US20100295445A1 - Organic electroluminescent device - Google Patents

Organic electroluminescent device Download PDF

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Publication number
US20100295445A1
US20100295445A1 US12/478,290 US47829009A US2010295445A1 US 20100295445 A1 US20100295445 A1 US 20100295445A1 US 47829009 A US47829009 A US 47829009A US 2010295445 A1 US2010295445 A1 US 2010295445A1
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layer
electron
dopant
blocking layer
emitting
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Hitoshi Kuma
Yuichiro Kawamura
Yukitoshi Jinde
Toshinari Ogiwara
Chishio Hosokawa
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Idemitsu Kosan Co Ltd
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Idemitsu Kosan Co Ltd
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Priority to JP2009-124760 priority
Priority to JP2009125883 priority
Priority to JP2009-125883 priority
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Assigned to IDEMITSU KOSAN CO., LTD. reassignment IDEMITSU KOSAN CO., LTD. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HOSOKAWA, CHISHIO, JINDE, YUKITOSHI, OGIWARA, TOSHINARI, KAWAMURA, YUICHIRO, KUMA, HITOSHI
Priority claimed from US12/788,848 external-priority patent/US9153790B2/en
Publication of US20100295445A1 publication Critical patent/US20100295445A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/5012Electroluminescent [EL] layer
    • H01L51/5016Triplet emission
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09BORGANIC DYES OR CLOSELY-RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PRODUCING DYES, e.g. PIGMENTS; MORDANTS; LAKES
    • C09B57/00Other synthetic dyes of known constitution
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09BORGANIC DYES OR CLOSELY-RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PRODUCING DYES, e.g. PIGMENTS; MORDANTS; LAKES
    • C09B57/00Other synthetic dyes of known constitution
    • C09B57/001Pyrene dyes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09BORGANIC DYES OR CLOSELY-RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PRODUCING DYES, e.g. PIGMENTS; MORDANTS; LAKES
    • C09B57/00Other synthetic dyes of known constitution
    • C09B57/008Triarylamine dyes containing no other chromophores
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09BORGANIC DYES OR CLOSELY-RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PRODUCING DYES, e.g. PIGMENTS; MORDANTS; LAKES
    • C09B69/00Dyes not provided for by a single group of this subclass
    • C09B69/008Dyes containing a substituent, which contains a silicium atom
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0059Amine compounds having at least two aryl rest on at least one amine-nitrogen atom, e.g. triphenylamine
    • H01L51/006Amine compounds having at least two aryl rest on at least one amine-nitrogen atom, e.g. triphenylamine comprising polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons as substituents on the nitrogen atom
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/10Apparatus or processes specially adapted to the manufacture of electroluminescent light sources
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/12Light sources with substantially two-dimensional radiating surfaces
    • H05B33/14Light sources with substantially two-dimensional radiating surfaces characterised by the chemical or physical composition or the arrangement of the electroluminescent material, or by the simultaneous addition of the electroluminescent material in or onto the light source
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2251/00Indexing scheme relating to organic semiconductor devices covered by group H01L51/00
    • H01L2251/50Organic light emitting devices
    • H01L2251/55Organic light emitting devices characterised by parameters
    • H01L2251/552HOMO-LUMO-EF
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0052Polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. anthracene
    • H01L51/0054Polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. anthracene containing four rings, e.g. pyrene
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0052Polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. anthracene
    • H01L51/0058Polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. anthracene containing more than one polycyclic condensed aromatic rings, e.g. bis-anthracene

