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Safety evaluation and feedback system and method

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Publication number
US20110022421A1
US20110022421A1 US12896475 US89647510A US2011022421A1 US 20110022421 A1 US20110022421 A1 US 20110022421A1 US 12896475 US12896475 US 12896475 US 89647510 A US89647510 A US 89647510A US 2011022421 A1 US2011022421 A1 US 2011022421A1
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Prior art keywords
data
safety
evaluation
insurance
sensors
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Abandoned
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US12896475
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Tom Brown
John J. Anthony
Scott Chalfant
Michael Gingrave
Brian Vines
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Hartford Fire Insurance Co
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Hartford Fire Insurance Co
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q40/00Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
    • G06Q40/08Insurance, e.g. risk analysis or pensions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q10/00Administration; Management
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for a specific business sector, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/10Services
    • G06Q50/26Government or public services
    • G06Q50/265Personal security, identity or safety

Abstract

Systems and methods are discussed for providing a sensor enhanced employee safety evaluation system. Sensors that monitor employee behavior are placed at the workplace of an insured entity. Data from the sensors are processed to obtain a safety evaluation. Based on the safety evaluation, the insurance provider can adjust the terms of the insurance policy to accurately reflect the risks associated with the insured entity. Feedback based on the safety evaluation is also provided to the insured entity and the employees of the insured entity to promote improvements in safe behavior.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/024,676, filed Feb. 1, 2008, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/899,076, filed Feb. 2, 2007, the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Many insurance companies are considering offering, or do offer, discounts or variable pricing for automobile insurance based on data collected from vehicle telematics. Safety in the workplace includes perils beyond driving, including environmental conditions, physical stress and strain, and dangerous equipment. Sensors on the marketplace and in development can identify dangerous scenarios, including environmental conditions, worker behaviors, use or lack of use of proper safety equipment, and interactions with dangerous machines, substances or areas.
  • [0003]
    Workers' compensation insurance provides compensation for workers that are injured on the job. This compensation may include medical expenses, death benefits, and payments in lieu of lost wages. Workers' compensation insurance is state-mandated for most employees and is generally provided by private insurance companies, though some states operate a state fund.
  • [0004]
    Rates for workers' compensation insurance are set by state and are based on industry and job classification. Workers' compensation rating starts with a base rate, derived for each of some 600 classifications. This base rate is not modified for the smallest businesses, but for others, it is. These modifications include a mandatory application of an experience rating credit or debit, depending on a business's claims history compared to the average in that business class. Also, discretionary pricing modifications can be applied by the carrier depending on its underwriting evaluation of the account. Many large accounts share in the funding of their claims via large deductibles, policyholder dividends and retrospectively rated programs. These kinds of programs are generally referred to as “risk share” plans. For those businesses that are subject to experience rating or a “risk share” plan, their net cost of workers' compensation insurance is decreased to the extent they can either prevent, or mitigate the value of, claims.
  • [0005]
    Most insurance carriers that sell workers' compensation insurance provide professional services that help businesses prevent or mitigate the values of claims, primarily by reviewing the business's exposures and current controls, and by assessing the causes of prior claims and subsequently recommending and implementing solutions. Again, to the extent that these solutions reduce the number and dollar amount of claims, overall, the premium paid by the business will also be reduced. Loss control services are generally available to all businesses, but are most cost-effective for larger businesses.
  • [0006]
    Typically, loss control services are part of the basic product sold by an insurance carrier. However, loss control services may be made more effective and efficient by appropriately utilizing technology. In particular, sensor technologies that allow insured businesses to quickly identify unsafe situations, thereby providing the businesses with opportunity to correct them, and technologies that give insurance carriers automatic feedback and information on the safety performance of their policyholders, may beneficially contribute to a streamlined workers' compensation insurance evaluation system and advantageously decrease the risk of accidents in the workplace.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    Accordingly, in one aspect the invention relates to a system for evaluating employee safety in the workplace of an insured entity, and altering the terms of the insurance policy based on the safety evaluation. The system comprises a server configured to receive safety data from sensors located at the workplace of an insured entity. The sensors monitor actions performed by the employees of the insured entity. The system also comprises a business logic module configured to adjust the terms of the insurance policy covering the insured entity based on the received safety data.
  • [0008]
    In one embodiment, the system comprises a safety evaluation module for analyzing the received safety data and outputting a safety evaluation for the insured entity based on the received data. The business logic module adjusts the terms of the insurance policy at least partially based on the outputted evaluation. The safety evaluations may be for an individual employee of the insured entity, for a facility operated by the insured entity, or for the entire insured entity. The terms of the insurance policy may also be adjusted solely based on the knowledge that a safety evaluation system is in place, without reference to the actual data or safety evaluation.
  • [0009]
    In another embodiment, the system also comprises a user interface module for receiving identification of safety policies implemented by the insured entity in response to the safety data. In this embodiment, the business logic module adjusts the insurance premium based on the safety policies that are instituted by the insured entity.
  • [0010]
    The sensors located at the insured entity include sensors worn by the employees to monitor the behavior of the wearer when lifting an object. Based on the sensor data, the safety evaluation module and the business logic module evaluates the safety of the lifting behavior of the wearer, and outputs a lifting safety indicator based on the evaluation. The terms of the insurance policy are adjusted by the business logic module based on the lifting safety indicator.
  • [0011]
    The sensors located at the insured entity also include sensors coupled with articles of personal protective equipment. The sensors produce data that is indicative of the employees' proper usage of the articles of personal protective equipment, and the business logic module adjusts the insurance policy premium based on the level of proper personal protective equipment usage. In some embodiments, the premium adjustments are based on a predictive model.
  • [0012]
    In another aspect, the invention relates to a system for evaluating employee safety in the workplace of an insured entity, and providing feedback to the insured entity based on the safety evaluation. The system comprises sensors located at the workplace of an insured entity configured to monitor the actions of the employees of the insured entity. The system also comprises a safety evaluation module that collects data from the sensors, analyzes the collected data and outputs a safety evaluation related to the employee actions. A communication module is used to communicate the outputted evaluation from the safety evaluation module to an output device, which provides feedback based at least partially on the outputted evaluation to the employees. In one embodiment, the outputted safety evaluation is communicated to a third party server. In another embodiment, the outputted evaluation is communicated to a server operated by the insurance company.
