US20100311963A1 - Crosslinked-hyaluronic acid in emulsion - Google Patents

Crosslinked-hyaluronic acid in emulsion Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20100311963A1
US20100311963A1 US12808737 US80873708A US2010311963A1 US 20100311963 A1 US20100311963 A1 US 20100311963A1 US 12808737 US12808737 US 12808737 US 80873708 A US80873708 A US 80873708A US 2010311963 A1 US2010311963 A1 US 2010311963A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
method
hyaluronic acid
microbeads
crosslinked
water
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US12808737
Inventor
Birgitte Moelholm Malle
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Novozymes Biopharma DK AS
Original Assignee
Novozymes Biopharma DK AS
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08BPOLYSACCHARIDES; DERIVATIVES THEREOF
    • C08B37/00Preparation of polysaccharides not provided for in groups C08B1/00 - C08B35/00; Derivatives thereof
    • C08B37/006Heteroglycans, i.e. polysaccharides having more than one sugar residue in the main chain in either alternating or less regular sequence; Gellans; Succinoglycans; Arabinogalactans; Tragacanth or gum tragacanth or traganth from Astragalus; Gum Karaya from Sterculia urens; Gum Ghatti from Anogeissus latifolia; Derivatives thereof
    • C08B37/0063Glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides, e.g. keratan sulfate; Derivatives thereof, e.g. fucoidan
    • C08B37/0072Hyaluronic acid, i.e. HA or hyaluronan; Derivatives thereof, e.g. crosslinked hyaluronic acid (hylan) or hyaluronates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/0241Containing particulates characterized by their shape and/or structure
    • A61K8/025Explicitly spheroidal or spherical shape
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/30Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds
    • A61K8/33Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds containing oxygen
    • A61K8/37Esters of carboxylic acids
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/30Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds
    • A61K8/33Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds containing oxygen
    • A61K8/37Esters of carboxylic acids
    • A61K8/375Esters of carboxylic acids the alcohol moiety containing more than one hydroxy group
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/30Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic compounds
    • A61K8/60Sugars; Derivatives thereof
    • A61K8/608Derivatives containing from 2 to 10 oxyalkylene groups
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/72Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds
    • A61K8/73Polysaccharides
    • A61K8/735Mucopolysaccharides, e.g. hyaluronic acid; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/72Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds
    • A61K8/84Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions otherwise than those involving only carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • A61K8/89Polysiloxanes
    • A61K8/891Polysiloxanes saturated, e.g. dimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, C24-C28 methicone or stearyl dimethicone
    • A61K8/894Polysiloxanes saturated, e.g. dimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, C24-C28 methicone or stearyl dimethicone modified by a polyoxyalkylene group, e.g. cetyl dimethicone copolyol
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q19/00Preparations for care of the skin
    • A61Q19/08Anti-ageing preparations
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G
    • C08J3/00Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
    • C08J3/02Making solutions, dispersions or lattices by other methods than by solution, emulsion or suspension polymerisation techniques
    • C08J3/03Making solutions, dispersions or lattices by other methods than by solution, emulsion or suspension polymerisation techniques in aqueous media
    • C08J3/07Making solutions, dispersions or lattices by other methods than by solution, emulsion or suspension polymerisation techniques in aqueous media from polymer solutions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G
    • C08J3/00Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
    • C08J3/24Crosslinking, e.g. vulcanising, of macromolecules
    • C08J3/26Crosslinking, e.g. vulcanising, of macromolecules of latex
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08LCOMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    • C08L5/00Compositions of polysaccharides or of their derivatives not provided for in groups C08L1/00 or C08L3/00
    • C08L5/08Chitin; Chondroitin sulfate; Hyaluronic acid; Derivatives thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08JWORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G
    • C08J2305/00Characterised by the use of polysaccharides or of their derivatives not provided for in groups C08J2301/00 or C08J2303/00
    • C08J2305/08Chitin; Chondroitin sulfate; Hyaluronic acid; Derivatives thereof
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]