Abstract

An organic electroluminescence device containing an anode, an emitting layer, a blocking layer, an electron-injecting layer and a cathode in sequential order; wherein the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less; the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host; the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host; the triplet energy ET b of the blocking layer is larger than ET h; the affinity Ab of the blocking layer and the affinity Ae of the electron-injecting layer satisfies Ae−Ab≦0.2 eV; and the electron mobility of the material constituting the blocking layer is 10−6 cm2/Vs or more in an electric field intensity of 0.04 to 0.5 MV/cm.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • The invention relates to an organic electroluminescence (EL) device, particularly, to a highly efficient organic EL device.
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • An organic EL device can be classified into two types, i.e. a fluorescent EL device and a phosphorescent EL device according to its emission principle. When a voltage is applied to an organic EL device, holes are injected from an anode, and electrons are injected from a cathode, and holes and electrons recombine in an emitting layer to form excitons. According to the electron spin statistics theory, singlet excitons and triplet excitons are formed at an amount ratio of 25%:75%. In a fluorescent EL device which uses emission caused by singlet excitons, the limited value of the internal quantum efficiency is believed to be 25%. Technology for prolonging the lifetime of a fluorescent EL device utilizing a fluorescent material has been recently improved. This technology is being applied to a full-color display of portable phones, TVs, or the like. However, a fluorescent EL device is required to be improved in efficiency.
  • In association with the technology of improving the efficiency of a fluorescent EL device, several technologies are disclosed in which emission is obtained from triplet excitons, which have heretofore been not utilized effectively. For example, in Non-Patent Document 1, a non-doped device in which an anthracene-based compound is used as a host material is analyzed. A mechanism is found that singlet excitons are formed by collision and fusion of two triplet excitons, whereby fluorescent emission is increased. However, Non-Patent Document 1 discloses only that fluorescent emission is increased by collision and fusion of triplet excitons in a non-doped device in which only a host material is used. In this technology, an increase in efficiency by triplet excitons is as low as 3 to 6%.
  • Non-Patent Document 2 reports that a blue fluorescent device exhibits an internal quantum efficiency of 28.5%, which exceeds 25%, which is the conventional theoretical limit value. However, no technical means for attaining an efficiency exceeding 25% is disclosed. In respect of putting a full-color organic EL TV into practical use, a further increase in efficiency has been required.
  • In Patent Document 1, another example is disclosed in which triplet excitons are used in a fluorescent device. In normal organic molecules, the lowest excited triplet state (T1) is lower than the lowest excited singlet state (S1). However, in some organic molecules, the triplet excited state (T2), is higher than S1. In such a case, it is believed that due to the occurrence of transition from T2 to S1, emission from the singlet excited state can be obtained. However, actually, the external quantum efficiency is about 6% (the internal quantum efficiency is 24% when the outcoupling efficiency is taken as 25%), which does not exceed the value of 25% which has conventionally been believed to be the limit value. The mechanism disclosed in this document is that emission is obtained due to the intersystem crossing from the triplet excited state to the singlet excited state in a single molecule. Generation of single triplets by collision of two triplet excitons as disclosed in Non-Patent Document 1 is not occurred in this mechanism.
  • Patent Documents 2 and 3 each disclose a technology in which a phenanthroline derivative such as BCP (bathocuproin) and BPhen is used in a hole-blocking layer in a fluorescent device to increase the density of holes at the interface between a hole-blocking layer and an emitting layer, enabling recombination to occur efficiently. However, a phenanthroline derivative such as BCP (bathocuproin) and BPhen is vulnerable to holes and poor in resistance to oxidation, and the performance thereof is insufficient in respect of prolonging the lifetime of a device.
  • In Patent Documents 4 and 5, a fluorescent device is disclosed in which an aromatic compound such as an anthracene derivative is used as a material for an electron-transporting layer which is in contact with an emitting layer. However, this is a device which is designed based on the mechanism that generated singlet excitons emit fluorescence within a short period of time. Therefore, no consideration is made on the relationship with the triplet energy of an electron-transporting layer which is normally designed in a phosphorescent device. Actually, since the triplet energy of an electron-transporting layer is smaller than the triplet energy of an emitting layer, triplet excitons generated in an emitting layer are diffused to an electron-transporting layer, and then, thermally deactivated. Therefore, it is difficult to exceed the theoretical limit value of 25% of the conventional fluorescent device. Furthermore, since the affinity of an electron-transporting layer is too large, electrons are not injected satisfactorily to an emitting layer of which the affinity is small, and hence, improvement in efficiency cannot necessarily be attained. In addition, Patent Document No. 6 discloses a device in which a blue-emitting fluoranthene-based dopant which has a long life and a high efficiency. This device is not necessarily highly efficient.
  • On the other hand, a phosphorescent device directly utilizes emission from triplet excitons. Since the singlet exciton energy is converted to triplet excitons by the spin conversion within an emitting molecule, it is expected that an internal quantum efficiency of nearly 100% can be attained, in principle. For the above-mentioned reason, since a phosphorescent device using an Ir complex was reported by Forrest et al. in 2000, a phosphorescent device has attracted attention as a technology of improving efficiency of an organic EL device. Although a red phosphorescent device has reached the level of practical use, green and blue phosphorescent devices have a lifetime shorter than that of a fluorescent device. In particular, as for a blue phosphorescent device, there still remains a problem that not only lifetime is short but also color purity or luminous efficiency is insufficient. For these reasons, phosphorescent devices have not yet been put into practical use.
  • RELATED DOCUMENTS Patent Documents
    • Patent Document 1: JP-A-2004-214180
    • Patent Document 2: JP-A-H10-79297
    • Patent Document 3: JP-A-2002-100478
    • Patent Document 4: JP-A-2003-338377
    • Patent Document 5: WO2008/062773
    • Patent Document 6: WO2007/100010
    • Patent Document 7: JP-T-2002-525808
    • Patent Document 8: U.S. Pat. No. 7,018,723
    Non-Patent Documents
    • Non-Patent Document 1: Journal of Applied Physics, 102, 114504 (2007)
    • Non-Patent Document 2: SID 2008 DIGEST, 709 (2008)
    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The inventors noticed a phenomenon stated in Non-Patent Document 1, i.e. a phenomenon in which singlet excitons are generated by collision and fusion of two triplet excitons (hereinafter referred to as Triplet-Triplet Fusion=TTF phenomenon), and made studies in an attempt to improve efficiency of a fluorescent device by allowing the TTF phenomenon to occur efficiently. Specifically, the inventors made studies on various combinations of a host material (hereinafter often referred to simply as a “host”) and a fluorescent dopant material (hereinafter often referred to simply as a “dopant”). As a result of the studies, the inventors have found that when the triplet energy of a host and that of a dopant satisfies a specific relationship, and a material having large triplet energy is used in a layer which is adjacent to the interface on the cathode side of an emitting layer (referred to as a “blocking layer” in the invention), triplet excitons are confined within the emitting layer to allow the TTF phenomenon to occur efficiently, whereby improvement in efficiency and lifetime of a fluorescent device can be realized.
  • It is known that, in a phosphorescent device, a high efficiency can be attained by using a material having large triplet energy in a layer which is adjacent to the interface on the cathode side of an emitting layer in order to prevent diffusion of triplet excitons from the emitting layer, of which the exciton life is longer than that of singlet excitons. JP-T-2002-525808 discloses a technology in which a blocking layer formed of BCP (bathocuproin), which is a phenanthroline derivative, is provided in such a manner that it is adjacent to an emitting layer, whereby holes or excitons are confined to achieve a high efficiency. U.S. Pat. No. 7,018,723 discloses use of a specific aromatic ring compound in a hole-blocking layer in an attempt to improve efficiency and prolonging life. However, in these documents, for a phosphorescent device, the above-mentioned TTF phenomenon is called TTA (Triplet-Triplet Annihilation: triplet pair annihilation). That is, the TTF phenomenon is known as a phenomenon which deteriorates emission from triplet excitons which is the characteristics of phosphorescence. In a phosphorescent device, efficient confinement of triplet excitons within an emitting layer does not necessarily result in improvement in efficiency.
  • The invention provides the following organic EL device.
    • 1. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, a blocking layer, an electron-injecting layer and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
  • the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
  • the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host;
  • the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
  • the triplet energy ET b of the blocking layer is larger than ET h,
  • the affinity Ab of the blocking layer and the affinity Ae of the electron-injecting layer satisfies Ae−Ab≦0.2 eV; and
  • the electron mobility of the material constituting the blocking layer is 10−6 cm2/Vs or more in an electric field intensity of 0.04 to 0.5 MV/cm.
    • 2. The organic electroluminescence device according to 1, wherein the blocking layer comprises an aromatic hydrocarbon compound.
    • 3. The organic electroluminescence device according to 2, wherein the aromatic hydrocarbon compound is a polycyclic aromatic compound.
    • 4. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, a blocking layer, an electron-injecting layer and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
  • the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
  • the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host, and the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
  • the blocking layer comprises a material other than phenanthroline derivatives, and the triplet energy ET b of the material is larger than ET h; and
  • the affinity Ab of the blocking layer and the affinity Ae of the electron-injecting layer satisfies Ae−Ab≦0.2 eV.
    • 5. The organic electroluminescence device according to any one of 1 to 4, wherein a material constituting the electron-injecting layer is the same as the material constituting the blocking layer, and the electron-injecting layer is doped with a donor.
    • 6. The organic electroluminescence device according to any one of 1 to 5, wherein the dopant is a material selected from aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives, and styrylarylene derivatives.
    • 7. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, an electron-transporting region and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
  • the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which give fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
  • the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host;
  • the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
  • a blocking layer is provided in the electron-transporting region such that the blocking layer is adjacent to the emitting layer, and the triplet energy ET el of a material constituting the blocking layer is larger than ET h; and
  • at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 to 100 mA/cm2, a luminous intensity derived from singlet excitons generated by collision of triplet excitons generated in the emitting layer is 30% or more of the total luminous intensity.
    • 8. The organic electroluminescence device according to any one of 1 to 7, which comprises at least two emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and an intermediate layer between two emitting layers.
    • 9. The organic electroluminescence device according to any one of 1 to 8, which comprises a plurality of emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and a carrier-blocking layer between a first emitting layer and a second emitting layer.
  • The invention can realize a highly efficient device which can, by efficiently inducing the TTF phenomenon within an emitting layer, exhibit an internal quantum efficiency which largely exceeds 25%, which is believed to be the limit value of conventional fluorescent devices.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing one example of a first embodiment of the invention;
  • FIG. 2 is an energy band diagram showing a state in which the affinity of a host is larger than the affinity of a dopant;
  • FIG. 3 is a view showing the method for measuring a transient EL waveform;
  • FIG. 4 is a view showing the method for measuring a luminous intensity ratio derived from TTF;
  • FIG. 5 is a view showing one example of a third embodiment of the invention;
  • FIG. 6 is a view showing one example of a fourth embodiment of the invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a view showing an electron mobility of each of TB1, TB2, ET, BCP, BPhen and Alq3 used in Examples;
  • FIG. 8 is a view showing transient EL waveforms of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1; and
  • FIG. 9 is a view showing a TTF ratio of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1.
  • BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION First Embodiment
  • The invention utilizes the TTF phenomenon. First, an explanation is made of the TTF phenomenon.
  • Holes and electrons injected from an anode and a cathode are recombined with an emitting layer to generate excitons. As for the spin state, as is conventionally known, singlet excitons account for 25% and triplet excitons account for 75%. In a conventionally known fluorescent device, light is emitted when singlet excitons of 25% are relaxed to the ground state. The remaining triplet excitons of 75% are returned to the ground state without emitting light through a thermal deactivation process. Accordingly, the theoretical limit value of the internal quantum efficiency of a conventional fluorescent device is believed to be 25%.
  • The behavior of triplet excitons generated within an organic substance has been theoretically examined. According to S. M. Bachilo et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A, 104, 7711 (2000)), assuming that high-order excitons such as quintet excitons are quickly returned to triplet excitons, triplet excitons (hereinafter abbreviated as 3A*) collide with each other with an increase in the density thereof, whereby a reaction shown by the following formula occurs. In the formula, 1A represents the ground state and 1A* represents the lowest excited singlet excitons.