  • [0013]
    In some embodiments, the output device provides feedback to the employees in real-time. The feedback is in the form of a visual, audio, or tactile stimulus.
  • [0014]
    In some embodiments, the sensors are worn by the employees and configured to output data indicative of the lifting behavior of the wearers. In other embodiments, the sensors are coupled to articles of personal protective equipment and configured to log the number of times an employee misuses the equipment. If the logged number of times is over a predetermined threshold, then an unfavorable safety evaluation is outputted. The system also includes sensors located at the entrances or borders of danger zones. These sensors are configured to log the number of times employees enter the danger zones. If the logged number of times is over a predetermined threshold, then an unfavorable safety evaluation is outputted.
  • [0015]
    In other aspects, the invention relates to methods and processor-readable media for using and implementing the system described above.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0016]
    FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a system suitable for monitoring, evaluating, and providing feedback on employee workplace safety, according to an illustrative embodiment of the invention;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a computer network system that may be used in an embodiment of the invention;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a first employee safety evaluation system, according to an illustrative embodiment of the invention;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a second employee safety evaluation system, according to an illustrative embodiment of the invention;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 5 is a flowchart of a method for evaluating employee workplace safety, according to an illustrative embodiment of the invention.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the terms of an insurance policy.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0022]
    To provide an overall understanding of the invention, certain illustrative embodiments will now be described. However, it will be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the methods described herein may be adapted and modified as is appropriate for the application being addressed and that the systems and methods described herein may be employed in other suitable applications, and that such other additions and modifications will not depart from the scope hereof.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 1 a schematic diagram of a system 100 for monitoring, evaluating, and providing feedback on employee workplace safety at an insured entity. In FIG. 1, insurance company 120 provides customer 101 with insurance coverage. The type of insurance provided by insurance company 120 may be any type of insurance, such as general liability insurance, although the present invention is described primarily in terms of workers' compensation insurance. Customer 101 employs one or more employees 111. Employees 111 work at a workplace environment 109 that is affiliated with customer 101. Workplace environment 109 may include one or more facilities located together or separately from each other. Workplace environment 109 may not be at a fixed location, such as when customer 101 is a contractor who travels to various locations for work. Insurance company 120 can simultaneously provide services to multiple customers, although only one customer 101 is shown in FIG. 1 for clarity.
  • [0024]
    While on the job, employees 111 may have accidents or develop chronic ailments as a result of handling various types of hazardous machinery 113, equipment 115, and objects 125. A hazardous object 125 may be, for example, a heavy box of merchandise that employees 111 must lift. Hazardous object 125 can also be inherently dangerous, such as a radioactive or chemically toxic object. A few examples of hazardous machinery 113 and equipment 115 include cutting tools, electrical devices, and construction equipment. In addition, workplace environment 109 can be detrimental to the safety of employees 111 if it is prone to fires, breakdowns in proper ventilation, and other lapses in hazard containment.
  • [0025]
    To monitor the safety of employees 111 as they interact with the workplace, sensors 123 are established in various manners at workplace 109. Sensors 123 can be worn or carried around by employees 111, located on machinery 113, equipment 115, objects 125, and distributed around workplace environment 109. Sensors 123 are configured to take a variety of measurements. For example, motion detectors worn by employees 111 measure body motion as employees 111 move around and carry out various tasks at work. Multiple motion sensors may be worn on different body parts to obtain detailed body movement information. Motion sensors may monitor speed, acceleration, position, rotation, and other characteristics of body and appendage motion. There are sensors available for determining the body posture of employees 111, particularly while lifting heavy objects. Chronic and acute back injuries are often the result of lifting objects using an improper lifting behavior, and can lead to high valued workers' compensation claims. Pressure sensors embedded in the footwear of employees 111 or located on the floor of workplace 109 also provide information on the ergonomics of employees 111, such the weight and weight distribution over different parts of the body. Many other types of wearable sensors used to gain information about the work habits of employees 111 can be integrated into safety evaluation system 100, such as chemical sensor and GPS transceivers.
  • [0026]
    In addition to being worn or carried around by employees 111, sensors 123 are also be fixed on machinery 113, equipment 115, and objects 125. These sensors can also be motion, weight, heat, and pressure sensors, like the wearable sensors discussed above. For example, weight/force sensors may be used to measure the weights of objects 125. Heat sensors provide information on the functionality of machinery 113 and equipment 115. Overheating or malfunctioning equipment/machinery constitute a workplace hazard for employees 111. RFID transponders placed on machinery 113, equipment 115, and objects 125 are used to identify the machinery/equipment/object, or if paired with RFID transponders carried by employees 111, are used to determine the relative location of employees 111 with respect to various pieces of machinery 113, equipment 115, or objects 125.
  • [0027]
    Sensors 123 that are distributed at fixed locations around workplace 109 include heat sensors that monitor the temperature of the workplace. Digital cameras and camcorders can be mounted around workplace 109 to monitor and analyze employee actions, including lifting behavior when lifting heavy objects. The above described sensors and their purposes are discussed in more detail below in connection with the systems depicted in FIGS. 3 and 4.
  • [0028]
    Sensors 123 can be configured to transmit data continuously throughout the day, at or during specified periods of time, or in response to the detection of a particular event. Data from sensors 123 are collected and stored on local computer 133. Local computer 133 is a computer, a memory device, or a network of such devices that is capable of collecting, storing, and processing sensor data. Local computer 133 may be a mobile device, such as a smart phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop, or micro PC. Alternatively, local computing device 133 may be an embedded computing platform built into sensors 123. Sensors 123 communicate with local computer 133 via communication system 106. Communications system 106 can be wired or wireless, and can utilize any appropriate protocol, such as Bluetooth® or WiFi. The internal communication network 106 between sensors 123 and local computer 133 is part of a larger communications network 127 that allows communication of information between customer 101, insurance company 120, and third party provider 107, whose functions are described further below. The devices connected to communication network 127, and the internal networks contained within, may employ data encryption and security software so that sensitive information, such as the medical histories of employees 111, are protected.