Abstract

The present invention relates to methods of producing crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads, as well as the produced microbeads, said method comprising the steps of: (a) mixing an aqueous alkaline solution comprising hyaluronic acid, or a salt thereof, with a solution comprising a crosslinking agent; (b) forming microdroplets having a desired size from the mixed solution of step (a) in an organic or oil phase to form a water in organic or water in oil (W/O) emulsion; (c) continuously stirring the W/O emulsion, whereby the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place to provide crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads; and (d) purifying the crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to methods of producing crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads, as well as the produced microbeads, said method comprising the steps of:
  • (a) mixing an aqueous alkaline solution comprising hyaluronic acid, or a salt thereof, with a solution comprising a crosslinking agent;
  • (b) forming microdroplets having a desired size from the mixed solution of step (a) in an organic or oil phase to form a water in organic or water in oil (W/O) emulsion;
  • (c) continuously stirring the W/O emulsion, whereby the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place to provide crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads; and
  • (d) purifying the crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of modified hyaluronic acid (HA), in particular crosslinked HA in emulsion, for use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
  • Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural and linear carbohydrate polymer belonging to the class of the non-sulfated glycosaminoglycans. It is composed of beta-1,3-N-acetyl glucosamine and beta-1,4-glucuronic acid repeating disaccharide units with a molecular weight (MW) up to 6 MDa. HA is present in hyaline cartilage, synovial joint fluid, and skin tissue, both dermis and epidermis. HA may be extracted from natural tissues including the connective tissue of vertebrates, from the human umbilical cord and from cocks' combs. However, it is preferred today to prepare it by microbiological methods to minimize the potential risk of transferring infectious agents, and to increase product uniformity, quality and availability (WO 03/0175902, Novozymes).
  • Numerous roles of HA in the body have been identified. It plays an important role in the biological organism, as a mechanical support for the cells of many tissues, such as the skin, tendons, muscles and cartilage. HA is involved in key biological processes, such as the moistening of tissues, and lubrication. It is also suspected of having a role in numerous physiological functions, such as adhesion, development, cell motility, cancer, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Due to the unique physical and biological properties of HA (including viscoelasticity, biocompatibility, biodegradability), HA is employed in a wide range of current and developing applications within ophthalmology, rheumatology, drug delivery, wound healing and tissue engineering. The use of HA in some of these applications is limited by the fact that HA is soluble in water at room temperature, i.e. about 20° C., it is rapidly degraded by hyaluronidase in the body, and it is difficult to process into biomaterials. Crosslinking of HA has therefore been introduced in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of HA and its in vivo residence time.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 4,582,865 (Biomatrix Inc.) describes the preparation of crosslinked gels of HA, alone or mixed with other hydrophilic polymers, using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinking agent. The preparation of a crosslinked HA or salt thereof using a polyfunctional epoxy compound is disclosed in EP 0 161 887 B1. Other bi- or poly-functional reagents that have been employed to crosslink HA through covalent linkages include formaldehyde (U.S. Pat. No. 4,713,448, Biomatrix Inc.), polyaziridine (WO 03/089476 A1, Genzyme Corp.), L-aminoacids or L-aminoesters (WO 2004/067575, Biosphere S.P.A.). Carbodiimides have also been reported for the crosslinking of HA (U.S. Pat. No. 5,017,229, Genzyme Corp.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,013,679, Anika Research, Inc). Total or partial crosslinked esters of HA with an aliphatic alcohol, and salts of such partial esters with inorganic or organic bases, are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,957,744. Crosslinking of HA chains with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (“EDAC”) and adipic acid dihydrazide in a water/acetone mixture was disclosed in U.S. 2006/0040892 (University of North Texas). WO 2006/56204 (Novozymes A/S) also discloses methods for the preparation of crosslinked gels of HA using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinking agent.
  • WO 2008/100044 was published in the priority year of the present application and describes a method of preparing hyaluronic hydrogel nanoparticles by crosslinking hyaluronic acid, the method comprising mixing i) an oil phase containing a surfactant dissolved therein with ii) a water phase, containing hyaluronic acid and a water-soluble crosslinker dissolved in an aqueous basic solution where divinylsulfone is not mentioned, so as to a form a w/o emulsion, and crosslinking the hyaluronic acid in the w/o emulsion, the oil phase comprising dodecane, heptane or cetylethylhexanoate.
  • EP 0 830 416 (equivalent of U.S. Pat. No. 6,214,331) describes the preparation of a crosslinked water-soluble polymer particle preparation wherein the particles are less than 212 μm in diameter and wherein at least 80% of the particles are spherical, obtainable by adding an aqueous polymer solution, comprising a water-soluble polymer selected from hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, celluloses, chitin, chitosan, agarose, carrageenans, curdlan, dextrans, emulsan, gellan, xanthans, poly(ethyleneoxide), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone), proteins, glycoproteins, peptidoglycans, proteoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, or combinations thereof, and an aqueous medium, to an oil base containing a water in oil emulsifying agent, agitating the mixture to form an emulsion containing polymer droplets, and crosslinking the polymer droplets in situ by a crosslinking agent resulting in the formation of crosslinked polymer particles. For the production of hyaluronic acid microspheres the crosslinking agent is added directly to an emulsion of aqueous hyaluronic acid in toluene. The crosslinking agent is first deactivated by adjusting the pH of the aqueous solution to pH 11 and then activated by lowering the pH to 7 to 8. It is preferred to use toluene, o-xylene or isooctane as oil phase. The weight ratio of aqueous phase to oil phase is about 1 to 1.
  • Nurettin Sahiner and Xinqiao Jai (Turk J Chem, 32 (2008), 397-409) describe the preparation of hyaluronic acid based submicron hydrogel particles using isooctane as oil phase. For preparing the emulsion 0.54 ml of aqueous hyaluronic acid solution was added to 15 ml of isooctane, resulting in a weight ratio of aqueous phase to oil phase is higher then 10 to 1.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is clear from the above, that several crosslinking agents suitable for preparing crosslinked HA-gels are known. However, it is still of commercial interest to provide new formulations of HA that are particularly suitable for various application. For instance, new methods of providing gel-like crosslinked HA microbeads of desired size, with cross-sections ranging from nano- to micrometers, are of commercial interest. Such microbeads of crosslinked HA may be used for any number of applications, such as, as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical drugs, as bioactives in themselves, as constituents in compositions and in a whole range of biomedical applications.
  • Accordingly, in a first aspect the invention provides a method of producing crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads, said method comprising the steps of:
  • (a) mixing an aqueous alkaline solution comprising hyaluronic acid, or a salt thereof, with a solution comprising a crosslinking agent;
  • (b) forming microdroplets having a desired size from the mixed solution of step (a) in an organic or oil phase to form a water in organic or water in oil (W/O) emulsion;
  • (c) continuously stirring the W/O emulsion, whereby the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place to provide crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads; and
  • (d) purifying the crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads.
  • In a second aspect, the invention relates to a microbead comprising hyaluronic acid, or salt thereof, crosslinked with divinylsulfone; preferably made by the method of the first aspect.
  • In a third aspect, the invention relates to a composition comprising a microbead as defined in the second aspect, and an active ingredient, preferably the active ingredient is a pharmacologically active agent.
  • A fourth aspect of the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a microbead as defined in the second aspect, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, excipient or diluent.
  • A fifth aspect relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a microbead as defined in the second aspect as a vehicle, together with a pharmacologically active agent, preferably encapsulated as a dispersion or solution in the microbead.
  • In a sixth aspect, the invention relates to a sanitary, medical or surgical article comprising a microbead as defined in the second aspect or a composition as defined in any of the third, fourth, or fifth aspects, preferably the article is a diaper, a sanitary towel, a surgical sponge, a wound healing sponge, or a part comprised in a band aid or other wound dressing material.
  • An important aspect relates to a medicament capsule or microcapsule comprising a microbead as defined in the second aspect or a composition as defined in any of the third, fourth, or fifth aspects.
  • A number of aspects relate to uses of a microbead as defined in the second aspect or a composition as defined in any of the third, fourth, or fifth aspects, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of osteoarthritis, cancer, the manufacture of a medicament for an ophtalmological treatment, the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a wound, the manufacture of a medicament for angiogenesis, the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of hair loss or baldness, the manufacture of a moisturizer, the manufacture of dermal fillers, drug delivery systems/vehicles or tissue augmentation devices.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a photomicrograph of isolated crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel particles showing the spherical profile of the particle with a diameter 22 micrometer.
  • FIG. 2 shows a photomicrograph of the emulsion including a pH indicator as coloring agent. The picture shows the contribution of small particles (1-5 micrometer) surrounded by the larger particles.
  • FIG. 3 shows a photomicrograph of isolated crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel particles (80 x) showing gel particles of maximum 1 mm in diameter.
  • FIG. 4 shows a photomicrograph of isolated microbead particles showing the spherical profile of the particles with a diameter of various sizes, in the range of 500-1000 micrometer.
  • FIG. 5 shows a photomicrograph of particles after washing procedure.
  • DEFINITIONS
  • The term “hyaluronic acid” is used in literature to mean acidic polysaccharides with different molecular weights constituted by residues of D-glucuronic and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine acids, which occur naturally in cell surfaces, in the basic extracellular substances of the connective tissue of vertebrates, in the synovial fluid of the joints, in the endobulbar fluid of the eye, in human umbilical cord tissue and in cocks' combs.
  • The term “hyaluronic acid” is in fact usually used as meaning a whole series of polysaccharides with alternating residues of D-glucuronic and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine acids with varying molecular weights or even the degraded fractions of the same, and it would therefore seem more correct to use the plural term of “hyaluronic acids”. The singular term will, however, be used all the same in this description; in addition, the abbreviation “HA” will frequently be used in place of this collective term.
  • “Hyaluronic acid” is defined herein as an unsulphated glycosaminoglycan composed of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetylglucosamine (GIcNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcUA) linked together by alternating beta-1,4 and beta-1,3 glycosidic bonds. Hyaluronic acid is also known as hyaluronan, hyaluronate, or HA. The terms hyaluronan and hyaluronic acid are used interchangeably herein.
  • Rooster combs are a significant commercial source for hyaluronan. Microorganisms are an alternative source. U.S. Pat. No. 4,801,539 discloses a fermentation method for preparing hyaluronic acid involving a strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus with reported yields of about 3.6 g of hyaluronic acid per liter. European Patent No. EP0694616 discloses fermentation processes using an improved strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus with reported yields of about 3.5 g of hyaluronic acid per liter. As disclosed in WO 03/054163 (Novozymes), which is incorporated herein in its entirety, hyaluronic acid or salts thereof may be recombinantly produced, e.g., in a Gram-positive Bacillus host.