  • 3A*+3A*→( 4/9)1A+( 1/9)1A*+(13/9)3A*
  • That is, 53A*→41A+1A*, and it is expected that, among 75% of triplet excitons initially generated, one fifth thereof, that is, 20%, is changed to singlet excitons. Therefore, the amount of singlet excitons which contribute to emission is 40%, which is a value obtained by adding 15% ((75%×(⅕)=15%) to 25%, which is the amount ratio of initially generated singlet excitons. At this time, the ratio of luminous intensity derived from TTF (TTF ratio) relative to the total luminous intensity is 15/40, that is, 37.5%. Assuming that singlet excitons are generated by collision of 75% of initially-generated triplet excitons (that is, one siglet exciton is generated from two triplet excitons), a significantly high internal quantum efficiency of 62.5% is obtained which is a value obtained by adding 37.5% ((75%×(½)=37.5%) to 25%, which is the amount ratio of initially generated singlet excitons. At this time, the TTF ratio is 60% (37.5/62.5).
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing one example of the first embodiment of the invention.
  • The upper view in FIG. 1 shows the device configuration and the HOMO and LUMO energy levels of each layer (here, the LUMO energy level and the HOMO energy level may be called as an affinity (Af) and an ionization potential (Ip), respectively). The lower view diagrammatically shows the lowest excited singlet energy level and the lowest excited triplet energy level. In the invention, the triplet energy is referred to as a difference between energy in the lowest triplet exited state and energy in the ground state. The singlet energy (often referred to as an energy gap) is referred to as a difference between energy in the lowest singlet excited state and energy in the ground state.
  • In the organic EL device shown in FIG. 1, an emitting layer, an electron-transporting region and a cathode are stacked in sequential order from an anode. It is preferred that a hole-transporting region be provided between an anode and an emitting layer.
  • The emitting layer is formed of a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less (hereinafter often referred to as a fluorescent dopant having a main peak wavelength of 550 nm or less). Holes injected from an anode are then injected to an emitting layer through a hole-transporting region. Electrons injected from a cathode are then injected to an emitting layer through an electron-transporting region. Thereafter, holes and electrons are recombined in an emitting layer, whereby singlet excitons and triplet excitons are generated. There are two manners as for the occurrence of recombination. Specifically, recombination may occur either on host molecules or on dopant molecules. As shown in the lower view of FIG. 1, if the triplet energy of a host and that of a dopant are taken as ET h and ET d, respectively, the relationship ET h<ET d is satisfied. When this relationship is satisfied, triplet excitons generated by recombination on a host do not transfer to a dopant which has higher triplet energy. Triplet excitons generated by recombination on dopant molecules quickly energy-transfer to host molecules. That is, triplet excitons on a host do not transfer to a dopant and collide with each other efficiently on the host to generate singlet exitons by the TTF phenomenon. Further, since the singlet energy Es d of a dopant is smaller than the singlet energy Es h of a host, singlet excitons generated by the TTF phenomenon energy-transfer from a host to a dopant, thereby contributing fluorescent emission of a dopant. In dopants which are usually used in a fluorescent device, transition from the excited triplet state to the ground state should be inhibited. In such a transition, triplet excitons are not optically energy-deactivated, but are thermally energy-deactivated. By causing the triplet energy of a host and the triplet energy of a dopant to satisfy the above-mentioned relationship, singlet excitons are generated efficiently due to the collision of triplet excitons before they are thermally deactivated, whereby luminous efficiency is improved.
  • In the invention, the electron-transporting region has a blocking layer in an area adjacent to the emitting layer. As mentioned later, the blocking layer serves to prevent diffusion of triplet excitons generated in the emitting layer to the electron-transporting region, allow triplet excitons to be confined within the emitting layer to increase the density of triplet excitons therein, causing the TTF phenomenon to occur efficiently. In order to suppress triplet excitons from being diffused, it is preferred that the triplet energy of the blocking layer ET b be larger than ET h. It is further preferred that ET b be larger than ET d. Since the blocking layer prevents triplet excitons from being diffused to the electron-transporting region, in the emitting layer, triplet excitons of a host become singlet excitons efficiently, and the singlet excitons transfer to a dopant, and are optically energy-deactivated.
  • As for materials for forming the blocking layer, aromatic hydrocarbon ring compounds are preferably selected. More preferably, polycyclic aromatic compounds are selected. Due to the resistance to holes of these materials, the blocking layer is hard to be degraded, whereby the life of a device is prolonged.
  • In the electron-transporting region, preferably, an electron-injection layer, which facilitates the injection of electrons from a cathode, is provided between the blocking layer and the cathode. Examples include a multilayer stack of a normal electron-transporting material and an alkaline metal compound, and a layer obtained by adding to the material constituting the blocking layer a donor represented by an alkaline metal.
  • Then, conditions under which the TTF phenomenon is caused to occur effectively will be explained while noting the relationship between the affinity of a host and the affinity of a dopant. Hereinbelow, the affinity of a host and the affinity of a dopant are respectively referred to as Ah and Ad. The ionization potential of a host and the ionization potential of a dopant are respectively referred to as Ih and Id.
  • In the invention, a dopant which satisfies the relationship Ah>Ad is selected. The dopant used in the invention gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less (hereinafter sometimes referred to as fluorescent dopant having the main peak wavelength of 550 nm or less), and the energy gap thereof is relatively large. Thus, if the relationship Ah>Ad is satisfied, at the same time the relationship Ih>Id is also satisfied. As a result, the dopant trends to function as hole trap.
  • FIG. 2 shows the Ip−Af relationship of a host and a dopant in an emitting layer in this case. When a difference between the ionization potentials of a host and a dopant increases, the dopant comes to have a hole trap property. Therefore, triplet excitons are generated not only on host molecules but also directly on dopant molecules, whereby triplet excitons generated directly on the dopant increase. If the relationship ET h<ET d is satisfied like the invention, the energy of triplet excitons on the dopant molecules transfers onto the host molecules by the Dexter energy transfer, thereby all triplet excitons are gathered onto the host. This efficiently causes the TTF phenomenon.
  • In the case that a dopant has a hole trap property, recombination occurs mainly on the side of an anode in an emitting layer, since holes injected from a hole-transporting region into the emitting layer are trapped by the dopant. The triplet energy of known hole-transporting materials used in a hole-transporting region is usually larger than that of hosts. Therefore, triplet exciton diffusion on the hole side was not a matter. On the other hand, although many recombinations occur on the anode side, the density of triplet excitons at the interface with an electron-transporting region cannot be ignored. In such a situation, an increase in triplet energy of a blocking layer leads to high efficiency.
  • A carrier mobility, an ionization potential, an affinity and a film thickness of a hole-transporting region or electron-transporting region can be given as other factors to determine a recombination region. For example, if a film thickness of an electron-transporting region is larger than that of a hole-transporting region, an amount of electron injected into an emitting layer is relatively small. This results in deviation of the recombination region to the electron-transporting region. In such a case, using a blocking layer with a high triplet energy as the invention makes it possible to generate The TTF phenomenon more efficiently.
