whole heterogenous material includes obtaining from the anatomy a select volume of bone reaming material.
  5. 5. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of forming a fraction, separating, or combinations thereof include:
    positioning the obtained volume of the whole heterogenous material in a container; and
    applying a force to the container to form at least two fractions of the whole heterogenous material.
  6. 6. The method of claim 5, wherein forming the at least two fractions, includes:
    positioning the whole heterogenous material in a container including a separating member including a specific gravity substantially dependent upon at least one of the two fractions.
  7. 7. The method of claim 5, wherein forming the at least two fractions includes:
    centrifuging the container to move the separating member to a selected position relative to the volume of a fraction of the whole heterogenous material.
  8. 8. The method of claim 1, further comprising applying the fraction to an implantable medical device, applying the fraction to a wound, applying the fraction to a reamed bone, applying the fraction to a resected bone, or combinations thereof.
  9. 9. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
    removing a filtration system from a container containing the whole heterogeneous sample prior to forming a fraction of the liquid.
  10. 10. The method of claim 1, wherein separating the solid from the liquid, including supporting a mesh to hold the solid in a selected location.
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