  • Hyaluronan synthases have been described from vertebrates, bacterial pathogens, and algal viruses (DeAngelis, P. L., 1999, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 56: 670-682). WO 99/23227 discloses a Group I hyaluronate synthase from Streptococcus equisimilis. WO 99/51265 and WO 00/27437 describe a Group II hyaluronate synthase from Pasturella multocida. Ferretti et al. discloses the hyaluronan synthase operon of Streptococcus pyogenes, which is composed of three genes, hasA, hasB, and hasC, that encode hyaluronate synthase, UDP glucose dehydrogenase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, respectively (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98, 4658-4663, 2001). WO 99/51265 describes a nucleic acid segment having a coding region for a Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase.
  • Since the hyaluronan of a recombinant Bacillus cell is expressed directly to the culture medium, a simple process may be used to isolate the hyaluronan from the culture medium. First, the Bacillus cells and cellular debris are physically removed from the culture medium. The culture medium may be diluted first, if desired, to reduce the viscosity of the medium. Many methods are known to those skilled in the art for removing cells from culture medium, such as centrifugation or microfiltration. If desired, the remaining supernatant may then be filtered, such as by ultrafiltration, to concentrate and remove small molecule contaminants from the hyaluronan. Following removal of the cells and cellular debris, a simple precipitation of the hyaluronan from the medium is performed by known mechanisms. Salt, alcohol, or combinations of salt and alcohol may be used to precipitate the hyaluronan from the filtrate. Once reduced to a precipitate, the hyaluronan can be easily isolated from the solution by physical means. The hyaluronan may be dried or concentrated from the filtrate solution by using evaporative techniques known to the art, such as lyophilization or spraydrying.
  • The term “microbead” is used herein interchangeably with microdrop, microdroplet, microparticle, microsphere, nanobead, nanodrop, nanodroplet, nanoparticle, nanosphere etc. A typical microbead is approximately spherical and has an number average cross-section or diameter in the range of between 1 nanometer to 1 millimeter. Though, usually the microbeads of the present invention will be made with a desired size in a much more narrow range, i.e., they will be fairly uniform. The microbeads preferably have a diameter in the range of about 100 -1,000 nanometer; or in the range of 1,000 nanometer to 1,000 micrometer. The size-distribution of the microbeads will be low and the polydispersibility narrow.
  • Host Cells
  • A preferred embodiment relates to the method of the first aspect, wherein the hyaluronic acid or salt thereof is recombinantly produced, preferably by a Gram-positive bacterium or host cell, more preferably by a bacterium of the genus Bacillus.
  • The host cell may be any Bacillus cell suitable for recombinant production of hyaluronic acid. The Bacillus host cell may be a wild-type Bacillus cell or a mutant thereof. Bacillus cells useful in the practice of the present invention include, but are not limited to, Bacillus agaraderhens, Bacillus alkalophilus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lautus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus thuringiensis cells. Mutant Bacillus subtilis cells particularly adapted for recombinant expression are described in WO 98/22598. Non-encapsulating Bacillus cells are particularly useful in the present invention.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the Bacillus host cell is a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus stearothermophilus or Bacillus subtilis cell. In a more preferred embodiment, the Bacillus cell is a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens cell. In another more preferred embodiment, the Bacillus cell is a Bacillus clausii cell. In another more preferred embodiment, the Bacillus cell is a Bacillus lentus cell. In another more preferred embodiment, the Bacillus cell is a Bacillus licheniformis cell. In another more preferred embodiment, the Bacillus cell is a Bacillus subtilis cell. In a most preferred embodiment, the Bacillus host cell is Bacillus subtilis A164Δ5 (see U.S. Pat. No. 5,891,701) or Bacillus subtilis 168Δ4.
  • Molecular Weight
  • The content of hyaluronic acid may be determined according to the modified carbazole method (Bitter and Muir, 1962, Anal Biochem. 4: 330-334). Moreover, the number average molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid may be determined using standard methods in the art, such as those described by Ueno et al., 1988, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36, 4971-4975; Wyatt, 1993, Anal. Chim. Acta 272: 1-40; and Wyatt Technologies, 1999, “Light Scattering University DAWN Course Manual” and “DAWN EOS Manual” Wyatt Technology Corporation, Santa Barbara, Calif.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the hyaluronic acid, or salt thereof, of the present invention has a molecular weight of about 10,000 to about 10,000,000 Da. In a more preferred embodiment it has a molecular weight of about 25,000 to about 5,000,000 Da. In a most preferred embodiment, the hyaluronic acid has a molecular weight of about 50,000 to about 3,000,000 Da.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the hyaluronic acid or salt thereof has a molecular weight in the range of between 300,000 and 3,000,000; preferably in the range of between 400,000 and 2,500,000; more preferably in the range of between 500,000 and 2,000,000; and most preferably in the range of between 600,000 and 1,800,000.
  • In yet another preferred embodiment, the hyaluronic acid or salt thereof has a low number average molecular weight in the range of between 10,000 and 800,000 Da; preferably in the range of between 20,000 and 600,000 Da; more preferably in the range of between 30,000 and 500,000 Da; even more preferably in the range of between 40,000 and 400,000 Da; and most preferably in the range of between 50,000 and 300,000 Da.
  • Salts and Crosslinked HA
  • A preferred embodiment relates to a method of the first aspect, which comprises an inorganic salt of hyaluronic acid, preferably sodium hyaluronate, potassium hyaluronate, ammonium hyaluronate, calcium hyaluronate, magnesium hyaluronate, zinc hyaluronate, or cobalt hyaluronate.
  • Other Ingredients
  • In a preferred embodiment, the product produced by the method of the invention may also comprise other ingredients, preferably one or more active ingredient, preferably one or more pharmacologically active substance, and also preferably a water-soluble excipient, such as lactose or a non-biologically derived sugar.
  • Non-limiting examples of an active ingredient or the one or more pharmacologically active substance(s) which may be used in the present invention include vitamin(s), anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, bacteriostatics, general anaesthetic drugs, such as, lidocaine, morphine etc. as well as protein and/or peptide drugs, such as, human growth hormone, bovine growth hormone, porcine growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone/peptide, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, erythropoietin, bone morphogenic protein, interferon or derivative thereof, insulin or derivative thereof, atriopeptin-Ill, monoclonal antibody, tumor necrosis factor, macrophage activating factor, interleukin, tumor degenerating factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor, tissue plasminogen activator, factor IIV, factor IIIV, and urokinase.
  • A water-soluble excipient may be included for the purpose of stabilizing the active ingredient(s), such excipient may include a protein, e.g., albumin or gelatin; an amino acid, such as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, arginine, lysine and a salt thereof; carbohydrate such as glucose, lactose, xylose, galactose, fructose, maltose, saccharose, dextran, mannitol, sorbitol, trehalose and chondroitin sulphate; an inorganic salt such as phosphate; a surfactant such as TWEEN® (ICI), poly ethylene glycol, and a mixture thereof. The excipient or stabilizer may be used in an amount ranging from 0.001 to 99% by weight of the product.
  • Several aspects of the invention relate to various compositions and pharmaceuticals comprising, among other constituents, an effective amount of the crosslinked HA product, and an active ingredient, preferably the active ingredient is a pharmacologically active agent; a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, excipient or diluent, preferably a water-soluble excipient, and most preferably lactose.
  • In addition, aspects of the invention relate to articles comprising a product as defined in the first aspect or a composition as defined in the aspects and embodiments above, e.g., a sanitary article, a medical or surgical article. In a final aspect the invention relates to a medicament capsule or microcapsule comprising a product as defined in the first aspect or a composition as defined in other aspects and embodiments of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The first aspect of the invention relates to a method of producing crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads, said method comprising the steps of:
  • (a) mixing an aqueous alkaline solution comprising hyaluronic acid, or a salt thereof, with a solution comprising a crosslinking agent;
  • (b) forming microdroplets having a desired size from the mixed solution of step (a) in an organic or oil phase to form a water in organic or water in oil (W/O) emulsion;
  • (c) continuously stirring the W/O emulsion, whereby the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place to provide crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads; and
  • (d) purifying the crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads.
  • It has previously been described how to produce hyaluronic acid recombinantly in a Bacillus host cell, see WO 2003/054163, Novozymes NS, which is incorporated herein in its entirety.
  • Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to the method of the first aspect, wherein the hyaluronic acid, or salt thereof, is recombinantly produced in a Bacillus host cell.
  • Various molecular weight fractions of hyaluronic acid have been described as advantageous for specific purposes.
  • A preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the hyaluronic acid, or salt thereof, has an number average molecular weight of between 100 and 3,000 kDa, preferably between 500 and 2,000 kDa, and most preferably between 700 and 1,800 kDa.
  • The initical concentration of hyaluronic acid, or a salt thereof, in the method of the invention, influences the properties of the resulting crosslinked microbeads. Therefore, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the alkaline solution comprises dissolved hyaluronic acid, or salt thereof, in a concentration of between 0.1%-40% (w/v).
  • The pH value during the crosslinking reaction also influences the outcome, so in a preferred embodiment the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the alkaline solution comprises dissolved sodium hydroxide in a concentration of between 0.001-2.0 M.
  • It is also noteworthy that the concentration of the crosslinking agent has a profound impact on the resulting microbeads.
  • Consequently, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the crosslinking agent is divinylsulfone (DVS); preferably DVS is comprised in the mixed solution of step (a) in a weight ratio of between 1:1 and 100:1 of HA/DVS (dry weight), preferably between 2:1 and 50:1 of HA/DVS (dry weight).
  • Other crosslinking agents are also envisioned as being suitable for the methods of the instant invention, such as, crosslinking agents based on bisepoxide crosslinking technology: GDE=glycerol diglycidyl ether and BDE: 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether.
  • Crosslinking agents suitable for the methods of the instant invention are for example poly functional (>=2) OH-reactive compounds. Examples for suitable crosslinking agents are divinylsulfone (DVS) or crosslinking agents based on bisepoxide crosslinking technology, for example GDE=glycerol diglycidyl ether or BDE: 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The crosslinking agent is preferably selected from divinylsulfone, glycerol diglycidyl ether or 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The most preferred crosslinking agent of the invention is divinylsulfone which is preferably used in the weight ratio mentioned above.
  • The inventors found that an initial period of stirring during and/or immediately after mixing the solution comprising the crosslinking agent and the HA-solution was desirable to achieve satisfactory gelling.
  • Accordingly, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place at a temperature in the range of 5° C.-100° C., preferably in the range of 15° C.-50° C., more preferably in the range of 20° C.-30° C.
  • In another preferred embodiment of the method of the first aspect, the stirring in step (c) is continued for a period of between 1-180 minutes.
  • The present inventors determined that a heating step was beneficial after mixing the solutions.
  • Accordingly, a preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method of the first aspect, wherein the mixed solution is heated to a temperature in the range of 20° C.-100° C., preferably in the range of 25° C.-80° C., more preferably in the range of 30° C.-60° C., and most preferably in the range of 35° C.-55° C., and wherein the temperature is maintained in this range for a period of at least 5 minutes, preferably at least 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, or most preferably at least 180 minutes after mixing the solutions; preferably without stirring.