  • A host and a dopant satisfying the above-mentioned affinity relationship can be selected from the following compounds (see Japanese Patent Application No. 2008-212102 or the like). As the host, anthracene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic skeleton-containing compounds can be given, with anthracene derivatives being preferable. As the dopant, aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives and aminostyrylaryiene derivatives can be given.
  • Preferred combinations of a host and dopant include a combination of an anthracene derivative as a host and at least one dopant selected from aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives and aminostyrylarylene derivatives.
  • Specific examples of the aminoanthracen derivatives are given below.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00001
  • wherein A1 and A2 are independently a substituted or unsubstituted aliphatic hydrocarbon group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms that form a ring (hereinafter referred to as ring carbon atoms), a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon group having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaromatic hydrocarbon group having 5 to 19 carbon atoms containing a nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen atom. A3s are independently a substituted or unsubstituted aliphatic hydrocarbon group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon group having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaromatic hydrocarbon group having 5 to 19 carbon atoms containing a nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen atom, or a hydrogen atom.
  • Specific examples of the aminocrysene derivatives are given below.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00002
  • wherein X1 to X10 are independently H or a substituent, and Y1 and Y2 are independently a substituent.
  • Preferably X1 to X10 are H. It is preferred that Y1 and Y2 are a substituted (preferably substituted by an alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms) or unsubstituted aromatic ring having 6 to 30 carbon atoms (preferably having 6 to 10 carbon atoms or phenyl).
  • Specific examples of the aminopyrene derivatives are given below.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00003
  • wherein X1 to X10 are independently H or a substituent, provided that X3 and X8, or X2 and X7 are independently —NY1Y2 (Y1 and Y2 are a substituent). Preferably, when X3 and X8 are independently —NY1Y2, X2, X4, X5, X7, X9 and X10 are H and X1 and X6 are hydrogen, alkyl or cycloalkyl. Preferably, when X2 and X7 are independently —NY1Y2, X1, X3 to X6, X8 to X10 are H. It is preferred that Y1 and Y2 are a substituted (for example, preferably by alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms) or unsubstituted aromatic ring (for example, phenyl or naphthyl).
  • Specific examples of the styrylarylene derivatives are given below.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00004
  • wherein Ar1s are independently a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic or heterocyclic aromatic group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms; Ar2s are independently a substituted or unsubstituted arylene or heteroarylene group having 5 to 20 carbon atoms; Rs are independently H, F, CN, a substituted or unsubstituted linear, branched or cyclic alkyl chain having 1 to 40 carbon atoms; p and r are the same or different and 1, 2 or 3; and q is 1, 2 or 3.
  • Specific examples of anthracene compounds (host) include the following compounds:
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00005
  • wherein Ar001 is a substituted or unsubstituted condensed aromatic group having 10 to 50 ring carbon atoms; Ar002 is a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic group having 6 to 50 ring carbon atoms; X001 to X003 a re independently a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic group having 6 to 50 ring carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic heterocyclic group having 5 to 50 atoms that form a ring (hereinafter referred to as ring atoms), a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 50 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy group having 1 to 50 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aralkyl group having 6 to 50 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aryloxy group having 5 to 50 ring atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted arylthio group having 5 to 50 ring atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkoxycarbonyl group having 1 to 50 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group, a halogen atom, a cyano group, a nitro group or a hydroxy group. a, b and c each are an integer of 0 to 4. n is an integer of 1 to 3. When n is two or more, the groups in [ ] may be the same or different. n is preferably 1. a, b and c are preferably 0.
  • The blocking layer serves to prevent triplet excitons generated in the emitting layer from being diffused to the electron-transporting region, as well as to effectively inject electrons to the emitting layer. If the electron-injection performance to the emitting layer is degraded, the electron-hole recombination in the emitting layer occurs less frequently, resulting in a reduced density of triplet excitons. If the density of triplet excitons is reduced, frequency of collision of triplet excitons is reduced, and as a result, the TTF phenomenon does not occur efficiently. In respect of efficient electron injection to the emitting layer, the following two structures can be considered as the structure of the electron-transporting region including the blocking layer.
    • (1) The electron-transporting region is formed of a multilayer stack structure of two or more different materials, and an electron-injecting layer for efficiently receiving electrons from the cathode is provided between the blocking layer and the cathode. Specific examples of a material for the electron-injecting layer include a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic derivative.
  • In this case, it is preferred that Ae (the affinity of the electron-injecting layer)—Ab (the affinity of the blocking layer) is 0.2 eV or less. If this relationship is not satisfied, injection of electrons from the electron-injecting layer to the blocking layer is suppressed, causing electrons to accumulate in the electron-transporting region, resulting in an increased voltage. In addition, accumulated electrons collide with triplet excitons, causing energy quenching.
    • (2) The electron-transporting region is formed of a single blocking layer. In this case, in order to facilitate the receipt of electrons from the cathode, a donor represented by an alkaline metal is doped in the vicinity of the interface of the cathode within the blocking layer. As the donor, at least one selected from the group consisting of a donor metal, a donor metal compound and a donor metal complex can be used.
  • The donor metal is referred to as a metal having a work function of 3.8 eV or less. Preferred examples thereof include an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal and a rare earth metal. More preferably, the donor metal is Cs, Li, Na, Sr, K, Mg, Ca, Ba, Yb, Eu and Ce.
  • The donor metal compound means a compound which contains the above-mentioned donor metal. Preferably, the donor metal compound is a compound containing an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal or a rare earth metal. More preferably, the donor metal compound is a halide, an oxide, a carbonate or a borate of these metals. For example, the donor metal compound is a compound shown by MOx (wherein M is a donor metal, and x is 0.5 to 1.5), MFx (x is 1 to 3), or M(CO3)x (wherein x is 0.5 to 1.5).
  • The donor metal complex is a complex of the above-mentioned donor metal. Preferably, the donor metal complex is an organic metal complex of an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal or a rare earth metal. Preferably, the donor metal complex is an organic metal complex shown by the following formula (1):