  • [0029]
    In addition to the data obtained from sensors 123, static data regarding employees 111, such as the age, height, level of physical fitness of each person, and data regarding industry safety standards is stored at an internal database 129 at customer 101. Data in internal database 129 supplements sensor data and is transmitted along with sensor data to insurance company 120 for processing. Internal database 129 may not necessarily be located at customer 101. It can be located or maintained at a remote location, but accessible by customer 101 and/or insurance company 120.
  • [0030]
    Safety data obtained from sensors 123 and database 129 is transmitted via communications network 127 to insurance company 120 for evaluation. In one implementation, the data is transmitted in raw form directly from the sensors. In another implementation, the data is first processed by local computer 133 and then transmitted to insurance company 120 in synthesized form. The transmitted data may also pass through a third party provider 107. In one scenario, third party provider 107 is an outside expert hired by customer 101 or insurance company 120 to perform the analysis and evaluation of the sensor data. In another scenario, insurance company 120 purchases or obtains in another manner data from third party provider 107 instead of interacting directly with customer 101. Like local database 129, third party provider 107 can also be a source of information on industry safety standards, for example from NIOSH and OSHA.
  • [0031]
    Insurance company 120 has a computer system 119 that includes application servers 102, load balancing proxy servers 103, data storage unit 104, business logic computer 122, and user interface module 105 to perform risk evaluation and underwriting based on the collected employee safety data. Employees of the insurance company 120 and other authorized personnel use user interface module 105 to access the insurance company computer system. User interface module 105 may be any type of computing device that is configured to communicate with other computer systems. User interface module 105 may be connected directly to application server 102, or may access an application server 102 via the load balancing proxy servers 103. User interface module 105 may connect to load balancing proxy servers 103 via a local area network, a private data link, or via the internet. Although depicted as being part of insurance company 120 in FIG. 1, user interface module 105 may be located remotely, such as onsite at an insured facility. The business logic computer 122 is connected to the data storage unit 104 and application servers 102 over a local area network 121, which may be part of communication system 127. In addition, other network infrastructure, including, for example a firewall, backup servers, and back up data stores, may also be included in the system 119, without departing from the scope of the invention. Communications over the local area network 121 and/or over the Internet, in one implementation, may be encrypted. In addition, such communications, whether encrypted or not, may also be digitally signed for authenticating the source of the communications. The computer system 119 may also include a certificate authority to authenticate one or more of the communications using public key infrastructure.
  • [0032]
    Based on employee safety data collected from the various sources described above, a safety evaluation module analyzes and evaluates employee safety of customer 101. As used herein, a “module” may be implemented in software for execution by various types of processors. An identified module of executable code may, for instance, comprise one or more physical or logical blocks of computer instructions which may, for instance, be organized as an object, procedure, or function. Nevertheless, the executables of an identified module need not be physically located together, but may comprise disparate instructions stored in different locations which, when joined logically together, comprise the module and achieve the stated purpose for the module.
  • [0033]
    Indeed, a module of executable code could be a single instruction, or many instructions, and may even be distributed over several different code segments, among different programs, and across several memory devices. Similarly, operational data may be identified and illustrated herein within modules, and may be embodied in any suitable form and organized within any suitable type of data structure. The operational data may be collected as a single data set, or may be distributed over different locations including over different storage devices, and may exist, at least partially, merely as electronic signals on a system or network. In addition, entire modules, or portions thereof, may also be implemented in programmable hardware devices such as field programmable gate arrays, programmable array logic, programmable logic devices or the like or as hardwired integrated circuits.
  • [0034]
    In one implementation, the safety evaluation module is implemented in business logic computer 122. In other implementations, the safety evaluation module is implemented in application servers 102, on local computer 133, or is distributed across multiple elements of system 119. After the safety evaluation module evaluates the safety condition of customer 101, it sends feedback back to customer 101 via communications network 127 that is directed towards improving employee workplace safety. Feedback is provided to employees 111 through a visual, audio, or tactile stimulus, which is represented by flashing lights 130 in FIG. 1. Flashing lights 130 may, for example, flash when an employee 111 enters into a hazardous area or adopts an unsafe posture when lifting heavy object 125. Other types of feedback mechanisms include a vibrating device worn by employee 111 or an audio buzzer. Feedback may also be given to a manager, and then relayed to employee 111 in an indirect manner, such as in a verbal conversation between the manager and employee 111.
  • [0035]
    A business logic module, implemented preferably in business logic computer 122, is used to underwrite or alter workers' compensation insurance pricing for customer 101 based on the received data. The business logic module may use predictive models, such as neural networks, Bayesian networks, and support vector machines, in performing the underwriting and premium adjustment. In one embodiment, the premium of the insurance policy is decreased if customer 101 employees exhibit safe practices. Conversely, insurance premiums are increased in response to unsafe employee performance. Instead of altering premium rates, other terms of the insurance policy can be altered, such as the policy deductible.
  • [0036]
    In another scenario, insurance company 120 awards customer 101 with premium discounts, or other advantageous rewards, simply for instituting a safety evaluation and feedback system. In this scenario, insurance company 120 does not receive actual safety data from customer 101. Insurance company 120 may award different discounts depending on policies instituted by customer 101 based on the output of the safety evaluation and feedback system. For example, insurance company 120 may award a discount if customer 101 has a safety policy of giving salary bonuses to employees 111 with good safety records. Insurance company 120 may also award a discount if customer 101 has a reward policy that promotes active participation of employees 111 in the safety evaluation system. These scenarios are described in more detail further below in connection with FIGS. 3 and 4.