  • It is advantageous to leave the reaction mixture at room temperature for a brief period after the crosslinking reaction has taken place, but still with continuous stirring.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the method of the first aspect, the reaction mixture is maintained after the reaction has taken place for a period of at least 5 minutes, preferably at least 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, or most preferably at least 180 minutes, at a temperature in the range of 0° C.-40° C., preferably in the range of 10° C.-30° C.
  • It might by advantageous when the microdroplets of step (b) have a number average diameter in the range of from about 1 nanometre to 1 millimetre. The maximum of the particle size distribution of the microdroplets of step (b) is preferably in the range of from 0.1 to 100 pm, more preferably from 0.5 to 10 μm and most preferably from 1 to 2 μm. The size of the droplets can be adjusted by the choice of emulsifier used and the intensity of stirring. The combination of emulsifier used and intensity of stirring necessary to obtain droplets with the desired size can be determined by simple test series. The size of the droplets or microbeads can be determined with an Accusizer (Accusizer 780 Optical Particle Sizer, PSS NICOMP, Santa Barbara, Calif., USA with Accusizer 780AD CW788-Nicomp software, V 1.68 (2000)).
  • In a preferred aspect, the invention relates to methods of the first aspect, wherein the microdroplets of step (b) have a number average diameter in the range of about 1 nanometer to 1 millimeter. It is also preferred that the crosslinked microbead of the second aspect has a number average diameter in the range of about 1 nanometer to 1 millimeter.
  • It might be advantageous to obtain a dispersion in step (c) that comprises almost none unreacted crosslinking agent. Preferably the dispersion more preferably the microbeads comprise less than 10 ppm by weight (wppm), more preferably less than 5 wppm. The concentration of free crosslinking agent in the dispersion especially needs to be low if the dispersion is directly used in pharmaceutical or biomedical application/device compositions because the unreacted crosslinking agent might be a toxicological threat. It is therefore preferred to last the reaction of step (c) till a dispersion is obtained comprising the unreacted crosslinking agent in the concentration mentioned above.
  • Compounds from at least one of the following groups can be employed as nonionic emulsifiers or surfactants: addition products of from 2 to 100 mol of ethylene oxide and/or 0 to 5 mol of propylene oxide on linear fatty alcohols having 8 to 22 C atoms, on fatty acids having 12 to 22 C atoms and on alkylphenols having 8 to 15 C atoms in the alkyl group, C12/18-fatty acid mono- and diesters of addition products of from 1 to 100 mol of ethylene oxide on glycerol, glycerol mono- and diesters and sorbitan mono- and diesters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and ethylene oxide addition products thereof, alkyl mono- and oligoglycosides having 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and ethylene oxide addition products thereof, addition products of from 2 to 200 mol of ethylene oxide on castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil, partial esters based on linear, branched, unsaturated or saturated C6-C22-fatty acids, ricinoleic acid and 12-hydroxystearic acid and glycerol, polyglycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol), alkyl glucosides (e.g. methyl glucoside, butyl glucoside, lauryl glucoside) and polyglucosides (e.g. cellulose), mono-, di- and trialkyl phosphates and mono-, di- and/or tri-PEG-alkyl phosphates and salts thereof, polysiloxane/polyether copolymers (Dimethicone Copolyols), such as e.g. PEG/PPG-20/6 Dimethicone, PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone, Bis-PEG/PPG-20/20 Dimethicone, PEG-12 or PEG-14 Dimethicone, PEG/PPG-14/4 or 4/12 or 20/20 or 18/18 or 17/18 or 15/15, polysiloxane/polyalkyl polyether copolymers and corresponding derivatives, such as e.g. Lauryl or Cetyl Dimethicone Copolyols, in particular Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone (ABIL® EM 90 (Evonik Degussa)), mixed esters of pentaerythritol, fatty acids, citric acid and fatty alcohol according to DE 11 65 574 and/or mixed esters of fatty acids having 6 to 22 carbon atoms, methylglucose and polyols, such as e.g. glycerol or polyglycerol, citric acid esters, such as e.g. Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, Glyceryl Oleate Citrate and Dilauryl Citrate.
  • Preferred emulsifiers used in the present invention are selected from those having a HLB-value of from 3 to 9, preferably 4 to 6 and more preferably about 5. Preferred emulsifiers are selected from polyglyceryl-4-diisostearat/polyhydroxysterat/sebacat (ISOLAN® GPS), PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone, (ABIL® EM 90), Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate (ISOLAN® GI 34), Polyglyceryl-3 Oleate (ISOLAN® GO 33), Methylglucose Isostearate (ISOLAN® IS), Diisostearoyl Polyglyceryl-3 Dimer Dilinoleate (ISOLAN® PDI), Glyceryl Oleate (TEGIN® O V), Sorbitan Laurate (TEGO® SML), Sorbitan Oleate (TEGO® SMO V) and Sorbitan Stearate (TEGO® SMS). These preferred emulsifiers are available from Evonik Goldschmidt GmbH.
  • Anionic emulsifiers or surfactants can contain groups which confer solubility in water, such as e.g. a carboxylate, sulphate, sulphonate or phosphate group and a lipophilic radical. Anionic surfactants which are tolerated by skin are known in large numbers to the person skilled in the art and are commercially obtainable. In this context these can be alkyl sulphates or alkyl phosphates in the form of their alkali metal, ammonium or alkanolammonium salts, alkyl ether-sulphates, alkyl ether-carboxylates, acyl sarcosinates and sulphosuccinates and acyl glutamates in the form of their alkali metal or ammonium salts.
  • Cationic emulsifiers and surfactants can also be added. Quaternary ammonium compounds, in particular those provided with at least one linear and/or branched, saturated or unsaturated alkyl chain having 8 to 22 C atoms, can be employed in particular as such, thus, for example, alkyltrimethylammonium halides, such as e.g. cetyltrimethylammonium chloride or bromide or behenyltrimethylammonium chloride, but also dialkyldimethylammonium halides, such as e.g. distearyldimethylammonium chloride.
  • Monoalkylamidoquats, such as e.g. palmitamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride, or corresponding dialkylamidoquats can furthermore be employed. Readily biodegradable quaternary ester compounds, which can be quaternized fatty acid esters based on mono-, di- or triethanolamine, can furthermore be employed. Alkylguanidinium salts can furthermore be admixed as cationic emulsifiers.
  • Typical examples of mild surfactants, i.e. surfactants which are particularly tolerated by skin, are fatty alcohol polyglycol ether-sulphates, monoglyceride sulphates, mono- and/or dialkyl sulphosuccinates, fatty acid isethionates, fatty acid sarcosinates, fatty acid taurides, fatty acid glutamates, ether-carboxylic acids, alkyl oligoglucosides, fatty acid glucamides, alkylamidobetaines and/or protein-fatty acid condensates, the latter for example based on wheat proteins.
  • It is furthermore possible to employ amphoteric surfactants, such as e.g. betaines, amphoacetates or amphopropionates, thus e.g. substances such as the N-alkyl-N, N-dimethylammonium glycinates, for example coco-alkyldimethylammonium glycinate, N-acylaminopropyl-N,N-dimethylammonium glycinates, for example coco-acylamimopropyldimethylammonium glycinate, and 2-alkyl-3-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxyethylimidazolines having in each case 8 to 18 C atoms in the alkyl or acyl group, and coco-acylaminoethylhydroxyethylcarboxymethyl glycinate.
  • Of the ampholytic surfactants, those surface-active compounds which contain, apart from a C8/18-alkyl or -acyl group, at least one free amino group and at least one -COOH or -SO3H group in the molecule and are capable of formation of inner salts can be employed. Examples of suitable ampholytic surfactants are N-alkylglycines, N-alkylpropionic acids, N-alkylaminobutyric acids, N-alkyliminodipropionic acids, N-hydroxyethyl-N-alkylamidopropylglycines, N-alkyltaurines, N-alkylsarcosines, 2-alkylaminopropionic acids and alkylaminoacetic acids having in each case about 8 to 18 C atoms in the alkyl group. Further examples of ampholytic surfactants are N-coco-alkylaminopropionate, coco-acylaminoethylaminopropionate and 012/18-acrylsarcosine.
  • Preferred emulsifiers or surfactants used for formulating the composition are identical to those used in the production of the microbeads.
  • Many types of buffers or acids, as are well known to the skilled person, have been envisioned as suitable for the swelling and neutralizing of the crosslinked microbeads of the invention. In a preferred embodiment the buffer comprises a buffer with a pH value in the range of 2.0-8.0, preferably in the range of 5.0-7.5.
  • Optimally, a suitable buffer is chosen with a pH value, which results in that the crosslinked microbeads have a pH value as close to neutral as possible. In a preferred embodiment, the buffer comprises a buffer with a pH value, which results in that the crosslinked microbeads have a pH value between 5.0 and 7.5.
  • It is preferred that the buffer in the method of the first aspect comprises a phosphate buffer and/or a saline buffer.
  • It is also preferred that the crosslinked microbeads are washed at least once with water, water and an acid, water and a phosphate buffer, water and a saline buffer, or water and a phosphate buffer and a saline buffer, with a pH value in the range of of 2.0-8.0, preferably in the range of 5.0-7.5.
  • The purifying step may comprise any separation technique known in the art, e.g. filtration, decantation, centrifugation and so on. It might be advantageous to combine one or more purifying steps with one or more neutralizing steps.
  • A preferred embodiment of the first aspect relates to the method, wherein the purifying step comprises dialyzing the crosslinked microbeads against de-ionized water using a dialysis membrane that allows free diffusion of molecules having a size less than 13,000 Daltons.
  • It is preferred to use standard emollients used in cosmetic or personal care formulations as oil phase. Such standard emollients are not hydrocarbons or aromatic hydrocarbons, especially not toluene, o-xylene, dodecane, heptane, isooctane or cetylethylhexanoate. Preferred emollients used in the present invention are selected from mono- or diesters of linear and/or branched mono- and/or dicarboxylic acids having 2 to 44 C atoms with linear and/or branched saturated or unsaturated alcohols having 1 to 22 C atoms, the esterification products of aliphatic difunctional alcohols having 2 to 36 C atoms with monofunctional aliphatic carboxylic acids having 1 to 22 C atoms, long-chain aryl acid esters, such as e.g. esters of benzoic acid with linear and/or branched C6-C22-alcohols, or also benzoic acid isostearyl ester, benzoic acid butyloctyl ester or benzoic acid octyldodecyl ester, carbonates, preferably linear C6-C22-fatty alcohol carbonates, Guerbet carbonates, e.g. dicaprylyl carbonate, diethylhexyl carbonate, longer-chain triglycerides, i.e. triple esters of glycerol with three acid molecules, at least one of which is longer-chain, triglycerides based on C6-C10-fatty acids, linear or branched fatty alcohols, such as oleyl alcohol or octyldodecanol, and fatty alcohol ethers, such as dialykl ether e. g. dicaprylyl ether, silicone oils and waxes, e.g. polydimethylsiloxanes, cyclomethylsiloxanes, and aryl- or alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted polymethylsiloxanes or cyclomethylsiloxanes, Guerbet alcohols based on fatty alcohols having 6 to 18, preferably 8 to 10 carbon atoms, esters of linear C6-C22 fatty acids with linear C6-C22-fatty alcohols, esters of branched C6-C13-carboxylic acids with linear C6-C22-fatty alcohols, esters of linear C6-C22-fatty acids with branched C8-C18-alcohols, in particular 2-ethylhexanol or isononanol, esters of branched C6-C13-carboxylic acids with branched alcohols, in particular 2-ethylhexanol or isononanol, esters of linear and/or branched fatty acids with polyhydric alcohols (such as e.g. propylene glycol, dimer diol or trimer triol) and/or Guerbet alcohols, liquid mono-/di-/triglyceride mixtures based on C6-C18-fatty acids, esters of C6-C22-fatty alcohols and/or Guerbet alcohols with aromatic carboxylic acids, plant oils, branched primary alcohols, substituted cyclohexanes, ring-opening products of epoxidized fatty acid esters with polyols and/or silicone oils or a mixture of two or more of these compounds. The emollient used is preferably not miscible with water without phase separation.
  • Monoesters which are suitable as emollients and oil components are e.g. the methyl esters and isopropyl esters of fatty acids having 12 to 22 C atoms, such as e.g. methyl laurate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl erucate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, isopropyl oleate. Other suitable monoesters are e.g. n-butyl stearate, n-hexyl laurate, n-decyl oleate, isooctyl stearate, isononyl palmitate, isononyl isononanoate, 2-ethylhexyl laurate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate, 2-ethylhexyl stearate, 2-hexyldecyl stearate, 2-octyldodecyl palmitate, oleyl oleate, oleyl erucate, erucyl oleate and esters which are obtainable from technical-grade aliphatic alcohol cuts and technical-grade aliphatic carboxylic acid mixtures, e.g. esters of unsaturated fatty alcohols having 12 to 22 C atoms and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having 12 to 22 C atoms, such as are accessible from animal and plant fats. However, naturally occurring monoester and wax ester mixtures such as are present e.g. in jojoba oil or in sperm oil are also suitable. Suitable dicarboxylic acid esters are e.g. di-n-butyl adipate, di-n-butyl sebacate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, di-(2-hexyldecyl) succinate, di-isotridecyl azelate. Suitable diol esters are e.g. ethylene glycol dioleate, ethylene glycol di-isotridecanoate, propylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexanoate), butanediol di-isostearate, butanediol di-caprylate/caprate and neopentyl glycol di-caprylate.