  • MQ)n   (I)
  • wherein M is a donor metal, Q is a ligand, preferably a carboxylic acid derivative, a diketone derivative or a quinoline derivative, and n is an integer of 1 to 4.
  • Specific examples of the donor metal complex include a tungsten paddlewheel as stated in JP-A-2005-72012. In addition, a phthalocyanine compound in which the central metal is an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal, which is stated in JP-A-H11-345687, can be used as the donor metal complex, for example.
  • The above-mentioned donor may be used either singly or in combination of two or more.
  • Holes which do not recombine in the emitting layer may be injected to the inside of the blocking layer. Therefore, as the material used in the blocking layer, a material improved in resistance to oxidation is preferable.
  • As specific examples of the material improved in resistance to oxidation, aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, particularly, at least one compound selected from polycyclic aromatic compounds shown by the following formulas (A), (B) and (C) which are disclosed in Japanese Patent Application No. 2009-090379 are preferable.

  • Ra—Ar101—Rb   (A)

  • Ra—Ar101—Ar102—Rb   (B)

  • Ra—Ar101—Ar102—Ar103—Rb   (C)
  • wherein Ar101, Ar102, Ar103, Ra and Rb are independently a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring, or a polycyclic aromatic skeleton part selected from a substituted or unsubstituted naphthalene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted chrysene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted fluoranthene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted phenanthrene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted benzophenanthrene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted dibenzophenanthrene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted triphenylene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted benzo[a]triphenylene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted benzochrysene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted benzo[b]fluoranthene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted fluorene ring and a substituted or unsubstituted picene ring; provided that the substituents of Ra and Rb are not an aryl group and that Ar1, Ar2, Ar3, Ra and Rb are not a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring at the same time.
  • In the above polycyclic aromatic compound, it is preferred that one or both of the Ra and Rb be a group selected from a substituted or unsubstituted phenanthrene ring, a substituted or unsubstituted benzo[c]phenanthrene ring and a substituted or unsubstituted fluoranthene ring.
  • The polycyclic aromatic skeleton part of the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic compound may have a substituent.
  • Examples of the substituent of the polycyclic aromatic skeleton part include a halogen atom, a hydroxyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted amino group, a nitro group, a cyano group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkoxy group, a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon group, a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic heterocyclic group, a substituted or unsubstituted aralkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryloxy group, and a substituted or unsubstituted alkoxycarbonyl group or a carboxyl group. Preferred examples of the aromatic hydrocarbon group include naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, chrysene, fluoranthene and triphenylene.
  • If the polycyclic aromatic skeleton part has a plurality of substituent, these substituents may form a ring.
  • It is preferred that the polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be any one selected from the group consisting of compounds shown by the following formulas (1) to (4).
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00006
  • In formulas (1) to (4), Ar1 to Ar5 are a substituted or unsubstituted condensed ring structure having 4 to 16 ring carbon atoms.
  • As the compound shown by formula (1), a simple substance or a derivative or the like of a substituted or unsubstituted phenanthrene, or chrysene can be given, for example.
  • As the compound shown by formula (2), a simple substance or a derivative or the like of a substituted or unsubstituted acenaphthylene, acenaphthene or fluoranthene can be given, for example.
  • As the compound shown by formula (3), a simple substance or a derivative or the like of a substituted or unsubstituted benzofluoranthene can be given, for example.
  • As the compound shown by formula (4), a simple substance or a derivative or the like of a substituted or unsubstituted naphthalene can be given.
  • As the naphthalene derivative, one shown by the following formula (4A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00007
  • In formula (4A), R1 to R8 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • As the phenanthrene derivative, one shown by the following formula (5A) can be given.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00008
  • In formula (5A), R1 to R10 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • As the chrysene derivative, one shown by the following formula (6A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00009
  • In formula (6A), R1 to R12 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • It is preferred that the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be benzo[c]phenanthrene or the derivative thereof. As the benzo[c]phenanthrene derivative, one shown by the following formula (7A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00010
  • In formula (7A), R1 to R9 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • It is preferred that the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be benzo[c]chrysene or the derivative thereof. As the benzo[c]chrysene derivative, one shown by the following formula (8A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00011
  • In formula (8A), R1 to R11 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • It is preferred that the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be dibenzo[c,g]phenanthrene shown by the following formula (9) or the derivative thereof.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00012
  • It is preferred that the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be fluoranthene or the derivative thereof. As the fluoranthene derivative, one shown by the following formula (10A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00013
  • In formula (10A), X12 to X21 are a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a linear, branched or cyclic alkyl group, a linear, branched or cyclic alkoxy group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group.
  • Furthermore, it is preferred that the above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic skeleton part be triphenylene or the derivative thereof. As the triphenylene derivative, one shown by the following formula (11A) can be given, for example.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00014
  • In formula (11A), R1 to R6 are independently a hydrogen atom, a substituent selected from a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group having 5 to 30 ring carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 30 carbon atoms and a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, or a substituent formed of a combination thereof.
  • The above-mentioned polycyclic aromatic compound may be one shown the following formula (12).
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00015
  • In the formula (12), Ra and Rb are the same as those in the above formulas (A) to (C). When Ra, Rb or the naphthalene ring has one or a plurality of substituent, the substituent may be an alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, a haloalkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, a silyl group having 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a cyano group or a halogen atom. The substituent of the naphthalene ring other than Ra and Rb may be an aryl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms.
  • In the formula (12), it is preferred that Ra and Rb be a group selected from a fluorene ring, a phenanthrene ring, a triphenylene ring, a benzophenanthrene ring, a dibenzophenanthrene ring, a benzotriphenylene ring, a fluoranthene ring, a benzochrysene ring, a benzo[b]fluoranthene ring and a picene ring.
  • As for the material for the blocking layer, a material which exhibits a reversible oxidation process in a cyclic voltammetry measurement is desirable.
  • It is preferred that the material for the blocking layer have an electron mobility of 10−6 cm2/Vs or more in an electric field intensity of 0.04 to 0.5 MV/cm. As the method for measuring the electron mobility of an organic material, several methods including the Time of Flight method are known. In the invention, however, the electron mobility is determined by the impedance spectroscopy.
  • An explanation is made on the measurement of the mobility by the impedance spectroscopy. A blocking layer material with a thickness of preferably about 100 nm to 200 nm is held between the anode and the cathode. While applying a bias DC voltage, a small alternate voltage of 100 mV or less is applied, and the value of an alternate current (the absolute value and the phase) which flows at this time is measured. This measurement is performed while changing the frequency of the alternate voltage, and complex impedance (Z) is calculated from a current value and a voltage value. Dependency of the imaginary part (ImM) of the modulus M=iωZ (i: imaginary unit ω: angular frequency) on the frequency is obtained. The inverse of a frequency at which the ImM becomes the maximum is defined as the response time of electrons carried in the blocking layer. The electron mobility is calculated according to the following formula:

  • Electron mobility=(film thickness of the material for forming the blocking layer)2/(response time·voltage)
  • Specific examples of a material of which the electron mobility is 10−6 cm2/Vs or more in an electric field intensity of 0.04 to 0.5 MV/cm include a material having a fluoranthene derivative in the skeleton part of a polycyclic aromatic compound.
  • The emitting layer may contain two or more fluorescent dopants of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less. When the emitting layer contains two or more fluorescent dopants, the affinity Ad of at least one dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host, and the triplet energy ET d of this dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host. For example, the affinity Ad of at least another dopant may be larger than the affinity Ah of the host. Containing such two kinds of dopants means containing both of a dopant satisfying Ah<Ad and a dopant satisfying Ah>Ad. Efficiency can be significantly improved by providing a blocking layer having large triplet energy.
  • As the dopant having the affinity Ad which is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host, aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives and styrylarylene derivatives or the like can be exemplified.
  • Second Embodiment
  • When the triplet energies of the host, the dopant and the material for the blocking layer satisfy the specified relationship, the ratio of the luminous intensity derived from TTF can be 30% or more of the total emission. As a result, a high efficiency which cannot be realized by conventional fluorescent devices can be attained.
  • The ratio of luminous intensity derived from TTF can be measured by the transient EL method. The transient EL method is a technique for measuring a decay behavior (transient properties) of EL emission after removal of a DC voltage applied to a device. EL luminous intensity is classified into luminous components from singlet excitons which are generated by the first recombination and luminous components from singlet excitons generated through the TTF phenomenon. The lifetime of a singlet exciton is very short, i.e. on the nanosecond order. Therefore, this emission decays quickly after removal of a DC voltage. On the other hand, the TTF phenomenon is emission from singlet excitons which are generated by triplet excitons having a relatively long lifetime. Therefore, this emission decays slowly. As apparent from the above, since emission from singlet excitons and emission from triplet excitons differ largely in respect of time, the luminous intensity derived from TTF can be obtained. Specifically, the luminous intensity can be determined by the following method.
  • The transient EL waveform is measured as mentioned below (see FIG. 3). A pulse voltage waveform output from a voltage pulse generator (PG) is applied to an EL device. The voltage waveform of an applied voltage is captured by an oscilloscope (OSC). When a pulse voltage is applied to an EL device, the EL device gives pulse emission. This emission is captured by an oscilloscope (OSC) through a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The voltage waveform and the pulse emission are synchronized and the resultant is captured by a personal computer (PC).
  • Further, the ratio of the luminous intensity derived from TTF is determined as follows by the analysis of a transient EL waveform.
  • By solving the rate equation of the decay behavior of triplet excitons, the decay behavior of the luminous intensity based on the TTF phenomenon is modelized. The time decay of the density of triplet excitons nT within the emitting layer can be expressed by the following rate equation by using the decay rate α due to the life of triplet excitons and the decay rate γ due to the collision of triplet excitons:
  • n T t = - α · n T - γ · n T 2
  • By approximately solving this differential equation, the following formula can be obtained. Here, ITTF is a luminous intensity derived from TTF and A is a constant. If the transient EL emission is based on TTF, the inverse of the square root of the intensity is expressed as an approximately straight line. The measured transient EL waveform data is fit to the following approximation equation, thereby to obtain constant A. A luminous intensity 1/A2 when t=0 at which a DC voltage is removed is defined as a luminous intensity ratio derived from TTF.
  • 1 I T T F A + γ · t
  • FIG. 4 shows a measurement example for a device which gives blue fluorescence emission. In the left graph in FIG. 4, a DV voltage was removed after the lapse of about 3×10−8 second. After the rapid decay until about 2×10−7 second, mild decay components appear. The right graph in FIG. 4 is obtained by plotting the inverse of the root square of a luminous intensity until 10−5 second after the removal of a voltage. It is apparent that the graph can be very approximate to a straight line. When the straight line portion is extended to the time origin, the value of an intersection A of the straight line portion and the ordinate axis is 2.41. A luminous intensity ratio derived from TTF obtained from this transient EL waveform is 1/2.412=0.17. This means that the luminous intensity derived from TTF accounts for 17% of the total emission intensity.
  • Third Embodiment
  • The device of the invention may have a tandem device configuration in which at least two emitting layers are provided. An intermediate layer is provided between the two emitting layers. Of the two emitting layers, at least one is a fluorescent emitting layer, which satisfies the above-mentioned requirements. Specific examples of device configuration are given below.
  • Anode/fluorescent emitting layer/intermediate layer/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/cathode
  • Anode/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/intermediate layer/fluorescent emitting layer/cathode
  • Anode/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/intermediate layer/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/cathode
  • Anode/phosphorescent emitting layer/intermediate layer/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/cathode
  • Anode/fluorescent emitting layer/electron-transporting region/intermediate layer/phosphorescent emitting layer/cathode
  • FIG. 5 shows one example of an organic EL device according to this embodiment.
  • An organic EL device 1 includes with an anode 10, emitting layers 22 and 24 and a cathode 40 in sequential order. Between the emitting layers 22 and 24, an intermediate layer is provided. An electron-transporting region 30 is adjacent to the emitting layers 22 and 24, and the electron-transporting region 30 is formed of a blocking layer 32 and an electron-injecting layer 34. Either one of the emitting layers 22 and 24 is a fluorescent emitting layer which satisfies the requirements of the invention. The other emitting layer may be either a fluorescent emitting layer or a phosphorescent emitting layer.
  • Between the two emitting layers 22 and 24, an electron-transporting region and/or a hole-transporting region may be provided. Three or more emitting layers may be provided, and two or more intermediate layers may be provided. If three or more emitting layers are present, an intermediate layer may or may not be present between all of the emitting layers.
  • As the intermediate layer, a known material, for example, a material disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,358,661, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/562,124 or the like can be used.
  • Fourth Embodiment
  • In this embodiment, in the organic EL device of the first embodiment, a plurality of emitting layers are between the cathode and the anode, and a carrier blocking layer is provided, of the plurality of emitting layers, between a first emitting layer and a second emitting layer.
  • As the preferred configuration of the organic EL device according to this embodiment, there can be given the configuration as disclosed in Japanese Patent No. 4134280, US2007/0273270A1 and WO2008/023623A1, and, specifically, the configuration in which an anode, a first emitting layer, a carrier blocking layer, a second emitting layer and a cathode are sequentially stacked, and an electron-transporting region having a blocking layer for preventing diffusion of triplet excitons is further provided between the second emitting layer and the cathode.
  • The specific examples of such configuration are given below.
  • Anode/first emitting layer/carrier blocking layer/second emitting layer/electron-transporting region/cathode
  • Anode/first emitting layer/carrier blocking layer/second emitting layer/third emitting layer/electron-transporting region/cathode
  • It is preferred that a hole-transporting region be provided between the anode and the first emitting layer, as in the case of other embodiments.
  • FIG. 6 shows one example of the organic EL device according to this embodiment.
  • An organic EL device 2 is provided with an anode 10, a first emitting layer 26, a second emitting layer 28, an electron-transporting region 30 and a cathode 40 in sequential order. Between the first emitting layer 26 and the second emitting layer 28, a carrier blocking layer 70 is provided. The electron-transporting region 30 is formed of a blocking layer 32 and an electron-injecting layer 34. The second emitting layer 28 is a fluorescent emitting layer satisfying the relationship of the invention. The first emitting layer 26 may be either a fluorescent emitting layer or a phosphorescent emitting layer.
  • The device of this embodiment is suitable as a white emitting device. The device can be a white emitting device by adjusting the emission color of the first emitting layer 26 and the second emitting layer 28. Further, a third emitting layer may be provided. In this case, the device can be a white emitting device by adjusting the emission color of these three emitting layers, and the third emitting layer is a fluorescent emitting layer satisfying the requirements of the invention.
  • In particular, it is possible to realize a white emitting device which exhibits a higher emission efficiency as compared with conventional white emitting devices, even though being entirely formed of fluorescent materials, by using a hole-transporting material as the host in the first emitting layer, by adding a fluorescent-emitting dopant of which the main peak wavelength is larger than 550 nm, by using an electron-transporting material as the host in the second emitting layer (and the third emitting layer), and by adding a fluorescent-emitting dopant of which the main peak wavelength is equal to or smaller than 550 nm.
  • As for the other members used in the invention, such as the substrate, the anode, the cathode, the hole-injecting layer and the hole-transporting layer, known members and materials stated in PCT/JP2009/053247, PCT/JP2008/073180, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/376,236, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/766,281, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/280,364 or the like can be appropriately selected and used.
  • EXAMPLES Compounds Used
  • Materials used in Examples and Comparative Examples and the physical properties thereof are shown below.
  • Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00016
    Figure US20100295445A1-20101125-C00017
  • Measuring methods of the physical properties are shown below.
  • (1) Triplet Energy (ET)
  • A commercially available device “F-4500” (manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd.) was used for the measurement. The ET conversion expression is the following.