  • [0037]
    Business logic computer 122 may be implemented based on the computer network system architecture shown in FIG. 2. Business logic computer 122 may have data storage capabilities of its own, or may access external data storage unit 104 for such purposes. In one implementation, data storage unit 104 is a data warehouse utilized by the insurance company 120. The data warehouse is the main electronic depository of the insurance company's current and historical data. The data warehouse includes one or more interrelated databases that store information relevant to insurance data analysis. The interrelated databases store both structured and unstructured data. In one implementation, one or more of the interrelated databases store electronic copies of insurance forms, either in an image format or a text-searchable format keyed to a customer or claim. Other databases in the interrelated databases store data, for example, in a relational database, in various data fields keyed to various identifiers, such as, without limitation, customer, data source, geography, or business identifier (such as Standard Industry Classification Code). The information stored in the data warehouse 104 is obtained through communications with customers, agents, vendors, sensors, and third party data providers and investigators. In particular, the data warehouse is configured to store data about customer employee safety, as well as related loss information, if any. Preferably, the computations required for risk evaluation and underwriting are primarily carried out by business logic computer 122, in order to free up the other resources for other tasks. The processes performed by business logic computer 122 in illustrative embodiments of the invention are described below in relation to FIGS. 3 and 4.
  • [0038]
    In one implementation, software operating on the application servers 102 act merely as presentation and data extraction and conversion servers. All substantive business logic, including underwriting and pricing determinations, is carried out on the business logic computer 122. In this implementation, the application servers 102 obtain data from the data storage unit 104 and the business logic computer 122 and incorporate that data into web pages (or other graphical user interface formats). These web pages are then communicated by the application servers 102 through the load balancing proxy servers 103 to user interface module 105 for presentation. Upon receiving input from user interface module 105, the application server 102 translates the input into a form suitable for processing by the business logic computer 122 and for storage by the data storage unit 104. In this implementation, the application servers can be operated by third parties, who can add their own branding to the web pages or add other customized presentation data. In the alternative, at least some of the business logic is also carried out by the application servers 102. Application servers 102 may also include a webserver for automatically recovering or retrieving safety data from local computer 133.
  • [0039]
    In another implementation, the application servers 102 are software modules operating on one or more computers. One of the computers on which the application servers 102 are operating may also serve as the business logic computer 122 and/or as a load balancing proxy server 103.
  • [0040]
    In other implementations, the software operating on user interface module 105 includes a thin or thick client application in addition to, or instead of web browser. The thin or thick client application interfaces with a corresponding server application operating on the application server 102.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a computing architecture suitable for implementing various ones of the computing devices depicted in FIG. 1, including, for example, the business logic computer 122, application servers 102, and user interface module 105.
  • [0042]
    Computer 201 comprises at least one central processing unit (CPU) 202, at least one read-only memory (ROM) 203, at least one communication port or hub 204, at least one random access memory (RAM) 205, and one or more databases or data storage devices 206. All of these later elements are in communication with the CPU 202 to facilitate the operation of the computer 201. The computer 201 may be configured in many different ways. For example, computer 201 may be a conventional standalone computer or alternatively, the function of computer 201 may be distributed across multiple computing systems and architectures.
  • [0043]
    Computer 201 may be configured in a distributed architecture, wherein databases and processors are housed in separate units or locations. Some such units perform primary processing functions and contain at a minimum, a general controller or a processor 202, a ROM 203, and a RAM 205. In such an embodiment, each of these units is attached to a communications hub or port 204 that serves as a primary communication link with other servers 207, client or user computers 208 and other related devices 209. The communications hub or port 204 may have minimal processing capability itself, serving primarily as a communications router. A variety of communications protocols may be part of the system, including but not limited to: Ethernet, SAP, SAS™, ATP, BLUETOOTH™, GSM and TCP/IP.
  • [0044]
    The CPU 202 comprises a processor, such as one or more conventional microprocessors and one or more supplementary co-processors such as math co-processors. The CPU 202 is in communication with the communication port 204 through which the CPU 202 communicates with other devices such as other servers 207, user terminals 208, or devices 209. The communication port 204 may include multiple communication channels for simultaneous communication with, for example, other processors, servers or client terminals. Devices in communication with each other need not be continually transmitting to each other. On the contrary, such devices need only transmit to each other as necessary, may actually refrain from exchanging data most of the time, and may require several steps to be performed to establish a communication link between the devices.
  • [0045]
    The CPU 202 is also in communication with the data storage device 206. The data storage device 206 may comprise an appropriate combination of magnetic, optical and/or semiconductor memory, and may include, for example, RAM, ROM, flash drive, an optical disc such as a compact disc and/or a hard disk or drive. The CPU 202 and the data storage device 206 each may be, for example, located entirely within a single computer or other computing device; or connected to each other by a communication medium, such as a USB port, serial port cable, a coaxial cable, a Ethernet type cable, a telephone line, a radio frequency transceiver or other similar wireless or wired medium or combination of the foregoing. For example, the CPU 202 may be connected to the data storage device 206 via the communication port 204.
  • [0046]
    The data storage device 206 may store, for example, (i) a program (e.g., computer program code and/or a computer program product) adapted to direct the CPU 202 in accordance with the present invention, and particularly in accordance with the processes described in detail hereinafter with regard to the CPU 202; (ii) databases adapted to store information that may be utilized to store information required by the program. Suitable databases include data storage unit 104 of FIG. 1.
  • [0047]
    The program may be stored, for example, in a compressed, an uncompiled and/or an encrypted format, and may include computer program code. The instructions of the program may be read into a main memory of the processor from a computer-readable medium other than the data storage device 206, such as from a ROM 203 or from a RAM 205. While execution of sequences of instructions in the program causes the processor 202 to perform the process steps described herein, hard-wired circuitry may be used in place of, or in combination with, software instructions for implementation of the processes of the present invention. Thus, embodiments of the present invention are not limited to any specific combination of hardware and software.
  • [0048]
    Suitable computer program code may be provided for performing numerous functions such as safety data processing and insurance policy underwriting. The program also may include program elements such as an operating system, a database management system and “device drivers” that allow the processor to interface with computer peripheral devices 209 (e.g., a video display, a keyboard, a computer mouse, etc.).