  • There may be mentioned here by way of example fatty acid triglycerides; as such, for example, natural plant oils, e.g. olive oil, sunflower oil, soya oil, groundnut oil, rapeseed oil, almond oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, castor oil, cacao butter, palm oil, but also the liquid contents of coconut oil or of palm kernel oil, as well as animal oils, such as e.g. shark-fish liver oil, cod liver oil, whale oil, beef tallow and butter-fat, waxes, such as beeswax, carnauba palm wax, spermaceti, lanolin and neat's foot oil, the liquid contents of beef tallow or also synthetic triglycerides of caprylic/capric acid mixtures, triglycerides from technical-grade oleic acid, triglycerides with isostearic acid, or from palmitic acid/oleic acid mixtures, can be employed as emollients (oil phase).
  • In another preferred embodiment of the first aspect, the organic or oil-phase comprises mineral oil or TEGOSOFT® M.
  • Preferably, the emulsifier is chosen from polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, sucrose fatty acid esters, sorbitan fatty acid esters, polysorbates, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, gelatin, lecithin, poly-oxyethylene castor oil derivatives, tocopherol, tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, tocopherol palmitate and tocopherol acetate, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene co-polymers, or their mixtures.
  • The microbeads of the invention give access to the compositions of the invention comprising these microbeads. The compositions of the invention may comprise at least one additional component chosen from the group of emollients, emulsifiers and surfactants, thickeners/viscosity regulators/stabilizers, UV light protection filters, antioxidants, hydrotropic agents (or polyols), solids and fillers, film-forming agents, insect repellents, preservatives, conditioning agents, perfumes, dyestuffs, biogenic active compounds, moisturizers and solvents. The additional components might be inside and/or outside the microbeads. Preferably the additional ingredients are present in the composition of the invention outside or within the microbeads.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the composition of the invention can be an emulsion, a suspension, a solution, a cream, an ointment, a paste, a gel, an oil, a powder, an aerosol, a stick or a spray.
  • The microbeads or the compositions of the invention may be used as a transdermal drug delivery system/vehicle. When applied topically the microbeads congregate in wrinkles and folds of the skin (results not shown).
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 Preparation of DVS Crosslinked Microparticles in Emulsion
  • This example illustrates the preparation of DVS-crosslinked microparticles.
  • Sodium hyaluronate (HA, 580 kDa, 1.90 g) was dissolved in aqueous NaOH (0.2 M, 37.5 ml) by vigorous stirring at room temperature for 3 hours until a homogenous solution was obtained. Sodium chloride (0.29 g) was added and mixed shortly.
  • Mineral oil (10.0 g) and ABIL® EM 90 surfactant (Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone, 1.0 g) were mixed by stirring.
  • Divinylsulfone (DVS, 320 microliter) was added to the aqueous alkaline HA-solution and mixed for 1 min. to obtain a homogeneous distribution in the aq. phase. The water phase was then added within 2 minutes to the oil phase with mechanical stirring at low speed. An emulsion was formed immediately and stirring was continued for 30 minutes at room temperature. The emulsion was left over night at room temperature.
  • The emulsion was neutralized to pH 7.0 by addition of aq. HCI (4 M, approx. 2.0 ml) and stirred for approx. 40 min.
  • Example 2 Preparation of DVS Crosslinked Microparticles in Emulsion Neutralized with use of pH Indicator
  • This example illustrates the preparation of DVS-crosslinked microparticles with neutralization using a pH indicator.
  • Sodium hyaluronate (HA, 580 kDa, 1.88 g) was dissolved in aqueous NaOH (0.2 M, 37.5 ml) by vigorous stirring at room temperature for 2 hours until a homogenous solution was obtained. Bromothymol blue pH indicator (equivalent range pH 6.6-6.8) was added (15 drops, blue color in solution). Sodium chloride (0.25 g) was added and mixed shortly.
  • Mineral oil (10.0 g) and ABIL® EM 90 surfactant (Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone, 1.0 g) were mixed by stirring.
  • Divinylsulfone (DVS, 320 microliter) was added to the aqueous alkaline HA-solution and mixed very vigorously for 30 to 60 seconds to obtain a homogeneous distribution in the aq. phase. The water phase was then added within 30 sec. to the oil phase with mechanical stirring at 400 RPM. An emulsion was formed immediately and stirring was continued for 30min. at room temperature. Neutralization was performed by addition of aq. HCI (4 M, 1.6 ml) and the emulsion was left at room temperature with magnetic stirring for 4 hours. The pH indicator present in the gel particles changed color to green. pH in the emulsion was measured by pH stick to 3-4. The emulsion was left in fridge over night. The pH indicator present in the gel particles had changed to yellow.
  • Example 3 Phase Separation of Emulsion, Swelling and Isolation of Microparticles
  • This example illustrates the breakage of the W/O emulsion followed by phase separation and dialysis. The crosslinked HA microparticles were separated from the W/O emulsion by organic solvent extraction.
  • The W/O emulsion (5 g) and a mixture of n-butanol/chloroform (1/1 v%, 4.5 ml) was mixed vigorously by whirl mixing in a test tube at room temperature. Extra mQ-water (20 ml) was added to obtain phase separation. The test tube was centrifuged and three phases were obtained with the bottom phase being the organic phase, middle phase of gel particles and upper phase of clear aqueous solution. The top and bottom phases were discarded and the middle phase of gel particles was transferred into a dialysis tube (MWCO 12-14,000, Diameter 29 mm, Vol/Length 6.4 ml/cm).
  • The sample was dialyzed overnight at room temperature in MilliQ®-water. The dialysate was changed two more times and left overnight. The resulting gel was thick and viscous and had swelled to a volume of approximately 50 ml, which correlated to 0.004 g HA/cm3.
  • Example 4 Preparation of DVS Crosslinked Microparticles in Emulsion and Separation of Microparticles
  • This example illustrates the preparation of DVS-crosslinked HA microparticles.
  • Sodium hyaluronate (HA, 580 kDa, 1.89 g) was dissolved in aqueous NaOH (0.2 M, 37.5 ml). Sodium chloride (0.25 g) was added and the solution was stirred by magnetic stirring for 1 hour at room temperature until a homogeneous solution was obtained.
  • TEGOSOFT® M (10.0 g) oil and ABIL® EM 90 surfactant (Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone, 1.0 g) were mixed by stirring.
  • Divinylsulfone (DVS, 320 microliter) was added to the aqueous alkaline HA-solution and mixed for 1 min. to obtain a homogenoues distribution in the aq. phase. The water phase was then added within 2 min. to the oil phase with mechanical stirring (300 RPM). An emulsion was formed immediately and stirring was continued for 30 min. at room temperature.
  • The emulsion was neutralized by addition of stociometric amounts of HCI (4 M, 1.8 ml) and stirred for approx. 40 min. The emulsion was broken by addition of a n-butanol/chloroform mixture (1:1 v%, 90 ml) and extra MilliQ®-water (100 ml) followed by magnetic stirring. The upper phase was separated in a volume of approx. 175 ml. The organic phase was mixed with mQ-water (30 ml) for a final washing. The combined water/gel phase (205 ml) were transferred to a dialysis tube (MWCO 12-14,000, Diameter 29 mm, Vol/Length 6.4 ml/cm) and dialysed against MilliQ®-water overnight at room temperature. The conductivity were decreased to 0.67 micro-Sievert/cm after subsequent change of water (3 times) and dialysis overnight (2 nights). The microparticles were assessed by microscopy (DIC 200×), see FIG. 1; the cross-section of one microparticle is indicated and labelled “21,587.92 nm”.
  • Example 5 Phase Separation of Emulsion and Isolation of Microparticles
  • This example illustrates the breakage of the W/O emulsion and isolation of the gel microparticles.
  • The gel microparticles were separated from the W/O-emulsion by organic extractions. Examples of organic solvents which were used for this extraction were mixtures of butanol/chloroform in volume ratios (v%) of 75:20 to 20.80, respectively. The weight ratio (w%) of W/O emulsion to organic solvent was approximately 1:1.
  • Separation in small scale: The W/O emulsion (5 g) was weighed in centrifuge tubes (50 ml). A mixture of butanol/ chloroform was prepared (1:1 v%) and from this mixture 4.5 ml was added (corresponds to 5 g) to the test tube. The test tube was carefully mixed to secure that all emulsion was dissolved. The test tube was mixed by Whirl mixing and left at room temperature for phase separation. Phase separation with water phase on top and organic phase at bottom with a white emulsion phase in between was often observed. Addition of more water and organic phases improved separation. The water phase was separated by decanting and further purified or characterized.
  • Example 6 Preparation of Water-in-Oil Emulsions
  • This example illustrates a composition in which the HA microparticles were formed.
  • A hot/cold procedure can be used with incorporation of a cold water phase B into a hot oil phase, which will shorten the time of manufacture. A non-limiting example of formulation could be as follows:
  • Phase A:
    • 2.0% ABIL® EM 90 (cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone)
    • 20.0% Mineral oil (or TEGOSOFT® M)
    Phase B:
    • 0.5% Sodiumchloride
    • 3.8% Hyaluronic acid
    • 0.2 M NaOH (aq) up to 100%
    Phase C:
  • Approx. 0.6% Divinylsulfone
  • Preparation:
    • 1. Mix phase A at room temperature.
    • 2. Phase B: Solubilize hyaluronic acid (Hyacare®) in aq. NaOH by stirring; then add NaCl and stir.
    • 3. Add DVS to phase B and stir for 1 min.
    • 4. Add phase B slowly to phase A with stirring.
    • 5. Homogenise or stir for a short time and leave to react.
    • 6. Stirring and swelling.
    • 7. Continue stirring below 30° C.
    • 8. Neutralize.
    Example 7 Preparation and Separation of DVS Cross-Linked Microparticles
  • Sodium hyaluronate (HA, 580 kDa, 1.88 g) was dissolved in aqueous NaOH (0.2 M, 37.5 mL). Sodium chloride (0.25 g) was added and the solution was stirred by magnetic stirring for 1 hour at room temperature until a homogeneous solution was obtained. The oil: TEGOSOFT® M (10.0 g) and surfactant: ABIL® EM 90 (Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone, 1.0 g) was mixed by stirring. Divinylsulfone (DVS, 320 microliter) was added to the aqueous alkaline HA-solution and mixed for 1 min to obtain a homogenoues distribution in the aq. phase. The water phase was then added within 2 min to the oil phase with mechanical stirring (300 RPM). An emulsion was formed immediately and stirring was continued for 30 min at room temperature.
  • The emulsion was neutralized by addition of stociometric amounts of HCI (4 M, 1.8 mL) and stirred for approx. 40 min. The emulsion was transferred to a separation funnel, and broken by addition of a n-butanol/chloroform mixture (1:1 v%, 90 mL) and extra millliQ™-water (100 mL) followed by vigorous shaking. The upper phase was separated in a volume of approx. 175 mL. The organic phase was washed with millliQ™-water (100 mL). The combined water/gel phase was transferred to a dialysis tube (MWCO 12-14,000, Diameter 29 mm, Vol/Length 6.4 mL/cm) and dialysed against millliQ™-water overnight at room temperature. The conductivity was decreased to 10 micro-Sievert/cm after subsequent change of water (3 times) and dialysis overnight (2 nights). The microparticles were assessed by microscopy (FIG. 4).
  • Example 8 Washing Procedure to Purify Microparticles
  • This example illustrates the final isolation and purification of the microparticles.
  • 100 mL particles previously isolated were re-suspended in a Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 buffer (0.15 M, 400 mL), and stirred slowly for 1/2 hour. The suspension stood at 5° C. for 2 hours and solidified oil droplets were removed. The solution was then filtered through a mesh and washed further with 2×50 mL buffer. Particles were allowed to drip-dry, before characterization (FIG. 5).
  • Example 9 Investigation of Rheological Properties of Microparticles
  • This example illustrates performance of rheological studies on particles. A particle sample is analyzed on an Anton Paar rheometer (Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, Austria, Physica MCR 301, Software: Rheoplus), by use of a 50 mm 2° cone/plate geometry. First the linear range of the visco-elastic properties G′ (Storage modulus) and G″ (Loss modulus) of the material is determined by an amplitude sweep with variable strain, γ. Secondary a Frequency sweep is made, and based on values of the visco-elastic values, G′ and G″, tan δ can be calculated as a value for week/strong gel behaviors.
  • Example 10 Investigation of Syringeability Experiments on Texture Analyzer
  • This example illustrates performance of an investigation of force applied to inject at a certain speed, as a function of the homogeneity of the sample. A particle sample is transferred to a syringe applied with a needle, either 27G×½ ″, 30G×½ ″, and is set in a sample rig, in a texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, TA.XT Plus, SoftWare: Texture Component 32). The test is performed with an injection speed at 12.5 mm/min., over a given distance.