  • E T(eV)=1239.85/λedge
  • When the phosphorescence spectrum is expressed in coordinates of which the vertical axis indicates the phosphorescence intensity and of which the horizontal axis indicates the wavelength, and a tangent is drawn to the rise of the phosphorescence spectrum on the shorter wavelength side, “λedge” is the wavelength at the intersection of the tangent and the horizontal axis. The unit for “λedge” is nm.
  • (2) Ionization Potential
  • A photoelectron spectroscopy in air (AC-1, manufactured by Riken Keiki Co., Ltd.) was used for the measurement. Specifically, light was irradiated to a material and the amount of electrons generated by charge separation was measured.
  • (3) Affinity
  • An affinity was calculated from measured values of an ionization potential and an energy gap. The Energy gap was measured based on an absorption edge of an absorption spectrum in benzene. Specifically, an absorption spectrum was measured with a commercially available ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The energy gap was calculated from the wavelength at which the spectrum began to raise.
  • (4) Electron Mobility
  • An electron mobility was evaluated using the impedance spectrometry. The following electron only devices were prepared, DC voltage on which AC voltage of 100 mV placed was applied thereon, and their complex modulus values were measured. When the frequency at which the imaginary part was maximum was set to fmax(Hz), a response time T(sec.) was calculated based on the formula T=½/π/fmax. Using this value, the dependence property of electron mobility on electric field intensity was determined.

  • Al/TB1(95)/ET(5)/LiF(1)/Al

  • Al/TB2(95)/ET(5)/LiF(1)/Al

  • Al/ET(100)/LiF(1)/Al

  • Al/Alq3(100)/LiF(1)/Al
  • Here the figures in parentheses represent a thickness (unit: nm).
  • As shown in FIG. 7, the electron mobilities of TB1 and TB2 used as a barrier layer at 500 (V/cm)0.5, i.e., 0.25 MV/cm are 4×10−5 cm2/Vs and 3×10−5 cm2/Vs, respectively. The electron mobilities are more than 10−6 cm2/Vs in a wide range of electric field intensity. FIG. 7 shows that these values are approximately the same as the electron mobility of material ET used as an electron-injecting layer. At 0.25 MV/cm, the electron mobilities of Alq3 and BCP were 5×10−8 cm2/Vs and 1×10−7 cm2/Vs, respectively and both were as small as 1/100 or less of that of TB1 or TB2. The electron mobility of Bphen was 5×10−6 cm2/Vs, which was larger than 10−6 cm2/Vs but one digit smaller than that of TB1 or TB2.
  • (5) Method for Determining Internal Quantum Efficiency
  • Light emission distribution and light extraction efficiency in an emitting layer were determined in accordance with the method described in JP-A-2006-278035. An EL spectrum measured with a spectral radiance meter was divided by a determined light extraction efficiency to obtain an internal EL spectrum. The ratio of the internally-generated photon number and electron number calculated from the internal EL spectrum was taken as internal quantum efficiency.
  • Example 1
  • HI, HT1, BH, BD1, TB1 and ET were sequentially deposited on a substrate on which a 130 nm thick ITO film was formed to obtain a device with the following constitution. The figures in parentheses represent a thickness (unit: nm).

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(25;5 wt %)/TB1(5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Comparative Example 1
  • A device was formed in the same manner as in Example 1, except that the thickness of emitting layer was changed to 30 nm and TB1 was not used.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(30;5 wt %)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Comparative Example 2
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that BH was used instead of TB1.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(25;5 wt %)/BH1(5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Example 2
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that the film thickness of BH:BD1 was changed to 27.5 nm, and the film thickness of TB1 was changed to 2.5 nm.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(27.5;5 wt %)/TB1(2.5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Example 3
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that the film thickness of BH:BD1 was changed to 20 nm, and the film thickness of TB1 was changed to 10 nm.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(20;5 wt %)/TB1(10)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Example 4
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that HT2 was used instead of HT1 and that TB2 was used instead of TB1.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT2(45)/BH:BD1(25;5 wt %)/TB2(5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Comparative Example 3
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that BCP was used instead of TB1.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(25;5 wt %)/BCP(5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Comparative Example 4
  • A device with the following constitution was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1, except that BPhen was used instead of TB1.