  • [0049]
    The term “computer-readable medium” as used herein refers to any medium that provides or participates in providing instructions to the processor of the computing device (or any other processor of a device described herein) for execution. Such a medium may take many forms, including but not limited to, non-volatile media and volatile media. Non-volatile media include, for example, optical, magnetic, or opto-magnetic disks, such as memory. Volatile media include dynamic random access memory (DRAM), which typically constitutes the main memory. Common forms of computer-readable media include, for example, a floppy disk, a flexible disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, any other magnetic medium, a CD-ROM, DVD, any other optical medium, punch cards, paper tape, any other physical medium with patterns of holes, a RAM, a PROM, an EPROM or EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable read-only memory), a FLASH-EEPROM, any other memory chip or cartridge, or any other medium from which a computer can read.
  • [0050]
    Various forms of computer readable media may be involved in carrying one or more sequences of one or more instructions to the processor 202 (or any other processor of a device described herein) for execution. For example, the instructions may initially be borne on a magnetic disk of a remote computer 208. The remote computer 208 can load the instructions into its dynamic memory and send the instructions over an Ethernet connection, cable line, or even telephone line using a modem. A communications device 204 local to a computing device (or, e.g., a server) can receive the data on the respective communications line and place the data on a system bus for the processor. The system bus carries the data to main memory, from which the processor retrieves and executes the instructions. The instructions received by main memory may optionally be stored in memory either before or after execution by the processor. In addition, instructions may be received via a communication port as electrical, electromagnetic or optical signals, which are exemplary forms of wireless communications or data streams that carry various types of information.
  • [0051]
    As previously discussed with reference to FIG. 1, servers may also interact and/or control one or more user devices 209, such as displays and printers, or remote computers 208 such as, e.g., user interface module 105. User device 209 may include any one or a combination of a personal computer, a laptop, a personal digital assistant, a mouse, a keyboard, a computer display, a touch screen, LCD, voice recognition software, or other generally represented by input/output devices required to implement the above functionality.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an illustrative employee safety monitoring and evaluation system where customer 101 is insured by insurance company 120. In FIG. 3, employee 302 of customer 101 is lifting a heavy object 312. This system is configured to monitor the likelihood of stress and strain injuries, which constitute a large potion of workers' compensation claims. As a participant of a safety evaluation system, employee 302 wears sensors 304 on his body to monitor his body posture, movement, and other lifting behavior while lifting object 312. Sensors 304 may be, for example, footwear with embedded weight/force sensors that measure his weight distribution, heat sensors to monitor overheating or overexertion, and digital cameras to capture lifting behavior information.
  • [0053]
    As employee 302 performs the task of lifting object 312, the above described sensors transmit data to computing device 306. In one embodiment, computing device 306 is a mobile computing device, such as a smart phone, laptop, micro PC, or an embedded computing platform built into the sensor platform. Data is transferred between sensors 304 and computing device 306 via any kind of wireless communication system, such as a Bluetooth® or WiFi network. Computing device 306 collects, aggregates, and stores the transmitted data. Computing device 306 also performs calculations and analyses on the transmitted data, such as noise filtering and mathematical operations to synthesize more meaningful data.
  • [0054]
    In addition to data derived from sensors, static data is also available and stored in database 308. Static data includes data such as the name, medical history, job characteristics, and other personal facts regarding employee 302. Static data also includes the weight, attachment points, and dimensions of object 312. This type of data is used by computing device 306 in conjunction with sensor data to evaluate the safety of employee actions. For example, it could be considered unsafe for an employee weighing 110 lbs and in poor physical shape to lift a 50 lbs object, while a different employee weighing 150 lbs and in good shape could do the same task safely. Static data stored in database 308 optionally includes industry safety standards set by NIOSH and OSHA. These industry standards are used in some implementations as a benchmark for safety evaluation. In some embodiments, the safety evaluation results in a lifting safety indicator that insurance company 120 uses in altering the policy terms.
  • [0055]
    Computing device 306 provides employee 302 with immediate feedback about his lifting behavior through a stimulus. For example, a light may blink whenever employee 302 adopts unsafe lifting behavior. Alternatively, a vibrating apparatus worn by employee 302 or an audio stimulus is activated to relay the same message. In one implementation, feedback stimuli is activated by computing device 306 only when employee actions pass a certain quantitative threshold. To obtain a safety evaluation score to compare to the threshold, computing device 306 applies a quantitative algorithm to the received data.
  • [0056]
    In addition to computing device 306, which may be a handheld mobile device and insufficient for all the computing and storage needs of the evaluation system, there may be a local server 310 connected to computing device 306. Local server 310 communicates directly with database 308 and sensors 304. Data may be transferred between local server 310 and the other elements of the system via a USB, wired LAN, WiFi, or cellular connection. The network connection is preferentially secure so that personal data such as employee medical history is protected. Local server 310 performs local processing such as collecting raw sensor data over time and aggregating information for analysis across all users of the safety evaluation system. Local server 310 can be located onsite at customer 101 or be a product or service offered by a third party.
  • [0057]
    In one implementation, local server 310 generates periodic safety reports on all the employees 302 for management of customer 101. Management can then use these reports to provide feedback to employees 302 to promote safer behavior. These reports may also be used by management to create policies that promote safe behavior. For example, the fraction of safe to unsafe lifts performed by an employee 302 or other lifting safety indicators may be included in the report, and management may award employee 302 a year-end bonus or other benefit or recognition based on this indicator.
  • [0058]
    Local server 310, computing device 306, database 308, and sensors 304 may also transmit data directly to insurance company 120. Data transmission between these elements and insurance company 120 may occur in a variety of ways, such as via secure email, HTTPS protocol, and XML messages over a SOAP protocol. Insurance company 120 may use this data for safety and premium analysis.
  • [0059]
    Safety analysis includes any safety assessment, risk evaluation, or risk improvement services. Services offered may include loss control services such as the dispatch of safety experts employed by insurance company 120 to advise on dangerous scenarios at the workplace. Loss control services may be provided, for example, after insurance company 120 is alerted of unsafe circumstances at a customer workplace through reports sent from local server 310. Modification of these services based on the received data may include an increase or decrease in frequency of the service, a change in the cost of the service, and targeting a specific safety concern.