Claims (18)

  1. 1-42. (canceled)
  2. 43. A method of producing crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads, said method comprising the steps of:
    (a) mixing an aqueous alkaline solution comprising hyaluronic acid or a salt thereof, with a solution comprising a crosslinking agent;
    (b) forming microdroplets having a desired size from the mixed solution of step (a) in an organic or oil phase to form a water in organic or water in oil (W/O) emulsion;
    (c) continuously stirring the W/O emulsion, whereby the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place to provide crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads; and
    (d) purifying the crosslinked hyaluronic acid microbeads.
  3. 44. The method of claim 43, wherein the hyaluronic acid or salt thereof is recombinantly produced in a Bacillus host cell.
  4. 45. The method of claim 43, wherein the hyaluronic acid or salt thereof has a number average molecular weight of between 100 and 3,000 kDa.
  5. 46. The method of claim 43, wherein the alkaline solution comprises dissolved hyaluronic acid or a salt thereof, in a concentration of between 0.1%-40% (w/v).
  6. 47. The method of claim 43, wherein the alkaline solution comprises dissolved sodium hydroxide in a concentration of between 0.001 -2.0 M.
  7. 48. The method of claim 43, wherein the crosslinking agent is divinylsulfone (DVS).
  8. 49. The method of claim 48, wherein DVS is comprised in the mixed solution of step (a) in a weight ratio of between 1:1 and 100:1 of HA/DVS (dry weight).
  9. 50. The method of claim 43, wherein the reaction of hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone takes place at a temperature in the range of 5-100° C.
  10. 51. The method of claim 43, wherein the stirring in step (c) is continued for a period of between 1-180 minutes.
  11. 52. The method of claim 43, wherein the microdroplets of step (b) have an average diameter in the range of about 1 nanometer to 1 millimeter.
  12. 53. The method of claim 43, wherein the purifying step comprises dialyzing the crosslinked microbeads against de-ionized water using a dialysis membrane that allows free diffusion of molecules having a size less than 13,000 daltons.
  13. 54. The method of claim 43, wherein the purifying step comprises neutralizing the pH of the crosslinked microbeads with a buffer or an acid.
  14. 55. The method of claim 54, wherein the buffer comprises a buffer with a pH in the range of 2.0-8.0.
  15. 56. The method of claim 54, wherein the buffer comprises a buffer with a pH, which results in that the crosslinked microbeads have a pH between 5.0 and 7.5 after the purifying step.
  16. 57. The method of claim 54, wherein the buffer comprises a phosphate buffer and/or a saline buffer.
  17. 58. The method of claim 43, wherein the crosslinked microbeads are washed at least once with water, and/or a phosphate and/or saline buffer with a pH in the range of 2.0-8.0.
  18. 59. The method of claim 43, wherein a preservative is added as a component to the crosslinked microbeads either before or after the crosslinking reaction.
US12808737 2007-12-19 2008-12-19 Crosslinked-hyaluronic acid in emulsion Abandoned US20100311963A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP07150176.1 2007-12-19
EP07150176 2007-12-19
PCT/EP2008/068050 WO2009077620A1 (en) 2007-12-19 2008-12-19 Crosslinked hyaluronic acid in emulsion