  • ITO(130)/HI(50)/HT1(45)/BH:BD1(25;5 wt %)/BPhen(5)/ET(20)/LiF(1)/Al(80)
  • Evaluation Example
  • The devices obtained in Examples 1 to 4 and Comparative Examples 1 to 4 were evaluated as below. The results were shown in Table 1.
  • (1) Initial Performance (Voltage, Chromaticity, Current Efficiency, External Quantum Efficiency, and Main Peak Wavelength)
  • Values of voltage applied on the devices such that a current value was 1 mA/cm2 were determined. EL spectra were measured with a spectral radiance meter (CS-1000, produced by KONICA MINOLTA). Chromaticity, current efficiency (cd/A), external quantum efficiency (%), and main peak wavelength (nm) were calculated from the spectral-radiance spectra obtained.
  • (2) Initial Performance (Luminescence Ratio Derived from TTF)
  • A pulse voltage waveform output from a pulse generator (8114A, manufactured by Agilent Technologies) which had a pulse width of 500 μs, a frequency of 20 Hz and a voltage corresponding to 0.1 to 100 mA/cm2 was applied, and EL was input to a photoelectron multiplier (R928, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K.). The pulse voltage waveform and the EL were synchronized and introduced to an oscilloscope (2440, manufactured by Tektronix Inc.) to obtain a transient EL waveform. The waveform was analyzed to determine the luminescence ratio derived from TTF (TTF ratio).
  • An increase of 62.5% in internal quantum efficiency derived from TTF is regarded as the theoretical limit. The luminescence ratio derived from TTF in this case is 60%.
  • TABLE 1
    voltage CUE L/J EQE Λp TTF ratio
    (V) x CIE y (cd/A) (%) (nm) (%)
    Ex. 1 3.38 0.132 0.164 11.7 9.41 467 28.7
    Com. Ex. 1 3.51 0.134 0.162 9.07 7.30 466 12.5
    Com. Ex. 2 3.51 0.134 0.164 8.72 7.02 466 12.0
    Ex. 2 3.42 0.134 0.162 10.8 8.72 467 27.3
    Ex. 3 3.39 0.133 0.162 10.9 8.80 466 27.9
    Ex. 4 3.42 0.134 0.160 11.8 9.49 466 29.1
    Com. Ex. 3 4.15 0.133 0.162 8.1 6.48 466 10.3
    Com. Ex. 4 3.87 0.134 0.160 8.5 6.84 466 10.6
    • (1) The ionization potential and affinity of BH were 6.0 eV and 3.0 eV, respectively, while those of BD1 were 5.5 eV and 2.7 eV, respectively. Therefore, BD1 had a hole trap property. The triplet energy of BD1 was 2.28 eV, which is larger than that of BH, 1.83 eV. The triplet energy of blocking layer TB1 was 2.27 eV and more than that of BH.
    • (2) In Example 1 where TB1, of which the triplet energy was larger than that of the host material, was used as a blocking layer, a very highly efficient device was obtained. Specifically, the device exhibited good blue emission with a chromaticity value CIEy of 0.164 and had a current efficiency of 11.7 cd/A, an external quantum efficiency of 9.41% and a TTF ratio of 28.7% at a current density of 1 mA/cm2. A maximum TTF ratio in a current density range of 0.1 to 100 mA/cm2 is 30.5% at a current density of 10 mA/cm2, which is larger than 30%.
  • In contrast, in Comparative Example 1 where the blocking layer was not used, a current efficiency was as small as 9.07 cd/A and TTF ratio was as small as 12.5%, with the same chromaticity value. This result from the diffusion of the triplet excitons into the side of electron-injecting layer due to the fact that a triplet energy of material ET used in the electron-injecting layer was 1.82 eV and smaller than a triplet energy of the host material BH(1.83 eV). As well, in Comparative Example 2 where the same material BH as host was used as a blocking layer, the device had a small current efficiency of 8.72 cd/A.
  • FIG. 8 shows transient EL waveforms of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 when applying a current with a current density of 1 mA/cm2. In Example 1 where the blocking layer was provided, great delayed light emission derived from TTF was observed. Meanwhile, in Comparative Example 1 where a blocking layer was not used, not only its delayed light emission was small, but also the decay time of rapid decay component after voltage rejection (emission derived from singlet excitons immediately after recombination) was shorter than that of Example 1. This proved that providing of a blocking layer improved an electron-hole carrier balance.
  • FIG. 9 shows comparison between Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 in TTF ratio in a range of 0.1 mA/cm2 to 100 mA/cm2. In Example 1 where a blocking layer was formed, the TTF ratio was high even in a low current density range, showing high efficiency of the device.
  • The internal quantum efficiency at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 in Example 1 was estimated to be 32.8%. Since the TTF ratio was 28.7%, the internal quantum efficiency was based on 23.4% of luminescence by singlet excitons and 9.4% of luminescence derived from TTF.
  • In contrast, the internal quantum efficiency at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 in Comparative Example 1 was estimated to be 27.2%. Since the TTF ratio was 12.5%, the internal quantum efficiency was based on 23.8% of luminescence by singlet excitons and 3.4% of luminescence derived from TTF This shows that the blocking layer TB1 increased luminescence derived from TTF from 3.4% to 9.4%, i.e. 2.8 times.
    • (3) In Example 2 and 3 where the thickness of the blocking layer TB1 was changed, efficiencies as high as in Example 1 were obtained.
    • (4) In Example 4 where HT2 was used instead of HT1, and TB2 was used instead of TB1 as a blocking layer in Example 1, 11.8 cd/A was obtained, which is higher than in Example 1. This results from an increase in the amount of the holes injected into the emitting layer because the ionization potential of HT2 is closer to that of BH than that of HT1.
    • (5) By contrast, in Comparative Example 3 where BCP was used as a blocking layer instead of TB1, the voltage was 4.15V and higher than 3.38V in Example 1 by about 0.7V. In addition, the current efficiency was 8.1 cd/A, and the external quantum efficiency was as small as 6.48%. The TTF ratio was as small as 10.3%. This results from inhibition of TTF phenomenon due to using BCP, which has a small electron mobility.
    • (6) Furthermore, in Comparative Example 4 where BPhen was used as a blocking layer instead of TB1, the voltage was 3.87V and higher than that in Example 1 by only about 0.5V. The current efficiency, however, was 8.5 cd/A, and the external quantum efficiency was as small as 6.84%. The TTF ratio was as small as 10.6%. This results from inhibition of TTF phenomenon due to using BPhen, which has a 0.5 eV smaller affinity than BH.
    INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
  • The organic EL device of the invention can be used in display panels for large-sized TVs, illumination panels or the like, for which a reduction in consumption power is desired.
  • The documents described in the specification are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Claims (15)

1. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, a blocking layer, an electron-injecting layer and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host;
the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
the triplet energy ET b of the blocking layer is larger than ET h,
the affinity Ab of the blocking layer and the affinity Ae of the electron-injecting layer satisfies Ae−Ab≦0.2 eV; and
the electron mobility of the material constituting the blocking layer is 10−6 cm2/Vs or more in an electric field intensity of 0.04 to 0.5 MV/cm.
2. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 1, wherein the blocking layer comprises an aromatic hydrocarbon compound.
3. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 2, wherein the aromatic hydrocarbon compound is a polycyclic aromatic compound.
4. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, a blocking layer, an electron-injecting layer and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which gives fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host, and the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
the blocking layer comprises a material other than phenanthroline derivatives, and the triplet energy ET b of the material is larger than ET h; and
the affinity Ab of the blocking layer and the affinity Ae of the electron-injecting layer satisfies Ae−Ab≦0.2 eV.
5. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 1, wherein a material constituting the electron-injecting layer is the same as the material constituting the blocking layer, and the electron-injecting layer is doped with a donor.
6. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 1, wherein the dopant is a material selected from aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives, and styrylarylene derivatives.
7. An organic electroluminescence device comprising an anode, an emitting layer, an electron-transporting region and a cathode in sequential order; wherein
the emitting layer contains a host and a dopant which give fluorescent emission of which the main peak wavelength is 550 nm or less;
the affinity Ad of the dopant is smaller than the affinity Ah of the host;
the triplet energy ET d of the dopant is larger than the triplet energy ET h of the host;
a blocking layer is provided in the electron-transporting region such that the blocking layer is adjacent to the emitting layer, and the triplet energy ET el of a material constituting the blocking layer is larger than ET h; and
at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 to 100 mA/cm2, a luminous intensity derived from singlet excitons generated by collision of triplet excitons generated in the emitting layer is 30% or more of the total luminous intensity.
8. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 1, which comprises at least two emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and an intermediate layer between two emitting layers.
9. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 1, which comprises a plurality of emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and a carrier-blocking layer between a first emitting layer and a second emitting layer.
10. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 4, wherein a material constituting the electron-injecting layer is the same as the material constituting the blocking layer, and the electron-injecting layer is doped with a donor.
11. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 4, wherein the dopant is a material selected from aminoanthracene derivatives, aminochrysene derivatives, aminopyrene derivatives, and styrylarylene derivatives.
12. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 4, which comprises at least two emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and an intermediate layer between two emitting layers.
13. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 7, which comprises at least two emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and an intermediate layer between two emitting layers.
14. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 4, which comprises a plurality of emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and a carrier-blocking layer between a first emitting layer and a second emitting layer.
15. The organic electroluminescence device according to claim 7, which comprises a plurality of emitting layers between the anode and the cathode, and a carrier-blocking layer between a first emitting layer and a second emitting layer.
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