  • [0060]
    Premium analysis includes activities that potentially affect a customer's premium, deductible amount, discounts or credits, as well as large scale analysis to provide input into industry or occupation experience factors. The determination of premium and offering of discounts or credits may be performed once at underwriting time, regularly on an interval, continuously, in response to an event, or retroactively, as permitted by local, state, and/or federal regulations.
  • [0061]
    The analysis and decisions made by insurance company 120 with regard to premium/service adjustments and safety evaluation may be transmitted back to customer 101. This information may be stored at local server 310, or on another device at customer 101. This information may be directly accessible by employees 302 of customer 101 or may be relayed to employees 302 by manager 314.
  • [0062]
    Insurance company 120 may save the data and reports received from customer 101, and the decisions that were made based upon them, in data storage unit 104, which was discussed in FIG. 1, or in a separate data warehouse. This archived data may be used for future retrospective analysis, claims adjudication, and/or to support fraud investigation.
  • [0063]
    Another illustrative employee safety monitoring and evaluation system is shown in FIG. 4. Other major sources of peril in the workplace include lack of compliance with best practices for use of personal protective equipment and other guidelines regarding off-limits hazardous areas and permission to use dangerous equipment. For example, it is well understood that safety goggles should be used when operating certain machinery, such as a lathe. The system shown in FIG. 4 may be used to monitor and promote compliance with such guidelines, and appropriately alter insurance policy terms in response to changes in compliance.
  • [0064]
    Like in FIG. 3, customer 101 employing employees 402, is insured by insurance company 120. Employee 402 may perform a job that requires protective clothing or equipment 404, such as hard hats, goggles, gloves, boots, and lifting belts. For example, employee 402 may be a lathe operator. While it is in the employee's best interest to wear protective clothing 404 and customer 101 may have policies requiring protective clothing, employee 402 may intentionally or unintentionally fail to comply with these policies. A safety monitoring system can promote compliance and lead to fewer injuries at the workplace.
  • [0065]
    In the system depicted in FIG. 4, articles of personal protective equipment 404 may be tagged with inexpensive RFID chips. The hazardous equipment 406 that employee 402 operates is equipped with sensors, such as an RFID reader for detecting the presence of personal protective equipment. Examples of hazardous equipment include hand tools, power tools, machine tools, construction equipment and vehicles, and chemically toxic and physically fragile objects. A motion detector, such as an infrared motion sensor, may also be located on or near equipment 406. The motion detector may have a range of less than a few meters, so that it senses only motion very close to it. When employee 402 approaches equipment 406, the motion detector is activated, triggering the RFID reader. The RFID reader detects the RFID tagged personal protective equipment 404, or lack thereof, and recognizes the employee 402. Employee identity information may be stored in the RFID chip if the protective clothing is not shared. Otherwise, a separate RFID chip may be embedded in employee 402's ID card or in another convenient object.
  • [0066]
    In one implementation, equipment 406 is configured to stay inactive unless RFID tagged personal protective equipment is detected. Thus, employee 402 cannot operate equipment 406 without wearing appropriate personal protective equipment 404. In another implementation, an employee's presence in the vicinity of equipment 406 without personal protective equipment 404 may trigger an alarm. For example, if an employee activates the motion detector, but the RFID scanner does not detect a corresponding chip, then an alarm will sound to alert the employee that he is not wearing personal protective equipment 404. The alarm may also be concurrently transmitted to employee 402's supervisor and medical personnel in some situations, such as when employee 402 approaches chemically toxic or radioactive equipment 406 without a radiation suit.
  • [0067]
    The system can log the number of times employee 402 attempts to handle or operate equipment 406 without proper personal protective equipment 404. This information can be used by insurance company 120 to evaluate the safety of employee 402's behavior. The results of the evaluation can be used by insurance company 120 to alter the terms of the insurance policy.
  • [0068]
    Although the system above is described as being implemented using RFID technology, other types of technology may also be used to accomplish the same goals. One example is digital photography and image analysis, which can be used to identify employee 402 and personal protective equipment 404. GPS, assisted GPS, floor pressure sensors, and motion detectors are other technologies that can be utilized, alone or in combination, to implement the above described safety monitoring and alert system. In addition, sensors can be combined into sensor networks and incorporated into the system.
  • [0069]
    Another scenario where the above described monitoring and alert system may be utilized is in monitoring employee 402 activity and presence in hazardous areas at a workplace. Hazardous area 408 may be the vicinity around high voltage electrical equipment, radioactive or chemically toxic areas, areas with dangerous moving parts such as engine rooms, and other places with high likelihood of accidents. In general, customer 101 may want to dissuade employees 402 from entering hazardous areas 408 unless they have a reason to be there and are trained in any special skills that may be necessary.
  • [0070]
    One method for monitoring activity in hazardous areas 408 is to establish RFID tagged gates around the areas. In this manner, only employees 402 granted with access may enter such areas. In some cases, it might not be desirable to institute such strict requirements around some hazardous areas 408. For example, customer 101 may want to dissuade employees 402 from entering a moderately dangerous work zone, but does not want to implement a more complex system to prevent it. In this case, RFID scanners located at the work zone may identify and keep track of the number of times employee 402 enters the zone, but may not actively prevent it. However, by logging the number of times employee 402 enters the zone, feedback can be given to that employee to promote safer behavior in the future. For example, employee 402's manager may have access to the logs and may notify employee 402 verbally.
  • [0071]
    Other sensors can also be used in addition to, or in place of, RFID tags to implement the system described above. For example, GPS systems can be used to track employee locations and digital photography and photo recognition systems can be used for personnel identification.
  • [0072]
    Hazardous areas 408 may be equipped with environmental sensors that monitor heat, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke levels. These sensors may be linked to alarms so that immediate feedback and evacuation can be facilitated.