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20100311963A1 true true US20100311963A1 (en) 2010-12-09

Family

ID=40429993

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12809809 Active 2031-02-22 US9109051B2 (en) 2007-12-19 2008-12-10 Crosslinked hyaluronic acid in emulsion
US12808737 Abandoned US20100311963A1 (en) 2007-12-19 2008-12-19 Crosslinked-hyaluronic acid in emulsion
US13529425 Abandoned US20120258155A1 (en) 2007-12-19 2012-06-21 Crosslinked hyaluronic acid in emulsion

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12809809 Active 2031-02-22 US9109051B2 (en) 2007-12-19 2008-12-10 Crosslinked hyaluronic acid in emulsion

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13529425 Abandoned US20120258155A1 (en) 2007-12-19 2012-06-21 Crosslinked hyaluronic acid in emulsion

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (3) US9109051B2 (en)
EP (2) EP2222715A1 (en)
JP (2) JP5523338B2 (en)
CN (2) CN101878230B (en)
CA (1) CA2709824A1 (en)
WO (2) WO2009077399A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2832378A2 (en) 2013-08-01 2015-02-04 Ivis Technologies S R L Adhesive biopolymer suitable for use as temporary replacement of the epithelium.
US20150352142A1 (en) * 2013-01-11 2015-12-10 Carbylan Therapeutics, Inc. Stabilized compositions comprising hyaluronic acid

Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8367117B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2013-02-05 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York Nanocomposite hyaluronic acid-clay based hydrogels
JP5911871B2 (en) * 2010-08-31 2016-04-27 アンスティチュ ナショナル ドゥ ラ サンテ エ ドゥ ラ ルシェルシュ メディカル Crosslinked polysaccharide beads and their biomedical use
CN102690847A (en) * 2012-04-13 2012-09-26 华熙福瑞达生物医药有限公司 Method for preparing hyaluronate oligomer according to digestion method, prepared hyaluronate oligomer and application thereof
KR101272792B1 (en) 2013-03-04 2013-06-10 주식회사 뉴앤뉴 Moisturizing cream with high water retention effect
CN103333351B (en) * 2013-05-02 2015-11-25 杭州协合医疗用品有限公司 Kind of raw material sodium hyaluronate is used as an embolic agent in the preparation of crosslinked sodium hyaluronate microspheres process
CN103450490A (en) * 2013-09-10 2013-12-18 杭州协合医疗用品有限公司 Process for preparing reticulated sodium hyaluronate microsphere gel from sodium hyaluronate
US20150283080A1 (en) * 2014-04-03 2015-10-08 Pankaj Modi Stabilized dermatological delivery system for active ingredient compositions for topical administration to the skin
CN104592420A (en) * 2014-12-25 2015-05-06 上海景峰制药有限公司 Method for preparing intermediate HA-VS of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate
EP3320028A1 (en) * 2015-09-01 2018-05-16 Merz Pharma GmbH & Co. KGaA Method of making a cross-linked polymer gel and device for performing the method

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4582865A (en) * 1984-12-06 1986-04-15 Biomatrix, Inc. Cross-linked gels of hyaluronic acid and products containing such gels
US4713448A (en) * 1985-03-12 1987-12-15 Biomatrix, Inc. Chemically modified hyaluronic acid preparation and method of recovery thereof from animal tissues
US4957744A (en) * 1986-10-13 1990-09-18 Fidia, S.P.A. Cross-linked esters of hyaluronic acid
US5017229A (en) * 1990-06-25 1991-05-21 Genzyme Corporation Water insoluble derivatives of hyaluronic acid
WO1996039464A1 (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-12-12 C.R. Bard, Inc. Process for the preparation of aqueous dispersions of particles of water-soluble polymers and the particles obtained
US6013679A (en) * 1989-08-01 2000-01-11 Anika Research, Inc. Water-insoluble derivatives of hyaluronic acid and their methods of preparation and use
US20030175902A1 (en) * 2001-12-21 2003-09-18 Novozymes Biotech, Inc. Methods for producing hyaluronan in a recombinant host cell
US20060040892A1 (en) * 2003-11-03 2006-02-23 University Of North Texas Process for synthesizing oil and surfactant-free hyaluronic acid nanoparticles and microparticles
WO2006056204A1 (en) * 2004-11-24 2006-06-01 Novozymes Biopolymer A/S Method of cross-linking hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone

Family Cites Families (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1165574B (en) 1960-08-08 1964-03-19 Dehydag Gmbh A process for producing for emulsifying ointment bases as serving mixed esters
US4478853A (en) * 1982-05-17 1984-10-23 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Skin conditioning composition
US4716224A (en) 1984-05-04 1987-12-29 Seikagaku Kogyo Co. Ltd. Crosslinked hyaluronic acid and its use
JPH0378116B2 (en) * 1984-05-25 1991-12-12 Shiseido Co Ltd
DE3740186A1 (en) 1987-06-24 1989-01-05 Beiersdorf Ag Deodorant and antimicrobial composition for use in cosmetic or topical preparations
DE3938140C2 (en) 1989-11-16 1992-01-23 Beiersdorf Ag, 2000 Hamburg, De
DE4009347A1 (en) 1990-03-23 1991-09-26 Beiersdorf Ag Deodorizing cosmetic medium
JPH05198768A (en) 1992-01-21 1993-08-06 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Semiconductor memory and manufacture thereof
DE4204321A1 (en) 1992-02-13 1993-08-19 Beiersdorf Ag Methods for isolation and purification of fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids and uses of preparations containing them
DE4229737C2 (en) 1992-09-05 1996-04-25 Beiersdorf Ag Deodorizing cosmetic agents containing fatty acids
DE4229707A1 (en) 1992-09-05 1994-03-10 Beiersdorf Ag Germicides drug combinations
DE4237081C2 (en) 1992-11-03 1996-05-09 Beiersdorf Ag Use of di- or triglycerol esters as deodorants
DE4309372C2 (en) 1993-03-23 1997-08-21 Beiersdorf Ag Cosmetic deodorants containing mixtures of wool wax acids or wool wax acid components and fatty acid partial glycerides of unbranched fatty acids
DE4324219C2 (en) 1993-07-20 1995-08-10 Beiersdorf Ag Deodorizing active compound combinations based on alpha, omega-alkanedicarboxylic acids and wool wax acids
US6214331B1 (en) * 1995-06-06 2001-04-10 C. R. Bard, Inc. Process for the preparation of aqueous dispersions of particles of water-soluble polymers and the particles obtained
DE19641604C1 (en) * 1996-10-09 1998-03-12 Goldschmidt Ag Th Polyglycerol partial esters of fatty acids and polyfunctional carboxylic acids, their preparation and use
US7276251B2 (en) * 1997-04-01 2007-10-02 Lg Life Sciences, Ltd., Inc. Sustained-release composition of drugs encapsulated in microparticles of hyaluronic acid
US5891701A (en) * 1997-06-12 1999-04-06 Novo Nordisk Biotech Inc. Nucleic acids encoding a polypeptide having protease activity
DE69828193D1 (en) 1997-10-31 2005-01-20 Univ Oklahoma Hyaluronan synthase gen and its use
JP4490581B2 (en) 1998-04-02 2010-06-30 ボード オブ リージェンツ オブ ザ ユニヴァーシティー オブ オクラホマ Nucleic acids and methods of use thereof coding for a hyaluronan synthase
DE69940353D1 (en) 1998-11-11 2009-03-12 Univ Oklahoma Polymerpfropfung mittels polysaccharide-synthase
DE19855934A1 (en) 1998-12-04 2000-06-08 Beiersdorf Ag Use of betaines as antiperspirants
JP2000248002A (en) * 1999-02-19 2000-09-12 Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kk Self-crosslinked hyaluronic acid, its production and its use
US6521223B1 (en) * 2000-02-14 2003-02-18 Genzyme Corporation Single phase gels for the prevention of adhesions
WO2002041877A1 (en) * 2000-10-24 2002-05-30 Clear Solutions Biotech, Inc. Sodium hyaluronate microspheres
WO2004067575A1 (en) 2003-01-31 2004-08-12 Biosphere S.P.A. Water soluble and biocompatible gels of hyaluronic acid cross-linked with bi-functional l-aminoacids or l-aminoesters
ES2250798T3 (en) * 2003-08-08 2006-04-16 Kpss-Kao Professional Salon Services Gmbh Cosmetic composition for hair comprising cetyl PEG / PPG-10/1 dimethicone and ceramide.
US7544714B2 (en) * 2004-07-16 2009-06-09 University Of Massachusetts Lipid-amino acid conjugates and methods of use
KR100852944B1 (en) 2007-02-15 2008-08-19 (주)아모레퍼시픽 Preparation method of chemically cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogel nanoparticles

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4582865A (en) * 1984-12-06 1986-04-15 Biomatrix, Inc. Cross-linked gels of hyaluronic acid and products containing such gels
US4713448A (en) * 1985-03-12 1987-12-15 Biomatrix, Inc. Chemically modified hyaluronic acid preparation and method of recovery thereof from animal tissues
US4957744A (en) * 1986-10-13 1990-09-18 Fidia, S.P.A. Cross-linked esters of hyaluronic acid
US6013679A (en) * 1989-08-01 2000-01-11 Anika Research, Inc. Water-insoluble derivatives of hyaluronic acid and their methods of preparation and use
US6013679C1 (en) * 1989-08-01 2001-06-19 Anika Res Inc Water-insoluble derivatives of hyaluronic acid and their methods of preparation and use
US5017229A (en) * 1990-06-25 1991-05-21 Genzyme Corporation Water insoluble derivatives of hyaluronic acid
WO1996039464A1 (en) * 1995-06-06 1996-12-12 C.R. Bard, Inc. Process for the preparation of aqueous dispersions of particles of water-soluble polymers and the particles obtained
US20030175902A1 (en) * 2001-12-21 2003-09-18 Novozymes Biotech, Inc. Methods for producing hyaluronan in a recombinant host cell
US20060040892A1 (en) * 2003-11-03 2006-02-23 University Of North Texas Process for synthesizing oil and surfactant-free hyaluronic acid nanoparticles and microparticles
WO2006056204A1 (en) * 2004-11-24 2006-06-01 Novozymes Biopolymer A/S Method of cross-linking hyaluronic acid with divinylsulfone

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Widner et al, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2005, 71(7), pages 3747-3752. *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150352142A1 (en) * 2013-01-11 2015-12-10 Carbylan Therapeutics, Inc. Stabilized compositions comprising hyaluronic acid
EP2832378A2 (en) 2013-08-01 2015-02-04 Ivis Technologies S R L Adhesive biopolymer suitable for use as temporary replacement of the epithelium.

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP2225281A1 (en) 2010-09-08 application
JP2011506734A (en) 2011-03-03 application
EP2222715A1 (en) 2010-09-01 application
JP2011506719A (en) 2011-03-03 application
CN101878230B (en) 2012-11-21 grant
CN101878230A (en) 2010-11-03 application
WO2009077620A1 (en) 2009-06-25 application
CN101952325A (en) 2011-01-19 application
JP5523338B2 (en) 2014-06-18 grant
US20100266512A1 (en) 2010-10-21 application
US20120258155A1 (en) 2012-10-11 application
CA2709824A1 (en) 2009-06-25 application
WO2009077399A1 (en) 2009-06-25 application
US9109051B2 (en) 2015-08-18 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Fakhari et al. Applications and emerging trends of hyaluronic acid in tissue engineering, as a dermal filler and in osteoarthritis treatment
Rinaudo Main properties and current applications of some polysaccharides as biomaterials
US20120225842A1 (en) Hyaluronic acid compositions for dermatological use
US20090155314A1 (en) Dermal filler
US8052990B2 (en) Biocompatible crosslinked gel
US20050281880A1 (en) Methods for making injectable polymer hydrogels
US5827937A (en) Polysaccharide gel composition
US20080057091A1 (en) Compositions with several hyaluronic acid fractions for cosmetic use
US20060188465A1 (en) Cross-linked polymer of carbohydrate, notably based on polysaccharides, and/or on oligosaccharides and/or on polyols
US5395620A (en) Biodegradable microcapsules having walls composed of crosslinked atelocollagen and polyholoside
US20060246137A1 (en) Complex matrix for biomedical use
US20100035838A1 (en) Cross-linked polysaccharide gels
US20100004198A1 (en) Polysaccharide gel formulation having increased longevity
US20100098794A1 (en) Topical anti-wrinkle and anti-aging moisturizing cream
US20060293277A1 (en) Cross-linked gels of hyaluronic acid with hydrophobic polymers and processes for making for making them
WO2010029344A2 (en) Hyaluronic acid cryogel
US20070026070A1 (en) Cross-linked polysaccharide composition
US20090004278A1 (en) Enzymatically Crosslinked Protein Nanoparticles
Baran et al. Poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) nanocapsules as enzyme carriers for cancer therapy: an in vitro study
WO1999031167A1 (en) Process for the preparation of aqueous dispersions of particles of water-soluble polymers and the particles obtained
US20080226740A1 (en) Marine algal extracts comprising marine algal polysaccharides of low degree polymerizaton, and the preparation processes and uses thereof
US20130072453A1 (en) Heat stable hyaluronic acid compositions for dermatological use
US20090155362A1 (en) Method of cross-linking hyaluronic acid with divinulsulfone
WO2009056602A1 (en) Chitosan composition
US20100028435A1 (en) Injectable hydrogel with an enhanced remanence and with an enhanced ability to create volume

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NOVOZYMES BIOPHARMA DK A/S, DENMARK

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MOELHOLM, BIRGITTE MALLE;REEL/FRAME:024551/0887

Effective date: 20100617