  • [0073]
    Similar to the embodiment described in FIG. 3, data from sensors located on employees 402, personal protective equipment 404, hazardous equipment 406, and hazardous areas 408 may be transmitted to a local computer 416 for collection, aggregation, and processing. The data may be transmitted via any appropriate wired or wireless, secure or open, communications protocol, as discussed previously in FIG. 3. Local computer 416 may process the sensor data to obtain useful information, such as image analysis on digital camera footage. Local computer 416 may also receive input from database 414, which may store static data regarding the employees 402, personal protective equipment 404, hazardous equipment 406, and hazardous areas 408, such as employee identity, employee access rights to certain areas, employee training level for certain tasks and equipment, and safety information on hazardous equipment 406 owned by customer 101. Local computer 416 may be operated by customer 101 or may be a service/product that is offered by a third party.
  • [0074]
    Based on the collected sensor data and static information from database 414, local computer 416 may determine the number of times a particular employee 402 fails to comply with safety standards, and generate an a safety evaluation of customer 101's workplace. Local computer 416 may also aggregate safety data across all employees and generate reports for management 410.
  • [0075]
    Raw data from sensors 404 and processed data from local computer 416 may be transmitted to insurance company 120. Insurance company 120 may perform safety analysis and premium analysis on the data, as discussed above in connection with FIG. 3.
  • [0076]
    The analysis and decisions made by insurance company 120 with regard to premium/service adjustments and safety evaluation may be transmitted back to customer 101. This information may be stored at local computer 416, or on another device at customer 101. This information may be directly accessible by employees 402 of customer 101 or may be relayed to employees 402 by manager 410.
  • [0077]
    Insurance company 120 may save the data and reports received from customer 101, and the decisions that were made based upon them, in data storage unit 104, which was discussed in FIG. 1, or in a separate data warehouse. This archived data may be used for future retrospective analysis, claims adjudication, and/or to support fraud investigation.
  • [0078]
    The embodiments depicted in FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate exemplary implementations of a safety monitoring and evaluation system. These implementations can also be used in combination to concurrently monitor physical actions performed by employees, personal protective equipment use, and other safety-related behaviors.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 5 is a flow chart of exemplary steps in a method for evaluating and improving workplace safety. The method begins with collecting data from sensors located at the workplace of an insured customer (step 501). The sensor data is related to employee safety. As previously described, sensors at the workplace may measure environmental factors such as temperature, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, smoke, pressure, and another factors that may affect the safety of the workplace. Sensors may also be worn by employees to collect information on employee actions. Such sensors may include pressure sensors embedded in shoes, and may measure lifting behavior and weight distribution of the wearer while he performs certain acts on the job, such as lifting heavy objects. Employee actions such as running, throwing, reaching, falling, and material handling can also be measured. Other types of sensors include digital cameras, weight/forces pads on the ground, infrared motion sensors, and RFID transponders on equipment, protective clothing, and employee identification cards. Systems in which these sensors are used are described above in connection with FIGS. 3 and 4.
  • [0080]
    The sensor data may be collected by mobile computing devices, such as laptops, smart phones, and PDAs, and data may be transmitted via a wireless communication protocol, such as Bluetooth® or WiFi. Sensor data may also be collected on a local computer or server.
  • [0081]
    In addition to sensor data, static data is collected at step 505. Static data may include personal information on employees, such as their medical history, level of physical fitness, job description, level of restricted access, and their current safety evaluation. Static data may also include data on objects and equipment at the workplace, such as the ergonomics (size, shape, dimensions, weight) of objects that may be handled by employees, operation procedures of certain equipment, and the degree of hazard of certain work zones. In general, static data may encompass any relevant data that is not being collected in real time from sensors, including industry standards from NIOSH and OSHA. Static data may be stored at a local server.
  • [0082]
    In addition to or instead of collecting data from sensors and local static data servers, data may also be purchased or obtained from a third party (step 503). The purchased data may be used to supplement the sensor data or may be used to validate or debug the system. The purchased data may include sensor data as well as static data.
  • [0083]
    Whether the safety data is derived from sensors, a static database, or from a third party, it is analyzed, processed, and aggregated at step 507. Data may be aggregated over all the employees or it may be aggregated over a particular time interval. The aggregated data may be generated into reports, which can then be provided to interested parties (see step 511 below).
  • [0084]
    Data processing may include applying algorithms to the collected data, which may be in its raw form, to obtain values of interest. For example, raw sensor data may be noise filtered.
  • [0085]
    The raw sensor data, processed data, and static data may be combined at this step and analyzed to obtain a safety evaluation of the workplace. The evaluation may be a score or a qualitative description. The evaluation may be compared to NIOSH and OSHA safety standards to obtain a pass/fail or a good/bad characterization.
  • [0086]
    Using the safety evaluation, the insured company may institute policies to promote safe practices at step 509. For example, the insured company may offer bonuses to employees who obtain a good safety evaluation or who are willing to participate in the evaluation program. The insured company may also hold training programs to teach remedial safety practices, such as proper lifting techniques, to those determined by the evaluation system to exhibit unsafe practices. Other policies instituted by the insured company include employer recognition programs that publicly recognize employees identified by the system as safe employees, and stricter suspension or other punitive policies for employees who do not comply with the safety rules as determined by the system.
  • [0087]
    In response to insured company instituting the above mentioned policies, or other policies designed to promote a safe working environment, the insurance company can favorably alter the terms of the insurance policy, such as decreasing the premium or deductible.
  • [0088]
    At step 511, safety evaluations, in the form of reports for the entire company, individual customer facilities, employee teams, or individual employees may be provided to the company or individual as feedback. For example, a manager may receive a report indicating that a particular employee was not compliant with safety rules a certain percentage of time. The manager may relay that information to the employee verbally. A more direct form of feedback would be when the system automatically alerts an employee of an unsafe act via a real-time physical stimulus, such as a buzzer. Either way, the employee receives feedback about his actions and can correct them in the future.
  • [0089]
    At step 513, the insured company notifies the insurance company about the policies that they have instituted to promote safe behavior. Based on this alone, and without receiving the actual data, insurance company may grant discounts to the insured company at step 517.
  • [0090]
    Alternatively, the insured company may transmit the actual data to the insurance company at step 515. In this case, the insurance company may perform its own safety evaluation of the data and grant discounts based on the evaluation outcomes at step 519. The insurance company or the insured company may also hire a third party service to perform the evaluation.
  • [0091]
    In deciding to alter the terms of the insurance policy, the insurance company, or the third party evaluator, may compare the safety performance, as determined from the sensor data, of the insured company to an industry baseline. If the safety performance of the insured company is better than the industry baseline, the insurance company then alters the terms of the policy favorably.
  • [0092]
    In another scenario, the safety performance of the insured company is compared to its previous performance. For example, if the safety performance of the company improves over its past performance, then the insurance company may award discounts in the premium.
  • [0093]
    This safety evaluation and feedback system may operate continuously or at certain intervals. The process may repeat itself and lead to new adjustments in insurance policy terms and new feedback may be provided to the employees and the company. A sensor enhanced evaluation system is advantageous because it allows safety improvements at the insured company to be reflected in the policy on a more immediate time basis.
  • [0094]
    FIG. 6 shows exemplary insurance policy terms that can be adjusted in the present safety evaluation system. Insurance policy 600 is characterized by terms 601-617. In response to an safety evaluation of an insured entity, some of the terms 601-617 of the insurance policy are adjusted to reflect the safety evaluation. For example, a favorable safety evaluation may lead to a decrease in premium 601 and deductible amount 602. An unfavorable safety evaluation may lead to an increase in premium 601. The deductible credit 603, loss limit 604, excess loss premium factors 605, retrospective rating plans and factors 606, experience rating plan modifications 607, schedule rating plan credits or debits 608, dividend plan types 609, dividend plan retention factors 610, expected dividend plan payouts 611, amount of rate deviation 612, service cost expectations 613, start and end dates 614, coverage description 615, services offered 616, entity ID 617, and other policy terms may be altered in a similar manner.

Claims (21)

1. A safety evaluation system comprising:
a plurality of sensors configured to monitor actions performed by employees of an insured entity;
a computerized safety evaluation processor configured to:
collect data from the plurality of sensors;
analyze the collected data;
output a safety evaluation related to the performed actions based at least in part on the analysis;
an output device configured to provide feedback to the employees that is as least in part based on the outputted safety evaluation; and
a communications processor for communicating at least one of the collected data and the safety evaluation to a server operated by an insurance company.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the communications processor is configured for communicating the safety evaluation from the computerized safety evaluation processor to the output device.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the output device provides real-time feedback to the employees, and wherein the feedback comprises at least one of a visual, audio, or tactile stimulus.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the plurality of sensors are worn by at least one of the employees, and wherein the sensors output data indicative of the lifting behavior of a respective wearer.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the plurality of sensors comprise sensors coupled to articles of personal protective equipment, and wherein the sensors are configured to log the number of times a person fails to properly use the articles of personal protective equipment.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein the outputted safety evaluation is unfavorable when the logged number of times is over a predetermined threshold.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the insurance company provides workers compensation insurance coverage for the entity.
8. A method of evaluating employee safety, the method comprising:
monitoring by a plurality of sensors actions performed by employees of an insured entity;
collecting by a computerized safety evaluation processor data from the plurality of sensors;
analyzing by the computerized safety evaluation processor the collected data;
outputting by the computerized safety evaluation processor a safety evaluation related to the performed actions based at least in part on the analysis;
providing by an output device feedback to the employees that is as least in part based on the outputted safety evaluation; and
communicating by a communications processor at least one of the collected data and the safety evaluation to a server operated by an insurance company providing the entity workers' compensation insurance.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the communications processor is configured for communicating the safety evaluation from the computerized safety evaluation processor to the output device.
10. The method of claim 8, wherein providing feedback comprises providing feedback in real-time to the employees, and wherein the feedback comprises at least one of a visual, audio, or tactile stimulus.
11. The method of claim 8, wherein the plurality of sensors are worn by at least one of the employees, and wherein the sensors output data indicative of the lifting behavior of a respective wearer.
12. The method of claim 8, wherein the plurality of sensors comprise sensors coupled to articles of personal protective equipment, and wherein the sensors are configured to log the number of times a person fails to properly use the articles of personal protective equipment.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the outputted safety evaluation is unfavorable when the logged number of times is over a predetermined threshold.
14. A safety evaluation system comprising:
a plurality of sensors configured to monitor the lifting behavior of employees of an insured entity;
a computerized safety evaluation processor configured to:
collect data from the plurality of sensors;
analyze the collected data to determine the lifting behavior;
output a safety evaluation related to the lifting behavior based at least in part on the analysis;
an output device configured to provide feedback to the employees that is as least in part based on the outputted safety evaluation; and
a communications processor for communicating at least one of the collected data and the safety evaluation to a server operated by an insurance company providing the entity workers' compensation insurance.
15. The safety evaluation system of claim 14, wherein the plurality of sensors are configured to monitor employee posture during lifting.
16. The safety evaluation system of claim 14, wherein the plurality of sensors are configured to monitor employee body rotation during lifting.
17. The safety evaluation system of claim 14, wherein the plurality of sensors comprise pressure sensors for measuring distribution of an employee's weight during lifting.
18. The safety evaluation system of claim 14, comprising a portable computing device configured for wirelessly receiving data output by the sensors for an individual employee and for wirelessly transmitting data indicative of the received data to the computerized safety evaluation processor.
19. The safety evaluation system of claim 18, wherein the portable computing device comprises one of a personal digital assistant, a cellular phone, and a smart phone.
20. The safety evaluation system of claim 18, wherein the portable computing device comprises a BLUETOOTH transceiver for receiving the data output by the sensors and at least one of a WIFI transceiver and a cellular transceiver for transmitting the data indicative of the received data to the computerized safety evaluation processor.
21. The safety evaluation system of claim 18, wherein the portable computing device comprises the output device.
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US20150317745A1 (en) * 2011-09-02 2015-11-05 The Travelers Indemnity Company Systems and methods for insurance product pricing and safety program management
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